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11/03/2017

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From here in the world's news room, we send our correspondents to bring

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you the best stories from across the globe.

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Owen Bennett-Jones finds the Pakistan army back in control

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of the tribal area on the Afghan border, after a huge military

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operation to clear out Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.

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Around one million people from north Waziristan fled

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when the conflict was at its height, and the question now

:00:44.:00:46.

Naomi Grimley meets the young Yazidis who escaped the so-called

:00:47.:00:58.

Islamic State to find refuge in Germany.

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Alastair Leithead reports from South Sudan on claims

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of new atrocities by government forces and local militia.

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Carrie Gracie investigates Beijing's new measures

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The Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal.

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Naomi Grimley meets the young Yazidis who escaped the so-called

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The Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal.

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And in the one party state there is little the public can do,

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to force the politicians here to deliver air fit to breathe.

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Fergus Walsh meets the researchers unlocking the science of thought.

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The tribal areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have

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long been associated with militancy and lawlessness.

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The ancient tribal customs, with their emphasis on both

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revenge and hospitality, have been challenged in recent

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years by violent Jihadis, imposing Sharia, not tribal law.

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North Waziristan became home to Al-Qaeda, the Taliban,

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and Jihadists from all over the world, but as Owen Bennett-Jones

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reports, after a long and bloody military campaign,

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the Pakistani army is now firmly in control.

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For years now, these remote areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have

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In 2014, the Pakistan army launched a campaign

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to win back this land, and today virtually all

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The militants left behind this roadside bomb factory.

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Capturing facilities like this has made a difference.

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There used to be thousands of bomb attacks in Pakistan each year,

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The army reckons its operations here are the most successful

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anti-Jihadist campaign the world has yet seen.

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So somewhere it was the IED that was a threat to you,

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somewhere it was small ambush or different, so different incidents

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happening in different areas when we were trying to get them.

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Just like Aleppo and Mosul, the army caused massive destruction

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When the battle was raging, the entire population left.

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The effort is now on to get them back.

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Around a million people from north Waziristan fled when the conflict

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was at its height and the question now is will they come back?

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So the army has built facilities like this school,

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that can take 1,000 children - not open yet - but it is hoped this

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will attract people to come back thinking there are ways they can

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live here, and get their children educated.

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There are few public schools in Pakistan

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Local markets are also starting up again.

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But everyone knows the future holds great uncertainties.

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A few hours' drive away in the city of Peshawar,

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traders say the number of bombs has gone down, but they

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For example, with militants extorting money from them.

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This gentleman by himself has received extortion letter.

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If you want to see it I can show it to you.

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From this shopkeeper, can he afford that?

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This is the APS school, where 130 children were murdered

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by the Pakistan Taliban just over two years ago.

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The survivors say they are determined to resist the militants,

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If you don't get over it, you don't get to live,

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because you see, if people become stuck in that psychological

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depression and that kind of thing, you cope with your study,

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depression and that kind of thing, you cope with your studies,

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you can't cope with the world, you can't see the beauty of life,

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so you have to cope up, and all we did, we all did

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bravely and we all did, we coped very brilliantly and now

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There is a growing nationalism in Pakistan.

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Some militant groups remain strong and haven't been

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challenged by the state, but there is also a rejection

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of those Jihadis who attack targets on Pakistani soil.

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Owen Bennett Joan, BBC News, north Waziristan.

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As fighters from the self-styled Islamic State are gradually being

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driven out of their stronghold in Iraq, the scale of the atrocities is

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being revealed against one ethnic group in particular. The Yazidi

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people are ethnic Kurds, and the UN says they are the victims of a

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genocidal campaign, thousands have been killed, thousands more women

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and children are being held captive, many traded as sex slaves. Some have

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imagined to escape and seek sanctuary in Germany. Naomi Grimley

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has been to one refuge deep in a a forest from the south-west of the

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country. A secret location in south-west Germany. It is a place of

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exile. 80 Yazidi women and children now live here. They were violently %

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cuted by so-called Islamic State and chased out of northern Iraq.

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These two boys were captured by the extremists and sent to a military

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training camp aged just 14 and 16. This is their story.

