The Designed World


The Designed World

An insight into the world of design through 12 stories, shot across a range of countries, ranging from product design to world-class feats of engineering with a social impact.


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Transcript


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MOTORBIKE REVS UP

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This is a Triumph Bonneville T100.

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Like the later Minis and Volkswagen Beetle cars,

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it's a new version of a design classic.

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If you're working out where the original Bonneville would be in the all-time great bikes,

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it would certainly be in the top ten.

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The Daytona 675 sports bike is made by the same company.

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We wanted a completely modern cutting-edge super sports bike

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that would compete head-on with the best that the world could offer.

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At the start of the project, we have a design brief.

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It's surprisingly short.

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Most people would be surprised that it's only a paragraph or two,

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which describes the bike in broad brush-strokes.

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The design brief for the Bonneville

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was that it should look and feel like an authentic 1960s bike

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but should have all the modern convenience and engineering

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that a rider would expect nowadays.

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You need to keep the feel and the style of the machine

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but obviously you don't want a 1960s motorcycle now

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because they leaked oil and weren't that reliable.

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The first step in designing a new Bonneville

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is scheming out the components

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so that they work well within the look of the bike you're fixed to.

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It's quite a difficult process

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because we're starting with an agreed look - the bike has to look like that,

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correctly proportioned, yet we have to fit in additional components

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that the original designers didn't have to.

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There's a lot of real Triumph enthusiasts

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who would want the bike to be very close to the authentic bike.

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We had to keep certain key styling features,

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like the silencers, in a pea-shooter design that start narrow,

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get fatter then narrow down again, a very classic styling cue.

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It had to have spoked wheels for chromed rims.

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It had to have the classic Bonneville fuel tank shape.

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It had to have the traditional speedo and rev-counter location, just in front of the rider.

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The new Bonneville is a sweet motorcycle to ride.

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It's got enough performance for today's road.

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The nice thing is you feel relaxed when riding it.

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It's just a good all-round package.

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On the Daytona project, we started with drawings in profile of the bike.

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We chose the best drawing, the one we wanted to continue with.

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We translated that into a full-scale mock up of the bike

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which is made out of clay and plaster and metal

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so it looks like a fully finished bike and it looked perfect.

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We said, "That's what we want to make."

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We then moved to translating all that information, all those shapes,

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into computer models. So we made Pro-Engineer CAD models of every single component

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then we moved on to actually making the parts from those CAD models.

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Any micro project is a collaboration between usually one stylist,

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who works on the parts of the bike that you see

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to make it look beautiful,

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and a team of approximately 15 engineers

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who work on the engine and chassis.

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So two separate teams, but they talk to each other a lot.

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We decided fairly early on on some major features.

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We wanted the silencer under the seat, central above the rear wheel,

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instead of down at the side of the bike.

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We thought that would give the bike a good look.

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We wanted a very functional yet heavily-styled frame

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so the frame that goes over the top of the engine is fully styled.

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It's not made from straight sides,

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it's got lovely curves and swoops.

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Basically, the designers are trying to recreate the feeling of a race bike on the road.

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So you have incredible agility and the bike goes where you want it to and reacts to the smallest input.

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You always feel you're one step ahead of the game

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on the 675.

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My top tip to anyone who wants to design motorcycles

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or if you want to draw a motorcycle, remember the human element.

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People have to ride them and want to ride them.

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There's no point drawing a streamlined torpedo with a little seat.

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Nobody will want to ride that.

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Technical Textiles is simple.

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It's about putting something into a product - a finish or design element -

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to give the customer benefit.

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To protect from spills or antimicrobial applications

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or even things like NASA spacesuits.

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A designer should be interested in new materials, new processes

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for designing things that people want.

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Something sexy, while at the same time has a low environmental impact.

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As a designer you look at these materials and say, "How can I use them?"

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Technical Textiles are used in high-tech sportswear to improve athletes' performance.

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But similar technology is also used in many clothes sold in the high street.

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You can have these high-performance chemicals in designer gear that cost thousands.

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Marks & Spencer make that accessible to the average person,

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not just as a niche available to a man climbing Everest or Olympic swimming.

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This is one of our non-iron shirts, made from cotton with a special chemical finish.

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Reduces the need for ironing.

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This is a very popular set of blue jeans.

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The finish on this keeps it dry when it's raining.

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You use Technical Textiles where they make a difference.

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You use them in school uniforms, in jeans, in coats, that sort of thing.

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You're not gonna use them in dresses or in underwear cos you don't need them.

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We've got 60 people here dedicated to putting our products together.

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They deal with new fibres, new chemicals, new production processes.

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We've just done a big study, this is not Technical Textiles per se,

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this is using technology in testing

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and proving an argument.

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Not necessarily having to put a special finish on a garment.

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For example over the last couple of years we've said to people, "Hang on.

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"You can wash at 30 degrees." We've done over 1,000 tests on different products, different loads,

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different detergents, different washing machines

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to prove that 30 degree washes work on virtually everything.

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Up to 80% of the lifecycle impact, the environmental impact of some clothes

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comes in the clothes washing phase, the use phase.

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Anything you can do to reduce that burden is great.

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By washing at 30 degrees instead of 40,

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it's estimated that somewhere near the equivalent

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of 2,500 villages in the UK's annual energy is saved, just by making that small change.

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If every single one of us washed at 30 degrees, rather than the 30% of people that do now,

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we could save the same amount of CO2 as taking 300,000 cars off the road.

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Technical Textiles won't break down in landfill and the environment like natural materials.

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There's a big problem with Technical Textiles not breaking down.

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They're in landfill for the next 1,000 years. That's a big issue.

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However, you can also argue that Technical Textiles are good because they extend the life of the product.

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So you get a balance there. They don't come to the end of their life as quickly

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but when they do, they're harder to recycle

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and they won't break down in the natural environment.

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Recycling clothing in future will be vital.

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Three billion items of clothes are sold in the UK every year.

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It's daft. What can we do to encourage people to recycle more?

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First, take it back to a charity shop.

