01/09/2011 Newsnight


01/09/2011

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Jeremy Paxman.


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Transcript


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If the Government gets its way, it is going to become a lot more

:00:07.:00:11.

difficult to say no when developers decide they want to build on the

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countryside. Is it change in the planning laws way to national

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prosperity, jobs and happiness, or a way to splatter car bungles all

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over the face of a much loved countryside. The plan to let

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builders loose on the land has set the Conservatives against

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conservationist, and cast Liberal Democrats as enemies of local

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democracy. Is the coalition planning for the future or selling

:00:33.:00:37.

out to commercial vandals. The chairman of the national Trust is

:00:37.:00:44.

here to sort out the planning minister. Gaddafi remains defiant

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as NATO bombs his remaining strongholds in Libya. And the

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National Transitional Council goes to Paris to be anointed by world

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leaders. We pay tribute to your bravery, and to the many who have

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lost their lives, or have been injured. But as has been said, the

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struggle is not yet over. And how, ten years after September

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1th, the toxic dust from the Twin Towers ensures killing and sicks

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goes on. One morning he didn't go round, I went up to check on him,

:01:20.:01:30.
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and I found him dead on the floor. This country is crawling is

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hysterical, nihilistic people, according to the coalition

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Government, they include the members of the National Trust,

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Friends of the Earth, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds,

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and the Bat Conservation Trust, these deranged organisations, are

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furious at plans by the Government to allow concrete to be laid in the

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countryside. The coalition propose that is the plan authority, should

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in future, abandon the principles of the last 60 years, and be biased

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in favour of developers. First we report from Gloucestershire.

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This is Slad Valley in Gloucestershire, which inspired the

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classic book Cider with Rosy, by Laurie Lee, now it is at the centre

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of planning dispute with implications for the entire country.

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It is about four dozen houses that could go up on these fields on the

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one hand, but on the other, it is who makes weather in terms of

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planning, local politicians or property developers. The bucolic

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Slad Valley has become a test case, you could call it "Decider with

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Rosy". Newsnight met some of the locals, who are resisting plans by

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Barrett Homes to built 48 hourss in the valley. It is an area of

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outstanding - - 48 houses in the valley. It is an area of

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outstanding beauty, it is a haven for wildlife, apart from a beauty

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spot that attracts tourists and visitors to the area. The planning

:03:13.:03:23.
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minister says people like you are exhibiting a nihilistic character.

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In my great grandfather's day, for 20 years it was all I knew of the

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world. Part of the charm of this world was it seemed untouched by

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modernity, but developers hope to go construct rather more than cart

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track in places like this, are making plans against the back drop

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of a new Government document, released just a few days ago. Which

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says there should be a: The local council which has a

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Conservative majority of one, has rejected the proposals from

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Barretts Homes, one member of the authority said ministers hadn't

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explained the new planning dispensation. This may not be what

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they are intending to do to alarm people, but they need to come and

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make things much clearer. If they are not intending, I think a lot of

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people think they are just going to intend to swamp people with a lot

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of housing. If this isn't their intention, and I don't think it is,

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they need to make it clearer. are doing bad job of selling a

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policy? Yes, I suppose so, really. Barbara Tait isn't the only one

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with a long face. Many other Tories, and Liberal Democrats, are thought

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to be uneasy about the proposed changes to planning. And an

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unprecedented alliance of conservation groups and

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environmental groups are lining up against them. But many say more new

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houses are badly needed. Most experts reckon we need between

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perhaps 250,000-350,000 new homes in Britain if we are to meet

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housing needs, we are way off that. We think the planning plans are

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part of the measures needed to address the housing shortage, and

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ensure everyone gets a decent home. A shortage of housing stock was

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alsos cited by Barrett Homes, for their so far frustrated plans for

:05:24.:05:34.
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It doesn't hurt the objectors' case that they a invoke the name of

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Laurie Lee, the great countryman, it is not hard to know which side

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he would be on. But concrete on his beloved valley, that would be like

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taking pesticides to Wordsworth's Lake District. This stained glass

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window, in celebration of Lee and his writing, will be dedicated at

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his former parish church later this month. For now it won't be rattling

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in its putty, as trucks and JCBs go down the valley. But the builders

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eying Le, he's own home, are appealing the council's decision, -

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Le, he's own home are appealing the council's decision. There is a lot

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at stake inside the Rosy's country, the apple of a developer's eye.

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With us to discuss this is the plan minister, Greg Clark and Simon

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Jenkins, chairman of the National Trust, one of the organisations

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campaigning against the Government's proposals. You say you

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want to consult, if the vast majority of people with whom you

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consult say there should not be a presumption in favour of the

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developer, are you prepared to abandon that? Of course we will

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listen to all the voices. We have been clear for a long time we think

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it is important to simplify the planning system. My question was

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whether you would listen, if the majority of people said you should

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bane done the presumption in favour of the developer, you will drop it?

