Rhaglen 3 Darn Bach o Hanes


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Rhaglen 3

Dewi Prysor yn olrhain hanes Urdd Ddyngarol y Gwir Iforiaid, cymdeithas gyfeillgar a sefydlwyd ym 1836. Dewi Prysor looks at the Philanthropic Order of the True Ivorites establi...


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-In the 19th century, Wales and the

-world saw amazing industrial growth.

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-Despite the economic prosperity,

-society had its faults.

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-There was no welfare state

-of course, no health service...

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-..or social security benefits.

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-True, trade unions were

-established in the 1820s.

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-But they weren't very influential

-for some time after that.

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-The main reason for that...

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-..was that the vast majority

-of workers were members...

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-..of friendly societies.

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-These societies worked

-as a kind of insurance company...

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-..helping their members by paying

-for treatment if they were ill.

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-There were 10,000 friendly

-societies in Britain in 1802.

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-By 1815, one in every twelve

-workers was a member of one.

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-The successors of the early

-friendly societies...

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-..can be seen in our high streets.

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-Words like mutual and friendly...

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-..seen in some of their

-literature, reveal their origins.

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-At first, they were local,

-independent clubs...

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-..within a specific profession, like

-gardeners, foresters or sailors.

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-The Buffaloes Benefit Order

-was founded to help actors.

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-There was a branch

-in Pembroke Dock, of all places.

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-Although there were many of them...

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-..most of the early clubs'

-foundations were quite shaky.

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-But here in Wrexham, one group was

-much more stable and influential.

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-Thanks.

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-Its name was the Ivorites,

-or to give its full title...

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-..the Philanthropic Order

-Of True Ivorites.

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-By the way, I've come to this pub...

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-..for totally valid

-historical reasons.

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-In 1836...

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-..when the Ivorites were founded...

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-..this pub was

-called the Three Tuns.

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-Apparently, one of the first

-Ivorite lodges met here monthly.

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-The Ivorites' lodges

-met in taverns.

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-And why not?

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-Where else offered a ready-made

-meeting place, like this?

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-The friendly societies' structure

-had a strong social element...

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-..as well as a practical one.

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-Meeting in pubs

-promoted fraternity...

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-..and solidarity between Ivorites.

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-It wasn't a secret society,

-like the Freemasons.

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-But there were similar aspects.

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-They published a booklet

-of specific "grips" and "signs"...

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-..that every member had to learn,

-to prepare for various situations.

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-"A member greeting officials

-when arriving at the Lodge.

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-"To recognize a brother

-without talking to him.

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-"The brother's response.

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-"Warning a brother of danger.

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-"Ensuring a brother of safety

-without speaking to him.

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-"The sign of the Blue Grade."

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-They invented a secret code...

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-..which the members had to learn,

-to communicate with each other...

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-..on certain occasions.

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-For example, what does this say?

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-No?

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-What it says is "Prysor's pint".

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-Here's my pint.

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-The Ivorites' secret code.

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-Although the code book

-is very valuable...

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-..not much archival

-material has survived.

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-Wrexham was important

-in the history of Ivorism.

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-I'm sure the local museum's stores

-will reveal more treasures.

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-Nia Jones, a librarian from Mold...

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-..has studied the early

-days of the movement.

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-Here it is.

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-Here it is.

-

-Right.

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-What we have here, as you see...

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-..are the Rules And Regulations

-Of The Society Of True Ivorites.

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-This goes back to the date

-the Ivorites were founded, 1836.

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-It looks like it too.

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-It looks like it too.

-

-Yes.

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-It shows the marks of much use.

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-It's very fragile.

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-On the cover is the logo,

-the two hands...

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-..depicting the society's aims,

-to support one another.

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-It was a good thing,

-in the absence of a health service.

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-It was a hard time.

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-Especially here, in the coal mines.

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-Especially here, in the coal mines.

-

-Exactly.

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-TR Jones founded the society.

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-He was a cobbler by trade.

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-He came from Llanefydd,

-near Denbigh.

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-It's typical of the age.

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-Artisans and craftsmen

-led the way in reform...

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-..and in helping people.

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-They were striving to think

-of ways to improve their world...

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-..and to help people

-in their communities too.

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-It was an idea

-that caught on at the time.

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-People with similar ideals

-agreed with him.

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-They began in this area,

-but they spread all over Wales.

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-Because of its early popularity...

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-..from 1840, branches were

-founded in all the old counties.

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-By the end of the century,

-the membership in Glamorgan...