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Longer-term we have to find other solutions.

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For example, can you take the wool from a woollen suit

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and turn it into insulation?

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Can you turn it into a growing material to use in a field?

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There are lots of longer term things to look at in terms of Technical Textiles to crack recyclability.

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In five years, it'll be very difficult for manufacturers to produce stuff

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that won't degrade or can't be recycled at end of life.

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Can you design a great-looking product at the right price for the mass market

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that is also genuinely sustainable with a minimum impact on people and the environment

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when you grow it, use it, dispose of it, all at the same time.

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If you can solve that, we want you knocking on our door!

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Crime happens every day. Designers can play a key role in helping fight against it.

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To do so, they must be as innovative as the criminals they are designing against.

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The Design Against Crime Research Centre is a crack team of designers, researchers and criminologists.

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Our first approach is to look at the products already out there

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to see what's good and bad about them.

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Then we actually watch people use them

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and we observe what the problems are and what could be improved.

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Karrysafe range of bags and accessories

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responded to the theft techniques we identified.

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People get their bags pick-pocketed,

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they get their bags slashed.

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They get bags lifted simply from the ground.

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Some people are attacked.

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They go in, open the zips,

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you don't notice on a busy tube or something when you're rocking about.

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They undo the zip, take what they want out of it.

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They can't do that with this bag. Doesn't have zips. The way in is through the Velcro on top.

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If someone opens that when it's on your back,

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there's a noise.

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If that's on my back and someone goes into it, I'll hear it.

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They won't get in like they would with a zip.

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They take a blade, slash along the bottom while it's on your back.

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They take what they want. You're left with an empty bag.

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This has a wire mesh between the lining fabric and the outer fabric.

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So they can't slash their way in.

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This is the Karrysafe Screamer. It's a laptop bag.

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If someone tries to grab this bag off me,

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I want the bag to go with them so I don't get injured.

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That's the advice of the police and self-defence experts.

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This strap here is put together with a bit of Velcro.

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So if they rip the bag off me,

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the strap separates, takes this cord with it.

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On the end of the cord is a pin that goes into an alarm inside this bag.

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If someone grabs this bag from me, the strap will break

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and the pin will pull out.

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HIGH-PITCHED ALARM SOUNDS

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The alarm will go off. The thief goes off with the bag screaming at 140 decibels.

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They can't cut their way in,

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they can't open it cos we've got a padlock on top of here, so they'll chuck it.

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I follow the sound, pick up my bag, I know the combination and I turn it off.

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I reset my strap and off I go with my laptop.

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We know more and more people are using bikes to get around.

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But the Centre's research showed many people stopped cycling altogether

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when their bikes were stolen.

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I've had about five bikes stolen.

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So have many of my friends.

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I'd had enough. I'm a designer.

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How can we design different types of bike parking and different bikes that are less likely to be stolen?

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The team discovered one of the biggest problems is how people lock up their bikes.

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So they came up with a range of stands where the design encourages users to lock more securely.

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This is the Camden M stand.

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It's called and M stand cos it's shaped like the letter M.

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We looked at 8,500 bikes being parked to a Sheffield-type stand

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which look like the letter N with a crossbar across here.

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We found that 21% of those bikes

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locked their crossbar to the stand

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cos it's the easiest thing to do when you roll alongside.

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If you do that, you can get your wheels taken cos they're not locked to the stand.

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Or someone can lift up the whole bike, as thieves will do,

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and use the bike as a lever

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and twist the bike around against the lock, pop the lock and take the bike.

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With this design, the simple idea is there is no horizontal component so they can't lock the crossbar to it.

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So it encourages them, the easiest thing to do,

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is to lock the bike down here

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where you get the wheel and the frame on the stand.

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That's the securest way.

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A lot of products that are aimed at designing out crime

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make the environment look like a fortress.

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You see bars, locks, big dogs, gates.

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So that's part of our philosophy that you can design out crime.

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But you don't have to make the world look criminal in the process.

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Games consoles are amongst our most desired products.

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The design process behind the consoles and their games is different for each.

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The Nintendo DS was released in the UK in 2005.

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What was the thinking behind its design?

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And how did it change the way games are played?

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For a long time, video games had been squarely aimed at 16- to 24-year-old men.

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What we saw was the need to expand that beyond that

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so for a female audience and also for much older people as well.

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We wanted to create a device that could be used whether you're five or 95.

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The DS is a hand-held games machine

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with a clam shell form factor so you open it to play.

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It's got two screens. One is a touch screen

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so you can directly control the game with a stylus or bottom screen while watching the top screen.

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You can now simply point and touch the item you want to

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and we really saw that as being the pivotal feature

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and that's why everything of the Nintendo DS was built around that new technology.

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It was the first hand-held console to have touch-screen technology.

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There'd been experiments with big arcade machines that had touch sensitivity.

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But this was the first time anybody had been able to deliver it

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in a hand-held machine, which is crucial

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because if you're operating something with a touch screen it's much easier if you hold it.

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You've also got the option of the microphone

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which is still something designers are struggling to find the best uses for.

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But anyone who's played something like Nintendogs and experienced calling to their dog

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and have it respond knows that it can be hugely intuitive.

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With a hand-held console, there are lots of things to consider.

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The weight of the device, the size of the device.

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Does it fit in your pocket? You have to consider battery consumption.

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If it is a portable device to take around with you, make sure it has the capability to be used

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in a real world situation.

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So we spend a lot of time looking at what materials we use

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not least because we have to make sure it's robust.

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The first DS was, frankly, a funny-looking thing.

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It was squat, it looked a bit cheap,

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it wasn't very symmetrical, a bit lumpy.

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Didn't fit in your pocket very well.

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It wasn't very warmly received.

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The Nintendo DS Lite, we tried to make it a little bit similar to Apple

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which is a brand that appeals to a very wide audience.

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Very gender neutral. Interesting to see technology being made in white and pink and blue,

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a wider range of colours rather than everything being silver or black, as it had tended to be before.

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You can't really launch a piece of hardware

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unless you've got software that benefits from the new features.

