16/06/2011 GMT with George Alagiah


16/06/2011

George Alagiah presents international news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. Plus up-to-the-minute global business news.


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A new leader for Al-Qaeda vows to continue the war on America and its

:00:10.:00:19.

time lieutenant to Osama Bin Laden, is officially taking over the

:00:19.:00:29.
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Welcome to GMT. I'm Naga Munchetty. Also in the programme:

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Fighting the financial crisis in Greece - the outcome could

:00:35.:00:43.

determine the future of the European single currency.

:00:43.:00:49.

TRANSLATION: It is everyone's duty to do everything needed to

:00:49.:00:55.

safeguard the stability of the euro. The weird and wonderful world of

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animation - a new London exhibit looks back at 150 years of the art.

:01:03.:01:06.

It's 12:30pm here in London, 2:30pm in Athens and a time of change for

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Al-Qaeda. Ayman Al-Zawahiri, a long time associate of Osama Bin Laden

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and sometimes described as "the real brains of Al-Qaeda", has taken

:01:19.:01:23.

over the reigns of the organisation. The announcement was posted on an

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Islamist website accompanied by a promise to continue what Al-Qaeda

:01:25.:01:28.

calls "the holy war" against the United States, Israel and their

:01:28.:01:38.
:01:38.:01:39.

allies. Peter Biles reports. It had been widely anticipated that

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Ayman Al-Zawahiri would replace Osama Bin Laden as the head of boss

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-- of Al-Qaeda. He had long been Bin Laden's right hand man and the

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person thought to be the brains behind the 9/11 attacks in the

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United States nearly a decade ago. The only surprise about the

:01:57.:02:01.

succession is perhaps how long it has taken since the killing of Bin

:02:01.:02:09.

Laden in early May. Since 96, they were very close to each other. I

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believe it is a natural move and expected from Al-Qaeda. They needed

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time to establish Al-Zawahiri as the leader and sort out differences

:02:20.:02:26.

within the group. This is what we expected Al-Qaeda to do.

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Ayman Al-Zawahiri was born in 1951 to a wealthy family in Cairo. He

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studied medicine and in 1978, received a master's degree in

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surgery. A year later, he set up the Egyptian Jihad, which was

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subsequently involved in the assassination of Anwar Sadat. He

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made his way to Afghanistan in 1980, when he met Osama Bin Laden.

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Under new leadership, Al-Qaeda has warned it will continue its fight.

:02:56.:03:00.

The organisation has been on the defensive since the Arab uprising

:03:00.:03:05.

of recent months. But Ayman Al- Zawahiri remains as hostile to the

:03:06.:03:09.

West as his predecessor, Osama Bin Laden.

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Let's get some more on this new Al- Qaeda leader. We're joined by our

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security correspondent, Frank Gardner.

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What makes him different, what does he bring to Al-Qaeda? In many ways,

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no big change. He has been more or less operationally in charge of Al-

:03:27.:03:31.

Qaeda for the last eight years. We have seen him in the videos most of

:03:31.:03:35.

the time, his most recent one was only a week ago, in which he was

:03:35.:03:40.

setting himself up as the leader. Bin Laden has really been in hiding,

:03:40.:03:44.

far less in evidence. His background is that of Egyptian

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Islamic Jihad. He has got very good connections with Egyptian Islamists,

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many of whom have been released since the Arab uprising. It is the

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challenge is that a lot of people will focus on, that he faces. It is

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a very disparate organisation under a lot of pressure. They have lost

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Osama Bin Laden, Kashmiri, Abdul Muhammad, three major leaders from

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the Al-Qaeda et diaspora in the last few weeks. It may be that this

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man may not even last this long, because the intelligence is now

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getting so good at tracking people down. There will be enormous

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pressure on the Pentagon and CIA to find him. At the same time, Al-

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Qaeda is under pressure to demonstrate its power. One of the

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problems this man faces is trying to exert some kind of authority

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over the various branches. You have them in Yemen, doing their own

