06/02/2016 Witness


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Hello and welcome to Witness, with me, Tania Beckett. I'm back at the


British library in London for our first programme of 2016. Throughout


the year, we will be bringing you remarkable personal stories from


history. This month we will hear from a Cuban who saw the Dell Castro


arrived triumphant in Havana. A museum director whose treasures were


destroyed by the Taliban. And the Hungarian who invented the


bestselling puzzle in history. But first it is 50 years this month


since tragedy struck the US space agency NASA. In 1986, the spatial


Challenger exploded shortly after launch. Six astronauts and a teacher


were killed. Our first Witness, Barbara Morgan, was another teacher


who trained alongside the Cure orange team. My husband and I were


sitting on the sofa watching the news and President Reagan came on


and made the announcement, it quite remarkable. Today I'm directing NASA


to begin a search and to Jews as the first Citizen passenger in the


history of our space programme one of America's finest, a teacher -- to


choose. My husband, a writer, I will always remember jumped up


immediately and said, why teacher, why not a writer? I laughed and I


said I thought the teacher would be the perfect choice. Kristin was


chosen as the teacher in space, I was lucky to be able to be her back


up. Crystal was like the girl next door, she had an effervescent smile,


she was very intelligent and just soaking it all in. We spent six


months of training at the Johnson space centre with the Challenger


crew. Some of our favourite training was in the simulators to learn what


it was like to be weightless. We didn't stop laughing that entire


flight. Launch day was January the 28th. We had been at the Kennedy


Space centre for a few days and the crew had been spending their time in


crew quarters going through the last minute work on preparations for the


flight. That morning it was a very cold morning. Of course we had


school children all over the country watching. There were 100 kids from


her son's School. All of the families and friends. I remember I


was so excited, I so wanted to be with them. I was waving and I'm sure


I was jumping up and down. I was cheering them on, so happy for them


and wanted to be with them. We have main engine start. Four, three, two,


one and lift off. Liftoff of the 25th space shuttle mission and it


has cleared of the tower. Very soon into the launch, things didn't look


right. There wasn't one trail going up, all of a sudden there were a


couple, that looked very different from the launch that Christa and I


had watched a couple of months earlier. Then at some point you


realise that something has gone terribly wrong. Flight controllers


here looking very carefully at the situation. Obviously a major


malfunction. We all went to crew quarters, where we were awaiting


word and helping the families. It was a really tough situation.


In September I went back to the classroom and I taught for many more


years. In 1998, many, many years later, NASA asked me to apply for


the astronaut office, the astronaut programme. At that point I left


teaching and went and served as an astronaut for ten years. One of the


wonderful legacies of the Challenger is the educational programme that


the families of the Challenger crew members got together and created,


where young people for themselves experienced the joy and wonder of


spaceflight and space exploration. It's called the Challenger centre


for space science education. That's why the Challenger crew were going


into space, they were going to explore and discover and experience


for all of us and to keep that future wide open for all other. The


American astronaut Barbara Morgan there. Now to the discovery of a


disease which affects millions around the world. Our next Witnees,


looks at the story of the first patient to be diagnosed with


Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's was a doctor, a physician in the


psychiatric hospital in Frankfurt in 1888. He was a test from the idea


that psychiatric diseases are like other diseases, diseases of the


body, in this case of the brain. I have to find a place where I can


prove this. The first case actually was produced Dita, she was 51, she


lived here in Frankfurt. -- Augusto Dita. She was a normal housewife.


Suddenly in 1901 she got jealous and then she got forgetful and was also


very loud and cried. Alois Alzheimer said, that is my case. He wrote a


very detailed case history of how time, but this file had been and


nobody knew exactly where it could be. I am the former director of the


same psychiatric hospital in Frankfurt. We went into the archives


and suddenly we found this file laying somewhere, and that was the


file of Auguste Deter. The file must have laid there for about 70 years


or even more. And nobody detected it. It was a wonderful feeling to


have these files in our hands. All these questions are documented by


himself within this file, with his handwriting. She sits on the bed


with a helpless expression. " What is your name? Auguste. What is your


husband's name? Auguste, I think. She looked as if she didn't


understand the question. I showed her a pencil, a pen, a purse, key,


diary and cigar, all identified correctly. When she has to write Mrs


Auguste D, she writes Mrs, and we must repeat the other words because


she forgets them. The patient is not able to progress in writing and


repeats," I have lost myself". She lived very long, about five


years or even more. Was kept very well in the hospital and when she


died, the brain had been examined immediately after her death.