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Geometry Wars - Galaxies - is one DS title.

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This retro shooting game was originally made for the X-box

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where joysticks were used to control the action.

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Developers and designers were asked to make a new version

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which embraced touch screen technology.

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One aspect of this that makes it so suitable for the console is the touch screen control

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because it does such a good job at being like the joystick

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on the original version.

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The player has complete control over which direction they shoot in

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which is key to the game play.

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When you're developing a game on the DS,

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you're developing straight onto the console.

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We have special versions of the console

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that allow us to download the data straight to it

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so we're able to use the touch screen

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and use the DS in the same way, hear the sounds as they should be heard.

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The most obvious effect the DS has had is to change who's playing the games and what they're playing.

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By changing the kind of games that are possible,

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it's really changed the kind of people who've come into the gaming world.

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The Panama Canal is one of the biggest engineering projects

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ever to be undertaken.

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It took almost 35 years to complete

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and 28,000 men lost their lives.

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It is now one of the most important and busiest waterways in the world.

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14,000 ships a year, transporting 200 million tonnes of cargo,

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use the canal as a shortcut

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between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans,

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saving them time and money.

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The money the ships pay to use the canal is a valuable income to the people of Panama.

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One they can't afford to lose.

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The canal itself is composed of three locks in the Pacific Ocean

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and three locks in the Atlantic.

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The ship gets into a lock,

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the water is filled into that lock to the next level

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and then it goes from the first lock to the second, to the third lock

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like climbing steps until it reaches Gatun Lake.

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At the end of its journey,

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it has to go down again to reach the oceans.

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It is an important route

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for the supplies that come from the eastern part of Asia

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to the eastern part of North America.

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Right now, the amount of ships that can go through the Panama Canal

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is up to capacity.

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You cannot pass more ships than what it is passing right now.

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So we are going to add a new line of locks

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in order to be able to pass more ships.

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We are building a new lock which is bigger than the existing ones

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so that we can put in bigger ships

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and that way be able to pass more tonnage and more cargo

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to different ports around the world.

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The existing gates open like a door.

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The new locks are going to have a rolling gate.

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Exactly the same system as a sliding door.

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Instead of using locomotives, we're going to use tugs

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to keep the ships in place

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so that we can go from one lock to another.

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The whole process is complex and it takes a long time

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because there are lots of details.

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One of the first things to do is find out if you have adequate water

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to be able to supply your expansion.

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Then you have to make a design of these structures.

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You have to secure the financing.

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And then you have at the end all the testing of all the gates,

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the filling and emptying system.

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We've studied the impact it would have to add more transits

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to the quality of the water of Gatun Lake

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so that the water will not get salty,

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because the water is used for human consumption.

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If the ship is bigger, it goes deeper into the water.

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To be able to pass a bigger ship, we have to deepen the navigational channel

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on both the Atlantic and the Pacific.

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We have a lot of wildlife in the area around the canal.

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We have a lot of rescue plans for the animals that will be affected.

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We're going to build a very, very large project

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in a very small country.

0:23:290:23:31

We have to look very far ahead.

0:23:310:23:34

We're trying to have local labour benefit as much as possible.

0:23:340:23:38

We're doing all the training for carpenters, electricians,

0:23:380:23:42

drivers, equipment operators, so that we can supply that labour

0:23:420:23:47

and that will be of benefit to the Panamian people.

0:23:470:23:50

Once it is finished, it will have a huge impact in the shipping industry.

0:23:550:24:00

We'll be able to practically double the amount of cargo

0:24:000:24:04

that comes through the canal.

0:24:040:24:06

By being able to pass bigger ships, we should get the cost of goods to be cheaper

0:24:070:24:14

because a ship that pays an amount of money can pass more materials through the canal

0:24:140:24:21

than the existing ships.

0:24:210:24:23

So it will be felt all over the world.

0:24:230:24:25

The Millennium Bridge was the first pedestrian bridge to be built across the Thames in London for 100 years,

0:24:290:24:36

connecting the north bank at St Paul's Cathedral to the South Bank at the Tate Modern.

0:24:360:24:41

The original design concept of the bridge

0:24:420:24:45

was to take the simplest most elegant way of crossing the water. We wanted a straight line

0:24:450:24:51

from bank to bank.

0:24:510:24:53

We wanted to have the opportunity to look on both sides

0:24:530:24:58

without any structure in your way.

0:24:580:25:00

We wanted you hovering on a very thin deck.

0:25:000:25:03

We started by saying we'll make the bridge out of concrete

0:25:030:25:07

and pull steel cables through the concrete

0:25:070:25:10

and anchor them on each side.

0:25:100:25:12

Then we realised we didn't need the concrete.

0:25:120:25:15

We'd take the concrete out and just leave the steel cables.

0:25:150:25:19

We chose steel for the bridge for two reasons. First of all,

0:25:200:25:24

the cables have to be strong enough to resist the loads

0:25:240:25:28

of all the people who will stand on the bridge and the winds that'll blow the bridge.

0:25:280:25:33

The structure mustn't break. Second, it's a very stiff material.

0:25:330:25:37

When all the people stand on the bridge, we don't want it to bend like a ruler

0:25:370:25:42

and move a long way.

0:25:420:25:44

Steel is fantastic. It's very stiff.

0:25:440:25:46

The bridge opened on June 10 2000.

0:25:510:25:53

There was a sponsored walk that day. It was incredibly crowded.

0:25:530:25:57

When we got very large groups of people walking over,

0:25:570:26:01

there'd be sideways movements, maybe about 50 millimetres,

0:26:010:26:05

in either direction.

0:26:050:26:07

I was on the bridge when this happened, so I could feel this movement.

0:26:070:26:11

And it was a shock.

0:26:110:26:14

I was looking and watching how it was moving

0:26:150:26:20

and discussing it with the other engineers in the team.

0:26:200:26:23

What was happening was that the crowd were walking normally onto the bridge

0:26:230:26:27

and then adjusting their steps to be in time with that tiny movement

0:26:270:26:33

that they sensed beneath them.

