21/11/2015 Witness


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Hello, I'm Laura and welcome to a special additional witness here in


New York. This month we have five remarkable moments of American


history told by five people who were there. We will hear from a man who


helped broker a peace deal between helped broker a peace deal between


two Los Angeles gangs, surfing legend and a period of American


history that saw different sections of society fighting for their civil


rights. In the 1960s, black Americans all across the US were


demanding the same rights as white Americans. Witness has spoken to


scoring which had seen, the leader of the civil rights struggle in


Cambridge, Maryland. This is a picture, 1963, of us getting ready


to protest to the National Guard and they were telling us know. As he put


his bayonet towards me I pushed it away. In 1963 Cambridge Marilyn was


a segregated town. -- Maryland. The nice jobs went to white people. It


was just about unliveable in the 20th section. People wanted better


housing, they wanted the schools segregated, they wanted access to


better jobs and they wanted the hospital segregated. I was 40 years


old. The men in Cambridge asked me to be the spokesperson for the


movement. I consider that like soldiers in the army. This is


something you're supposed to do. We would always do the marching,


picketing and rallies and we weren't trying to get the enemy to love us


either. During the summer of 63 I think the Cambridge movement reached


its apex. All of that pent-up fury came out. It was like Civil War, the


black and whites were fighting hand-to-hand. People just were at


everyone's froze. The whites were tough, the blacks were tough, the


shooting at night was going on so bad between blacks and whites. When


the sun broke through at five or six o'clock in the morning, it was like


clouds of smoke. That's when the mayor asked National Guard -- asked


for the National Guard. They brought about 800 of them into town. I had


never seen men on street corners with guns and things. One day we


were lined up in the streets ready to march. I moved across the front,


the soldier proceeded to put his bayonet and position it's like he


was going to charge me. I don't remember making up my mind, he's


going to stab me and I'm going to push this bayonet. My position on


violence and nonviolence, I've always believed if they came and


attacked you had a right to respond. I guess in retrospect we were


radical, and certainly they thought we were crazy. At a certain point


there was so much gunfire that the federal Government thought they


needed to bring an immediate end. We went to Washington for


negotiations. After five or six meetings we signed a Christian -- we


signed the Treaty of Cambridge, which meant original commands to


segregating the school -- desegregating the schools, building


housing, desegregating the hospital and making more jobs available. I


guess their hands were forced. They had to do that. It did feel like a


victory. I'm 92 years old and I don't think I have changed my


attitude. Things will change if you fight hard enough for them. Gloria


Richardson, a lifelong civil rights campaigner. In August 1970 on the


city thousands of American women went on strike to demand equal


and told us how the experience and told us how the experience


shaped the rest of her life. I made myself a vow. That was it, my life


thrilling feeling, still to this thrilling feeling, still to this


moment it gives me the -- gives me goose bumps. Your role as a woman


was pretty much, you got married. That was it. Then you played Mamie


or grand money. That was it. The jobs for women were only secretary,


stenographer, collect, you could not get credit in your own aim. In


buyers are used to put up that it was men only. This was all legal. I


was working for the American stock exchange at that time and a couple


of women in the office, there was only a few of us. Virtually we saw


it in the newspaper about women having a march free quality and said


that is interesting, so I showed up the next day. 10,000 militant


feminist stage a one-day strike for equal rights. They demand job


quality, free abortions and free you child care centres for working


mothers. They believe they will get nothing without a fight. At the


start of the day we went to the city going to various demonstrations and


handing out flyers. Join us now at! We started seeing thousands of women


coming off the side streets and we were looking, where were they coming


from? We were thrilled that we had 50 women. Incredible signs women


make themselves. There was a line of police on horses with riot sticks


and helmets pulled down, they were not going to let us out of the park


so when the women in front of a yield of March, forget about the


police, start marching and don't stop, the search word for word. They


had to step aside or get trampled, I guess. We took over the Avenue and


we were yelling at the people in front, move on! I read Brave Doctor


got down on one knee to take a picture and we just move over him.