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I'm not giving the answer before the consultation. We don't know

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what the consultation will tell you, I'm interested to see how serious

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you are taking it? It is important to simplify the planning process,

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and have this presumption, how the presumption is expressed is an

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important aspect, and we will take views on that. What is important,

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and from your package there, is the land there would not be affected by

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these proposals f it is protected landscape it would continue to be.

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When you start using words like "nihilistic selfishness", or Vince

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Cable talks about people being "semi-hysterical", what is the

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reason or excuse for that sort of extreme language against people who

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merely care what the countryside looks like? That was a quote from a

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paper that quoted me saying quite the opposite, for people to say we

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should have no development whatsoever, not to build the houses

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we need for the future, in my experience, doesn't happen. To that

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would-be selfish, and nihilisticically so if it happened,

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my experience is most communities recognise the needs of the future.

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You found this in your book, The English People. You recognised, I

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seem to remember, when it came to parish council, that people who

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lived in villages do care about the future, want to keep their pubs

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alive and their families housed. How long has it been the policy of

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the National Trust to oppose development and greater prosperity

:08:50.:09:00.
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for people? This is not about growth. There is a chronic shortage

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for rural land at the moment, nor is it about housing, there are a

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third of a million houses waiting to be built. There is no shortage

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of brownfield sites. National Trust is in favour of development, we do

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a certain amount of it ourselves. The issue here is the nature of the

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release of countryside in 65% of Britain, that is still ordinary

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countryside, unprotected, and it is now highly vulnerable under this

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plan. I am afraid the truth of the matter is, this plan is not

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Government legislation. This is one of those case where is a group of

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lobbies have got away with murder and they are laughing all over

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their face at the moment. Why have you chosen to conduct this so-

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called consultation in the dog days of summer and ending just about the

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time parliament resumes its proper business? That is very long

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standing commitment, we published a green paper 18 months ago in

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opposition. We put a call for evidence out in January of this

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year. We have got a three month consultation, I have asked the

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select committee in parliament to scrutinise it. It is not going to

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be adopted until next year. So there is a lot of time. Did you

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write this document? Did you write it Greg? Of course I did, yes.

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There are 360 references to business development in planning

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law, there are four references to the countryside. It is the most

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biased document I have ever seen. It is not planning document, it is

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a lobbying document. That is not true, if you read it in detail.

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has read it in detail, he has given you a word count. I invite viewers

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to look at it. You will see the protection for the green belt is

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there. I'm not a nihilistic person, we are in favour of simplification,

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the planning laws were often ludicrously diligent, no question

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about that. A lot of land can be taken up for development no,

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question about that. What is extraordinary about the document,

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is the document might have been written by the British Property

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Federation, and I rather suspect it was, they are laughing all over

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their faces, they can't believe their luck. You have written a dud

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document, it badly needs redrafting? The document was put

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forward in response to the consultation that we made through

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the call to evidence, and actually we had contributions from

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environmentalist, from people interested in historic environment,

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from people in social housing. We had a spokesman earlier. The

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planning system brings together all of these different groups, these

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people who depend on the planning system functioning. We agree that

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the planning system has become lost in translation. It has become

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excessively long and complex. I think we can agree it nids to be

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simplified. I look forward to the response of this consultation, to

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have a forensic look, if you are taking 1300 pages to 52 I'm sure

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not every sentence is expressed with the clarity that it might be.

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I have great respect for the National Trust and will take

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seriously these contributions. is at the moment unacceptable, it

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will be a license to every Swampy, every lawyer, every shouter, there

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will be one row after another about this. It is because it is the badly

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drafted piece of law. The planning bar at the moment can't believe

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their luck. All this is because you have produced a dud document. I

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would love it to be a good document. But please, please, take the

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consultation seriously. I do take the consultation seriously. But the

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context of this is this is giving power to local communities.

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have refused the opportunity to say whether you will change your mind

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on the basis of the consultation, how can you possibly be taking it

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seriously? I do take the responses seriously, we will look at them

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carefully. You have declined to say you will change your mind on the

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basis of what you have been told? What been told by the social

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housing providers, and people who have represented the countryside,

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such as the farmers and the country land association, that this is

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crucial for the rural environment. So of course we will consider these

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views. All the people want development, the development they

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want is housing or warehouses or supermarkets. The only lobbies you

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found on your side are the people who want development, including

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farmers, I may say. What is extraordinary, I love the localism

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bit in the Localism Bill, it is good stuff, you ruin it in the

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planning framework, by saying, in effect, if a developers wants

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something, and a local community doesn't want it, the developer will

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win. That is not true. It gets rid of the imposition from above and

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gives the final say to local communities. Why do you refer to

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Government planning policy constantly throughout the document.