0:26:330:26:35

The more they adjusted their steps to be in time with the bridge,

0:26:350:26:38

the more the bridge moved.

0:26:380:26:40

It was a feedback effect

0:26:400:26:41

and the movements gradually grew as a result.

0:26:410:26:45

We looked around very quickly

0:26:470:26:50

to see if we could find any information about it, and we could.

0:26:500:26:54

We found two or three papers which mentioned the effect

0:26:540:26:57

but they didn't quantify it.

0:26:570:27:00

We could nowhere where they'd measured the force

0:27:000:27:03

and decided how, specifically,

0:27:030:27:07

to design against it.

0:27:070:27:09

So we decided to carry out our own tests.

0:27:090:27:11

The best way to replicate what happened on the bridge

0:27:110:27:15

was to do exactly the same thing again

0:27:150:27:18

and then measure the way the bridge moved as they crossed it.

0:27:180:27:21

Once we had this, we could go about designing a solution

0:27:250:27:29

to stop the movements.

0:27:290:27:31

We came up with a damping solution.

0:27:310:27:33

Dampers are like the shock absorber on your car.

0:27:330:27:36

They're a cylinder of oil basically

0:27:360:27:38

which is very thick and there's a piston

0:27:380:27:42

which pushes through that fluid, like pulling a teaspoon through honey.

0:27:420:27:48

What happens is that the damper is fixed to the bridge

0:27:480:27:52

so that when the bridge moves, tiny movements of less than a millimetre,

0:27:520:27:56

as pedestrians walk over it,

0:27:560:27:58

the energy from the pedestrians is absorbed in those dampers.

0:27:580:28:02

We've installed the dampers right up underneath the deck

0:28:060:28:09

so you can't really see them from the side.

0:28:090:28:12

The Millennium Bridge behaved exactly as predicted

0:28:140:28:17

for all of the forces that we predicted.

0:28:170:28:20

We didn't predict, because we didn't know about,

0:28:200:28:24

this particular sideways effect, the feedback effect.

0:28:240:28:27

What we wanted to do when we finished

0:28:270:28:30

was make sure that everybody else could learn

0:28:300:28:32

from all the research we've done.

0:28:320:28:35

It has changed the way that bridges are designed all over the world.

0:28:350:28:40

I'm proud to have been part of the team that worked on this bridge.

0:28:400:28:44

It's a privilege to be able to take something

0:28:440:28:47

right from the beginning, from the very early concepts,

0:28:470:28:50

through the design and the analysis, through drawing it,

0:28:500:28:54

working out every single piece, making prototypes and doing tests,

0:28:540:28:58

right to the end when it's finished.

0:28:580:29:00

When we look at the sketches that we came up with back in 1996

0:29:000:29:04

they look very similar to what's over the river now. I loved it.

0:29:040:29:07

It's been very exhausting, very stressful

0:29:070:29:10

but I'm really proud of the result.

0:29:100:29:13

It's getting harder and harder to get from A to B.

0:29:200:29:23

The pace of life is getting faster and faster

0:29:230:29:26

and people are demanding to get to places quicker and quicker,

0:29:260:29:30

clogging up our transport networks.

0:29:300:29:32

Something needs to be done, and it needs to be done fast.

0:29:320:29:36

The congestion problem arises because we're short of capacity.

0:29:390:29:43

There isn't enough room on the transport networks.

0:29:430:29:46

The answer to that is to build new high-speed railway lines.

0:29:460:29:51

Our fastest trains travel at 200km an hour, pretty good.

0:29:510:29:56

High-speed trains travel at 300km an hour or even faster than that.

0:29:560:30:02

Fast, efficient, one city to another, non-stop,

0:30:020:30:06

no messing around, very reliable and very quick.

0:30:060:30:09

The great advantage is you're starting again.

0:30:140:30:18

We can have much longer, bigger trains

0:30:180:30:21

as well as faster and more energy efficient.

0:30:210:30:24

So we can design the whole thing with today's objectives in mind.

0:30:240:30:29

The thing about speed is,

0:30:290:30:31

it means more people will use it.

0:30:310:30:34

We need to persuade people who say, "I'll take the car, the easy option." No.

0:30:340:30:40

Electric high-speed rail is a much better option in terms of carbon and global warming.

0:30:400:30:46

If we look around the world, the French started back in 1982.

0:30:490:30:54

In Japan we have the bullet train.

0:30:550:30:57

In China, we have a system that does away with the track and wheels.

0:30:580:31:02

The train actually floats above the trackway. It's new technology

0:31:020:31:07

and it's expensive!

0:31:070:31:09

We've tried very hard in this country to make the best use of what we've got.

0:31:110:31:16

We've taken our existing railway lines and made trains tilt

0:31:160:31:20

to take bends faster. That's been our approach rather than building a new line.

0:31:200:31:26

We've got High Speed 1.

0:31:280:31:30

One fast line from this station, St Pancras,

0:31:300:31:33

Eurostar services to the Channel Tunnel and nothing else.

0:31:330:31:36

High Speed 1 is considered to be the project of the century in the UK.

0:31:380:31:44

We think about the railway connecting point A to point B.

0:31:460:31:49

But what really matters is what the railway does in-between.

0:31:490:31:53

It connects communities and cities.

0:31:530:31:55

The real engineering challenges

0:31:550:31:58

were the fact that 25% of the route was in tunnels - big tunnels.

0:31:580:32:02

And we had to construct 150 bridges.

0:32:020:32:07

One of the 150 was the largest spanning high-speed railway bridge in the world.

0:32:070:32:12

When we had to go under the QE2 bridge,

0:32:120:32:15

the technique we used was called "push launch".

0:32:150:32:19

You construct the bridge in segments

0:32:190:32:22

and you push the segments out

0:32:220:32:25

across into the end positions.

0:32:250:32:28

We used the technique to be able to push our bridge

0:32:280:32:33

over one motorway

0:32:330:32:34

and then under the bridge

0:32:340:32:36

without having to stop the traffic or cause any disruption.