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thing. You have them in North Africa, involved in kidnapping and

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hostage demands was that you have Al-Qaeda and affiliates in other

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parts. What will be the relationship in Afghanistan? If

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there is going to be a peace deal between the Afghan government and

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Taliban, will that involve getting rid of Al-Qaeda and not allowing

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them to come aboard? He has a lot Top as a character, Osama Bin Laden

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had carried to, does he bring this? I don't think you could accuse of -

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- Al-Zawahiri of having a lot of character, he is very dry and

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dictatorial. I have not met him, this is what people have said. He

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is not somebody who has that X Factor, that magic touch... I know

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he is anathema to most people but those who admired Osama Bin Laden

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said he had, weirdly, a personal gentleness. He invited the media to

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interview him 15 years ago, lots of people did. BBC were invited but we

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left it a bit late. Lots of other networks interviewed him with

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impunity. His message, although it was of great violence and hostility

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and confrontation and destruction, nevertheless, on a personal basis,

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people found him quite engage in -- engaging. They have not said that

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about Al-Zawahiri. He spent time in London, a man Al-Zawahiri. He was

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involved in the SAT assassination - - Ayman Al-Zawahiri. His mind set

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He has all the fire and zealotry of a young revolutionary and

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reactionary, but he is not that popular, with some of the Gulf

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operatives, who may find it tricky paying allegiance to an Egyptian,

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where they found it eg to -- easy to pay allegiance to a Saudi, in

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Bin Laden. While one militant leader is

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promoted, another has been jailed. The Indonesian radical Muslim

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cleric, Abu Bakar Bashir, has been given a 15-year sentence for

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helping to organise an Islamic militant group. A court in the

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capital, Jakarta, found him guilty of providing thousands of dollars

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to a militant training camp, uncovered last year in Aceh

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province. Our correspondent, Karishma Vaswani, reports from

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Jakarta. The verdict in the Abu Bakar Bashir

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trial has been delivered. Police came out in full force today, as

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you can see. They are getting ready to leave the court house, where the

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verdict was delivered. In the lead- up to the announcement, there were

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a number of concerns about security in Jakarta. There were text

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messages and Twitter messages circulating, saying there would be

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violent repercussions if Abu Bakar Bashir received a harsh or severe

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sentence. He got 15 years in jail, prosecutors had demanded a life

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sentence. His lawyers have said they will contest this verdict how

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much are an effect this decision will have on Indonesia's ability to

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fight terror is still debatable. People we have spoken to have said

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Mr Bashir will continue to be active, even if he is behind bars.

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He is believed to be the spiritual influence behind radical Islamic

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groups in the country, and it is likely he will continue to preach

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his message, turning Indonesia into an Islamic state even while he is

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in prison. Let's take a look at some of the

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other stories making headlines around the world today.

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The Greek prime minister, George Papandreou, is preparing to

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announce a new cabinet and seek a vote of confidence to allow him to

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continue in office. Mr Papandreou needs support for his austerity

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programme to stop the country defaulting on its debts, but he's

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facing a revolt among some of his own PASOK party, and police had

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running battles with protesters in Athens. From there, Malcolm Brabant

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reports. There's little doubt that people

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power contributed to the sudden collapse of George Papandreou's

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administration. It wasn't the rioters who were involved in some

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of the worst violence seen in Greece in over a year, but the

:09:08.:09:11.

indignant movement, which represented such a cross section of

:09:11.:09:15.

the country's society. Its daily peaceful protests touched the

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consciousness of socialists Members of Parliament, who could not

:09:19.:09:23.

stomach the members -- the prospect of passing you swingeing austerity

:09:23.:09:28.

measures. A few of them gathered outside Parliament, as Mr

:09:28.:09:33.

Papandreou prepared to select a new cabinet. TRANSLATION: The issue

:09:33.:09:37.

isn't if one or another ends up minister, the issue is that we

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finally see a substantial way to deal with these problems.