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Government planning policy is pro- development. Because this is a

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statement of national policies that sets out protection for the green

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belt. Have you thought there might be something wrong about a policy

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that manages to incite the detestation of the National Trust,

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the Woodland Trust, the mammal - mammal Society, the Open Spaces

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Society, the Bat Conservation Trust. Has it occurred to you you might be

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wrong? I think they are reading more into it than they should. The

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protections that are there, for the environment we all love and cherish

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are very strong. I look forward to sitting down and going through it

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in detail. You yourself don't even believe t when it comes to your own

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backyard you don't believe in building over the countryside. We

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know you think where at all possible all developments should be

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on brownfield sites? That is what you said in 2008? Of course

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communities will want to bring in brownfield sites. When there was

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proposals in your constituency, you said where possible developments

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should be on post industrial and brownfield sites. He did say that.

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It has been ended. Mew view is these decisions should be taken by

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local communities, I think local communities will want to bring into

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use derelict land, first, we shouldn't impose from above

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requirements. If they wanted to, this is something I have fought for

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in my constituency over many years, if they want the leafy aspect of a

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town and preserve gardens in towns and rather make a choice to bring

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into use a piece of land that might be at the edge of town by a roadway,

:15:32.:15:36.

in order to keep leafy gardens within the towns, that should be

:15:36.:15:41.

something open to that community. Why have you ended the presumption

:15:41.:15:46.

in favour of developing existing derelict sites. The previous

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presumption in favour of housing and development going on to what is

:15:50.:15:55.

called brownfield sites, which are more derelict and empty sites than

:15:55.:15:59.

ever before in Britain because of recession, that is ended. There is

:15:59.:16:04.

a clear expectation that council should bring back into use derelict

:16:04.:16:07.

sites. Colonel Gaddafi is still at large tonight, and a little earlier

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tonight popped up again, as he does, talking about setting Libya ablaze.

:16:12.:16:17.

He spent the 42nd anniversary of his coup somewhere in hiding.

:16:17.:16:22.

TRANSLATION: I tack them with rifles, with bullets - attack them

:16:22.:16:28.

with rifles, with bullets, let them speak, let it be a long battle. We

:16:28.:16:34.

will fight from place to place, from city to city, from mountain to

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mountain, let us shout at them they can't rule the Libyan people. Let

:16:38.:16:43.

it be a long trial until the victory. While the colonel was in

:16:43.:16:49.

full flow, the Friends of Libya, as they are officially known, were

:16:49.:16:53.

gathering in Paris to meet the heads of the revolution that has

:16:53.:16:56.

unseated him. 60 nations recognise the National Transitional Council

:16:56.:16:59.

as the Government of Libya. Everyone from America to the

:16:59.:17:02.

Palestinian Authority, including the newest member of this club,

:17:02.:17:04.

Russia, who announced their membership today. Even the Chinese,

:17:04.:17:08.

who once thought that no-one had any business protecting Libyans

:17:08.:17:14.

from that nice Mr Gaddafi. The meeting was about to - how to

:17:14.:17:21.

rebuild the country, of which all now claim to be sponsors.

:17:21.:17:26.

David Cameron said tonight the early signs from Libya are

:17:26.:17:29.

incredibly impressive, he said that NATO operations will continue as

:17:29.:17:33.

long as they are needed, and those who have committed what he called

:17:33.:17:37.

unspeakable crimes will be brought to justice. His overriteding theme

:17:37.:17:42.

is that Libya will - overriding theme is that Libya will not become

:17:42.:17:46.

another Iraq, and that the NATO intervention, the military campaign,

:17:46.:17:50.

the bombing by Britain and France, has been fully vindicated. Last

:17:50.:17:54.

time we met here in Paris, Gaddafi's tanks were at the gates

:17:54.:17:59.

of Benghazi, and Gaddafi was openly vowing to hunt down and kill his

:17:59.:18:05.

own people, as he called it, like rats. Massacre loomed. Five months

:18:05.:18:11.

later, the Libyan people have taken their country back. Taking their

:18:11.:18:17.

country back, but offer 4 years, what will they do with it after 42

:18:17.:18:22.

years, what will they do with it. This conference is supposed to be

:18:22.:18:25.

all about securing the peace and securing that future, that might be

:18:25.:18:27.

more tricky than ousting Colonel Gaddafi.

:18:27.:18:33.

They rolled up in their grand cars, each nation flying its own flag,

:18:33.:18:40.

making its presence clear. 13 heads of state, 19 premiers, and

:18:40.:18:43.

ministers and diplomats by the score. These are the Friends of

:18:43.:18:49.

Libya, turning a page in the day's favoured phrase "opening a chapter,

:18:49.:18:54.

and hoping for the best". This is the day the new leaders of Libya

:18:54.:18:57.

introduced themselves to a wider world. A world where everyone seems

:18:57.:19:00.

to have their own reasons for casting themselves as friends of

:19:00.:19:03.

Libya, a world in which the new leaders of Libya, need all the

:19:03.:19:09.

friend they can get. - all the friends they can get.

