Still Ringing After All These Years: A Short History of Bells


Still Ringing After All These Years: A Short History of Bells

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BELLS RING

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It's beautiful...

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The sound of bells ringing is the sound of celebration -

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of momentous events.

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It can be the sound of grief, and sorrow.

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It's a sound we've heard so many times,

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that we've almost stopped listening.

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But it's a sound with a story,

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and it's an extraordinary one.

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For 1,500 years, bells have provided the soundtrack to our finest,

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and our darkest hours.

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The story of bells is the story of greed - a story of magic,

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a story of invention.

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It's a story of war.

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It's a story of holy men and women, and some very unholy ones, too.

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The lives of people and the sound of bells have been so intertwined

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for so long, that the story of bells is the story of us.

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# I'm getting married in the morning

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# Ding-dong, the bells are gonna chime... #

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In April 2011, Westminster Abbey played host to a Royal Wedding.

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# But get me to the church on time... #

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When William and Kate were married here, in this extraordinary,

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vivid, grand, amazing space, you felt like all that was left

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was the need to be filled with something equally grand,

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vivid and extraordinary, although this time,

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not a feast for the eyes, but a feast for the ears.

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BELLS CHIME

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The bells sounded a timeless, historic and grand accompaniment.

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As the couple left the building, this sound engulfed everybody.

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It was almost physical.

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You felt you could scoop handfuls of it out of the air.

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There was no better expression of pure joy.

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And you wondered - why?! What is it about bells?

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Why do bells provide the soundtrack for our historic events?

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How did they become so rooted in our culture, and entwined

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with our national identity?

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The story of our relationship with bells has coloured

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more than a millennium of British history.

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And it all began in the 5th century,

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with the patron saint of Ireland.

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There are many miracles associated with Patrick -

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banishing snakes from Ireland, even raising people from the dead.

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But he's also credited with introducing handbells

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to these islands.

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For Patrick, the bell was an essential part

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of the missionary's toolkit,

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and whenever he introduced one of his disciples

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to a new missionary area, he'd give them a bell.

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He even imported three blacksmiths

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to help craft these heralds of God's word.

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From the 6th century, Celtic missionaries crossed the Irish Sea

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to Britain, to spread the Christian message.

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They carried with them the tools of their trade.

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Some sources say that when the Celtic missionaries

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roamed the British mainland, they carried with them a bag,

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in which were a copy of the Gospels, and a small bell,

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just like the one St Patrick had used in Ireland.

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They worked in tandem with the bell summoning the people

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to hear the word of God.

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It's just like a cowbell, really, a piece of metal bent around,

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another piece over the top,

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and then the whole thing riveted together

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with a good space for your hand.

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It would have operated a bit like the chimes of an ice-cream van -

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when you heard this sound coming at you, across the hills,

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or through the valleys, or along a coastal path,

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you'd have known blessings, masses, maybe healings of the sick,

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were on their way. The man of God was coming.

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It was soon believed that these bells held special powers.

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Sacred oaths were sworn upon them.

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Bells which had belonged to holy men

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were carried into battle as a sign of God's protection.

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And most importantly, bells were believed to have the ability

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to banish storms and terrify demons.

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It wasn't long before these roaming missionaries and their bells

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settled in permanent communities, such as here at Whitby,

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where there's been an abbey since 657 AD.

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These spectacular religious buildings were filled

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with monks or nuns praying for the salvation of mankind,

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and bells took on a vital role,

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signalling the start of all their devotions.

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At monasteries like this one at Whitby,

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the bells would be sounded every three hours

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to mark the passage of the prayers during the day.

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It was the first sound the monks heard

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when they woke up at 3am to begin their devotional duties.

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The people around the monastery

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could hear the sound of the bells too,

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and so over time, it became a way of marking the passage of the day,

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both for religious people and laity alike.

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The Irish word for "bell" is "clog",

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from which we get the English word "clock".

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Our modern clocks linguistically derive

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from those ancient Celtic bells.

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The practical use of bells didn't diminish their magical qualities.

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St Hilda was the first abbess of Whitby Abbey,

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and she was one of the great strong women of the Anglo-Saxon era.

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Kings would travel for miles to receive her advice,

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and she was so revered that local legend has it that the seagulls

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still dip their wings in her honour when they pass over the abbey.

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So, when she died, it was a momentous event.

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It happened in AD 680, and according to the Venerable Bede,

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the bell that tolled her passing could be heard over 13 miles away.

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A huge distance, even in the days before noise pollution.

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What Bede was suggesting was the supernatural power of the bell

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to be heard over such a great space.

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By the 10th century, British bells were no longer made of iron,

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but bronze, and they'd grown in size.

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Towers were specially built to house them, and in those towers,

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the bells were chimed by ropes attached to levers at their head.

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These towers spread, not least because a Saxon freeman

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could become a noble by building a chapel and a belltower on his 600 acres.

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BELLS CHIME

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Bells were crafted by specially trained monks in foundries,

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hence the term, "bell-founder".

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And the most famous of them all was based here, at Canterbury.

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Years before the Norman Conquest, in the late 10th century,

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England underwent a kind of cultural renaissance, and the man

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at the heart of it was the Archbishop here in Canterbury.

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His name was Dunstan.

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Dunstan was a diplomat, an illustrator, a silversmith,

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and a bell-founder.

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He's so important in English history that he's commemorated here,

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right next to the Archbishop's high seat.

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And he's important to bell-founders, too,

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as he was named their patron saint.

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Dunstan's influence can still be heard today.

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From the 14th century on, many churches had clock bells

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to chime out the hours of the day,

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and when Canterbury hung a new one in 1762,

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they named it Great Dunstan.

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There's a legend about St Dunstan,

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that when he was working in his foundry,

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the Devil tried to sneak up behind him,

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and Dunstan whipped around with a pair of red-hot tongs,

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and grabbed the Devil by the nose, and wouldn't let him go

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until the Devil ran shrieking out into the night.

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Never mess with a man when he's making a bell!

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None of Dunstan's bells remain.

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They've all been melted down - recycled.

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But we've a fairly good idea of what they looked like.

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Probably, Dunstan's bells would have looked like that. All one thickness,

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straight the way through, very tall, and...

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HE RINGS BELL

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Do we know whether Dunstan had an impact, a legacy on bells?

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Certainly, he did. His influence carried on,

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and not only were his successors casting bells, but they were casting

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better sounding bells, bigger bells.

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It was a case of "make me mightier yet."

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So he's the father of the sound of England?

