18/03/2017 Reporters


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18/03/2017

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minutes to five. You are watching BBC News. We will have more stories

:00:00.:00:00.

for you, including reaction to Nicola Sturgeon's speech, at the top

:00:00.:00:00.

of the hour. Now it is time for Reporters.

:00:00.:00:20.

Hello, welcome to Reporters. I am David Eads. We send our

:00:21.:00:27.

correspondence to bring you the best stories from across the globe. In

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this week's programme... On the front line in the battle for Mosul.

:00:33.:00:37.

Orla Guerin joins Iraqi army forces as they make more games against

:00:38.:00:42.

so-called Islamic State. We have heard three car bombs going off in

:00:43.:00:47.

the distance. We have had a lot of incoming mortar fire. You can hear

:00:48.:00:51.

the sounds of battle. As millions face famine in parts of Africa and

:00:52.:00:56.

the Middle East, Clive Myrie reports from northern Nigeria, where tens of

:00:57.:00:59.

thousands of children are at risk of starving to death. For those

:01:00.:01:05.

children, the end is inevitable. Innocent victims of a man-made

:01:06.:01:13.

tragedy. Sleeping on the job - Sally Conway meets the foreign truck

:01:14.:01:15.

drivers who cannot afford to live where they work. He only ever works

:01:16.:01:24.

in Western Europe, sometimes Germany or Norway. He is being paid as if he

:01:25.:01:30.

were driving in Slovakia. After millions of views online, we catch

:01:31.:01:35.

up with the reluctant global Internet star, the BBC interviewee

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whose children stole the show. My wife deserves a medal for taking

:01:45.:01:50.

care of our family. And seeing things through the eyes

:01:51.:01:55.

of Jane Austen. Ben Moore investigates new claims that Jane

:01:56.:02:02.

Austen was as blind as a bat. The Iraqi city of Mosul has become

:02:03.:02:06.

the scene of the biggest battle on earth. Around 100,000 soldiers,

:02:07.:02:12.

police and militia, backed by Western air power, have been bearing

:02:13.:02:15.

down on this ancient city. The mission, to drive out so-called

:02:16.:02:22.

Islamic State, who've occupied Mosul since 2014. After more than 100 days

:02:23.:02:27.

of fighting, they recaptured the east of the city in January. Now

:02:28.:02:31.

they say a third of the West has been completely be taken. Order

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Ciaran -- Orla Guerin husband travelling with the Iraqi forces.

:02:37.:02:40.

You may find part of this board -- you may find parts of the reports

:02:41.:02:41.

distressing. A rare glimpse of Western Mosul.

:02:42.:02:53.

Urban warfare on a momentous scale. Caught below, hundreds of thousands

:02:54.:03:00.

of civilians. This is the place where IS proclaimed its caliphate.

:03:01.:03:06.

Here it was born and here, Iraqi forces say, it will die. On the

:03:07.:03:11.

ground, they are advancing, but struggling to hold what they

:03:12.:03:24.

capture. They pound IS positions. Then frantic gunfire towards a

:03:25.:03:33.

threat overhead. And IS drone may be carrying explosives. They managed to

:03:34.:03:40.

shoot it down. This is as far as we can go for now. There is a lot of

:03:41.:03:44.

gunfire in the area. There are snipers in position on this street.

:03:45.:03:50.

We have covered here, so we won't be moving from this position. But

:03:51.:03:54.

within the last half an hour, we have heard three car bombs going off

:03:55.:03:59.

in the distance. We have also had a lot of incoming mortar fire. You can

:04:00.:04:04.

hear the sounds of battle. The IS fighters in this area are putting up

:04:05.:04:12.

Frias resistance. -- fierce resistance. Then the conflict came

:04:13.:04:19.

closer. The man who didn't flinch is a major in the Iraqi army. Hours

:04:20.:04:23.

later, he was wounded. He is now recovering in hospital. Troops using

:04:24.:04:31.

every weapon, even home-made rockets. Then the rush to retrieve a

:04:32.:04:43.

casualty. We can't say how many have paid with their lives. The Iraqi

:04:44.:04:51.

forces don't reveal their losses. But they have the extremists

:04:52.:04:55.

outgunned and encircled. They believe victory is guaranteed in

:04:56.:05:02.

