11/03/2017 Reporters - Short Edition


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11/03/2017

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From here in the world's news room, we send our correspondents to bring

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you the best stories from across the globe.

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Owen Bennett-Jones finds the Pakistan army back in control

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of the tribal area on the Afghan border, after a huge military

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operation to clear out Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.

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Around one million people from north Waziristan fled

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when the conflict was at its height, and the question now

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Carrie Gracie investigates Beijing's new measures

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The Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal.

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And in the one party state there is little the public can do,

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to force the politicians here to deliver air fit to breathe.

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Fergus Walsh meets the researchers unlocking the science of thought.

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The tribal areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have

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long been associated with militancy and lawlessness.

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The ancient tribal customs, with their emphasis on both

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revenge and hospitality, have been challenged in recent

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years by violent Jihadis, imposing Sharia, not tribal law.

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North Waziristan became home to Al-Qaeda, the Taliban,

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and Jihadists from all over the world, but as Owen Bennett-Jones

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reports, after a long and bloody military campaign,

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the Pakistani army is now firmly in control.

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For years now, these remote areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have

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In 2014, the Pakistan army launched a campaign

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to win back this land, and today virtually all

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The militants left behind this roadside bomb factory.

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Capturing facilities like this has made a difference.

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There used to be thousands of bomb attacks in Pakistan each year,

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The army reckons its operations here are the most successful

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anti-Jihadist campaign the world has yet seen.

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So somewhere it was the IED that was a threat to you,

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somewhere it was small ambush or different, so different incidents

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happening in different areas when we were trying to get them.

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Just like Aleppo and Mosul, the army caused massive destruction

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When the battle was raging, the entire population left.

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The effort is now on to get them back.

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Around a million people from north Waziristan fled when the conflict

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was at its height and the question now is will they come back?

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So the army has built facilities like this school,

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that can take 1,000 children - not open yet - but it is hoped this

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will attract people to come back thinking there are ways they can

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live here, and get their children educated.

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A few hours' drive away in the city of Peshawar,

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traders say the number of bombs has gone down, but they

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The survivors say they are determined to resist the militants,

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If you don't get over it, you don't get to live,

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because you see, if people become stuck in that psychological

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depression and that kind of thing, you can't cope with your studies,

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you can't cope with the world, you can't see the beauty of life,

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so you have to cope up, and all we did, we all did

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There is a growing nationalism in Pakistan.

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Some militant groups remain strong and haven't been

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challenged by the state, but there is also a rejection

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of those Jihadis who attack targets on Pakistani soil.

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Owen Bennett Joan, BBC News, north Waziristan.

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In China the government wants to invest billions on renewable energy.

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They want to encourage the use of new vehicles. Carrie Gracie has

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taken to the streets of Beijing to find out. Everything in China is on

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a massive scale. The problems... And the solutions. Cars are to blame. It

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is scrapping the worst offenders. But this ritual in the wreckers

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Yarde is a losing battle against 30 million new cars taking to the roads

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this year. If these people want clean air, then they have to change

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their behaviour. -- clean air. China has two kick its addiction to fossil

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fuels. For this Beijing couple, the morning commute is a his and hers

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divide. He is part of the problem. And she is part of the solution.

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Meek little blue, harmful emissions, zero. To beat the petrol heads,

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China subsidises electric vehicles and makes them much easier to

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licence. On smoggy days, little blue does not face restrictions like

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other car is. This woman is proud to do her bit for a cleaner air.

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TRANSLATION: The pollution is terrible for our health and for the

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image of Beijing. But I don't have to feel guilty even on smoggy days.

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I tell my friends they should get one, too. Gathering winter fuel

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allowance. To beat the smog, all of the villagers have banned the

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burning of coal. And this 70-year-old farmer is forced back to

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the old ways. The fire heats their brick bed. The government did give

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them an electric heater. But on their pensions they cannot

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afford to switch them on much. Winters are a sub zero. He tells me

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he is more worried about his electricity bill than about the cold

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or the smog. He is wearing thick layers of long johns. Beijing can

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clean the air when it wants to. Like now for the annual session of its

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rubber-stamp parliament. But it can't do it for a long because

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despite the push for a cleaner vehicles and cleaner heating, the

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Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal. And in the 1-party state there

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is little the public can do to force the politicians to deliver a fit to

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breathe. Carrie Gracie, BBC News, Beijing.

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It's one of the most prestigious awards in the world of science. A

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prize of almost ?1 million for cutting edge research aimed at

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understanding the brain. This year it has been won by three British

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neuroscientists further work on how the brain uses a system of chemical

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rewards to help us make choices. They have been speaking to Fergus

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Walsh. How do we motivate ourselves in life, whether it is the choices

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we make about the food we eat, cream cake or fruit, to the friends we

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make? Thanks, Fergus. The pleasure of a Hauge, or the goals we set

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ourselves artwork to succeed or by a better car. What underpins our

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decision-making is a chemical in the brain called dopamine, which is

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released whenever there is a reward. This sense of reward, which can

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sometimes be equated with happiness, pleasure or simply a desire to do

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something, has been crucial in Newman evolution. The three

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neuroscientists who shared the prize in Denmark have spent 30 years

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studying the dopamine reward pathway command say it underpins all our

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choices. You look at a menu in a new restaurant. Should you explore a new

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type of cuisine? You make a prediction of what it might be like

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and you try it. If you try it and it is better, it gives a positive

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signal. Next time you return to the restaurant, you are likely to choose

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it. If it is not, you will choose it. There is a dark side. Dopamine

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can reassert poor decision-making and leads to compulsive behaviour.

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Parkinson's disease -- disease... Drugs that boast -- boost dopamine

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levels can sometimes bolster addictive behaviour. Can often have

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negative effects, leading to excess gambling. I have had numerous

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patients who, when treated with these drugs, have resorted to

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gambling, often secretive. This has resulted in the tragedy of them

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losing their entire life savings. The three prizewinners are all based

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in the UK, which has a track record of world leading brain research.

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Their work will help in the development of treatments for

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patients with psychiatric illnesses, like schizophrenia, where the brain

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reward system goes wrong. Fergus was, BBC News. That is all

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from Reporters for this week. From May, Philippa Thomas, goodbye

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for now. -- from me. Good evening. We had quite a bit of

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sunshine in the north-west and the South and east today. Where the sun

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A weekly programme of stories filed by BBC reporters from all over the world, ranging from analyses of major global issues to personal reflections and anecdotes.