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-..leapt up to 14,000.

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-There were even lodges in the USA.

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-Right!

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-I've got something to show you,

-if I can find it.

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-The journey to find

-traces of the movement...

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-..has led me to the old cemetery

-of Capel Y Pil, near Kenfig Hill.

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-Ah, here it is.

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-It's fine writing.

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-"This monument was laid...

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-"..on the grave of Isaac Williams...

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-"..by the Llywelyn Ab Ifor

-Lodge Of True Ivorites...

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-"..which met at the Prince

-Of Wales, Kenfig Hill...

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-"..as a sign of respect

-to his memory...

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-"..as a loyal, peaceful Ivor...

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-"..and a true and honest

-Secretary to the Lodge...

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-"..for 16 years."

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-Isn't that nice?

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-It's a worthy memorial to him...

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-..from his brothers

-in the fraternity...

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-..for his service

-to the lodge over the years.

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-It doesn't mention his wife.

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-We're not sure

-if they paid for the funerals...

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-..of members' wives and family,

-but they paid for members' funerals.

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-Every member of a lodge

-had to go to the funeral...

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-..as a sign of friendship

-and fraternity.

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-When you think about it, that is,

-or that was, the Ivorites' motto.

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-Friendship, love and truth.

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-In Carmarthenshire,

-Ivorism was very deeply rooted.

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-At its height, there were 76 lodges,

-each with its own name.

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-In Cil-y-cwm,

-a village near Llandovery...

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-..the William Williams

-Pantycelyn Lodge was founded.

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-The members met every month

-in the pub, the Neuadd Fawr Arms.

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-Another pub.

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-Ah, well, I'd better

-maintain the tradition.

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-To tell us about the Ivorite

-lodges' organization...

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-..is Dr Steven Thompson, an expert

-on welfare provision in this period.

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-I've got a pint for you.

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-I've got a pint for you.

-

-Thanks. Will the lodge pay?

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-Cheers.

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-Can you tell us about

-the friendly societies' membership?

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-Most of the friendly societies'

-members in the 19th century...

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-..came from the working class.

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-They worked in coal mines,

-iron works or the railways.

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-In a rural area like this...

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-..they were farmers, agricultural

-labourers and other craftsmen...

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-..like cobblers, weavers and so on.

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-So these people were in charge

-of the box in each lodge.

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-Ah! I see you have a box.

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-Ah! I see you have a box.

-

-This is the Cil-y-cwm Lodge box.

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-It's full of the lodge's papers.

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-There are three keyholes.

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-Why was that?

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-In the time before chip and pin...

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-..boxes like this were needed.

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-Every friendly society had a similar

-box, with three different keys.

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-The keys were kept by the society's

-president, the treasurer...

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-..and the pub landlord too.

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-So a lot of money was kept in it.

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-But today, it's documents.

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-Minutes, rules, accounts.

-There are all kinds of documents.

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-Like accounts

-of each member's payments.

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-There was an initial fee...

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-..ten or fifteen shillings,

-depending on age.

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-You paid more if you were older.

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-Then there was

-a weekly or monthly fee.

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-Here in Cil-y-cwm, they paid

-one shilling and two pence a month.

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-The documents also

-show the benefits paid.

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-Sickness benefits, funeral expenses.

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-Here, members received

-seven shillings a week.

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-It was quite a risk

-for friendly societies.

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-In the mid 19th century, newspapers

-in Merthyr Tydfil reported...

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-..that many friendly societies

-failed after a cholera epidemic.

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-What else did they pay for?

-Did they employ doctors?

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-Doctors were very important

-to the societies.

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-A doctor was paid to certify

-that a person was healthy enough...

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-..to be a lodge member.

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-That makes sense!

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-The doctor was also paid to state

-that a claimant really was ill...

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-..so he could receive benefits.

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-What about the friendly societies'

-relationship with the state?

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-The 19th century was an age

-of laissez-faire government.

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-Voluntary work by friendly societies

-was very important in this context.

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-Many friendly society

-officials weren't happy...

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-..about state intervention

-in economic and social matters.

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-For example, early

-in the 20th century...

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-..Lloyd George introduced

-the National Insurance Act.

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-The friendly societies

-weren't happy for the state...

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-..to take over these matters.

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-Thank you. It's been

-very interesting.

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-There are secret handshakes, but

-we'll shake hands as we usually do.

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-LAUGHTER

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-Later, I continue to make friends.