Mosul, in time. But ending the caliphate may not end IS. This

:05:03.:05:09.

general is in the thick of the battle.

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He told us the narrow streets and civilian presence are complicating

:05:16.:05:22.

the advance. It is very hard because we need to

:05:23.:05:28.

take care of the citizens and be aggressive against IS guys. We need

:05:29.:05:36.

to put it very clear plan to clear all the area. That means we need to

:05:37.:05:42.

put a plan to survive our citizens. And as the fighting rages, more

:05:43.:05:46.

weary civilians leave scarred neighbourhoods. Where they have been

:05:47.:05:51.

caught between the militants and the army. Few may have enjoyed more than

:05:52.:06:03.

this man. IS pod and anti-aircraft gun near his house. An air strike

:06:04.:06:08.

targeting the extremists brought the roof down on his family.

:06:09.:06:21.

TRANSLATION: Three of my daughters are dead. They buried my heart. My

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daughters were under the concrete of the house. They didn't let me see

:06:31.:06:41.

them before they were buried. As well as losing his daughters and

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his home, he lost his leg. He prays God will destroy IS as they have

:06:48.:06:52.

destroyed Iraq. Orla Guerin, BBC News, Western

:06:53.:07:01.

Mosul. Away from Iraq, the world is facing its largest humanitarian

:07:02.:07:04.

crisis since the end of the Second World War. 20 million people in

:07:05.:07:07.

parts of Africa and the Middle East are at risk of famine and

:07:08.:07:10.

starvation. The United Nations has issued a plea for help to avoid a

:07:11.:07:15.

catastrophe in the four affected countries. South Sudan, Somalia,

:07:16.:07:22.

Yemen and Nigeria. Clive Myrie reports from northern Nigeria, where

:07:23.:07:27.

the conflict against Boko Haram is deepened the humanitarian crisis.

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His report contains flashing images. They begin queueing at Sunrise. You

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can't afford not to get in. And through the daily stream of anxious

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women and their children gets bigger and bigger. Is my child

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malnourished? Could my child die due --? This treatment feeding centre

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has been working flat out recently, and NVQ we found this woman and her

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ten-month-old baby, born into a cruel world. -- and in the queue.

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We have had to beg for food. Sometimes going to sleep without

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eating. We had to leave our village. I pray things will get better.

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Her story is so typical. All these people were driven from their homes

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by the Islamist group Boko Haram, whose fighters burned villages for

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seven years, killed thousands and left 2.5 million people homeless,

:08:38.:08:40.

all in the name of strict Sharia Law. Farmers couldn't attend their

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fields because of the fighting. Now people starve. A nurse... She is

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painfully thin and her weight is confirmation. Does that mean the

:09:01.:09:05.

child is malnourished? Yes, it's malnourished. But her chances of

:09:06.:09:12.

survival are better than Muhammad's. For years old, he is severely

:09:13.:09:19.

malnourished and weakened by TB. Or This Boy, aged five, whose mother

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sits helpless nearby. TRANSLATION: Seeing my daughter

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lying sick like this has been unbearable. There was little food

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around when we escaped Boko Haram. I can't count the number of days we

:09:34.:09:38.

have had to go hungry. It's been so difficult. I just want my child to

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leave. -- live. Seconds later, there is a new

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arrival at the centre. Doctors struggle to help Mustafi, 20 months

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old, to breathe. Cradled in his mother's arms, his life is ebbing

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away. We met him yesterday. Last night he died. But what about those

:10:03.:10:10.

children who don't make it to a treatment centre like this, from

:10:11.:10:17.

areas inaccessible to eight? Where there are no doctors or clinics,

:10:18.:10:21.

where food and water polluted by Boko Haram fighters. For those

:10:22.:10:27.

children, the end is inevitable. Innocent victims of a man-made

:10:28.:10:32.

tragedy. And with the aid stocks running low, the call for more

:10:33.:10:35.

international help is loud and clear. Without more Humanitarian aid

:10:36.:10:42.

in terms of food, we don't expect the situation to get better. In fact

:10:43.:10:48.

it could get worse? If we don't get more help. This ten-month-old girl

:10:49.:10:56.

should make it. She has an appetite and can begin to recover. But while

:10:57.:11:01.

the Islamists of Boko Haram have been driven from most areas of the

:11:02.:11:04.

country, their legacy of pain and starvation injuries.