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TRANSLATION: I would like elections, there is no other solution. Pantry

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you cannot do what he wants, he does not have the right to do as he

:09:50.:09:56.

wishes -- Papandreou cannot do what he wants. It has alarmed partners

:09:56.:10:00.

in the eurozone and President Sarkozy was one of the first

:10:00.:10:05.

leaders to call for stability. TRANSLATION: What we need most

:10:05.:10:10.

today is unity. We need to move on from these national quarrels and

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get back to the sense of our common destiny. I call on everyone to show

:10:16.:10:20.

the spirit of responsibility, and sense of compromise on which Europe

:10:20.:10:24.

has been built. The international financial markets

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were contemplating a second bobbly day in succession, with some

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analysts warning of the danger of the Greek disease infecting other

:10:33.:10:37.

imperilled European economies. One of Greece's most respected

:10:37.:10:43.

broadsheet newspapers, lambasted as a political farce Mr Papandreou's

:10:43.:10:49.

failed attempt to form a government of unity. A leading comp --

:10:49.:10:59.
:10:59.:11:04.

To add to Mr Papandreou's embarrassment, a leading

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backbencher has resigned from the party. This will not affect his

:11:08.:11:12.

majority in parliament because the Socialists will hang on to the seat,

:11:12.:11:17.

but it indicates that Mr Papac Deri will have a difficult task trying

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to win a vote of confidence on Sunday -- Mr Papandreou will have a

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difficult task. Joining us via webcam from the

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Greek capital is Constantine Michalos, the Chairman of the

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Athens Chamber of Commerce. Thank you for joining me. We were

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hearing from our reporter the Prime Minister's position is tenuous, to

:11:37.:11:42.

say the least. A vote of confidence on Sunday isn't guaranteed. What do

:11:42.:11:48.

you think? Absolutely. To add to the report but we have just heard,

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there has been another three resignations in the last hour and a

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half from the governing party MPs. They have called for the

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parliamentary group of the governing party to meet later today,

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4:00pm Greek time. I think, at the end of the day, there will be a

:12:09.:12:14.

ballot, which will be set, so a new leader will be elected. It is

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extremely difficult, that there will be a vote of confidence with

:12:20.:12:24.

the present Prime Minister on Sunday. I have to agree with your

:12:24.:12:29.

reporter, it was criminal management, what happened yesterday.

:12:29.:12:31.

Because this comes at a very difficult time for the Greek

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economy, the Great Society. What is required is responsibility and

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seriousness. Unfortunately, for the last two-and-a-half months, we have

:12:41.:12:46.

been missing both. While this turmoil continues, do you envisage

:12:46.:12:50.

any agreement between the political parties, even if a new leadership

:12:50.:12:55.

is established? We have always advocated that consensus is the key

:12:55.:13:00.

word, in order to combat this situation that the Greek economy

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finds itself in. Yesterday, we saw an extremely erroneous management

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by the Prime Minister, and I think that what must happen in the next

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few days is that the serious political persons from both of the

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two large parties increased must find a way to move towards

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consensus, to have a coalition government, so that early next week,

:13:34.:13:39.

there will be a representation in Brussels, so that they can

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rearrange, or reallocate the austerity programme that has been

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dictated by the IMF and the European partners. We are seeing

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pictures of protests on Wednesday, do you think the protesters will be

:13:56.:14:01.

appeased by some political stability? I think everyone wants

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political stability. The people that are out on the streets, the

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so-called indignant movement, that has been demonstrating for the last

:14:09.:14:16.

20 days. Also, the market forces in Greece. As I said, for the last

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two-and-a-half months, we haven't seen any reforms. There hasn't been

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any sort of governmental effort, in order to solve the problems. The

:14:27.:14:33.

only thing we are hearing of his measures, measures, measures, as

:14:33.:14:37.

far as taxation is concerned. If you don't enhance growth measures

:14:37.:14:43.

into your economy, it is impossible to expect any economy, however

:14:43.:14:48.

strong it may be, to produce the necessary results. We need to have

:14:48.:14:52.

a different mixture of economic policy. It is something the Leader

:14:52.:14:56.

of the Opposition has indicated, both to the Prime Minister and the

:14:56.:15:02.