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I think so. I think so. That's how I'd see Dunstan.

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Canterbury soon had six bells,

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the largest of which needed 32 men to ring it.

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David believes this means that the bells were rung

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in a rather unusual way.

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On the continent, great bells were often rung by treading the plank.

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Instead of a lever, you had a great wooden plank

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and you could get ringers who would actually stand on the plank

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and press down with their feet

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while they held onto a rail and they would start the bell swinging.

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You would have had 32 men, 16 on each side, all lined up,

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pressing down on a plank and holding on the rail on the other side.

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That's right.

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And their friends on the other side would release

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-and they'd go down.

-They'd go down. Yes.

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It would be something of a seesaw.

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But if you're ringing all of them you'd have had 105 men

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all pushing, pushing up and pushing down and ringing the bells that way.

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There were lots of pubs around as well, always have been.

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LAUGHTER

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So you'd have a few drinks and go, come on lads.

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I think you'd need them. I think you'd need them.

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Some 200 years after Dunstan, Thomas a Becket became

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Archbishop of Canterbury.

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He had a stormy relationship with King Henry II

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which broke down completely in 1170

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when Becket excommunicated bishops loyal to the King.

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Henry is said to have cried,

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"Who will rid me of this meddlesome priest?"

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which spurred four of his knights to take action.

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In December 1170, the four knights burst into Canterbury Cathedral

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and hemmed Thomas a Becket here where they hacked him to the ground.

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According to legend, the bells of Canterbury began to ring violently.

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The terrified knights fled the building

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when all at once the bells fell silent...

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and refused to be rung again for another year.

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There's actually some truth in the legend inasmuch as

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following the murder of Becket, the whole Cathedral and the bells

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had to be reconsecrated

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and they may not have been able to be used until they were.

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Becket's murder and the posthumous miracles

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he is said to have performed, shown in these windows,

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make Canterbury Britain's most visited pilgrimage site.

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This is where the shrine of Thomas a Becket lay

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and here is where the pilgrims would kneel before it.

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You can still see the furrow in the stone,

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worn down by all those knees.

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Just like tourists today, the pilgrims wanted

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mementos of their visit, which would often be small pewter badges.

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Here at Canterbury, they would carry the image of Thomas a Becket

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or the image of one of the Canterbury bells.

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By the 11th and 12th centuries, alongside their religious uses,

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bells were starting to take on secular functions.

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Bells announced the big moments, like when the master's oven

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was hot enough to bake the village bread.

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From 1066 on, William the Conqueror used bells

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to control his new kingdom.

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Each evening, when the Norman bell rang, people had to cover the fires.

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Or couvre feu, and get inside.

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And that's the origin of our word curfew.

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Before the Normans, most churches were owned and run by local lords.

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But by the 13th century,

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they had become the focal point for everyone in the community.

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All Saints Leighton Buzzard

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was built at the end of the 13th century.

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Before the 13th century, there actually hadn't been that much

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contact between ordinary men and women and the Church,

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apart from baptisms and funerals.

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There was a sort of division of labour.

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The workers looked after the community's physical needs

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while the Church looked after its spiritual needs

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with the prayers of the devout monks.

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But the fact that this parish building was erected

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shows that from now on, the Church and its bells would take on

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a far more central role.

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A surge in individual spirituality

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saw ordinary people praying for their own salvation.

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And it was the chiming bell which summoned them to church.

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Once there, other bells played a key role in the service.

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Church bells in the Middle Ages were sacred objects.

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So much so, that they underwent a ceremony not unlike baptism.

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Not at the font but usually at the base of the belfry.

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They were first washed in holy water in which salts had been dissolved

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to exorcise the devil. They were anointed with oil.

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The bells were put on a tripod and incense was lit underneath them

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to fill their mouths with sweet-smelling smoke.

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And finally, they were given a name, just like a person, before

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they were winched up into the tower to watch over the village below.

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Often, individual bells were named after individual saints.

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And the idea was that each chime of the bell was a request

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to that saint to pray for the village.

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One of the most important bells in the church was the Sanctus bell.

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Sanctus from "Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus",

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Latin for "holy, holy, holy",

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which was sounded in greeting at the moment

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in the mass when the bread and the wine became the body

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and blood of Christ and Christ physically entered the church.

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And the bell told everyone, whether they were in the church

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or in the fields, to fall silent, to kneel or bow their heads,

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and at that moment, the entire community was bound together

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by the sound of the Sanctus bell.

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BELL CHIMES

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Fire ravaged this beautiful church in 1985, destroying ten bells.

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But incredibly, the Sanctus bell survived.

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And there she is. Golly, you're lovely.

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Look at that.

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The smooth, elegant shape.

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You can immediately tell that it's a medieval bell

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because it's more Twiggy than Mae West -

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it's got this slender shape, rather than flaring out at the top.

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It's absolutely lovely.

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Now, I've got a special privilege which is that this bell

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hasn't been lifted and hasn't been put in place where it can be rung

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since the fire in the church 25 years ago.

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And I'm going to ring the bell for the first time in 25 years.

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So let's see how you sound.

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BELL CHIMES

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That is the sound of the Middle Ages.

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'Bells sounded at baptism and death, the key moments of medieval life.'

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The death knell was particularly important

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and it's still powerful today.

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This is especially true in Royal Wootton Bassett,

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where the repatriation of fallen soldiers

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was marked by a tolling bell, rung by Roger Haydock.

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The initial reaction is silence. Hush falls over the crowd.

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BELL TOLLS

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The traffic is stopped.

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There is a big hush and the sound carries.

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More people hear it than they would normally,

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with the background noise of everyday life.

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I think the tolling bell has so much impact

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because it's going through that silence

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and reaching everybody.

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And it seems to me that it adds a whole extra layer

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to the solemnity of what happened here.

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I think it does too.

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I think the effect it had on the people of Wootton Bassett

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or whoever's here on the high street

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is probably very similar

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to the effect it's had on people over the centuries.

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That we've had the tolling of the bell as a,

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as a mark of respect for the people who have passed away.

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And there's something deep inside people

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that is responding to the sound.

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There must be something

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in the human psyche to keep it going that long,

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because it isn't just tradition, there is something people feel.

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And maybe it is the sombreness of it that helps people remain silent.

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BELL TOLLS

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'As John Donne wrote,

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'"Never send to know for whom the bell tolls;

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'"It tolls for thee."'

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Whether accompanying someone's final journey,

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starting their working day or providing chimes for city clocks,

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every aspect, religious and secular,

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of medieval life was governed by bells.

