Episode 8 The Big Questions


Episode 8

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Today on The Big Questions...

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Social media.

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Can you have the good

without the bad?

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And Max's Law.

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Should you have to opt out of being

on the organ donor register?

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APPLAUSE

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Good morning, I'm Nicky Campbell,

welcome to The Big Questions.

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Today, we're live from

Bath Spa University.

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Welcome, everybody,

to The Big Questions.

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APPLAUSE

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Social media.

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The online world of Twitter,

FaceBook, Snapchat and many other

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sites, where ideas and comments can

be posted and pictures shared,

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is probably the biggest change

to have affected our daily lives

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since the advent of television

or the mobile phone.

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People across the globe can share

what is happening to them

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with friends and complete strangers

in an instant.

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Politicians, businesses,

entertainers, artists and conmen

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all have an easy way

to peddle their ideas

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and wares direct to you,

24 hours a day, wherever you are.

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The snag is there is no editorial

control, there are no real systems

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to filter out the fake news

or the scams.

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Indeed, fake news is often used

to direct the unwary

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viewer to the scams.

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And while it can bring

people closer together,

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it can also be highly divisive,

pitting groups against each other

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and unleashing storms of abuse

on hapless individuals.

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Is social media beyond control?

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Laura, welcome to The Big Questions,

PhD researcher in social media. Out

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of control, isn't that the point,

the wonderful thing about social

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media?

I am with you, social media

is a wonderful thing, but it has got

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to the point where it is well beyond

control. In the last general

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election, we were exposed the amount

of abuse social media can it bring,

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MPs spoke about the amount of abuse

they experienced, and that exposed

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that actually social media can be a

threat to democracy. I have had the

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pleasure of interviewing politicians

and candidates and I remember a

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candidate speaking to me openly

about the abuse she received and she

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turned around and said, if I had

children, I would not put myself in

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this position, and that is a threat

to our democracy, we are segregating

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certain people from going forward in

our political system.

Our question,

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is it beyond control,

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is it beyond control, can it be

controlled, should it be controlled?

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The other side, a great force for

democratisation, it has given people

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a voice, a fantastic thing, don't we

have to accept it, uncomfortable as

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it is, because of the good?

It does

bring good and campaigns have been

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won solely online, The Everyday

Sexism Project, brilliant, but there

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has to be restrictions. I am all for

freedom of expression. But that is

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not absolute.

The establishment is

rattled. It has rattled their cage.

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If you start talking about

restrictions, we smell a rat. Does

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everybody smell a rat? OK. Let us

not move onto the next debate quite

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yet.

Ben? A threat to democracy, but

there is a real problem here which

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is a case in India last July, seven

guys beaten to death by a mob

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because of a fake story on WhatsApp,

that they were a child abductors.

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Same thing happened in the US, the

story Hillary Clinton was running a

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paedophile ring from the basement of

a pizzeria. An American guy went in

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with an assault rifle and started

firing. What happens online does not

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stay online and it can have real

life and real death consequences.

Is

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it a new thing, and amplified thing

now of that there is no doubt? But

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what about online abuse, Emily?

People who do not want to go into

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politics because of vile stuff they

are receiving something has to be

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done?

Nothing has to be done. People

use social media for good, the

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overwhelming majority. As is the

case in public life, there is a flip

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side, there will always be people

who are nasty and abusive, but I

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would say no

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would say no regulation, any

regulation who was the person who

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decides what is the truth, the line

of what people can and cannot say?

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That worries me, deeply concerning,

that there will be gatekeepers and

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the right opinion. People get

abused, deeply unpleasant. But it is

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a small drop in the massive ocean of

good social media does in connecting

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people.

Obviously, abuse happens on

the street, but if you look at the

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type of abuse going on on social

media, I would argue very little of

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that happens on the street. Could

you imagine, for example, Jess

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Phillips, an MP in Birmingham, she

spoke out about receiving 600

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threats of rape in one night alone

on Twitter. Could you imagine

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someone in the street stood there

well someone screamed threats of

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rape at you?

Death threats as well.

Have you had any?

I have. I ran a

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press freedom campaign and I

received thousands in the night.

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Death threats? Death threats, rape,

misogynistic abuse. The difference

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between that and on the street, for

example, I could turn off Twitter

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and it was quite a powerful feeling,

thinking that, actually, this stuff

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is really unpleasant and no one is

saying it is nice. I turned it off,

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my phone, and it stopped.

Because of

the dominance of social media, you

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are saying, the best way to overcome

abuse is switching it off, well, is

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that actually controlling it,

switching it off? If we look at the

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last general election, social media

dominated. Fair MPs, they campaigned

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quite -- for MPs, they campaigned a

lot on social media. If you said,

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you do not want to receive the

threats online, switch off social

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media, would that MPs be in

Parliament now?