0:32:360:32:40

Extremely efficient, very safe,

0:32:400:32:43

and very, very high quality.

0:32:430:32:46

That was quite a remarkable piece of construction.

0:32:460:32:50

The tunnelling was incredibly exciting and challenging.

0:32:500:32:55

We were forming the largest tunnels ever formed under London.

0:32:550:32:59

These were 8.1 metres in diameter

0:32:590:33:01

and we formed 40km of these tunnels.

0:33:010:33:04

We used state-of-the-art tunnel boring machines

0:33:040:33:08

and these machines are absolutely fantastic pieces of technology.

0:33:080:33:13

The tunnelling takes place 24 hours a day

0:33:130:33:18

and is a process of supreme logistics

0:33:180:33:23

in terms of being able to get the men and materials to the front

0:33:230:33:26

and to get the spoil, the soil, away from you.

0:33:260:33:30

We do need a long-term plan.

0:33:340:33:36

It would be silly to do this piece-meal without thinking ahead.

0:33:360:33:40

This is something that's gonna last not ten, 20 years,

0:33:400:33:44

50 years, 100 years and so forth.

0:33:440:33:47

In my view, we need to think about building

0:33:470:33:50

at least one north/south high-speed line, almost certainly two.

0:33:500:33:55

And we do need to link them in to what we've got.

0:33:550:33:58

That's the carbon-friendly way

0:33:580:34:01

of thinking about European travel in future.

0:34:010:34:04

For almost 2,000 years,

0:34:090:34:11

the City of London has stood on the banks of the River Thames.

0:34:110:34:14

But the relationship between London and its river has not always been an easy one.

0:34:140:34:19

In 1953, 300 people died when a tidal surge caused the Thames and east coast to flood.

0:34:190:34:26

Almost 30 years later, the Thames barrier was eventually completed.

0:34:260:34:30

Built to protect London,

0:34:300:34:32

it keeps the water out in times of storms and high tides.

0:34:320:34:35

Our climate is changing. Sea levels are rising.

0:34:360:34:39

So how long will the Thames Barrier keep London safe

0:34:390:34:43

and what are the alternatives?

0:34:430:34:45

We have an expanding population and those people need somewhere to live. In the Thames Estuary,

0:34:450:34:51

there's a target of between 140 to 200,000 homes.

0:34:510:34:54

Most of those need to be built on brown-field sites

0:34:540:34:57

and much of those are in the flood plain.

0:34:570:35:00

Previously, the approach is to hold back water.

0:35:010:35:05

The difficulty with that is that as over time our sea levels rise

0:35:050:35:09

how high do we continue to build?

0:35:090:35:12

Through climate change, there's an increased risk to the homes from flooding.

0:35:120:35:17

As designers we try to look at that holistically,

0:35:170:35:20

looking at the architecture, looking at water consumption

0:35:200:35:23

and looking at how to create beautiful places to live.

0:35:230:35:26

We've taken our influences from a number of sources.

0:35:260:35:30

For example, in the UK we have houses built on stilts

0:35:300:35:34

and in the Netherlands we have houses which are floating

0:35:340:35:37

and amphibious houses, a combination between a land-based house

0:35:370:35:41

and houses that float on water.

0:35:410:35:43

A really good example of floating amphibious houses is in the Netherlands in Maasbommel.

0:35:430:35:49

The reason this technology emerged in the Netherlands

0:35:530:35:56

is more than 60% is below sea level.

0:35:560:36:00

There's always the possibility that there will be a flood.

0:36:000:36:04

One of the major aspects is the floating construction.

0:36:050:36:08

The floating construction consists of concrete pontoons

0:36:080:36:13

which give buoyancy to the construction

0:36:130:36:15

which was in fact used as the basement for the dwelling.

0:36:150:36:21

In normal times, in dry times, they rest on dry land.

0:36:220:36:25

So on the outside, you can't see it's a floating construction.

0:36:250:36:31

But it starts to float as soon as water enters the area.

0:36:310:36:36

From the outside, it's a very normal building.

0:36:360:36:39

To prevent the whole structure from drifting away when there's a flood,

0:36:390:36:45

we placed two big piles in the middle of the construction.

0:36:450:36:51

In a floating home, or amphibious home, everything is moving.

0:36:510:36:57

When a flood wave comes into the area,

0:36:570:36:59

the whole dwelling starts to float.

0:36:590:37:02

So the utilities, the piping system, should be flexible.

0:37:020:37:06

Also the walkway needs to be flexible.

0:37:060:37:09

One of the major challenges is that when there's a major flood in that area,

0:37:090:37:14

people are isolated

0:37:140:37:16

for up to perhaps two weeks.

0:37:160:37:19

We're looking at a number of things simultaneously.

0:37:230:37:26

First, we're looking to make space and room for the river.

0:37:260:37:30

One of the underlying facts in the design that we do is continuity of daily life.

0:37:300:37:36

We want people to be able to go to school, to work, every day.

0:37:360:37:40

All the things a community needs plus the houses.

0:37:400:37:42

We try to locate those out of the flood plain.

0:37:420:37:45

In a small flood, the water is channelled into the canal paths

0:37:450:37:49

which are located above the village green.

0:37:490:37:51

This is much like a traditional village green

0:37:510:37:55

used for recreation or sports.

0:37:550:37:57

But in this scenario, it has an added benefit.

0:37:570:38:00

As the river expands, the village green becomes the village blue!

0:38:000:38:04

In a large event the river can expand right up to the houses

0:38:040:38:08

and into the gardens.

0:38:080:38:09

The houses are elevated sufficiently high enough

0:38:090:38:13

so that water does not come in to the homes.

0:38:130:38:16

What is clear

0:38:160:38:17

is climate change is with us.

0:38:170:38:19

We need to change the way in which we design and the way in which we live.

0:38:190:38:24

If we don't, flood events like those in Boscastle, Tewkesbury

0:38:240:38:27

and more recently in New Orleans

0:38:270:38:30

will be more prolific and will affect our everyday lives.