Greek people. I think we have defined a solution, combining the

:15:02.:15:07.

necessary reforms that are dictated by are EU partners, but at the same

:15:07.:15:12.

time, enhancing the necessary growth measures, so we will exit

:15:13.:15:16.

this tunnel of crisis that we are living through during the last two

:15:16.:15:26.
:15:26.:15:26.

In other news, hackers have attacked Malaysian government

:15:26.:15:30.

websites, disrupting more than 40 sites. The attacks follow

:15:30.:15:35.

allegations that Malaysia is trying to curb internet freedom. The anti-

:15:35.:15:38.

censorship group anonymise had threatened to attack the Website

:15:38.:15:43.

after the Internet watchdog blocked 10 last week in an attempt to

:15:43.:15:46.

combat piracy. Fights between Australia and New

:15:46.:15:49.

Zealand have again been grounded because of volcanic ash from chilly.

:15:49.:15:54.

Tens of thousands of passengers have been delayed since the Puyehue

:15:54.:15:58.

began erupting almost two weeks ago. Qantas says that some flights to

:15:58.:16:04.

New Zealand could resume on Friday. Still to come on GMT: Diplomatic

:16:04.:16:09.

manoeuvres. Is there a peaceful outcome for Libya where Colonel

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Gaddafi stays but power changes hands?

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First, time for the business news. We have been talking about Greece.

:16:19.:16:23.

You are definitely talking about Greece. His defaults are

:16:23.:16:27.

inevitable? Many will say so. It's gone from messy to dangerously

:16:27.:16:33.

disastrous. You have eurozone leaders, to this hour, still unable

:16:33.:16:38.

to agree on how to rescue Greece. In Greece itself, you are talking

:16:38.:16:42.

with a country with a junk status credit rating, the worst in the

:16:42.:16:48.

world. It is paying interest on its debt at 18.5%. That is crippling.

:16:48.:16:52.

The banking stocks are down to a 15 year low, that has sent markets

:16:53.:16:56.

down. Investors are thinking of just one thing, that Greece will

:16:56.:17:02.

default. The problem is that it's no longer a Greek problem, it's no

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longer a European problem. It's a global problem. Listen to this.

:17:07.:17:11.

Greek debt is the new subprime. If Greece goes down, there's a good

:17:11.:17:15.

chance that other European countries hit the rocks, Portugal

:17:15.:17:20.

and peripheral countries. You have a huge amount of effectively dodgy

:17:20.:17:25.

government debt. The market wrongly used to think that was safe, just

:17:25.:17:30.

as was the case with subprime debt from America. If one country starts

:17:30.:17:34.

to default, the entire financial system will be hit badly. That is a

:17:34.:17:37.

scary warning. The worry is contagion and the impact on banks

:17:37.:17:41.

around Europe, bags around the world and the impact on us as

:17:41.:17:46.

consumers. We are going to have a busy few days. The debate has

:17:47.:17:51.

always been if you are iPhone or BlackBerry. The name we don't

:17:51.:17:57.

always throw around his awry m, the company behind BlackBerry? Before

:17:57.:18:02.

the iPhone, before Google Android, there was BlackBerry. It is still

:18:02.:18:06.

probably be go to devise for businesses. But the share price

:18:06.:18:09.

does not reflect that. It's fallen 40% since the beginning of this

:18:09.:18:14.

year. Why? They launched a new tablet device and it got mixed

:18:15.:18:17.

reviews. It's the devices they haven't launched yet that is

:18:17.:18:21.

causing the problems. They promised a family of smart phones, but they

:18:21.:18:26.

keep getting delayed. That's not good when you're trying to complete

:18:26.:18:32.