That is not the only

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option. If you are the victim of

abuse, you do have ultimate control,

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you can turn it off, mute people,

ignore them, it is not a tangible

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threat. It is not pleasant and no

one reading through the tweets or

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messages is thinking, this is great

fun, but you are in control, it is

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not a real threat to your life.

To

the audience, what would you like to

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say?

We are assuming the mainstream

media is not out of control. MSM.

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They are owned by the corrupt elite,

brainwashing us for years.

We have

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got regulators...

Anything on

mainstream news, we are saying it is

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real, I would much rather go to

YouTube and look at Russell Brand to

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find out the truth behind something

rather than immediately believing

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the newspaper. Taking some of the

responsibility, like the lady said,

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the social media is about the people

and taking control and learning to

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be... Learning how to recognise if

something is real or fake, we should

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be teaching it in schools, and

teaching about media, so that we can

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look at something, is that the

truth?

Russell, that is a good

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point, that is a load of baloney?

I

look at what he has come his

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history, background, belief systems,

his intention.

And it is your belief

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system?

It might, but it might

challenge mine.

You and Russell are

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in a bubble.

My views have changed

massively since I was young and

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Socialist worker and now I am in my

40s, totally different beliefs, I

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have children, things change. I

would love my children to be

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inquisitive, even when it comes to

TV adverts, not much difference

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between TV adverts and Instagram.

The mainstream media, people do not

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trust the mainstream media anymore,

Ben?

There is a conspiracy theory

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they are peddling the same story.

Try to find the Telegraph and the

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Guardian agreeing on anything. They

have hundreds of years of tradition

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and there is a system in place, fact

checkers. A couple of times they

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have one stories I have done and it

has taken time to get through

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because they are checking every

link. There is a process. There is a

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fact checking process, correction

process.

This is dangerous.

This is

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dangerous? Can I introduce you?

Presenter of arty, used to be Russia

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Today, Afshin Rattansi.

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Today, Afshin Rattansi. -- presenter

of RT. The reason there is fertile

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ground for the fake news is because

the public have lost faith in the

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media. It is finished. That is why

RT is doing well, maybe even Donald

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Trump is doing well. The reason why

it is these publications, whether

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the Iraq war, Afghanistan war,

Libyan war, issues of war and

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peace...

Was it a problem with the

BBC? The BBC just about got close

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down.

They fired me, they fired the

Director General. We could see we

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were being told by the Government to

persuade the people into war. The

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Guardian, the Observer, they

supported the same thing.

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Interesting, but on the point... A

lot comes back to Russia, how much

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of a problem, a danger even, are RT?

In terms of their viewing, very

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small, the figures, 0.4% at the time

of being watched, in terms of the

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impact, there are orders of

magnitude second and third and what

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we have seen as a full-scale attempt

to undermine the mainstream media.

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And on... The public response to us.

So does Ofcom.

Ofcom has complained

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against the BBC for more than RT.

When it gets down to media,

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partiality, overall, you are right,

Ofcom have lots of... They deal with

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nudity, inappropriate language.

Violations of journalistic

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standards, the observation further

due accuracy and impartiality,

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#MeToo has had more programmes found

guilty of violating those standards

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-- RT has had more programmes found

guilty.

I would say... I worked

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there. I have a TV show. No one has

told me what to do.

But your chief

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editor refers to RT as the

information weapon. In an interview

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in 2012...

It is a weapon for the

poor and dispossessed. We interview

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the worker in the factory, not the

CPO. It weapon

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CPO. It weapon the work adopted

2008, she said, we are fighting war

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against the entire Western world --

in an interview in 2008. I think

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those comments were taken completely

out of...

Let us take it back to

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social media, what are the Russians

doing with bots and trolls. Bots our

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automated accounts. What we saw from

Russia was an outfit called the

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internet research agency in St

Petersburg won in 3500 patrol

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Twitter accounts, fake Facebook

accounts, masquerading as Americans

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on both sides of the political

divide, a lot of the content was

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pro-trump-macro, pro-guns,

anti-migrant, white supremacist.

A

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lot of the comment was black lives

matter, saying white supremacists

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are evil, I would not necessarily

disagree with that, but pushing both

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sides. In May, 2016, the troll

factory in St Petersburg ordered two

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simultaneous rallies in Houston, one

protesting against the opening of an

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Islamic cultural centre and one in

favour.

The Soviets used to do this,

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active measures. Propaganda. They

spread the rumour that HIV was

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created by the CIA. They kicked off

the stuff about the Kennedy

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conspiracy. What is the problem? The

same as it ever was, the scale of

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it?