:19:09.:19:16.

This is a North African born academic, who has lectured on Libya

:19:16.:19:21.

politics in Europe and the US. He has watched the discussions here in

:19:21.:19:28.

Paris, when they have yet to enter their own capital, Tripoli.

:19:28.:19:35.

They don't have any legitimacy, they were not elected. It is so

:19:35.:19:40.

Arabic. Why do you say it is so Arabic? Because for them it is

:19:40.:19:45.

always running for the support of the western countries. And in a

:19:45.:19:50.

certain way, in my vue, there was a complicity of western countries -

:19:50.:19:53.

view, there was a complicity of western countries, about what

:19:53.:19:58.

happened for 50 years in this area. Without the support of the western

:19:58.:20:06.

countries, they never can stay for 42 years. History has to be buried

:20:06.:20:13.

as well? Of course. The RAF were in action yesterday, their bombs and

:20:13.:20:17.

flares assisting the anti-Gaddafi forces. In France, President

:20:17.:20:21.

Sarkozy, is hoping the success of the Libyan mission, will also help

:20:21.:20:27.

his election campaign. Even some of his oppont ponnents believe his

:20:27.:20:32.

motivation - opponents believe his motivation goes beyond that, recent

:20:32.:20:36.

history recalls the war in the Balkans. What did not happen in

:20:36.:20:42.

time in Bosnia, when the city of Srebrenica, was emptied of its male

:20:42.:20:50.

inhabitants, who were subsequently destroyed, when faced with a

:20:50.:20:53.

similar contingency in Benghazi, when Gaddafi promised to chase the

:20:53.:20:59.

rebels like rats in the city, there was the opportunity to demonstrate

:20:59.:21:03.

that what the previous generation had gotten wrong, this generation

:21:03.:21:09.

was going to get right. Indeed tonight, President Sarkozy spoke of

:21:09.:21:12.

what he considered the great success of the Libyan intervention,

:21:12.:21:17.

with the horrors of what happened in Yugoslavia. TRANSLATION: What we

:21:17.:21:21.

wanted to see was a policy backed and authorised by the United

:21:21.:21:28.

Nations, which puts military might at the service of protecting

:21:28.:21:34.

civilians populations likely to be massacred and martyred by their own

:21:34.:21:40.

leadership. There have been tens of thousands of lives that have been

:21:40.:21:45.

spared in Libya, thanks to this intervention.

:21:45.:21:49.

In the Megreb itself there is apprehension about what has

:21:49.:21:55.

happened in Libya. In these uncertain days they are seeking

:21:55.:21:58.

guarantees, assurances, that the fighting will stop at the borders.

:21:58.:22:04.

They have to give some assurance to the neighbour, Tunisia, Al Goreia,

:22:04.:22:14.
:22:14.:22:18.

Egypt, that this destablisation is not going to spread around them.

:22:18.:22:26.

Especially in Algeria. The risk exists. You never know, but there

:22:26.:22:31.

are 150 tribes in Lybia, it is not nation. What unites all Libyans

:22:31.:22:39.

today is need. The first �140 million of Libyan bank notes was

:22:39.:22:44.

flown in from the printing plant in the UK. It was Libya's own cash

:22:44.:22:48.

frozen by sanctions. There is billions more where that came from,

:22:48.:22:52.

and it can't arrive quickly enough. That sense of urgency was reflected

:22:52.:22:55.

in the comments of the UN Secretary-General in Paris tonight.

:22:55.:23:00.

The immediate challenge for us, for the international community, is how

:23:00.:23:09.

to address humanitarian challenges. Roughly 860,000 people have left

:23:09.:23:14.

the country since February, including skilled workers. Medicine,

:23:14.:23:20.

food, and particularly water, are in short supply. There is a major

:23:20.:23:27.

crisis on this matter. How confident are they that what

:23:27.:23:33.

was agreed today will stick? think everybody knows that there

:23:33.:23:37.

are potentially very serious divisions here. President Sarkozy

:23:37.:23:40.

was asked with David Cameron, why he and his friend, Dave from

:23:40.:23:43.

Downing Street, hadn't actually gone to trip trim themselves. They

:23:43.:23:46.

tried to laugh it off - Tripoli themselves. And they tried to laugh

:23:46.:23:50.

it off and say they will go when they are invited by the

:23:50.:23:52.

transitional council will invite them. Nobody mentioned that the

:23:52.:23:56.

people from that council themselves had yet to venture into their own

:23:56.:24:00.

capital city. This is tricky. are events going down in Libya

:24:00.:24:08.

tonight itself. We're in Benghazi. What's the word? Well, obviously

:24:08.:24:12.

most people here in Benghazi are delighted by the symbolic aspect of

:24:12.:24:15.

this conference, and maybe that is the most important aspect, the

:24:16.:24:20.

welcoming of Libya's new leadership into the international community.