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They regulated lives as much as the sun and the moon,

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which meant plenty of work for bell makers.

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Remarkably, the Whitechapel Bell Foundry

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has been making bells for over 440 years.

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It's the oldest manufacturing facility in Britain.

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It looks more like a Dickensian shop front.

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Inside, it's a different, magical world, little changed in centuries.

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Workers here still craft bells in much the same way

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as Dunstan did, back in the 10th century.

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-Hello, I'm Richard.

-Hello, Richard. Hi there.

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Andy, tell me. How do you make a bell?

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Well, as you can see, we use these...

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'Andy Smith is going to take me through the start of this

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'ancient process, creating a bell mould

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'using a device called a strickle.'

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We use these moulding gauges, or strickles, as they're called.

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-I've got one here.

-Oh, OK.

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-So this is the line of the inside of the bell.

-That's correct.

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And that's the line of the outside of the bell.

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This is the space where the metal goes.

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That is the shape of the bell

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and that is the thickness it will be on this one.

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It's quite thick up there and it becomes thinner

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and it becomes thicker down the bottom again.

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So that's the thickness of the bell.

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And what are you using to make the, to make the mould?

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Ah, we're using loam.

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We used sand, we use clay, we use horse manure.

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-Horse manure?

-Yes. And we use goat's hair.

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-Goat's hair and horse manure.

-That's an old tried and tested...

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On all bells? That's what they use?

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-Yes, we use this to make the loam.

-Fantastic!

0:22:010:22:03

So this is goat's hair. It's quite fine.

0:22:060:22:10

It's quite nice, actually.

0:22:100:22:12

Yes, it is. And last but not least, manure.

0:22:120:22:15

I don't think you want to put your hand in that. There we go.

0:22:150:22:18

-It's pretty dry, actually.

-You're very brave for touching that.

0:22:180:22:21

There we go. And we mix all this together.

0:22:210:22:24

Then we put it in our milling machine

0:22:240:22:26

and it mills it up to a fine paste and then it's ready for moulding.

0:22:260:22:29

-And what does the end product look like?

-I'll show you.

0:22:290:22:33

This is the product.

0:22:330:22:35

Quite dirty and it's very sticky, because you can...

0:22:350:22:39

-Oh, OK.

-Yes. So that is good for...

0:22:390:22:42

-Can I have a go?

-You can, yeah.

0:22:420:22:45

Oh well, there you go. That's why I'm not a bell founder.

0:22:450:22:48

'The mould formed by the outside of the strickle

0:22:480:22:51

'is baked hard inside these metal cases

0:22:510:22:54

'and then the inner mould, also baked, is placed inside.

0:22:540:22:59

'The two moulds are clamped tightly together

0:22:590:23:02

'and the bell metal is poured into the space between.

0:23:020:23:06

'The bell metal is made up of 77% copper and 23% tin,

0:23:060:23:11

'more or less the same ratio that it's been for 1,000 years.

0:23:110:23:15

'The metals melt at an incredible 1,170 degrees Celsius,

0:23:150:23:21

'nearly the temperature of lava.'

0:23:210:23:24

This is intense.

0:23:460:23:48

The concentration of the men doing the foundering is absolute.

0:23:480:23:53

It's dangerous, molten metal pouring into these moulds.

0:23:540:23:59

How they did this in the Middle Ages, God only knows.

0:23:590:24:03

'It will take three days for this golden liquid to cool and solidify,

0:24:030:24:07

'and then the cases will the opened to release their newborn bells.'

0:24:070:24:12

In the Middle Ages, bells weren't made in city foundries like this.

0:24:150:24:19

Itinerant bell makers travelled the country,

0:24:190:24:22

set up their furnaces and cast the bell on the spot in the churchyard.

0:24:220:24:26

It was a huge local event.

0:24:260:24:28

People would throw in their copper and tin to make the village bell,

0:24:280:24:32

which led to a really neat con.

0:24:320:24:35

When a bell makes a nice sound, it is said to be silvery.

0:24:350:24:39

And so the bell makers would tell the lady of the manor

0:24:390:24:43

that they needed silver to put in the mix.

0:24:430:24:45

Total moonshine! Silver doesn't help the sound.

0:24:450:24:48

The silver would go in the back pocket and tin would go in the mix.

0:24:480:24:52

In the early 16th century,

0:24:530:24:55

bell founders travelled the country,

0:24:550:24:57

crafting bells to chime out the daily hours,

0:24:570:25:00

summon people to civic events or mass and call monks to prayer.

0:25:000:25:06

They built their furnaces at the base of the bell tower,

0:25:060:25:09

or just beside the church,

0:25:090:25:12

and then cast and cooled the bells in pits.'

0:25:120:25:15

When Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509,

0:25:150:25:19

England boasted thousands of churches

0:25:190:25:21

and probably more than 500 religious houses,

0:25:210:25:24

of which this one, Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire,

0:25:240:25:27

is a spectacular example.

0:25:270:25:29

Most of the churches and religious houses

0:25:290:25:32

would have regularly rung their own bells,

0:25:320:25:34

and so wherever you went in the country,

0:25:340:25:37

you'd have heard the sound of their music.

0:25:370:25:40

Golly!

0:25:530:25:55

Fountains really is amazing.

0:25:570:26:00

They have these great columns here,

0:26:000:26:02

still standing, and those arches, from hundreds of years ago.

0:26:020:26:07

And it's spaces within spaces within spaces.

0:26:080:26:11

You feel like you can hear the sound of the monks

0:26:110:26:14

and the chiming of the bells.

0:26:140:26:16

CHANTING AND CHIMING

0:26:180:26:20

Golly!

0:26:260:26:28

It's like God's doorway.

0:26:290:26:31

The bell tower at Fountains is one of the last parts of the Abbey to be completed.

0:26:330:26:40

It is magnificent.

0:26:400:26:42

It pushes 167 ft into the air.

0:26:420:26:45

And it's striking that as a landmark for the Abbey

0:26:470:26:51

and of all the means at their disposal for worshipping God,

0:26:510:26:55

the monks chose to give greatest prominence to their bells.

0:26:550:27:00

'The tower housed 10 bells, hung high in the belfry.

0:27:080:27:12

'Time has destroyed the evidence,

0:27:120:27:14

'but experts believe

0:27:140:27:16

'that they were still being rung by the traditional lever and rope.

0:27:160:27:20

'By now, bells was synonymous, internationally, with Christianity,

0:27:210:27:25

'and England, the home of bells and monks,

0:27:250:27:29

'seemed a devoutly Catholic land.