0:38:300:38:33

The idea was to try and develop a system that would make the collection of water

0:38:570:39:02

a lot easier and a bit more fun

0:39:020:39:05

because collecting water from a river or dam is hard work.

0:39:050:39:08

We wanted to put something light into it

0:39:080:39:12

and we came up with the idea of a play pump, a roundabout.

0:39:120:39:15

This is our play pump system.

0:39:180:39:20

It's a children's merry-go-round

0:39:200:39:22

and as the children spin on this thing,

0:39:220:39:24

it pumps water from a bore hole it's bolted on top of, right here.

0:39:240:39:29

This goes round and round, the pump goes up and down.

0:39:290:39:31

The water's been tested. It's safe for human consumption, to World Health standards.

0:39:310:39:37

It works both directions.

0:39:370:39:39

No matter which way the kids spin, it still pumps water through pipes

0:39:390:39:43

into this pipe here

0:39:430:39:45

and pumps into the top of this 2,500 litre storage tank.

0:39:450:39:49

This pipe is on the top of the tank. This is the overflow.

0:39:490:39:52

So if the kids fill the tank,

0:39:520:39:55

it overflows down this pipe and back into the bore hole.

0:39:550:39:58

Then this is the outlet from the bottom of the tank

0:39:580:40:01

that goes over to this tap-stand here.

0:40:010:40:04

The tap-stand is very simple. Nice and sturdy

0:40:040:40:07

so it doesn't get damaged by cattle or over-enthusiastic children.

0:40:070:40:11

It has a very simple tap

0:40:110:40:13

and the water's stored in this, so as you turn the tap on,

0:40:130:40:16

there's plenty of water.

0:40:160:40:18

Africa doesn't need high-tech. It needs low-tech. That's what we need.

0:40:250:40:29

Computers they break down and make good seats.

0:40:290:40:32

There's nobody to fix anything.

0:40:320:40:34

We keep it as simple as possible. It's only got two moving parts.

0:40:340:40:38

With keeping it that simple, the reliability of it is increased dramatically.

0:40:380:40:44

The immediate impact is that the kids attend school.

0:40:480:40:51

Especially the girls.

0:40:510:40:52

The task of water collection is usually forced to women and girls.

0:40:520:40:57

Not just in Africa, but in every rural country.

0:40:570:40:59

They have a disproportionate disadvantage because of their gender.

0:40:590:41:03

They're expected to collect water.

0:41:030:41:06

Boys like to play on the pump.

0:41:070:41:09

They never got involved in water collection before.

0:41:090:41:12

The boys like so spin faster and get people to fall off

0:41:120:41:16

and indirectly we're changing the gender responsibility from boys to girls.

0:41:160:41:20

We try and install the play pumps at primary schools,

0:41:290:41:33

combined schools, creches, anywhere where there's a lot of children

0:41:330:41:37

that congregate and are in the right age group - six to 14 years is perfect for us.

0:41:370:41:43

We try to avoid putting them into communities.

0:41:430:41:45

Mainly because it's unknown as to how many kids are around.

0:41:450:41:50

So we prefer to put them in schools.

0:41:500:41:52

I just want to show you the water supply to this creche

0:41:560:42:01

and the school and the church and the community had

0:42:010:42:04

prior to us putting in the play pump.

0:42:040:42:06

It's an open well.

0:42:080:42:11

The access to water is using a rope

0:42:110:42:15

and a bucket.

0:42:150:42:17

By throwing it down like that into the water.

0:42:180:42:21

The problem with this is this area's called Winterveld

0:42:210:42:27

and the water table is very shallow.

0:42:270:42:31

The problem with shallow water tables

0:42:310:42:34

is that the water is always very polluted from all sorts of things.

0:42:340:42:39

People throwing dirty water out under the surface

0:42:390:42:42

but mainly from these pit latrines which are only in 1.5 metres.

0:42:420:42:45

One there, two behind this building. A couple more here.

0:42:450:42:49

What happens is that the waste, the liquid and solid waste, human waste

0:42:490:42:54

leeches into the surface water and it's in here.

0:42:540:42:57

The kids used to get really sick. Diarrhoea and vomiting, all sorts,

0:42:580:43:02

before we put the play pump in. School attendance has increased dramatically.

0:43:020:43:06

For me, that's a great success.

0:43:060:43:10

Two of the billboards are commercial.

0:43:130:43:16

The funds we get for the adverts pay for the maintenance of the system.

0:43:160:43:20

The other two boards we put public service announcements.

0:43:200:43:26

At present we're in Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zambia.

0:43:260:43:29

We're about to enter into Malawi

0:43:290:43:32

and then we've got another five countries to go to.

0:43:320:43:35

The need in those countries is far, far greater

0:43:350:43:39

than it is in South Africa.

0:43:390:43:41

The play pump is an African solution to an African problem.

0:43:410:43:45

That's what it is.

0:43:450:43:48

The Western Harbour in Malmo, Sweden,

0:43:590:44:01

is home to two landmark housing developments: Bo01 and Bo02.

0:44:010:44:07

With a focus on energy efficiency, sustainability and cutting-edge design,

0:44:070:44:12

Western Harbour could be the City of Tomorrow.

0:44:120:44:15

Bo01 area started out as a demonstration area

0:44:170:44:21

where we wanted to show the best example of a sustainable city possible.

0:44:210:44:28

And we received a lot of government money

0:44:280:44:32

to make this possible.

0:44:320:44:35

We tried to think, in the design team,

0:44:360:44:39

what places in Europe that people would visit

0:44:390:44:44

simply just to enjoy the city life, the urban spaces,

0:44:440:44:48

and we came to the conclusion that it was mostly medieval cities.

0:44:480:44:52

We have old villages in the UK,

0:44:520:44:56

places like Venice or Siena,

0:44:560:44:59

and what do they have in common?

0:44:590:45:01

Narrow streets, small houses,

0:45:010:45:05

and not knowing what's behind the corner.

0:45:050:45:09

The architects were asked to try to use strong colours,

0:45:110:45:16

different designs, to get a diversity.