Consignment did many slices and we can still look through the


microscope and see, and that is the most important sign of what he found


within the brain of Auguste. -- outside. The reason of this disease,


of this dementia, is the position of flags and new of eyes. We still


think this is the reason for the disease. Unfortunately we have many,


many affected persons worldwide. And we did not yet find the


corresponding therapy, but we hope in the following years this will


take place. Doctor Conrad Murray there. Next to the invention of the


bestselling puzzle in history. The fiendishly difficult Rubiks cube. We


have been to Budapest to meet the man responsible for a global craze


in the nineteen eighties. The cute is a very special object.


It's a toy, it's a puzzle. I prefer to call it a piece of art -- the


cube. It's a construction. It's an educational tool. It is many


things. I was lecturing architecture and


construction. And for the students, the best way to teach them is to


show them what to do. I was interested about to create something


what is mobile, simple and contains some kind of task. And finally I


fell in love with the cube is a form because it has very special


qualities. After I did it and it was working


nicely, my prototypes, I think if I like something then somebody else


will like it as well. I thought," If we can produce it cheaply then it is


possible for something to happen". I wasn't dreaming about success, I


wasn't dreaming about numbers or figures. I had a feeling I could


share what I have done. It will be good. Firstly we started to sell in


Hungary. The big boom or change started in the 80s when we step into


the world market, at first in New York but all of the other tradeshows


and toy shows. And in three years, that was the golden age of the cube,


the first big boom, and in that time, we sold more than 100 million


cubes. We generated some income for me, but I was not expecting such


figures -- it's generated. I felt it was some kind of... When you win a


lottery, or you find money on the street.


Competitions... I can say it is some kind of side-effect. It wasn't


something he was targeting. My average time was one minute. I was


over 30 already and the best age to do it successfully is under 20. It


helps to understand the 3-dimensional movements, to exercise


our mind, to imagine something, to understand that if I change the


elements of the movements the result will not be the same. The progress


is not a continuous line, but we go further and then a little bit back


and forward again. We need many times to destroy something to


achieve progress. Happy cubing. I was always a very


happy cuber, just not always gave very successful one. You can watch


Witness every month on the BBC News Channel or you can catch up with


over 1000 radio programmes on our online archive. Just go to the


website. In January 1959, Cuban revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro


marched triumphantly into the streets of Havana. Carlos has never


forgotten the moment that changed the history of Cuba and the whole of


Latin America. On January the eighth, 1959, I was


standing on this corner as hundreds of Cubans were welcoming Fidel


Castro. And I was very excited, very optimistic. I thought these guys


were going to change Cuba in a positive way. But Easter dominated


Cuban politics until 1958. He was considered a guy who really enforce


the law for the benefit of American companies -- Batista. He and his


cabinet got $200,000 a month from the mafia to let them do whatever


they wanted to do about casinos, prostitution. My father was a


well-known politician who had opposed Batista from the beginning,


and I was a young high school student influenced by my father's


ideas. At that time, the Batista police could ease the chill you for


something as simple as participating in a strike -- could kill you. In


1958, I remember following the advance of the revolutionary forces


on shortwave radio. At the end of 1958, the


revolutionary movement called for some sort of strike, so it was a


very bad Christmas in Cuba. Because there were no celebrations, nobody


was going out, there were no parties. So on December 31, we went


to bed early. We didn't even wait for the New Year. And sometime


around three o'clock or four o'clock in the morning, I heard the phone


ring. My father woke up, and he said, he spoke obviously, and then


turned to all of us who had woken up and said, Batista has left. With


Batista in-flight to the Dominican Republic, this celebration turns to


rebel acts. Martial law is imposed. Most of the military installation


facilities in Havana were taken away. The guy surrendered. Fidel


Castro took eight days to arrive in Havana. He arrived in Havana in


January that eighth. Some of my friends started to criticise the


revolution, that it was too radical. They started to criticise the


presence of the commonest is. Between 1959 and 1961, all my


friends at school, all my cousins, all my uncles and aunts, left. My


sense in those years when the revolutionaries took over,


initially, I expected things to go well. I didn't expect the United


States to take such a hard line in Cuba. I knew there was going to be a


negative reaction. But I didn't expect things to turn around so


badly. Carlos Cuba. And finally to Afghanistan, a


country that many now associate with war. But it is also one that has


produced great civilisations, and great art. However, these treasures


where and anything to the Taliban regime. -- another. Annex guest was


working at the National Museum in trouble in 2001 when the Taliban


came to visit -- Kabul. The museum director still proudly


working at the Kabul Museum. That is all from Witness this month. We will


be back in February with more stories of our times told the people


who were there. But for now, from me and the rest of the Obama team,


goodbye. -- Witness team. Weather warnings are being


kept under close review. They may well be escalated through


Saturday morning,


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