0:27:290:27:32

'But change was afoot.

0:27:320:27:35

'King Henry VIII wanted a male heir

0:27:350:27:37

'and fell for a younger woman in Anne Boleyn.

0:27:370:27:41

'So, against the wishes of the Catholic Church,

0:27:410:27:44

'he got rid of his first wife and married Boleyn.

0:27:440:27:48

'The Pope wasn't best pleased

0:27:480:27:50

'so Henry declared himself head of the Church in England.'

0:27:500:27:54

MUSIC: "Personal Jesus" by Johnny Cash

0:27:540:27:57

In 1534, when Henry became head of the Church,

0:27:570:28:01

the royal finances were in a sorry state.

0:28:010:28:03

In the wealthy monasteries and abbeys,

0:28:030:28:06

the King saw a chance to get his hands on some money.

0:28:060:28:09

So he dissolved all the religious houses in the country

0:28:090:28:12

and appropriated their property to himself.

0:28:120:28:16

A good day for the royal coffers,

0:28:160:28:18

not so good for hundreds of monastic bells.

0:28:180:28:22

'The nation's great monasteries were stripped bare,

0:28:230:28:26

'the monks' prayers and their bells, silenced.

0:28:260:28:28

'Archaeologist Mark Newman

0:28:300:28:32

'is an expert on how the dissolution affected Fountains Abbey.'

0:28:320:28:37

When you heard the sound of the bells outside the monastery,

0:28:370:28:41

you would know that the monks were also praying for you,

0:28:410:28:44

your soul and your salvation,

0:28:440:28:45

and suddenly you don't hear the sound of the bells any more.

0:28:450:28:48

Yes, that's really shocking.

0:28:480:28:50

The idea that Henry's prayers will suffice

0:28:500:28:53

in place of all of these monasteries was, you know, quite a leap of faith,

0:28:530:28:58

literally, for contemporary communities to grapple with.

0:28:580:29:01

So your soul was meant to simply be protected

0:29:010:29:03

by the prayers of the King?

0:29:030:29:04

I'm afraid so.

0:29:040:29:06

Here you have these wonderful institutions,

0:29:060:29:09

factories for prayer, doing their very best for you and the world

0:29:090:29:14

and they are substituted by the King saying his prayers

0:29:140:29:17

as head of the Church of England.

0:29:170:29:19

-A pretty poor substitute, I'd have thought.

-Not the best.

0:29:190:29:22

Henry VIII praying for my soul would not be something

0:29:220:29:24

I'd feel a great deal of comfort in!

0:29:240:29:26

-Not a great substitute for 100 monks or so.

-Yes. Quite, quite.

0:29:260:29:31

'In 1540, Henry sold Fountains to a wealthy noble,

0:29:310:29:35

'Sir Richard Gresham.'

0:29:350:29:37

So what happened to Fountain's bells?

0:29:370:29:40

Well, they are part of the assets that Gresham buys,

0:29:400:29:43

along with the rest of the monastery, of course.

0:29:430:29:45

We know that a number of them seem to end up in parish church towers

0:29:450:29:49

and the tower at Ripon Minster.

0:29:490:29:52

And the logic of it is he's either selling or giving bells locally

0:29:520:29:57

to make them part of the religious life of the local communities.

0:29:570:30:00

So the churches were getting some advantage

0:30:000:30:03

from the dissolution by taking on a lot of their bells?

0:30:030:30:06

People didn't like what the dissolution brought,

0:30:060:30:09

the change to the new religion.

0:30:090:30:12

Whereas if their parish church benefits

0:30:120:30:14

from receiving one of the bells,

0:30:140:30:16

maybe there's some small compensation for the other changes taking place.

0:30:160:30:19

So the bells actually could have smoothed the way

0:30:190:30:23

for Henry taking over the English Church?

0:30:230:30:26

There's certainly that aspect of bribery

0:30:260:30:29

that you've had some direct gain.

0:30:290:30:31

And also a feeling of involvement

0:30:310:30:34

in the processes of change that had been sweeping the country.

0:30:340:30:38

'The dissolution may have destroyed the monasteries,

0:30:400:30:43

'but it opened up a new future for bells.

0:30:430:30:46

'Indeed, it was the first step towards modern bell ringing.'

0:30:460:30:50

Local churches ended up with more bells in their towers,

0:30:510:30:54

which meant more young men had a chance to ring them

0:30:540:30:58

on the new-style half wheels.

0:30:580:31:00

Because it took a lot of muscle to swing the heavy bell,

0:31:020:31:05

there was no shortage of volunteers wanting this opportunity

0:31:050:31:08

to display their strength...

0:31:080:31:10

and no shortage of people outside

0:31:100:31:13

to appreciate the man who rang the loudest.

0:31:130:31:17

I have come to St Magnus' church in London to meet ringing expert

0:31:200:31:23

Dickon Love and find out what it was like to ring bells

0:31:230:31:26

in the 16th century.

0:31:260:31:29

How hard could it be?

0:31:290:31:32

OK. Do you actually want to see what it might have felt like? There we go.

0:31:320:31:37

I have never actually done this before. This is my very first time.

0:31:370:31:41

Really? Well, first time for everything.

0:31:410:31:43

Hold your hand on that, I've coiled it for you.

0:31:430:31:45

Just start giving it a pull.

0:31:450:31:47

Oh!

0:31:500:31:52

It's...ooh, hold on!

0:31:580:32:01

I'm sure I've heard this before...

0:32:040:32:06

This thing is whipping around like a...

0:32:090:32:12

crikey!

0:32:120:32:14

-That's good! You see, the bell is...

-You're just being nice!

0:32:160:32:20

But the bell is, kind of, ringing itself in a way.

0:32:200:32:24

-It's deciding when it's going to ring.

-It is, isn't it?

0:32:240:32:27

And that's exactly how it would have happened in the 16th century.

0:32:270:32:31

'So in the 16th century,

0:32:340:32:36

'if my efforts are anything to go by,

0:32:360:32:38

'bells were impossible to control.

0:32:380:32:41

'But by the mid 17th-century,

0:32:410:32:43

'that had changed

0:32:430:32:45

'and it's all down to the clever use of a rope and wheel.'

0:32:450:32:49

So tell me how this does work.

0:32:490:32:51

Well, let's use this model of a bell as it is hung these days.

0:32:510:32:55

You'll see, in particular, it has a round wheel,

0:32:550:32:59

and a rope that comes out to one side of it.