:24:20.:24:23.

Beyond that, a senior figure in the National Transitional Council this

:24:23.:24:27.

evening gave me a long and very interesting list of what he thinks,

:24:27.:24:33.

and what the council thinks, Libya needs first in terms of practical

:24:33.:24:39.

help. He talked first of all about administrative and technical help

:24:39.:24:42.

getting the economy and the oil industry going again. They think

:24:42.:24:46.

that can be done within three months. Help in training the police,

:24:46.:24:50.

because although the new Libya has firmly rejected the offer of

:24:50.:24:53.

foreign boots on the ground, it is very worried about law and order.

:24:53.:24:58.

It is worried that police are only capable at the moment of serving a

:24:58.:25:02.

dictatorship, not a democracy interestingly, he also talked about

:25:02.:25:07.

help in recording human rights abuse, because they are convinced

:25:07.:25:12.

they will find more mass graves of Gaddafi victims. That said, and

:25:12.:25:16.

that's already sounding part of what would be a colossal task in

:25:16.:25:20.

rebuilding, it is important to say that Libya does have some

:25:20.:25:23.

considerable advantages compared to some other post conflict countries,

:25:23.:25:28.

not only the oil industry, but also a very sizeable and educated

:25:28.:25:34.

middle-class and many people, as Ban Ki-Moon referred to, gone away,

:25:34.:25:38.

but many coming back, skilled emgreys, and want to go serve the

:25:38.:25:48.
:25:48.:25:53.

country again. We're joined by Ban Ki-Moon's adviser responsible for

:25:53.:25:58.

the conflict in Libya. I gather you are off to Libya? I hope to be in

:25:58.:26:05.

Tripoli on Saturday. What is your job there? This first visit will be

:26:05.:26:08.

to continue discussion that is we have been having with the National

:26:08.:26:11.

Transitional Council about exactly what role they want the United

:26:11.:26:17.

Nations to play. Secretary-general Ban Ki-Moon, and those of us on his

:26:17.:26:23.

delegation, had that discussion here today in Paris, with Chairman

:26:23.:26:27.

Jalisco, and Dr Jibril, that followed on earlier discussions I

:26:27.:26:34.

had. We want to be sure whatever the UN does corresponds to Libyan

:26:34.:26:43.

wishes, and needs as we understand them on the ground.

:26:43.:26:47.

How strange is it that the National Transitional Council is anointed in

:26:47.:26:53.

France but failing to set foot on the ground in Tripoli? Several

:26:53.:26:56.

members of the National Transitional Council are in Tripoli,

:26:56.:27:00.

and have been for some time, including a deputy Prime Minister

:27:00.:27:04.

and other ministers of the council. But I'm not sure exactly what the

:27:04.:27:08.

latest plans are for the top leaders of the National

:27:08.:27:14.

Transitional Council to go there. When they do they will start a

:27:14.:27:19.

process in which they have already made some time-bound commitments,

:27:19.:27:24.

as to when elections will take place. And one of the issues they

:27:24.:27:28.

have made most clear today and previously, is they are looking to

:27:28.:27:33.

the United Nations for support, is in the unfolding of an electoral

:27:33.:27:39.

process, a process in which constitutions will be adopted and

:27:39.:27:43.

endorsed by a referendum. You may have heard this in private

:27:43.:27:46.

conversation, but it wasn't public today, this question of the eight-

:27:47.:27:49.

month timetable before the re- elections, that didn't seemed to be

:27:49.:27:55.

mentioned today. Was it privately, are they still sticking to that?

:27:55.:27:59.

didn't discuss the timing, but the National Transitional Council,

:27:59.:28:06.

there is in writing, they have adopted a covenant that it has been

:28:06.:28:16.
:28:16.:28:17.

their intention to prom mull gate an interim constitution on the

:28:17.:28:20.

formal day of declaration as they put it. What will be the main task

:28:21.:28:30.
:28:31.:28:31.

for the UN in Libya? Electoral support is one of them, also

:28:31.:28:35.

transitional justice, the difficult balance they will have to strike,

:28:35.:28:39.

between accountability within the law for the most serious human

:28:39.:28:44.

rights violations, compensation to victims, but on the other hand the

:28:44.:28:47.

need for national reconciliation, and more broadly, the kind of human

:28:47.:28:53.

rights and rule of law area. Then, of course, there is a huge agenda

:28:53.:28:58.

of economic recovery. Today there were many offers of assistance

:28:58.:29:04.

around the table in Paris. But both the major international actors, and

:29:04.:29:07.

the Libyans themselves, have made clear that they want the United

:29:07.:29:11.

Nations to take the lead in co- ordinating that. Co-ordination is

:29:11.:29:16.

really very important in a post- conflict situation. We probably

:29:16.:29:21.

have more mistakes than positive experiences to learn from in recent

:29:21.:29:24.

post-conflict context. You are confident, are you, that they have

:29:24.:29:31.

a coherent plan that they will stick to? They certainly have plan.