The people on the side bar -- sidewalk were booing prior to that


and they started cheering and was exhilarating. It was now 5pm and


people were coming out of the buildings and the streets filled


with thousands of people between us, the estimate some was 30,000 to


50,000. We turned into 41st St and on the right there was some


scaffolding and work being done the public library on the second level


and we climbed up there with the women of the world unite banner and


unfurled it and dropped it over the side so everyone in the streets


below could see and they put their face in the air and you have this


sea of women yelling in quality. It was incredible.


It has worked because it has worked because it's put agenda and has


shown as our power to achieve it. I thought never again will I spew his


examination again. Never again will I stand by and allow it to happen to


other women. It is like being let out of a prison or something and


being exonerated for a crime he did not commit. It was just, wild. I


went home and felt I was bouncing on clients all the way home. My life


completely changed from that day on. I found other women that felt the


same. We worked together, mainly through the National organisation


for women to make change and we went forward and we were very happy to


say, I am a woman. Carol does Iran there. In that same month on the


other side of the country, 45 years ago, thousands of Mexican-Americans


were marched against the Vietnam War in Los Angeles. People just became a


defining moment for the Latina community in the US. We were dying


at twice the rate and heavily more a part of the military then are


proportion in the population. We were Mexican-Americans and Latinos


and others that were faced with the same kind of discrimination. That is


why we had to start our own anti-war movement. We organised


demonstrations that would come to a head with the national demonstration


in East LA. There were older people, but so many young people. People


were joining, coming in off the sidewalks, it was almost like a


moving fiesta. The march ended at Laguna Park and there we were going


to have a programme where I would open it with a speech. We are a


proud people with a proud culture. Before the world, before all of


North America, before all our brothers from the continent, we are


a nation! There was a commotion and it began very quickly and you could


see the sheriffs moving people, pushing people. Others began to push


back and they pushed the sheriffs away. In the front there was lots of


older people, children and others, families sitting in the front. They


were getting squeezed out. The sheriffs came back with more and


more clubs and they pushed back a little and they came back again and


the tear gas starts coming. My friend says to me, they can do


anything they want in this chaos. Get someone you know in the crowd


and have them get you out of here. That's what I did. The police throw


people out of the park, pushing people, beating people. We found out


that there was a gas station opened up a false tribute to wipe the


device out of their eyes and there was a line, the sheriffs came in and


started beating people. People started throwing rocks at the


sheriffs. Fires came up, there was some looting. Tremendous anger. 100


and something people arrested, scores injured. We found out that


three people had died, including Salazar, our main journalist, her


voice to the country is not the world. It was a tremendous loss. The


police said they had to control the situation, they had to move out all


those thousands of people. They said there were incidents, and there were


some incidents, we controlled them. That day, to Canada said we were


going to be a voice in this country and we no longer wanted to accept a


second-class status. He spent his whole life campaigning for the


Mexican American cause. You can watch winners every month on the BBC


News channel or you can catch up on over 1000 radio programmes in our


online archive, just go to BBC .co UK/witness. In Los Angeles the


Bottomley Crippes have been engaged in a deadly rivalry for decades. In


1992 killer show reels brokered peace deal that brought the two


sworn enemies together. Angus town here getting together. I grew up in


what's in Los Angeles. In LA County alone over the past 30 years it's


claimed more than 25,000 lives. It was a literal war zone. I had one of


my partners get cut in half with an AK-47 and we found his body in a


phone booth on the way to school in the morning. Black gangs started in


south-central Los Angeles. The average with one of two rival


confederations, the Crippes, who were blue, and the bloods, who were


read. You have to be really careful about what colour you wore when you


were in neighbourhoods, shoestrings, belts, you could literally lose your


life for wearing the wrong colour in the wrong place. I can kill about 32


people if I had them all. This is the same thing. I own two of these.