0:45:160:45:20

If you get good designs, you love living here

0:45:200:45:24

and then you take care of it.

0:45:240:45:26

So in order to get long-living and long-lasting houses

0:45:260:45:31

you need really good architectural designs.

0:45:310:45:34

The most important contribution to sustainability

0:45:390:45:43

is the energy production system in the area

0:45:430:45:46

because it's 100% renewable energy locally produced.

0:45:460:45:52

So it's a zero carbon dioxide area

0:45:520:45:56

which makes it quite sensational.

0:45:560:45:59

There are parts of the Bo01 establishment that don't work

0:46:020:46:06

as well as we'd have wanted.

0:46:060:46:08

For instance, most of the houses are very expensive to buy.

0:46:080:46:12

So it's mostly high income people who can afford to live here.

0:46:120:46:17

When assessing the area, the energy usage is a lot higher than we expected it to be.

0:46:190:46:26

The computer scenario predicting the energy usage was unrealistic.

0:46:260:46:33

And the buildings weren't very thoroughly built

0:46:330:46:38

so there were leakages in the facades.

0:46:380:46:41

Bo02 was the next phase after the Bo01 project.

0:46:460:46:51

Here, we were supposed to build affordable housing

0:46:510:46:55

with high sustainability.

0:46:550:46:57

The difference in the process was that we formed a very close collaboration group

0:46:590:47:06

with all the developers involved

0:47:060:47:09

from the very start so they took part in making the local plan

0:47:090:47:15

and all the different features for sustainability were discussed

0:47:150:47:20

and decided together with the developers.

0:47:200:47:24

We did learn some lessons from the Bo01 area.

0:47:260:47:31

For instance, we worked more with the social sustainability

0:47:310:47:35

so we have playgrounds and meeting places.

0:47:350:47:39

All the buildings here are being thermal photographed

0:47:420:47:46

and also we test their airtightness

0:47:460:47:49

when the construction work is finished

0:47:490:47:52

in order to make the buildings more energy efficient.

0:47:520:47:56

We didn't get any government money

0:47:570:48:00

to obtain the sustainability in the Bo02 area.

0:48:000:48:06

Here, everything is done on market conditions

0:48:060:48:10

and whatever has been done here can be achieved anywhere else in Sweden.

0:48:100:48:14

We don't need any extra money from anywhere to do it.

0:48:140:48:18

There are plans to use the knowledge from the Western Harbour

0:48:200:48:25

in other projects in Malmo and elsewhere in Sweden.

0:48:250:48:29

It is a full-scale laboratory for sustainability.

0:48:290:48:33

Of course the knowledge should be used elsewhere.

0:48:330:48:36

I run a small team of multi-skilled researchers.

0:48:480:48:51

We have psychologists, 3-D modellers, games designers.

0:48:510:48:55

What we do is exploit the mainstream software

0:48:550:48:58

that comes with games from the high street

0:48:580:49:01

and add our own content to deliver serious training and education

0:49:010:49:06

for defence, surgery and a variety of other applications.

0:49:060:49:09

We share a lot of our technology with the outside world

0:49:120:49:15

so we spin into the military from civilian games

0:49:150:49:18

and we spin out to serious games in the civilian sector.

0:49:180:49:22

For example, we exploit a lot of the mainstream games software

0:49:220:49:26

that power a game like Half-Life 2, Far Cry 2, and what have you.

0:49:260:49:29

But when we do work for the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine,

0:49:290:49:33

we can spin that out into the National Health Service surgical training programmes.

0:49:330:49:38

We've designed games to train the Royal Navy Dillon Minigun, a powerful Gatling gun,

0:49:400:49:44

individuals who may be suffering post-traumatic stress,

0:49:440:49:48

right down to allowing school children to fly a small submersible

0:49:480:49:52

around wrecks off the south-west coast of the UK.

0:49:520:49:55

The starting point for developing a serious game is to get the end-user involved.

0:49:560:50:01

It's key for us to involve the end-user at all stages of the design.

0:50:010:50:05

Otherwise, we could go away for months and come back with something useless.

0:50:050:50:09

OK, guys, a quick introduction to Subsafe.

0:50:090:50:13

'We spend time in the field, working with them, seeing what their training task needs.'

0:50:130:50:19

Then we do a storyboard and convert that information into something we can program into the game's engines.

0:50:190:50:25

I'll hand over to Chief McGowan now who'll set you a few tasks

0:50:250:50:29

just for you to try the simulation software out.

0:50:290:50:32

We talked about the HPS system this morning and servicing the submarines...

0:50:320:50:37

Once we've done the initial work with the end-user, we sit down and construct the virtual world.

0:50:370:50:43

Virtual objects and scenarios themselves.

0:50:430:50:45

Then as we build the objects, we convert them into a form

0:50:450:50:49

that's acceptable by the games engines - the powerful software that runs these things.

0:50:490:50:54

It allows you to interface using a X-box controller, mouse or joystick.

0:50:540:50:58

Once we've designed the game, we go back to the end user

0:51:000:51:03

and carry out evaluation trials with them to make sure what we've delivered is fit for purpose.

0:51:030:51:08

I'd like you to locate the emergency blow valve.

0:51:080:51:11

The Subsafe project came about as a result of a concern within the Royal Navy

0:51:110:51:17

for the training of future submariners.

0:51:170:51:19

We needed a software program

0:51:190:51:22

that would allow the students to practise finding the valves as they would on board.

0:51:220:51:26

It has to be as close to the real thing as possible.

0:51:260:51:31

Welcome to HMS Trafalgar, UK SSN.

0:51:320:51:36

We're currently based in Devonport in Plymouth.

0:51:360:51:38

First thing to learn is hatches and how to escape from the submarine.

0:51:460:51:50

Second thing to learn about is where the fire-fighting equipment is.

0:51:500:51:55

This is an escape scuttle. There's lots on board.

0:52:000:52:03

The evaluation part of serious games design is crucial.

0:52:040:52:08

Even if it's unsuccessful, that is a result for us so we don't waste any more money.