:11:05.:11:11.

Clive Myrie, BBC News, Nigeria. Truck drivers moving goods for IKEA

:11:12.:11:14.

and other retailers in western Europe are camping out in their

:11:15.:11:19.

trucks for Monsanto time because they simply can't afford to live in

:11:20.:11:24.

the countries they are working in. -- for months at a time. They are

:11:25.:11:29.

being paid as they would in their own countries. A judge has described

:11:30.:11:33.

as inhumane practice companies can exploit loopholes in European law.

:11:34.:11:41.

Zoe Conway reports from Denmark. IKEA says it doesn't just care about

:11:42.:11:45.

furniture, it cares about values. But just how valued to the people

:11:46.:11:54.

transporting IKEA goods feel? In a trailer on the edge of Copenhagen in

:11:55.:11:59.

Denmark, these to men have created their own pop up kitchen, cooking

:12:00.:12:04.

from scratch saves them money. Is this how you want to have your

:12:05.:12:09.

breakfast? No, I don't want to live like this but this is the condition.

:12:10.:12:15.

He is moving goods for IKEA but they don't employ him. His actual

:12:16.:12:20.

employer is a Slovakian firm. He is paid Slovakian wages. European Union

:12:21.:12:32.

employment rules state: a driver temporarily posted away from home

:12:33.:12:35.

should be granted the home nation's pay and conditions.

:12:36.:12:39.

Companies are exploiting loopholes in the law. A Danish driver can

:12:40.:12:44.

expect to take on 2200 euros a month in salary. But he has been taking

:12:45.:12:53.

home an average monthly salary of 477 euros, or ?418 per month. This

:12:54.:13:00.

is my home. This is how I live. This is my bed. Danish drivers go home

:13:01.:13:08.

every couple of weeks. But he spends up to for months on the road. The

:13:09.:13:15.

company says he is responsible for taking his rest breaks and that he

:13:16.:13:21.

can go home when every likes. He has just driven some IKEA stock from

:13:22.:13:26.

Denmark and Sweden. He only ever works in Western Europe. Sometimes

:13:27.:13:30.

it might be Germany or Norway. Yet he is being paid as if he was

:13:31.:13:34.

driving in Slovakia. Yet he never works there. He is not alone. This

:13:35.:13:40.

truck park turned campsite is right outside the biggest IKEA warehouse

:13:41.:13:46.

in the world. Drivers are making stew and drying their clothes. Many

:13:47.:13:50.

of the East European drivers we spoke to said they are on a similar

:13:51.:13:58.

deal. This Bulgarian driver is fed up, and not just because he is

:13:59.:14:02.

making his mash on top of a fuel tank. His salary is 250 euros a

:14:03.:14:08.

month, plus some expenses. Catastrophic. Why it is is

:14:09.:14:15.

catastrophic? Look at the conditions. In many cases there are

:14:16.:14:20.

no -- in many places there is no parking. We live like primitive

:14:21.:14:25.

people. But this is work at least. There is no workable Guerioua. This

:14:26.:14:28.

is not a good life. It is a catastrophe. -- work in Bulgaria.

:14:29.:14:34.

This way of treating drivers is widespread, not just within the IKEA

:14:35.:14:41.

chambered among other companies. In a statement, IKEA said:

:14:42.:14:53.

it's not just IKEA and the big retailers that are in the firing

:14:54.:14:58.

line. Euro's politicians are also under

:14:59.:15:03.

pressure to act, to stop any further deterioration in the working

:15:04.:15:06.

conditions of Europe's drivers. Sally Conway, BBC News. After

:15:07.:15:14.

Obamacare, America's health system is facing trumped care. More details

:15:15.:15:18.

of the new health plan were released this week. If it goes ahead, around

:15:19.:15:24.

14 million people will become uninsured by next year, rising to 24

:15:25.:15:26.

million people over the coming decade. Republicans say the proposal

:15:27.:15:33.

would save $337 billion over the next ten years. We have been looking

:15:34.:15:40.

at what health care under Donald Trump could mean.