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TRANSLATION: The training was about weapons, we learned how to load and

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fire a weapon. We were training to be soldiers. We would do exercise,

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crawling under barbed wire, things like that.

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To learn how the fire a gun on human beings they took us to graves where

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they had the dead bodies of Muslim traitors or those who took drug,

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they said we had to fire on them to get used to it.

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If we didn't do what we were told or broke the rules they would beat us

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with a stick. Everything had to be like they wanted.

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I had to pretend to be a Muslim to survive.

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Their books were like magic, they change your mind and made you into

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one of them. I bet not just me, even a man's mind would have changed.

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After a year, a smuggler helped them escape the camp. It was dangerous.

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But there was nothing left to be afraid of. We had seen death with

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our own eye, we saw how they killed. When you lose everything, you have

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nothing left. We had nothing to lose. This is mainly a community of

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women and children. Most of the men are missing, presumed dead. The

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women were originally brought to Germany for trauma counselling after

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the mass rapes under Islamic State. South-west Germany has welcomed more

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than 1,000 Yazidis in two years, and the man who runs the project says

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several towns volunteered to give them shelter.

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Of course it is hard, of course they have bad dreams, of course they are

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struggling but they can start like, you know, just start a new future,

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get into school, get an education, dream about falling in love and all

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the things that are normal. All that may take time, but at least for now,

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this refuge is far away from those religious zealots who are trying to

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wipe them out. To South Sudan which according to

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the UN is edging closer toe genocide. It accuses Government

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forces and militia of carrying out ethnically motivated attacks on

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civilian, while using the current Civil War as a smoke screen, but the

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Government denies that the country is experiencing ethnic cleansing.

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Alastair Leithead reports. The grief of a mother. The death of

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a son. She travelled through the night, when she heard what happened.

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Isaac's body was found dumped in the river, his ankles tied. A metal wire

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tight round his neck. TRANSLATION: My son was fishing and

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saw the body. I don't know who did it or why they did it. Does this

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happen a lot? TRANSLATION: It happens.

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Government forces are in charge of the town. The Civil War recently

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spread to this part of the country where different ethnic groups

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peacefully lived side by side. We are a short drive from the centre of

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the town, but this is pretty much the limit of where the army forces

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are prepared to go on foot. Because the rebels control areas just up the

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road. Houses and buildings in this deserted neighbourhood have been

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burned. The soldiers blame wild fires or accidents.

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It is our mandate to make sure civilians are safe. It might be the

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rule but it is not the reality, or at least not the reality we heard

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from those who would talk. We are protecting their identities. This

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man's sister was assaulted by three soldiers. Who raped her? The

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soldier. Government soldier, yes. She is sure they are Government

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soldiers? Yes. Is this happening a lot here? It is a lot. Another

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witness described ten young men being dragged out of their family

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homes, chained together, and then shot, one by one. This woman was

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attacked in her house by soldiers in uniform. They started to beat me. He

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beat me here. It was painful. It was going to beat me on my head. I put

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my hands like that. Even though both sides in this war have been

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implicated in atrocities, these allegations were all against

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Government forces. There is no killing or raping said the senior

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commander, anybody who does is arrested.

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The only people we fight are the rebels he said. This is when the

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killing occurs. The survivors claim civilians were killed by the army

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but we continue kill our own in our own country. So there are no

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renegade troops, no troops, not a single case? No.

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But still people are leaving, in eight months 500,000 people have

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fled the country, rather than live here under the army. Everywhere you

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go in this area it is the same. Villages that have been abandoned.

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People have closed up and taken what they can with them. Hundreds of

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thousands of people from crossed into Uganda, overs in the bush

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because of the fighting, everywhere, village after village.

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And there is a deeply disturbing Ed nickelment underlying the deaths,

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that people are being killed because of their ethnicity. That is why the

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UN has warned this could end in genocide.

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Alastair Leithead, BBC News, South Sudan.