-- compete against Apple and Android. There is one good news

:18:32.:18:35.

story out of this. The good news is the developing markets, they have

:18:35.:18:43.

been doing very well there. The other interesting thing, I've been

:18:43.:18:47.

in the Middle East, and the youth set-up BlackBerry Messenger to set

:18:47.:18:56.

up dates. 80 Kloss -- 8 o'clock dinner, tonight... Our way back on

:18:56.:19:04.

air? A quick flash of the markets. BRITs is the worry. Have if you

:19:04.:19:08.

would like to get in touch with us, tell us your thoughts on anything

:19:08.:19:15.

you have heard or seen, had to our You can watch the highlights from

:19:15.:19:25.
:19:25.:19:30.

You are watching GMT. The headlines this hour: The war goes on. Defiant

:19:30.:19:35.

rhetoric from Al-Qaeda as Ayman Al- Zawahiri takes over following the

:19:35.:19:40.

killing of Osama Bin Laden. Protests against austerity measures

:19:40.:19:43.

continue in Greece as the Prime Minister prepares to reshuffle his

:19:43.:19:52.

cabinet to deal with the debt A Russian envoy says he can

:19:52.:19:54.

envisage a future for Libya where Colonel Gaddafi remains in the

:19:54.:19:58.

country but power moves to the opposition. The Russian President's

:19:58.:20:05.

Special Representative for Africa made the comment in an exclusive

:20:05.:20:09.

interview with the BBC Middle East editor in Tripoli. This is ahead of

:20:09.:20:14.

his meeting with senior members of the Libyan government. If there is

:20:14.:20:19.

a kind of national reconciliation in Libya, if Gaddafi is involved in

:20:19.:20:23.

that process, all options are open for the time being. You're saying

:20:24.:20:28.

he could stay in the country, but you want him to leave power?

:20:28.:20:32.

only Russia, I think. I think all of the international community

:20:32.:20:37.

understands pretty well that Colonel Gaddafi lost his

:20:37.:20:43.

credibility after he started bombing civilians. We understand

:20:43.:20:48.

very clearly that, if he is a responsible person, and we hope he

:20:48.:20:55.

is a responsible person, he should undertake urgent measures to start

:20:55.:20:58.

the process of national reconciliation. People in the

:20:58.:21:04.

regime, including his son, have talked about elections and reforms,

:21:04.:21:08.

but with Colonel Gaddafi staying in the country. Major says he must go

:21:08.:21:11.

and then other things must be talked about. What does Russia

:21:11.:21:20.

want? -- NATO. I've been to Benghazi. I met with the National

:21:20.:21:26.

Council, up almost all of the leaders. In Cairo, I met with

:21:26.:21:31.

Gaddafi's cousin, who also represents part of the Libyan elite.

:21:32.:21:35.

I think the general consensus in the Libyan elite is that Gaddafi

:21:35.:21:41.

should go. With all my respect to the position of NATO, with all my

:21:41.:21:44.

respect to the position of the world leaders that represent the

:21:44.:21:49.

great -- G8 and talked about Libya a lot, the key factor is what

:21:49.:21:54.

Libyans think about the future of Libya. My feeling is that they

:21:54.:21:59.

think about it without Gaddafi as a political leader.

:21:59.:22:01.

Time for something completely different. Fans of cartoons from

:22:01.:22:06.

Astro Boy to Betty Boop are in for a treat if they are in London over

:22:06.:22:11.

the next few months. The Barbican Art Gallery has trawled the

:22:11.:22:14.

archives of 150 years of animation for a new exhibition it is

:22:14.:22:18.

launching this week. Called Watch Me Move, it features animated

:22:18.:22:23.

classics including Mickey Mouse, Tom and Jerry and the Flintstones.

:22:23.:22:29.

As well as more experimental and sometimes unusual works by

:22:29.:22:34.

independent artists. We can take a look at one of them now. It is

:22:34.:22:44.
:22:44.:23:01.