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-And I see the feminine side to Ivor,

-in another pub, of course.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-I'm learning about the Philanthropic

-Order Of True Ivorites...

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-..a 19th century

-Welsh friendly society.

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-Although Ivorites shared

-the same social ideals...

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-..as other friendly

-societies of the day...

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-..one aspect set them apart.

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-That was their Welsh origins.

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-And even more importantly,

-their support of Welsh literature.

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-This is shown

-in their choice of name.

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-They chose Ivorites after

-Ifor Hael, the chief patron...

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-..of Wales's greatest poet in

-the 14th century, Dafydd ap Gwilym.

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-Sponsoring, supporting

-and protecting Welsh culture...

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-..was quintessential

-to the Ivorites' ethos.

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-This can be seen in the opening

-paragraph of their handbook.

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-"The Society Of The True Ivorites...

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-"..wishes to preserve

-the Welsh language...

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-"..to preserve its members

-from need as far as possible...

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-"..and to unite every Welshman,

-to aid one another."

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-One leading cultural figure

-in the movement was Evan James...

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-..the author of our national

-anthem, of course.

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-James had written

-a poem for the Ivorites...

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-..which is similar

-to the anthem in style and content.

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-"Our dear ancestors

-were a peaceful nation

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-"Who suffered long tyranny

-under foreign hands

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-"Patriotism fires our hearts

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-"We cannot forget

-the feats of ancient times

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-"Will we neglect

-our forefathers' sweet language?

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-"No, never,

-say all the Ivorites"

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-But the Ivorites

-weren't a political movement.

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-Many of the friendly societies

-had political agendas.

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-The Ivorites' politics

-were conservative...

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-..that is, conservative

-with a small "c".

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-As the Rebecca Riots swept across

-Carmarthenshire in 1842 and 1843...

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-..the movement expressed opposition.

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-The Talog Lodge, near Carmarthen,

-passed regulations to ensure...

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-..that any member found to take part

-in the riot was to be expelled.

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-No, what was really important

-to the Ivorites was Welshness...

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-..and promoting Welsh education.

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-In the beginning, speaking

-English in meetings was banned.

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-The movement founded

-dozens of local eisteddfodau...

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-..with the aim of promoting

-Welsh culture and the language.

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-I've come to Ammanford

-to meet Dana Edwards.

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-Dana works for the Eisteddfodau

-Of Wales Society...

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-..which shares the same

-cultural ideals as the Ivorites.

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-The Ivorites certainly did

-fine work for eisteddfodau.

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-They wanted to organize events

-in Welsh to attract more members.

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-But they also saw the influx of

-people to Wales who spoke no Welsh.

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-They saw a threat to the Welsh

-language and way of life.

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-They organized eisteddfodau

-to counter the threat.

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-We do the same thing,

-150 years later.

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-With many people moving in...

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-..we try to do something

-to restore Welsh in our communities.

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-We've come to the former site

-of the Ivorite Hall.

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-The hall was so impressive,

-they changed the street name.

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-It's Hall Street now,

-formerly Chapel Street.

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-It was a really huge hall, which

-could seat around 1,600 people.

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-It's long gone now.

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-They also tried holding

-peripatetic eisteddfodau.

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-They did. This was in 1840...

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-..20 years before the National

-Eisteddfod became peripatetic.

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-I don't know how successful it was.

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-They had more success

-with the local eisteddfodau...

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-..with thousands in the audiences.

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-An eisteddfod held in a tent near

-the Red Cow tavern in Llandybie...

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-..had an audience of 900.

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-We'd be very happy with that today.

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-I wonder, was the eisteddfod

-the attraction, or the Red Cow?!

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-The eisteddfod, I think!

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-Eisteddfodau were held on holidays,

-like New Year's Day...

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-..or even Christmas,

-so that workers could attend.

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-As a child, long ago in Trawsfynydd,

-I did well in art competitions.

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-I won small sums of pocket money,

-up to a pound, as a prize.

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-You offer prizes.

-Did the Ivorites too?

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-In 1936, the Ivorites offered

-a prize of half a guinea...

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-..for a poem to celebrate

-their centenary.

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-That was a worthwhile prize.

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-Indeed. A lot of money.

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-Indeed. A lot of money.

-

-It was.

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-Right then! We know about

-their social conscience...

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-..and their love of culture.

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-But the society was progressive

-in another direction too.

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-There was a branch for women.

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-To tell us about the Ivoresses...

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-..Professor Gwennan Schiavone

-has lured me to another pub...