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The Netherlands is often described as the most liberal country in

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Europe. But many are wondering if that reputation is changing. The

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polls suggest in the general election on Wednesday many people

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will vote for geert Willeder, who wants to pull the country out to EU

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and ban immigration from Muslim countries may even win the largest

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number of seats. So what happened to the supposedly tolerant easy going

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Dutch? Gabriel great house has gone back. The Netherlands is having an

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identity crisis. What does it mean to be Dutch? I don't remember people

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agonising over this question in the past. They are now.

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What are Dutch values? We are all equal. We are all the same. We are

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very tolerant, and we drink and eat and play and dance together. So that

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is the good thing about carnival. What about the rest of the time?

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Well, it's a bit different. We're not so tolerant any more. Why not?

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Some people are not so the same as other people. I think the whole

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Islam thing makes it we are more aware of our values.

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Geert Wilders, the Netherlands's answer to Donald Trump wants to ban

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the Koran, close the mosques and the borders.

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In defence of their tolerant way of life, many Dutch people are

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apparently willing to vote for some pretty intolerant policies. --

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policies. Growing up we were taught that tolerance was as much a part of

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Dutch culture as eating mayonnaise with your chips. I used to live over

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there, Number Ten, just the other side of the canal. Before I lived

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there, some other people did, whose names are commemorated here in these

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plaques, seven of them who were murdered by the Nazis during the

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Second World War because they were Jewish. There are similar plaques

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along the canal side. During the war one tenth of the population of this

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city were deported to concentration camps.

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The German occupation had a huge impact on how the Dutch see

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themselves. December criminating against people

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because of their religion, their culture or ethnic background, that

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was something that other people did. Not the Dutch. I grew up in a time

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when all of us in this country were still very much under the impression

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that we live in the most liberal progressive country in the world. I

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used to say this to people. I am from Amsterdam. I live in the best

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country in the world, best city in the world. Anything goes and you are

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free to be whoever you are. However when I look back I think there was a

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lot going on under the surface that just wasn't discussed.

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Beneath the surface, many people felt uncomfortable, with the effect

:16:22.:16:25.

of immigration. To speak of that was once taboo. Not any more. Fuelled by

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geefrt geert, the debate has focussed on Islam. -- Geert Wilders.

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Sylvan that has set up a political party, trying to highlight what she

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says is a hidden current of racism in Dutch society.

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The reaction has not been good. Death threats is what I have

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received for similarly voicing my opinion on this topic. That doesn't

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sound like the most tolerant, the most progressive country on earth.

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We used to take pride in saying we are so tolerant, that is our biggest

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problem. We have been tolerating and tolerating means accepting something

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that you really don't actually a I degree with, but you are just, you

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know accepting. Perhaps the idea of the Netherlands

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as free space was never anything more than an illusion. Now, in an

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age of identity politics, the Dutch are asking themselves some

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fundamental questions. What does liberalism mean? What are

:17:28.:17:33.

the limits of tolerance? And does the Netherlands still want to be a

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place that is open and inclusive? Gabriel gate house, BBC News.

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To China where the Government has declared its aim of making the skies

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blue again by tackling the country's air pollution crisis, the

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authorities want to reduce reliance on coal, and invest billions in

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renewable energy and they are targeting emissions from cars which

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add to the smog hanging over major city, by encouraging the use of

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greener vehicles. Carrie Gracie has taken to the streets of Beijing to

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find out more. Everything in China is on a massive

:18:12.:18:19.

scale. The problems and the solutions. Cars are to blame for

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about a third of China's air pollution. So it is scrapping the

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worst offenders. But this rich intellectual in the

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wrecker's yard is a losing battle against 30 million new cars taking

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to the roads this year. If these people want clean air, then

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from transport to heating and lifestyle, they have to change their

:18:48.:18:52.

behaviour. China has to kick its addiction to fossil fuels.

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For this Beijing couple the morning commute is a his and hers divide. He

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is part of the problem. And she is part of the solution.

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Meet little blue. Harmful emission, zero. To beat the Petrolheads China

:19:16.:19:21.

subsidises electric vehicles and makes them much easier to license.

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On smogy days little blue doesn't face restrictions like other cars

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and Kim is proud to her her bit for clean air.