:29:31.:29:35.

One can't say that is not going to be subject to further discussion.

:29:35.:29:40.

Because indeed one of the first things that they are committed to

:29:40.:29:43.

is expanding the base of the National Transitional Council

:29:43.:29:49.

itself. Which will serve as the sort of first body designating

:29:49.:29:53.

within 30 days an interim Government. And they themselves are

:29:53.:29:56.

saying, and everybody in the international community is saying,

:29:56.:30:04.

it is extremely important that council is as inclusive as possible

:30:04.:30:07.

of different sections of Libyan society. So I think there are some

:30:07.:30:12.

decisions to be made there, first. In the meantime, they have,

:30:13.:30:17.

effectively, to rebuild the entire apparatus of Government, haven't

:30:17.:30:24.

they? I wouldn't go so far as that. They are very clear that one lesson

:30:24.:30:30.

they have learned from Iraq, or reject any general comparisons with

:30:30.:30:35.

Iraq, is the mistake that is made if you do try to disband, wholesale,

:30:35.:30:39.

existing institutions. Whether it is the security forces, or the

:30:40.:30:43.

public administration. So I don't think they intend to do that. But

:30:43.:30:47.

the problem is, although there was some institutions in Libya, the

:30:47.:30:53.

national oil company, the Central Bank, that were run by extremely

:30:53.:30:56.

competent technocrats, loot of the other institutions of an

:30:56.:31:06.
:31:06.:31:08.

accountable democratic state have run efficiently. That applies to

:31:08.:31:13.

elections, there is no living memory of elections in Libya.

:31:13.:31:19.

Next week we will see the 10th anniversary when out of the clear

:31:19.:31:25.

blue sky two airplanes were flown into the world trade centres in New

:31:25.:31:31.

York City. Over 2,000 people perished. The Twin Towers released

:31:31.:31:36.

a cloud of toxic dust that blanketed Lower Manhatten and

:31:36.:31:41.

Brooklyn and New Jersey. Over 18,000 people have received

:31:41.:31:45.

treatment for World Trade Center related illnesses. More fatalities

:31:45.:31:55.
:31:55.:32:02.

are expected. We report now from New York.

:32:02.:32:06.

A sight that has become the definition of terror. The

:32:06.:32:12.

destruction of the Twin Towers. An onslaught that killed nearly

:32:12.:32:17.

3,000 people. But ten years on, the attack isn't over.

:32:17.:32:22.

The dust that overwhelmed the streets of Lower Manhatten, became

:32:22.:32:31.

a weapon. The clouds contained particles of pulverised concrete.

:32:31.:32:37.

Asbestos, lead from 50,000 computers. Murky from countless

:32:37.:32:45.

light bull - mercury from countless lightbulbs, a poisonous legacy,

:32:45.:32:55.
:32:55.:33:04.

Jeff Endean is one of those who breathed in that dust. Today he's

:33:04.:33:11.

seeing one of his doctors, Mike Crane, at New York's mountsi nigh

:33:11.:33:19.

hospital. - mountsi nigh Hospital. He has coughing fits like this all

:33:19.:33:29.
:33:29.:33:30.

the time. A police officer, he was at Ground Zero for three months,

:33:30.:33:34.

first searching for survivors, then clearing up remains. This is a

:33:34.:33:41.

regular check-up. The dust has exacted a heavy price.

:33:41.:33:47.

Jeff used to be highly active, an expert in firearms, his health has

:33:47.:33:52.

collapsed and he's now retired. We first met him and his wife Eileen

:33:52.:33:55.

at their home in New Jersey five years ago.

:33:55.:34:04.

I have scaring on my lungs, plural thickening, some kind of leisons, a

:34:04.:34:09.

reactive airway disease. Today another battery of tests. According

:34:09.:34:12.

to a recent study, emergency responders are suffering from

:34:12.:34:18.

reduced breathing capacity, and they are not getting better. Take a

:34:18.:34:23.

breathe force it out, keep blowing, keep blowing, inhale quickly, take

:34:23.:34:33.
:34:33.:34:36.

it out of your mouth. Are you OK?

:34:36.:34:40.

Uniform staff, like Jeff, were on the frontline. Police, firemen,

:34:40.:34:45.

medical workers. Here is were the people the world saw battling

:34:45.:34:50.

through the wreckage. But out of sight, beyond the cameras, was an

:34:50.:34:56.

army of people toiling in the dust as well. Telecoms engineers,

:34:56.:35:06.
:35:06.:35:06.

contractors and cleaners. The latest official US Government

:35:06.:35:11.

figures show that just over 60,000 people are now registered as being

:35:11.:35:19.

at risk from inhaling the dust. Most of them are emergency workers.

:35:19.:35:24.