Fortunately I never stabbed or killed anyone. Fortunately. I got


accepted college and conceptualised this idea that we have to stop the


didn't want to lose my life over didn't want to lose my life over


this stuff. I felt like spirit had something bigger in store for my


life. I went back to the neighbourhood and I started a little


group. We had this idea to bring rival grinds together and started


hosting these meetings every Wednesday night. Some of the


get killers in the same room who get killers in the same room who


have harmed each other and have traded bodies. You can imagine. It's


intense. It took us about four years and although everyone agreed that


this is good, there was still no going in each other's neighbourhood.


April 28, 1992 we decided we had to test it because it's more than just


having a conversation, people have to see it on the ground. A group of


to the bureau Court housing projects to the bureau Court housing projects


and pulled in front of their gym and I swear everything froze. People


just stopped. Like... We were like, this is real, we're trying to stop


the killing. We are asking them and they said we went. No conflicts, no


problems. The peace treaty was on. That moment, I'm telling you, man,


it was like... Just, paradise. Just like everyone started getting on the


phone, calling their families and friends. We celebrated all night


because you're talking about 30 years of not being able to go in


each other's neighbourhood and suddenly this thing is wide open.


For real. A attention to this. The first two years of the peace


treaty, 92-94, gang homicides dropped 44%. Grandmothers began to


walk the streets, kids playing in the park. Many men became fathers to


their children for the first time. We created an entire grass roots


sports Federation to strengthen the peace treaty and bring rival --


rival gangs together so they would know which other. Thousands of


people would come to the games and support. One of the things you have


to know is that people love intensity and hate fiercely. When


it's good, is the best you can possibly imagine. It was the heyday,


we were rocking out. Achille Shirelles is still campaigning


against gang violence in LA. Firm final film, just off the picturesque


coastline of Northern California lies an area known as mavericks were


deadly waves crash onto nearby rocks. For a long time no one


thought they could be served. Jeff Clarke was the first to attempt


them. I grew up on the beach in Northern California one mile away


from mavericks. In the 70s, there was nothing going on here except


farming and I became so enamoured with the ocean. I started surfing at


nine years old and I served every milk and cranny on this coast. Those


rocks are the rocks as mavericks. Beyond those rocks you will find


demanding technical giant dangerous demanding technical giant dangerous


waves on the planet. Can you imagine a four-storey building coming at you


at 30 miles per are? And all of a sudden it hits the curve and topples


over on top of you. That's what it's like as mavericks. In these everyday


is the main challenge I had was trying to find somebody to serve it


with me. There was nobody up for surfing it. It is breaking in front


of rocks that stick out of the water 20 feet and I started to watch it


and study it. Eventually in 1975 I felt like I had the ability to go on


served by myself. When that wave came I turned and I was totally


committed, head down, pulling water as hard as I could. I starts to feel


that acceleration down the face of the wave and a shadow of that wave


standing up behind me, and just going down the face of the wave and


cringing, trying to maintain speed out run this thing as it is coming


down and the explosion right on my heels. And I made it. I got away.


After I served mavericks the first time, I drove around three years --


three years trying to bury people's years, dragging them out there. The


big wave riders. They didn't believe it waves like this existed. In


California. Eventually we saw an influx of surfers. December 1994 I


hear that mark food and some of the premier big wave riders from Hawaii


were coming to mavericks. Mark was catching waves and I paddle up to


him and said, Mark, what you think? And he goes, I never imagined was


this big of a wave. I was so stoked. Later on in Mayday came over


the loudspeaker in the harbour. This week the power of the world


California ways has been a magnet for servers from all over the world.


Tonight one of the very best, Mark Foo, has died. I did feel


responsible. This was kind of like my baby. Opening it up to the


do the whole time. Now to have such do the whole time. Now to have such


a tragic event happen. His beautiful spirit smiled. That brought so much


variety to mavericks. Just survive it you would have to treat death.


Marco Fu said you have to be willing to pay the ultimate price for the


ultimate thrill. Jeff Clark speaking to win is right next to the ways he


knows so well. That is nicked from me and the team here in New York for


this special edition of winners. Don't forget what -- to watch Tanya


Beckett later in the month, she will be at the British library imagine


bringing new five witnesses come more history through the eyes of


left it. That is it for now. Goodbye and thank you for watching. -- the


eyes that lived it.


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