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-..this time in Porth-y-rhyd.

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-Why have you brought me to this pub?

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-Why have you brought me to this pub?

-

-It's a special pub.

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-Back in 1843...

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-..it was known

-as the Saxe-Coburg Tavern.

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-Aha! Presently the Prince Of Wales.

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-Aha! Presently the Prince Of Wales.

-

-Exactly.

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-The Society Of The Ivoresses

-set out in a procession from here.

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-They went to a nearby chapel for a

-sermon then returned here for lunch.

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-They had a business meeting,

-then a celebration.

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-It sounds quite a shindig.

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-Not what you'd expect

-of a crowd of women, after chapel.

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-There was quite a lot of pomp

-involved in these processions.

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-Did bands take part in the march,

-with music and flags?

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-It's difficult to be

-precise about the march.

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-But they very often had bands...

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-..or they paid musicians

-to take part in ceremonies.

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-But they did have a banner.

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-Banners were important

-in the friendly societies.

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-It was a visual symbol...

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-..with images that were

-significant for their society.

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-In a way, it was a symbol

-of the society's identity.

0:20:180:20:22

-I'm not suggesting that

-women are dangerous in a pub!

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-But were there rules?

0:20:270:20:29

-If someone wanted to speak,

-they had to wait for silence.

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-The fact that there were rules...

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-..suggests that people needed to

-be told how to behave in meetings.

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-In the same way, rules about

-drunkenness and misbehaviour...

0:20:420:20:48

-..suggests there was some revelry.

0:20:480:20:52

-It must have been an escape...

0:20:520:20:54

-..from the daily grind,

-and from the problems of the age.

0:20:550:20:59

-I'm sure it was.

0:20:590:21:01

-And they felt they

-were doing something...

0:21:020:21:06

-..to improve their lives

-and the lives of others...

0:21:060:21:11

-..as part of a movement where

-they could depend on each other.

0:21:110:21:17

-That was the appeal,

-certainly for women.

0:21:170:21:21

-I like this idea, that it belonged

-to everyone in the community.

0:21:210:21:26

-Women could participate

-and have a day out in the pub.

0:21:260:21:30

-On that note, I'll buy you a drink.

0:21:300:21:32

-I've been waiting quite a long time.

0:21:330:21:35

-I've been waiting quite a long time.

-

-Sorry!

0:21:350:21:37

-Defenders of social welfare,

-Welsh culture and women's rights.

0:21:390:21:44

-That's quite a list.

0:21:440:21:46

-But what was the end of the story...

0:21:460:21:48

-..for the Philanthropic

-Order Of True Ivorites?

0:21:490:21:52

-The movement was at its apogee

-in 1878, with 22,401 members.

0:21:520:21:59

-Subsequently, membership

-gradually declined.

0:22:000:22:04

-In 1955, the year

-of the last report...

0:22:040:22:08

-..the total had fallen to 1,348.

0:22:080:22:12

-Compare that with the hundreds of

-thousands of workers in Wales...

0:22:120:22:17

-..and the seven million trade

-union members in Britain in 1939.

0:22:170:22:22

-They were the voice

-of the workers by that time.

0:22:230:22:27

-Ivorism had run its course.

0:22:270:22:30

-Between 1908 and 1911...

0:22:350:22:38

-..the government passed

-a series of important acts...

0:22:380:22:42

-..that created the foundations

-of our modern welfare state.

0:22:420:22:47

-A century later, some people

-are starting to question...

0:22:480:22:52

-..the future of that welfare state.

0:22:520:22:54

-TR Jones and the founders

-of other friendly societies...

0:22:550:23:00

-..felt they couldn't depend

-on the state in times of need.

0:23:000:23:05

-Will the current economic climate...

0:23:050:23:07

-..affect the government's

-ability to care for us?

0:23:080:23:13

-Will Cameron's plans

-for a "big society"...

0:23:130:23:16

-..where responsibility

-is devolved to community level...

0:23:160:23:21

-..bring about an era

-and a social model...

0:23:220:23:26

-..that will once more create the

-need for a new order of Ivorites?

0:23:260:23:32

-S4C Subtitles by Gwead

0:23:480:23:50

-.

0:23:500:23:51

Dewi Prysor yn olrhain hanes Urdd Ddyngarol y Gwir Iforiaid, cymdeithas gyfeillgar a sefydlwyd ym 1836. Dewi Prysor looks at the Philanthropic Order of the True Ivorites established in 1836.