A staggering 18,462 received medical treatment in the last 12

:35:24.:35:33.

months. A number that's steadily rising. We still have new patients,

:35:34.:35:38.

new bona fide genuine responders, who we have never seen before,

:35:38.:35:41.

never been examined by a programme before, walking in the door every

:35:41.:35:49.

day. We have 100-200 a month coming in. The word "dust ", itself,

:35:49.:35:55.

sounds so innocent. So why exactly was this mixture so hazardous, and

:35:55.:36:03.

why did it trigger such a huge impact. This scene was found in a

:36:03.:36:06.

home close to Ground Zero, thousands of local residents were

:36:06.:36:11.

vulnerable to the dust. The teddy bear was spotted by scientist,

:36:11.:36:18.

loyal loyal loyal, while he was gathering - - by a scientist while

:36:18.:36:25.

he was gathering samples. He and his colleagues examined the dust,

:36:25.:36:31.

it was like nothing they had ever seen before. It was a collection of

:36:31.:36:35.

different materials. Both buildings collapsed, there was cement, in

:36:35.:36:40.

addition there was glass fibres, which basically were due to the

:36:40.:36:46.

disintegration of 110 stories of glass, on each building. On top of

:36:46.:36:53.

that you had residuals from the jet fuel, which basically bathed the

:36:53.:37:00.

dust as both structures fell. mixed in there was a very long list

:37:00.:37:07.

of toxins, asbestos, known to cause lung cancer, dioxins, notorious for

:37:07.:37:11.

damaging the immune system, and dozens of others, like PCB, all

:37:11.:37:18.

dangerous. But how do we know they are to blame? Well, at Mount Sinai

:37:18.:37:21.

Medical Centre in Manhattan, they are seeing growing evidence. This

:37:22.:37:26.

is the largest of the monitoring and treatment programmes. It is

:37:26.:37:30.

where thousands of patients are seen. It is where a link between

:37:30.:37:36.

the dust and their health looks more and more plausible. Even to

:37:36.:37:41.

experts who first doubted it. on I wasn't convinced that we would

:37:41.:37:46.

have chronic disease out of this. In a very short period of time,

:37:46.:37:52.

weeks after 9/11, I was totally convinced. Absolutely and totally

:37:52.:37:57.

convinced, and I remain so today, more so than ever.

:37:57.:38:03.

Overshadowing all of this is a grim question. Whether inhaling the dust

:38:03.:38:13.
:38:13.:38:16.

We travelled south, out of New York City, to the home of a family with

:38:16.:38:25.

bitter experience of the dust. James was a New York detective, a

:38:25.:38:28.

popular figure, a non-smoker, the winner of numerous police awards

:38:29.:38:34.

and a father. He worked at Ground Zero for more than 400 hours. Soon

:38:34.:38:38.

his health declined dramatically. He became so ill he had to move in

:38:38.:38:46.

with his parents. His father, is a retired police chief. He made sure

:38:46.:38:51.

his son took his medications. But then, one morning, five years ago,

:38:51.:38:57.

Joe went to wake his son. morning he didn't come out. I

:38:57.:39:03.

waited until 9.30, and then he didn't come out. So I went up to

:39:03.:39:10.

check on him. I found him dead on the floor. He was dead on the floor.

:39:10.:39:18.

They took him away, and he was so young. I even said to the police, I

:39:18.:39:28.
:39:28.:39:28.

said see if you can get an autopsy done on him. They said coroner

:39:28.:39:32.

already said he would do an autopsy. He's not going to sign a death

:39:32.:39:36.

certificate until he does an autopsy, because he was so young,

:39:36.:39:44.

and he wanted to know why he passed away.

:39:44.:39:51.

The funeral, in January 2006, was a turning point. A pathologist

:39:51.:39:57.

concluded that James Zadroga died of a rare lung disease, caused by

:39:57.:40:00.

World Trade Center trust. The first official link between the dust and

:40:00.:40:05.

a loss of life. The finding was disputed, but it also galvanised a

:40:05.:40:12.

campaign for a new law, an act in James Zadroga's gaim name, to help

:40:12.:40:19.

survivors - name, to help survivors. This weighty file is the Zadroga

:40:19.:40:26.

Act, it is pages spelling out who is entitled to help. This doctor is

:40:26.:40:30.

in charge of the file. He accepts that the world centre impact is

:40:30.:40:36.

serious. Undoubtedly - World Trade Center impact is serious.

:40:36.:40:41.

Undoubtedly there are people who have succumbed between the 9/11

:40:41.:40:45.

attack and now. Do you think it is plausible that some people will die

:40:45.:40:49.

of their exposure? Oh yes. I think that it is plausible to think that

:40:49.:40:54.

way. So, yes, people could die of many of these conditions that we

:40:54.:40:57.

have seen associated with the exposures.

:40:57.:41:03.