0:32:590:33:02

And when a bell is rung,

0:33:020:33:04

it starts by swinging higher and higher,

0:33:040:33:08

with the clapper hitting both sides,

0:33:080:33:11

until such point that if you really start pulling higher and higher,

0:33:110:33:16

it will...

0:33:160:33:18

actually get to that up position

0:33:180:33:21

and that's known as a bell being up. And you see it stops,

0:33:210:33:25

it is held there.

0:33:250:33:26

The reason it's held there, if I just turn it round,

0:33:260:33:29

you will see that there's a piece of wood

0:33:290:33:33

that sticks out at the top of the headstock,

0:33:330:33:37

which engages with the horizontal piece of wood

0:33:370:33:40

and it engages on one side to allow

0:33:400:33:43

the ringer to then turn it,

0:33:430:33:45

360 degrees...

0:33:450:33:47

round to the other side.

0:33:480:33:51

-And it stops.

-They can hold there for as long as they want?

0:33:510:33:54

Yes. And that is the control that enables change ringing.

0:33:540:33:59

-And you don't need to be so beefy and brawny to do it?

-No.

0:33:590:34:03

-It's a question of balance.

-It is.

-But that's beautiful.

0:34:030:34:06

It's, balance and control,

0:34:060:34:07

which is a bit more than the olden days,

0:34:070:34:10

when it was just brawn and brawn.

0:34:100:34:14

So this meant that

0:34:140:34:16

if you've got 12 bells, as you do here,

0:34:160:34:19

one of the 12 can stop.

0:34:190:34:22

You've got an order of 12, someone can stop

0:34:220:34:25

and move their chime

0:34:250:34:28

to a different place in the order.

0:34:280:34:30

Yes, that's exactly what they do.

0:34:300:34:33

They don't move by much,

0:34:330:34:34

they'll only move the distance of one bell away,

0:34:340:34:38

so you won't find somebody ringing at one point

0:34:380:34:41

and then ringing five bells later.

0:34:410:34:44

They will always only move by one point.

0:34:440:34:47

It's a slow, subtle, way of ringing.

0:34:470:34:50

Bells ring naturally from lightest to heaviest.

0:34:520:34:55

The wheel let ringers control the bell's pace

0:34:550:34:58

and change the order in which they rang.

0:34:580:35:01

This skill became known as change ringing.

0:35:010:35:04

The first change ringing rules were published in 1668

0:35:040:35:08

and they're still followed today.

0:35:080:35:11

Ringers can change position by one place in each sequence,

0:35:120:35:16

achieved by balancing their bell.

0:35:160:35:19

Each change must create an unique new arrangement,

0:35:190:35:22

so you can't have 1,2,3,4, twice.

0:35:220:35:26

This transforms the ringing into mathematical permutations.

0:35:260:35:31

On six bells,

0:35:320:35:33

there are a maximum of 720 permutations,

0:35:330:35:37

which would take about half an hour,

0:35:370:35:40

but on eight, you're looking at about 22 hours

0:35:400:35:43

to get through the 40,000 or so changes,

0:35:430:35:47

and on 12,

0:35:470:35:48

try 30 years!

0:35:480:35:50

Most bellringers can't spare 30 years,

0:35:570:35:59

so they strive to master shorter patterns, called methods,

0:35:590:36:03

and although the bells still sound for church services,

0:36:030:36:06

from the start,

0:36:060:36:08

change ringing was considered a sport.

0:36:080:36:11

Change ringing is a complex team effort.

0:36:110:36:16

It's not just yanking on a rope to make the biggest racket

0:36:160:36:19

you can, you're following a pattern, using your physical

0:36:190:36:22

and mental agility to ring your bell at precisely the right moment,

0:36:220:36:27

so that it flows through with your crew.

0:36:270:36:30

The mathematics of change ringing

0:36:320:36:35

might, on its face, seem to rob it of some of its joy,

0:36:350:36:38

but it's really no different to a sport like rowing.

0:36:380:36:41

It's the precision of the stroke that makes the difference between

0:36:410:36:45

a bad boat and a good boat, and between a bad peal and a good peal.

0:36:450:36:48

Since each bell has its own complex set of internal notes,

0:36:480:36:53

like a chord, the shifting of those chords

0:36:530:36:56

constantly engages the ear,

0:36:560:36:59

as well as the mind.

0:36:590:37:01

The 17th century craze for ringing

0:37:040:37:07

spread across England's major cities,

0:37:070:37:09

although not those of Scotland, Ireland, or Wales.

0:37:090:37:12

Indeed, around 95% of today's bellringers

0:37:120:37:15

are still based in England.

0:37:150:37:18

With its high number of churches, London was at the heart

0:37:180:37:21

of this new ringing mania,

0:37:210:37:23

with one important group pushing it forward.

0:37:230:37:26

The gentry started ringing bells too.

0:37:260:37:29

They regarded it as a sport, on a par with hunting or hawking,

0:37:290:37:32

and with all classes of society now ringing,

0:37:320:37:35

London was alive to the sound of the bells.

0:37:350:37:39

London's 17th and 18th century ringers

0:37:400:37:43

guilded themselves into sporting societies,

0:37:430:37:46

practising their strenuous exercise in churches.

0:37:460:37:51

The earliest one is the Ancient Society of College Youths,

0:37:510:37:55

which formed in 1637 and still meets today.

0:37:550:37:58

Originally, you had to be a well-placed gentleman to join.

0:38:000:38:04

Now, you just need to be an expert in the art of the bell ringing.

0:38:040:38:08

It was the Ancient Society of Youths, these people here,

0:38:110:38:14

way back when, who turned bellringing away from being

0:38:140:38:18

a purely religious activity.

0:38:180:38:21

It became something social, it became the exercise.

0:38:210:38:25

And the team that plays together, stays together.

0:38:250:38:29

For centuries, after they had rung the rounds,

0:38:290:38:31

ringers have headed to the pub and bought them!

0:38:310:38:34

Sweaty ringers and beer could be a hairy combination

0:38:340:38:37

in the 18th and 19th centuries.

0:38:370:38:40

People turning up drunk was a real problem?

0:38:400:38:42

In the 18th century,

0:38:420:38:44

when ringers were a law unto themselves,

0:38:440:38:47

they'd have barrels of beer or cider in the tower to drink,

0:38:470:38:51

they were just locked the door behind them, get up there

0:38:510:38:54

and drink, and the vicar would have very little to do with it.

0:38:540:38:58

Where would they go to the loo?