Joining me now is the Watch Me Move creator, Greg Hilty. We are already

:23:01.:23:05.

talking because it is so exciting, so different. What was the

:23:05.:23:09.

inspiration? The Barbican has done a lot of exhibitions about broad

:23:09.:23:12.

visual culture, but we thought animation really needed to be seen.

:23:12.:23:17.

It so pervasive, it's everywhere. It is on websites, Baba phones,

:23:17.:23:24.

it's an incredibly expressive and artistic tool. How easy is it to

:23:24.:23:29.

collect the correct footage? easy at all. We have been working

:23:29.:23:35.

for three years on this project, it's got about 180 works. We have

:23:35.:23:39.

had specialists choosing and I have had my own team of experts in terms

:23:39.:23:45.

of my family. It really is for everybody. There is work from

:23:45.:23:55.
:23:55.:23:55.

Japanese animation, drawer, I have to credit my daughter with bringing

:23:55.:24:02.

in Tron. Mainly it is an exhibition of films, but we got some fantastic

:24:02.:24:09.

objects. There are toys, models from 1929 feature film animations.

:24:09.:24:13.

I know it is not all light-hearted. There's another clip that I want

:24:13.:24:21.

our viewers to see, called A Is For Autism. Sometimes, my shell-likes

:24:21.:24:28.

distort the teacher's instructions, or my eyes Blur to stop me seeing

:24:28.:24:32.

the blackboard. Sometimes I won't hear a few words at the start, and

:24:32.:24:35.

the next lot of and words merge into each other. I couldn't make

:24:35.:24:40.

head or tail of it. So, not all fun and games. Then our messages that

:24:40.:24:44.

animation can get across. How important is animation's role in

:24:44.:24:48.

that? I think it's crucial. One thing you see in that clip is that

:24:48.:24:54.

animation, as a medium, provides a series of tools. It's not like

:24:54.:24:59.

there is a clear progression from simple animation to CGI. Artists,

:24:59.:25:03.

animators can delve into the repertoire and bring out what they

:25:03.:25:06.

want for their own expressive purposes. It's interesting the way

:25:06.:25:11.

that animation has come a long over the years. It's been 150 years, we

:25:11.:25:15.

have quite an old clip available for our viewers to save lots of

:25:15.:25:20.

talk to me about this. This is buying Windsor McKay, one of the

:25:20.:25:24.

early pioneers of animation. It's where the title comes from, you saw

:25:24.:25:28.

it at the beginning, Watch Me Move. The early stage of the exhibition

:25:28.:25:33.

is one of the most spectacular, is one of the reasons why it should be

:25:33.:25:37.

in a gallery rather than just on film or television. We have works

:25:37.:25:45.

presented by Edward, it used to be a scientific and entertainment tool.

:25:45.:25:49.

He took pictures of things that could not be visualised before. He

:25:49.:25:54.

also presented them in a kind of projection show, travelling around

:25:54.:25:56.

the country. Animation has always had a sense of engaging with the

:25:56.:26:00.

real world, but also being entertaining and compelling. Even

:26:00.:26:04.

as we watched this, I know it is old compared to what we see now, it

:26:04.:26:08.

does seem timeless. It doesn't seem that animation has to be flashy and

:26:08.:26:12.

impressive all the time to grasp our attention? One of the reasons,

:26:12.:26:16.

it's sometimes seen as a childish thing. People dismiss it, they have

:26:16.:26:20.

been a bit dismissive in terms of high art or high visual culture. I

:26:20.:26:24.

think that's a mistake. I think if people come to the show they will

:26:24.:26:28.

see it is a mistake. Supposedly childish things still have a

:26:28.:26:32.

profound meaning. I'll put you on the spot, give me your favourite

:26:32.:26:39.

one that we should watch? esoteric, I would go for the Tale

:26:39.:26:43.

of Tales, a beautiful, dents, Russian film, made in the 1970s. It

:26:43.:26:47.

International news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. George Alagiah shares his experience as one of the BBC's most successful foreign correspondents to communicate why world stories matter to a UK and global audience.

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