:15:41.:15:46.

Carroll has made it on her own in the world of work. Her and her

:15:47.:15:50.

husband on a small jewellery business. But being self-employed

:15:51.:15:54.

means they don't have a boss to cover their health care insurance.

:15:55.:15:57.

For years they have struggled to pay medical bills. Until President Obama

:15:58.:16:05.

introduced his health care law. When the Affordable Care Act was passed,

:16:06.:16:09.

we could get reasonable insurance that covered a lot more. The

:16:10.:16:19.

deductible went from 10,000 to 3000. Now they are concerned their bills

:16:20.:16:23.

will rise as President Trump repeals Obamacare. The Republican

:16:24.:16:28.

replacement with a cut from subsidies and instead offer a year's

:16:29.:16:35.

rent tax credit. We couldn't afford the monthly costs that we can cover

:16:36.:16:40.

now. And we have had good coverage now. We just have to stay healthy.

:16:41.:16:46.

And educated about the programme. Others are glad to see the back of

:16:47.:16:51.

Obamacare. I need health insurance but I didn't want to be forced to

:16:52.:16:56.

buy it or be fined. Frank have to pay hundreds of dollars for not

:16:57.:17:01.

having health insurance. When he retired a few years ago, his company

:17:02.:17:06.

policy stopped. He voted for Donald Trump and bikes is health care plan,

:17:07.:17:11.

even though millions may lose cover. What they dropped 20 million people

:17:12.:17:14.

of the insurance plan? They still actually have health care, because

:17:15.:17:19.

if they go into an emergency room, they will get cover. The debate over

:17:20.:17:24.

health care in America is complex. It fundamentally comes down to one

:17:25.:17:28.

key thing. Cost. How much should people pay for themselves and how

:17:29.:17:31.

much should they bear the cost for others? The new plan could cut the

:17:32.:17:36.

federal deficit by hundreds of billions, is some doctors are -- but

:17:37.:17:40.

some doctors are unsure how it will affect patients. I think the new

:17:41.:17:47.

proposal, much like Obamacare, may change the winners and may change

:17:48.:17:50.

the losers, but it will not eliminate the losers. It is gone to

:17:51.:17:54.

change the problems people are encountering. Not address the

:17:55.:17:59.

problems. That has been a dilemma in American health care for decades.

:18:00.:18:01.

The system divides patient as patient as much as it does

:18:02.:18:04.

politicians. You are doing well. We will see you

:18:05.:18:09.

in six months. Your best protection against this health care system is

:18:10.:18:12.

not to get sick. Thanks, Doc. If you haven't seen

:18:13.:18:20.

this BBC interview, you are one of very few, I suspect. Professor

:18:21.:18:24.

Robert Cowell came World News to talk about South Korean politics

:18:25.:18:29.

last week to my colleague, James Menendez. He had no idea his

:18:30.:18:33.

children would steal the show and his family would become global

:18:34.:18:37.

stars. He hasn't talking to James again about the video that's gone

:18:38.:18:40.

viral. Let's discuss this further with

:18:41.:18:46.

Robert Kelly... It began as Sony BBC interviews do,

:18:47.:18:50.

and international news story, a presenter and an expert to explain

:18:51.:18:56.

what was going on. What happened next, nobody could have predicted

:18:57.:19:02.

that. This is Professor Robert Kelly. Last

:19:03.:19:06.

Thursday was an expert on South Korean politics. By Friday, an

:19:07.:19:12.

Internet superstar. During his live interview on the impeachment of the

:19:13.:19:15.

South Korean president, his wife and two young children moved into steal

:19:16.:19:23.

the show. But what was an innocent TV blooper quickly turned into a

:19:24.:19:28.

social media sensation. People raced to Twitter, YouTube and Facebook to

:19:29.:19:32.

share the moment. Speaking to me for the first time since the incident, I

:19:33.:19:36.

asked Professor Kelly and his family what life had been like since they

:19:37.:19:42.

went viral. It has been pretty unreal. We didn't expect attention

:19:43.:19:47.

like this at all. We never had anything like this in our life

:19:48.:19:51.

before. We have had to turn off the phones and Facebook and Twitter. His

:19:52.:19:57.