0:38:580:39:00

I dread to think!

0:39:000:39:02

Oh...God, yes! So do I!

0:39:020:39:05

That's why you've a sign saying,

0:39:050:39:07

-"No urination on the church bell"!

-I expect so.

0:39:070:39:10

The bellringers would be going out the...

0:39:100:39:12

Oh dear! They're kind of...hooligans!

0:39:120:39:16

Ecclesiastical hooligans!

0:39:160:39:18

There are stories of vicars being locked out of their own towers

0:39:180:39:22

by the ringers, so they could ring to their heart's content.

0:39:220:39:25

-They'd lock out the vicar?

-Yes indeed!

0:39:250:39:29

We've got the opposite as well, where vicars would lock the ringers out.

0:39:290:39:33

There's a story in Leicestershire, where a church warden

0:39:330:39:36

barricaded the door to stop the ringers getting in,

0:39:360:39:39

because they want to ring for a local hunt meeting.

0:39:390:39:42

The ringers broke the door down and rang anyway,

0:39:420:39:44

were arrested and thrown in jail.

0:39:440:39:46

They wouldn't pay the fine, so they stayed in jail for a month.

0:39:460:39:49

A month?

0:39:490:39:51

A month, until the vicar came and paid the fine

0:39:510:39:53

to get them all out.

0:39:530:39:54

I should think so, too!

0:39:540:39:55

-He must have been embarrassed by that!

-I expect so.

0:39:550:39:58

I suppose by that point he wanted his bells rung again!

0:39:580:40:02

Ringers versus clergy! The face-off!

0:40:020:40:05

The church belfry was increasingly becoming

0:40:100:40:13

the place were ringers went to get their exercise.

0:40:130:40:16

That's where the belts were, so that's where they went,

0:40:160:40:19

like going to the gym to use the equipment.

0:40:190:40:22

There's no finer example of the separation of religion

0:40:220:40:25

from bellringing, than here in Kent

0:40:250:40:27

at Quex Park.

0:40:270:40:29

When John Powell-Powell

0:40:390:40:41

unexpectedly inherited a fortune in 1813,

0:40:410:40:45

he decided to enjoy himself.

0:40:450:40:47

He built the house he'd always dreamed of,

0:40:470:40:50

and he indulged his hobbies,

0:40:500:40:52

yachting, collecting cannon,

0:40:520:40:54

but most of all, it seems,

0:40:540:40:56

he loved bellringing.

0:40:560:40:58

And so he fulfilled every ringer's dream,

0:40:580:41:01

to build your own bell tower.

0:41:010:41:03

You can't ring alone,

0:41:070:41:09

and John Powell-Powell's purse bought the answer to that too.

0:41:090:41:13

He had his staff trained to ring alongside him.

0:41:130:41:17

This ready-made band practised their sport far from any church,

0:41:170:41:22

in this unique building,

0:41:220:41:24

which Powell-Powell named Waterloo Tower.

0:41:240:41:27

HE CHUCKLES

0:41:320:41:34

Now that's just silly.

0:41:360:41:37

It's like the Eiffel Tower

0:41:400:41:43

has been dropped on a mediaeval battlement made out of red brick

0:41:430:41:48

in the middle of the English countryside.

0:41:480:41:51

I also quite like the way

0:41:510:41:52

it looks a bit like the RKO tower on those old newsreels,

0:41:520:41:55

as if it's beaming out its sound to the countryside all around.

0:41:550:41:59

But...

0:41:590:42:01

Really, it's bizarre.

0:42:020:42:04

'Hazel Basford is archivist at Quex Park,

0:42:060:42:09

'and a keen bellringer too.'

0:42:090:42:12

This is the tower that John Powell-Powell built.

0:42:120:42:14

-This is the Waterloo Tower.

-What's it like for you, ringing here?

0:42:140:42:18

It's always been magical.

0:42:180:42:21

It really is the most intriguing place to come and ring.

0:42:210:42:24

There is nowhere else in the country for ringers to come that's like this.

0:42:240:42:28

In winter, you walk across a field in the dark.

0:42:280:42:31

There might be cattle, so you have to dodge the cow pats.

0:42:310:42:34

And then when we arrive here,

0:42:340:42:36

there's no electricity, there's no heating,

0:42:360:42:39

so we ring by a light suspended from the middle,

0:42:390:42:41

from the ceiling in the middle of the ringing room.

0:42:410:42:44

And it's a bit chilly on occasions as well.

0:42:440:42:47

Hmm. And what does it feel like down here?

0:42:470:42:49

I've got very used to it.

0:42:490:42:52

Some people think it's haunted and a little bit spooky,

0:42:520:42:55

but I've never had that problem.

0:42:550:42:58

I've always felt that it's quite a friendly place,

0:42:580:43:01

and John Powell-Powell is around somewhere

0:43:010:43:03

and approving that we're still ringing his bells.

0:43:030:43:06

-Well, I think I like John Powell-Powell.

-Good.

0:43:060:43:09

I'm glad you do. I like him too.

0:43:090:43:11

Look to, treble's going, she's gone.

0:43:110:43:15

BELLS RING

0:43:150:43:19

From up here, all you can see is fields and trees.

0:43:300:43:35

There's no-one around to hear the bells ring,

0:43:350:43:37

but that's the point.

0:43:370:43:39

They're not here to be heard.

0:43:390:43:41

They're here for the pure pleasure of ringing.

0:43:410:43:44

RINGING CONTINUES

0:43:460:43:48

By the mid-19th century,

0:44:020:44:04

churches had long lost their monopoly on bells.

0:44:040:44:08

Bells had become symbols of civic power,

0:44:080:44:10

from the chimes of city halls

0:44:100:44:14

to the ringing of town criers, so it was fitting

0:44:140:44:17

that the heart of government should house Britain's most famous bell,

0:44:170:44:21

Big Ben.

0:44:210:44:22

Westminster has had a chiming clock since the 1300s,

0:44:260:44:29

and when the palace was rebuilt in the 19th century,

0:44:290:44:33

this new clock bell became a symbol of Parliament.

0:44:330:44:37

Big Ben weighs more than 13 and a half tonnes.

0:44:400:44:45

It's hard enough hauling myself up here.

0:44:450:44:48

It took teams of men 30 hours winching it up by hand

0:44:480:44:54

before it finally settled into the belfry.

0:44:540:44:57

HE PANTS

0:44:570:44:59

HE CHUCKLES

0:45:070:45:09

Oh, that's so cool.