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TRANSLATION: We all have to live in the city and the pollution is ten

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for health and Beijing's image, driving little blue I don't have to

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feel guilty even on smogy days, I tell my friends they should get one

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too. Gathering winter fuel. To beat the

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smog, all the villages surround Beijing have banned the burning of

:19:57.:20:03.

coal. And 70-year-old farmer is forced back to the old ways.

:20:04.:20:12.

The fire heats their brick bed. The Government did give them an

:20:13.:20:16.

electric heater, but on their pensions they can't afford to switch

:20:17.:20:22.

it on much. Winters are sub-zero here. But he tells me he is more

:20:23.:20:28.

worried about his electricity bill, than about the cold or the smog. He

:20:29.:20:32.

is wearing thick layers of long johns.

:20:33.:20:38.

Beijing can clean the air when it wants to, like now for the annual

:20:39.:20:42.

session of its rubber-stamp Parliament but it can't do it for

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long because despite the push for cleaner vehicles and heating, the

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Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal. And in the one party state

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there is little the public can do to force the politicians here to

:20:58.:21:01.

deliver air fit to breathe. Carrie Gracie, BBC News, Beijing.

:21:02.:21:06.

It is one of the most prestigious awards in the world of science, a

:21:07.:21:13.

prize of almost one million, for cutting-edge research aimed at

:21:14.:21:16.

understanding the brain. This year it has been bon by three British

:21:17.:21:20.

based neuroscientists for their work on how the brain uses a system of

:21:21.:21:25.

chemical rewards to help us make choice, they have been speaking to

:21:26.:21:30.

Fergus Walsh. How do we motivate ourselves in life? Whether it is the

:21:31.:21:36.

choices we make about the food we eat, cream cake, or fruit. To the

:21:37.:21:43.

friends we make. Thanks Fergus. The pleasure of a hug or the goals

:21:44.:21:49.

we set ourselves at work, to succeed or by a better car. What underpins

:21:50.:21:56.

our decision making is a chemical in the brain called dopamine which is

:21:57.:22:00.

released when there is a reward. This sense of reward which can

:22:01.:22:05.

sometimes be equated with happiness, pleasure, or simply a desire to do

:22:06.:22:10.

something has been crucial in human evolution. The three Nero scientists

:22:11.:22:16.

who shared the prize given by a foundation in Denmark have spent 30

:22:17.:22:20.

years studying the dopamine reward path Wray and say it underpins all

:22:21.:22:25.

our choices. You look at a menu, so you have an interesting thing,

:22:26.:22:30.

should you explore a new type of cuisine so you make a prediction of

:22:31.:22:33.

what it might be like, you say maybe I will try it. If it is better that

:22:34.:22:38.

than you expect you get a positive signal. Next time you have a higher

:22:39.:22:42.

chance of choosing that food. If it is worse you won't choose it. There

:22:43.:22:46.

is a dark side to the dopamine reward pathway. It can reinforce

:22:47.:22:51.

poor decision making such as with drug addiction and lead to

:22:52.:22:56.

compulsive behaviour. Parkinson's disease leads to the loss of

:22:57.:23:02.

dopamine producing never cells. Drugs that boost the levels can

:23:03.:23:05.

sometimes trigger addict shin behaviour. It can negative effects

:23:06.:23:12.

leading to excess gambling, numerous pay enwhens when treated with drugs

:23:13.:23:17.

have resorted to gambling, often secretive this is the result in the

:23:18.:23:21.

tragedy of them losing their life savings. The three prize winners are

:23:22.:23:26.

based in the UK, which has a track record of world leading brain

:23:27.:23:30.

research. Their work will help in the development of treatments, for

:23:31.:23:35.

patients with psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia where the brain

:23:36.:23:39.

reward system goes wrong. Fergus Walsh BBC News. That is all from

:23:40.:23:46.

Reporter for this week, from me, Philippa Thomas. Goodbye.

:23:47.:24:01.

Hello. Some of us managed to get some sunshine so far today. It has

:24:02.:24:09.

been up to round 18 degrees across the south-east of the country but

:24:10.:24:13.

overall a bit of cloud round across the

:24:14.:24:15.