So, ten years on, there is now, finally, official recognition of

:41:03.:41:07.

the threat. But the fact that it has take be so long, is a source of

:41:07.:41:17.
:41:17.:41:18.

bitterness. There is a suspicion that the risks of the dust were

:41:18.:41:22.

played down at the time. # God bless America

:41:22.:41:29.

# My home sweet home Just one week after the attacks,

:41:29.:41:34.

the New York Stock Exchange re- opened. A potent symbol of recovery.

:41:34.:41:38.

Office workers, schoolchildren and residents were urged to return. But,

:41:38.:41:48.
:41:48.:41:50.

was this too soon. The dust was still everywhere. Scientists

:41:50.:41:55.

carried out checks around Ground Zero. And the head of the

:41:55.:41:59.

Environmental Protection Agency declared the air safe to breathe.

:41:59.:42:04.

We're monitoring constantly, we have taken dust samples and, except

:42:04.:42:09.

for one time, one sample, one reading, and that came from dust

:42:09.:42:14.

from a car from the epicentre, we have not seen any reason, any

:42:14.:42:19.

reading that is indicate a health has standard.

:42:19.:42:22.

Christine Todd Whitman has always toad by that statement, saying the

:42:22.:42:26.

finds - stood by that statement, saying the findings on air quality

:42:26.:42:29.

were correct. We asked for an interview, but she declined. We

:42:29.:42:38.

turned to one of her former adviser, were the authorities ignoring the

:42:38.:42:43.

dangers to reopen Manhattan. He blames others for misunderstanding

:42:43.:42:50.

what she was saying. Based upon the asbestos results, the area around

:42:50.:42:56.

Ground Zero was safe except for the pile. There was the caution, and

:42:57.:43:00.

the EPA did say there are other things in there we don't know about.

:43:01.:43:06.

So I didn't find any fault with what she said, I blame the media, I

:43:06.:43:10.

blame the officials in the Government for trying to put us at

:43:10.:43:14.

ease much too quickly. Hopefully we learned something. As a scientist,

:43:14.:43:20.

you know what's in the dust, would you have been happy to return to an

:43:20.:43:27.

apartment near Ground Zero within a week? Yes, if I had a respirator on,

:43:28.:43:36.

absolutely. Without one, would you have gone there?

:43:36.:43:40.

The huge construction project at Ground Zero, gathers pace. A vision

:43:40.:43:45.

of optimisim, in a city back on its feet. But among those who worked on

:43:45.:43:50.

the rubble, a new fear is emerging, that the dust didn't only lead to

:43:50.:43:56.

the illnesses we are seeing now, it is also causing cancers. That's one

:43:56.:44:02.

reason why there is a legal battle for compensation. I think we will

:44:02.:44:08.

be seeing new diseases develop, 20, 30 years from now. It is going to

:44:08.:44:11.

be a long, long period where more and more people get sick over the

:44:11.:44:17.

course of time. This is just the beginning, this is not ten years

:44:17.:44:23.

out the end. We're going to be facing people getting sick with

:44:23.:44:25.

9/11-related injuries, and illnesses for another 20 years, at

:44:25.:44:31.

least. When you come to New York and hear

:44:31.:44:37.

the words "lawyer" and compensation, and you would be for given for

:44:37.:44:43.

being cynical, this is the most lit tiingous city on the planet. When

:44:43.:44:46.

you hear one of their health officials saying he thinks more

:44:46.:44:50.

people will die because of the dust that billowed over here ten years

:44:50.:44:53.

ago, you realise this is a serious and growing problem. The whole

:44:53.:44:58.

question of the health impacts of 9/11, aren't just relevant on this,

:44:58.:45:03.

the 10th anniversary, they will be relevant for many more

:45:03.:45:13.
:45:13.:45:18.

Overlooking Manhattan, a memorial to James Zadroga, and a generation

:45:18.:45:23.

born after 9/11. The attack won't be forgotten. Because for so many,

:45:23.:45:32.

it is not over. Next week we will be reflecting on

:45:32.:45:37.

how the world has changed in the decades since 9/11, culminating in

:45:37.:45:41.

a special programme, with Kirsty, live from New York, next Friday.

:45:41.:45:44.

Tomorrow morning's front pages now, the Telegraph reports that the

:45:44.:45:50.

changes to the planning laws we were talking about earlier, would

:45:50.:45:56.

result in about another 1,000 more major developments every year. The

:45:56.:46:06.
:46:06.:46:07.

Financial Times has a picture of Strauss Khan returning to his home.

:46:07.:46:14.

Madonna is on the front releasing a film premiering yesterday, it was

:46:14.:46:23.

said to be Morrisable than anyone To expect! Peter Twis died today,

:46:23.:46:30.

the first man to fly at more than 1,000 miles an hour. He achieved

:46:30.:46:38.

the feat in 1956. Delta two preparing for the flight that will

:46:38.:46:48.
:46:48.:46:49.

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