0:45:090:45:11

I'm behind the clock face of Big Ben. Amazing.

0:45:120:45:17

It's beautiful.

0:45:200:45:22

And it's just flooded with light. Look at all the light bulbs.

0:45:230:45:27

That's how they light it up. They're gigantic.

0:45:270:45:31

I feel like I want to turn all the light bulbs on

0:45:340:45:37

then start casting shapes down for people below.

0:45:370:45:41

The great bell of Westminster

0:45:410:45:43

rang out for the first time on 11th July 1859.

0:45:430:45:48

Things didn't go that smoothly for Big Ben.

0:45:480:45:52

After just a few months, the bell started to crack.

0:45:520:45:56

It fell silent and they had to ring the chimes out

0:45:560:45:59

from this larger of the four bells here.

0:45:590:46:03

It took a while for them to find the solution.

0:46:030:46:05

They turned the bell around, put in a smaller hammer

0:46:050:46:08

and they had to cut a small piece out of the bell

0:46:080:46:11

to stop the crack running any higher.

0:46:110:46:14

You can see the bit that they cut out just down there.

0:46:140:46:17

And that's why Big Ben doesn't ring true and clear.

0:46:170:46:22

It's slightly discordant, like hitting on a dustbin lid.

0:46:220:46:25

And it's slightly flat.

0:46:250:46:28

It takes five bells to ring the famous Westminster chimes,

0:46:310:46:35

although they were originally composed for a church in Cambridge.

0:46:350:46:41

BELLS CHIME THE HOUR

0:46:410:46:43

BONG!

0:47:020:47:04

BONG!

0:47:070:47:09

BONG!

0:47:100:47:13

BONG!

0:47:150:47:17

BONG!

0:47:190:47:22

Big Ben's bongs sound out at a massive 118 decibels.

0:47:220:47:28

That's a loud as a jet plane taking off.

0:47:280:47:31

Or sticking your head in the speakers at a rock concert.

0:47:310:47:33

BONG!

0:47:350:47:37

BONG!

0:47:390:47:41

Fantastic!

0:47:520:47:54

That's an incredible feeling.

0:48:010:48:04

You can feel the vibration in the pit of your stomach.

0:48:040:48:08

And it's such a thumping great piece of Victorian engineering.

0:48:080:48:12

You really see it here.

0:48:120:48:14

Just this big clump of metal that's thwacking the side of the bell.

0:48:140:48:19

I feel like I'm listening to every New Year's Eve party

0:48:220:48:26

that I've ever been to.

0:48:260:48:28

'The reason why these chimes are so well known worldwide

0:48:280:48:32

'lies upstairs from Big Ben.'

0:48:320:48:34

These are the slightly grubby microphones

0:48:360:48:39

that the BBC World Service uses to broadcast the sound of Big Ben

0:48:390:48:44

to the world, live, every day at midnight and six.

0:48:440:48:48

The first broadcast was in 1923

0:48:490:48:51

and they used to broadcast them more often than twice a day.

0:48:510:48:55

The story goes that a sound engineer one day

0:48:550:48:57

forgot that the microphones were on.

0:48:570:49:00

And what the world heard was language

0:49:000:49:03

not quite suitable for the World Service.

0:49:030:49:07

So, from that moment on, they trimmed it back.

0:49:070:49:10

By the end of Queen Victoria's reign,

0:49:120:49:14

England was alive with bells,

0:49:140:49:16

perhaps more than at any other time in her history.

0:49:160:49:20

Tower bells and hand bells rang out in pleasure across hill and dale.

0:49:200:49:25

They called people to work, schools and meetings.

0:49:270:49:31

And bells still called Christians to worship.

0:49:310:49:34

But World War I brought a more sombre sound...

0:49:340:49:37

the widespread tolling of the death knell.

0:49:370:49:41

Here in Loughborough,

0:49:430:49:44

the town erected a very special memorial to its dead.

0:49:440:49:47

Inside this tower is a grand musical instrument -

0:49:470:49:51

the Loughborough Carillon.

0:49:510:49:53

It's based on instruments from Flanders,

0:49:530:49:56

where so many of the town's 478 dead had fallen.

0:49:560:50:00

Carillons hold at least 23 tuned bronze bells,

0:50:060:50:10

making them the world's heaviest musical instrument.

0:50:100:50:13

Unlike church bells, the bells remain stationary.

0:50:130:50:16

Only the clappers move, and these are operated manually.

0:50:160:50:21

The Loughborough carillon is the result of a great

0:50:230:50:26

pulling together of the town to commemorate its fallen.

0:50:260:50:29

Most of the £19,000 that it cost was collected in pennies

0:50:290:50:33

in classrooms and factories, but the largest and saddest donation

0:50:330:50:38

was £2,000 from John Taylor, owner of the Loughborough bell foundry,

0:50:380:50:42

who dedicated the largest bell

0:50:420:50:45

to the memory of his three sons,

0:50:450:50:47

all of them fallen in battle.

0:50:470:50:49

-Hello, I'm Richard.

-Hello, Caroline.

0:50:510:50:53

-HE LAUGHS:

-Caroline, you're not quite what I was expecting!

0:50:530:50:57

It's funny you should say that. A lot of people say that.

0:50:570:50:59

In fact, people come up here

0:50:590:51:00

and don't expect to see a person here at all.

0:51:000:51:03

-They think that it's all automatic.

-Oh, fully mechanised.

-Yes.

0:51:030:51:06

-I can see that. Well, it clearly isn't.

-No.

0:51:060:51:09

How does it work? This is how you operate it - how's this working?

0:51:090:51:13

Right, these keys - or batons, as they're called -

0:51:130:51:17

you depress them with your clenched fist.

0:51:170:51:19

They come down, they pull the wire,

0:51:190:51:21

which is attached to the clapper in the bell in the bell chamber.

0:51:210:51:26

OK, so you're not turning the bell?

0:51:260:51:28

Nope, the bells are static.

0:51:280:51:30

-Right, clapper gets pulled - yank, bang.

-Yes.

0:51:300:51:33

-And there's how many of them 40...

-47.

-47.

0:51:330:51:36

I'm not a musician, but is there anything which a complete duffer...

0:51:360:51:41

-Of course.

-Chopsticks, for example.

0:51:410:51:43

Come and sit down.

0:51:430:51:44

-Right...

-OK.

0:51:540:51:56

All I need you to do is to make a fist...

0:51:590:52:02

BELL CHIMES

0:52:020:52:03

..and press that.

0:52:030:52:04

-And press that one?