wife said she was busy recording Bob Wylie was live on the TV, and that

:19:58.:20:01.

is why the children could make a break for his study and why she flew

:20:02.:20:13.

in with such speed. But the mistaken assumption was made that she was the

:20:14.:20:16.

children's nanny. We were pretty uncomfortable with that. We didn't

:20:17.:20:26.

argue about any of those. I hope people just enjoy it and not argue

:20:27.:20:34.

over this thing. A normal family living a normal life, now turned

:20:35.:20:39.

online legends. I asked Bob if things had calmed down since our

:20:40.:20:44.

last encounter. Yes, I went to work today. That was nice. I don't turn

:20:45.:20:50.

off my phone as much as I used to. There was a suggestion sent to me

:20:51.:20:54.

that you should buy your wife a spa day for everything she did in the

:20:55.:20:59.

video. That is certainly true. My wife deserves a medal for taking

:21:00.:21:04.

care of us and our family. That's absolutely true. Goes to show that

:21:05.:21:10.

anything can happen on live TV. Or perhaps as the saying goes, never

:21:11.:21:15.

work with animals or children. James Menendez, BBC News. New

:21:16.:21:20.

research suggests one of the world's British novelists had such bad

:21:21.:21:23.

vision she would have trouble reading writing. Experts have

:21:24.:21:27.

revealed Jane Austen was virtually blind towards the end of her life,

:21:28.:21:31.

possibly because of poisoning, which may have contributed to her early

:21:32.:21:33.

death. Ben Moore as this. She may have been

:21:34.:21:41.

one of history's greatest writers, but for Jane Austen, just reading

:21:42.:21:44.

her novels would have been very difficult without fees. Her

:21:45.:21:50.

spectacles have been at the British library in a writing desk for 20

:21:51.:21:54.

years, but only now can they bring a particular focus to her life. Back

:21:55.:22:00.

in the early 19th century there were prescriptions similar to today. What

:22:01.:22:04.

we did was have somebody bringing a portable Lens meter so we could

:22:05.:22:11.

carefully have them examined. Jane Austen was long-sighted. The first

:22:12.:22:13.

pair of her glasses are no prescription. With the second we can

:22:14.:22:19.

see her eyes deteriorate. Her final pair revealed she lived in a Blur

:22:20.:22:22.

eWorld. And this could be linked to one of the author's greatest

:22:23.:22:28.

mysteries. Why she died so young. The possibility of her being

:22:29.:22:32.

poisoned accidentally with their heavy metals such as arsenic. We

:22:33.:22:38.

know that arsenic poisoning can cause cataracts. It was often put

:22:39.:22:41.

into medication for other types of illness, potentially for rheumatism,

:22:42.:22:46.

which Jane Austen suffered from. These spectacles are in remarkably

:22:47.:22:51.

good condition. They are more than 200 years old and made from natural

:22:52.:22:57.

materials like real tortoiseshell and glass. We don't know if there

:22:58.:23:00.

were specifically prescribed for Jane Austen or if she bought them

:23:01.:23:03.

from a travelling salesman. Pretty much the same way we do when we

:23:04.:23:09.

abiding -- buying reading glasses. Using modern optometry, we can see

:23:10.:23:12.

what Jane Austen's eyesight would have been like. That is about a plus

:23:13.:23:19.

one? Quite blurred. But you can cope. That is a plus three? Yes.

:23:20.:23:31.

That is getting difficult. I can't see your face. I can only see my

:23:32.:23:37.

hand when it is about there. One of the world's greatest novelists would

:23:38.:23:39.

have had trouble reading and writing. She would have noticed the

:23:40.:23:46.

difference when the lights were poor. As she aged, it would've been

:23:47.:23:50.

more important having the stronger prescription, because your eyes tend

:23:51.:23:54.

to need some help from reading as you age. The British library wants

:23:55.:24:00.

to invite optometrist to get in touch to offer their opinions, a

:24:01.:24:02.

rare chance to see things through the eyes of one of Britain's best

:24:03.:24:06.

loved authors. Ben Moore, BBC News. That is your

:24:07.:24:11.

lot from Reporters for this week. From me, goodbye forever.

:24:12.:24:14.

-- for now.

:24:15.:24:20.