0:52:080:52:13

If the evaluation is successful,

0:52:130:52:15

we have to look outside of the university,

0:52:150:52:18

outside the defence community for companies who will take the prototype we've developed

0:52:180:52:24

and convert it into a real product.

0:52:240:52:26

We have to educate the games company

0:52:260:52:29

not to program things into their game because they can.

0:52:290:52:32

Everything that goes into a serious game must have some significance

0:52:320:52:36

to the training of the end-users.

0:52:360:52:38

If they start putting in wild-type special effects,

0:52:380:52:41

you'll distract the end-user and the training content won't be uptaken.

0:52:410:52:45

We're in the forward escape at the front of the sub.

0:52:470:52:49

Here we have the main vents.

0:52:490:52:51

As you open the main vent, the air comes out the top,

0:52:510:52:54

water comes in the bottom and you dive the submarine.

0:52:540:52:57

I've been working in the virtual environments arena for over 25 years, now.

0:52:580:53:03

It's great to look back 12 years ago when the things my team were doing

0:53:030:53:07

would have cost at least £250,000 for a graphic super-computer.

0:53:070:53:11

Today, we're doing things on laptops that cost £400.

0:53:110:53:14

The software is available free

0:53:140:53:16

and it's very accessible to the end-users as well.

0:53:160:53:19

It's been an absolute revolution

0:53:190:53:21

in delivering serious games to those who can benefit most.

0:53:210:53:25

Our projects in the main have been commercial projects.

0:53:380:53:42

Hotels, offices, universities.

0:53:420:53:45

This is our first school.

0:53:450:53:47

Hazelwood School is for children from two to 19.

0:53:480:53:52

All the children at this school have a sensory impairment.

0:53:520:53:55

Some are blind, some are partially sighted.

0:53:550:53:59

Some of our children have a hearing impairment as well.

0:53:590:54:02

Before Hazelwood started, the children who now attend here

0:54:040:54:07

were at two other schools in Glasgow.

0:54:070:54:11

Both of the buildings were very old

0:54:110:54:13

and in a state of disrepair.

0:54:130:54:16

In one school, some of the rooms were upstairs which made it very difficult

0:54:160:54:21

for our young people with physical difficulties to access areas of the school.

0:54:210:54:26

THEY SING

0:54:260:54:29

That was really good. Well done!

0:54:330:54:36

I worked with the architects looking at the needs firstly

0:54:360:54:39

of the children.

0:54:390:54:41

So the architects visited both schools.

0:54:410:54:44

They looked at how children and young people used the building.

0:54:440:54:49

They looked at the needs of staff.

0:54:490:54:51

They looked at our storage needs.

0:54:510:54:53

And then we sat down together.

0:54:530:54:56

We talked to a lot of other people. It was very much a group consultation.

0:54:560:55:01

And we came up with the design of Hazelwood.

0:55:010:55:05

There were a number of people involved. Clinicians and charities

0:55:060:55:10

that didn't always have similar kinds of needs

0:55:100:55:13

and had different attitudes about how you should design

0:55:130:55:16

an environment such as this for children who are blind or deaf.

0:55:160:55:20

We had to separate various sometimes contradictory opinions

0:55:200:55:24

and take on board what was absolutely relevant.

0:55:240:55:26

We had to stop at a particular time or we'd never have got the school designed.

0:55:260:55:31

The brief is crucial in actually trying to understand

0:55:340:55:37

what the clients' requirements are and crucial in producing a good design.

0:55:370:55:41

All good architecture starts with a good brief.

0:55:410:55:45

The children need an environment that's accessible.

0:55:450:55:48

We need an area where they find their way around the building easily.

0:55:480:55:52

We decided after having done a series of exercises about the size of the building and its width

0:55:530:55:59

that the best way to minimise the impact and be sensitive to the site and the needs of the children

0:55:590:56:04

was to make a building which sat very low into the site.

0:56:040:56:08

Quite a few of the children are disabled

0:56:090:56:11

and there should be accessibility to all parts of the school.

0:56:110:56:15

The materials we chose because they have a tactile quality.

0:56:180:56:22

They're nice to touch and the children can use them as an aid to find their way around.

0:56:220:56:27

Some feel warm against their skin, some feel more cool.

0:56:280:56:32

Even to the extent of using wood so there's a smell given off.

0:56:320:56:37

The classrooms are all north-facing because we wanted to increase the ambient light coming in.

0:56:390:56:45

For some of the children, direct sunlight is a problem.

0:56:450:56:48

One of the things we did is go to a school in south Glasgow.

0:56:490:56:53

We put on sight inhibitors which only gave us 5% sight.

0:56:530:56:58

We tried to find our way round that school environment.

0:56:580:57:02

We found out because of that process that colour can be really important.

0:57:020:57:07

Colour used as a strong element against what is a neutral background

0:57:080:57:13

could enable children with five or ten per cent sight

0:57:130:57:16

to recognise that wall within its surroundings

0:57:160:57:19

and use it as a visual clue.

0:57:190:57:21

They have many more opportunities in terms of the curriculum.

0:57:230:57:27

We have spaces for art, spaces for cooking,

0:57:270:57:30

a hydrotherapy pool.

0:57:300:57:32

Because the building is very easy to navigate around,

0:57:350:57:39

the pupils are much more independent.

0:57:390:57:41

Their mobility skills are much improved.

0:57:410:57:44

That, for me, is the success of the building.

0:57:440:57:47

They find it an interesting place to be and a comfortable place to be.

0:57:470:57:52

They're not alienated by it. It's not institutional.

0:57:520:57:55

I think this building has a very warm and welcoming ethos.

0:57:570:58:02

I think that's partly due to the design. The minute you enter the building,

0:58:020:58:06

you are aware of the fact there are children in this building,

0:58:060:58:10

that it's a school and you're immediately welcomed and drawn to the building.

0:58:100:58:15

Subtitles by Red Bee Media - 2009

0:58:400:58:44

An insight into the world of design through 12 stories, shot across a range of countries, ranging from product design to world class feats of engineering and design projects which have a social impact.


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