-Yep.

0:52:040:52:07

Right and let's do it quite slowly,

0:52:070:52:09

rhythmically...dah...dah...and just keep doing it.

0:52:090:52:12

BELLS CHIME: "The Skye Boat Song"

0:52:160:52:20

Fantastic!

0:52:360:52:37

I just played the carillon!

0:52:370:52:39

You're a carillonneur!

0:52:390:52:40

A carillonneur! I don't think I'll take that title very easily.

0:52:400:52:44

Thank you, that was terrific.

0:52:440:52:45

The Loughborough carillon was

0:52:470:52:49

and still is a source of huge civic pride.

0:52:490:52:52

Its great height meant that in the days before amplification,

0:52:520:52:56

the music could be heard far and wide and as time passed,

0:52:560:53:00

it became a site for free concerts,

0:53:000:53:03

rather than a focus for grief.

0:53:030:53:06

BELLS CHIME "EASTENDERS" THEME

0:53:060:53:09

The peace lasted barely 20 years.

0:53:150:53:18

World War Two erupted in 1939

0:53:180:53:21

and by early June 1940,

0:53:210:53:23

most of mainland Europe was under Nazi control.

0:53:230:53:27

The German invasion of Britain seemed inevitable.

0:53:270:53:29

When you think of the early years of the Second World War,

0:53:320:53:36

you tend to think of frenzied activity, of planes flying

0:53:360:53:40

and bombs dropping and sirens wailing...

0:53:400:53:43

but what you don't tend to think about is silence.

0:53:430:53:48

But that's exactly what happened to Britain's bells.

0:53:480:53:52

On 13th June 1940, the Government issued

0:53:530:53:56

the Control of Noise Defence Order -

0:53:560:53:58

an immediate and total ban on the ringing of church bells.

0:53:580:54:04

Bells were to be rung on one occasion only -

0:54:040:54:07

in the event of a German invasion.

0:54:070:54:10

This silence was devastating.

0:54:110:54:13

As one newspaper reported, for the first time in over 1,000 years,

0:54:130:54:17

not a single church bell was heard anywhere in the land.

0:54:170:54:21

I was only 12 when bans were put in

0:54:210:54:25

and I did miss the sound of the bells.

0:54:250:54:27

Peter and Gill Staniforth remember the silence clearly.

0:54:270:54:31

The idea of the silence descending on a Sunday...sounds horrible.

0:54:330:54:39

Yes, it was.

0:54:390:54:40

It was the same as the school bells at that time.

0:54:410:54:45

We had a lovely bell, on a wheel, properly hung

0:54:450:54:49

and that of course also was silenced.

0:54:490:54:53

The nation was hushed, waiting for the invasion.

0:54:530:54:55

On the 17 September 1940, the British military chiefs issued

0:54:560:55:00

the code to get ready - Cromwell.

0:55:000:55:04

Codeword Cromwell meant that there was an imminent risk of invasion

0:55:040:55:08

but some in the home guard made a mistake and began ringing

0:55:080:55:12

the church bells which meant that the invasion had actually started.

0:55:120:55:16

In the few towns where this happened, the effect was immediate.

0:55:160:55:21

Some people responded by destroying equipment,

0:55:210:55:24

disabling cars and the like, and it took a little bit of time

0:55:240:55:28

for people to work out that they'd made a mistake.

0:55:280:55:31

The bells remained silent for two long years

0:55:310:55:35

until a great Allied victory in North Africa in November 1942.

0:55:350:55:39

The victory at El Alamein was the major turning point in the war

0:55:400:55:44

and Churchill wanted to celebrate in style.

0:55:440:55:48

He ordered that all the church bells in England

0:55:480:55:51

which had been silent for two years should ring out.

0:55:510:55:55

The people loved it.

0:55:550:55:57

BELLS CHIME

0:56:010:56:04

I think it was quite a cacophony of sound.

0:56:040:56:09

But at least the villagers knew that we were ringing for a very,

0:56:090:56:13

very special occasion.

0:56:130:56:15

I suppose it was a bit of a thrill, really.

0:56:150:56:19

By 1945, Britain and her bells were finally safe from the Nazis.

0:56:190:56:24

During the war, all sorts of metals

0:56:270:56:29

were melted down for use in armaments - railings, scrap,

0:56:290:56:33

even people's teapots...but they never touched the bells.

0:56:330:56:39

Contrast that with what happened on the continent

0:56:390:56:42

because in Nazi-occupied Europe, almost 150,000 bells

0:56:420:56:48

were melted down for the Nazi war effort.

0:56:480:56:52

It's almost as if British bells were an untouchable symbol of hope.

0:56:520:56:57

Britain has changed a great deal since the end of the war.

0:57:010:57:05

It seems a long time since only church spires commanded our skyline.

0:57:050:57:09

Today offices, apartments and tower blocks

0:57:090:57:12

all stretch upwards to join and dwarf them.

0:57:120:57:16

We live in a 24/7 consumerist digital superhighway

0:57:160:57:21

rolling-news world nowadays,

0:57:210:57:24

so is the story of bells coming to an end?

0:57:240:57:28

I don't think so.

0:57:280:57:29

40,000 enthusiasts still ring regularly up and down the country

0:57:320:57:37

and there's a drive to engage the next generation of ringers.

0:57:370:57:42

At eight o'clock on the first morning of the Olympics,

0:57:420:57:46

people of every faith and no faith

0:57:460:57:48

will have gone out to churches, to schools, to town halls,

0:57:480:57:52

and for three minutes they'll be ringing on the bells.

0:57:520:57:56

It'll be a cacophony of sound,

0:57:560:57:58

celebrating in the way we've always celebrated momentous events.

0:57:580:58:02

Designed to unite and cover the entire country,

0:58:020:58:05

we'll be welcoming the world with the sound of our bells.

0:58:050:58:10

And is there really any sound more fitting?

0:58:100:58:13

There something about the sound of bells that's lodged

0:58:190:58:22

deep within the British soul.

0:58:220:58:24

When you hear that sound -

0:58:240:58:25

whether its a peal of joy, a sound of grief, a ring of alarm

0:58:250:58:30

or just for fun - you know what it means

0:58:300:58:33

and you know how to respond to it.

0:58:330:58:36

It's the sound of our past, it's the sound of our present

0:58:360:58:39

and it's the sound of our future too.

0:58:390:58:42

WEDDING BELLS RING

0:58:500:58:52

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

0:59:030:59:06

E-mail [email protected]

0:59:070:59:10

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