The scale and the directness.

There were cases from Robert

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Mueller's indictment, the troll

factory is was interacting with real

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Americans through social media and

organising campaign rallies, the

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troll factory paid people to turn

up, dressed as Hillary Clinton in

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jail. You had direct contact between

Russian agents in St Petersburg and

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Americans on the ground, not a case

of collusion, people being fooled.

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This is dangerous. Will Moy.

So

interesting how much the world has

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changed since we started Full Fact.

When we started, you could latest

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every outlet in the country, that

day is over now. It means all of us

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can tell people what we think and

what we know about the world, we can

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share those ideas, it is exciting,

but it is much harder for all of us

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because things are coming to you

from 1000 different places and you

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do not know the track record, you

have to do more work to figure it

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out. The every link being fact

checked, what Ben said, I'm sorry,

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that is not possible. Some are

clinging onto enough money to do

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that, but most are publishing stuff

too quickly to make that possible.

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That is what Full Fact does. We

publish links to every review so

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that you can judge it for yourself

and this is where we will have to

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end up. If you want someone to trust

you, it will not be enough to say, I

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am so-and-so, take my word. It will

have to be, I can show you where you

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got it from, you can judge it.

Are

people interested in checking it

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out? It is not critical thinking, it

is wishful thinking. In a sense. You

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see stuff you want to think is true

and you disregard the rest.

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We will all do that, of course.

On the BBC, we get both sides of it.

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We have always tended to look for

things we agree with, when we choose

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what newspaper to buy, we used to

choose because we liked its views.

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I buy things I disagree with.

But most of us are human, we look

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for things that we agree with. That

is not a new challenge. We have to

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look on the Internet, it is about

all of us having conversations with

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each other, but there are parts of

it from a news point of view which

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aren't just all of us having

conversations with ourselves. When

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it comes to people paying money in

secret to target adverts to

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particular parts of the population,

you don't know who, that is new and

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an exercise of power and it is

reasonable to ask who is doing it

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and it should be transparent.

Tell us the outlets you trust.

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First, Steve, if it is beyond

control, is there any hope of doing

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anything to rein in not just the

abusers but also the fake news

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purveyors?

We need to design and architecture

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that is more conducive to

high-quality information rather than

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fake news. I share the same concerns

about censorship, determining what

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is fake news.

We have to understand people respond

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to information, how Facebook and

Twitter can be used, and the idea of

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targeting specific individuals based

on their personality is a real risk

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to democracy. The reason that is it

is happening in private. No one else

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knows what this person has perceived

in terms of information. That is

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qualitatively different from the way

things used to be where parties

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would put up billboards next to the

road and we could all see them and

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knew what the message was. We now

have the technology and it isn't the

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Russians, but right here in the UK.

They are designing custom designed

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messages shown to people on

Facebook. We don't know to what

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extent they are customised.

Of the British Government doing it

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in the same way albeit on a smaller

scale?

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I am not talking about governments.

Do we have a mirror image to what

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Vladimir Putin is doing.

I am not an expert.

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I am not an expert.

And what was

that allegation...

The man who has

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the billion-dollar contract...

Can I

say one other element which is

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related, this started with four

companies, Snapchat, Twitter...

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There is censorship going on. It is

not as free as you make out. The

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idea of fake news as a price to pay

for a free Internet, these companies

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are censoring Google search terms,

lots of people saying the articles

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that are not the mainstream, the

Atlantic Council, the pro-NATO

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organisations, they are given

preferential treatment. In the case

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of harassment everyone here would

say these companies have to do more.

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There are not democratically...

Steve, finish your point. The

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algorithms thing, you go on Amazon,

you buy a book, it tells you the

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same set of books you should buy. It

doesn't give you the psychological

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impetus to break away.

That is right but it is an

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opportunity, we have the technology

to change algorithms and make

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suggestions to people on Amazon

taking something is -- outside their

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comfort zone. I like this, and I

wish I had the money to buy them.

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But for society it would be better

for Amazon to tell me a book I would

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not like.

Exactly right. That is the avenue we

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should pursue, to think about clever

ways to broaden people's access to

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information without censorship.

Editorial control, and the situation

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in Germany as well.

What would you like to say?

Who do

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we trust? Regarding fake news, it is

a subjective thing, and what is the

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real definition CNN? It is a slur

which has no objective meaning. As

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it is used it only means a news

source I personally disagree with.

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Is it not used to...

But if you check the facts behind

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the story?

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the story? I was try to get you some

business!

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Thank you. Fake news is now a term

used to abuse journalists when they

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hold politicians to account which is

a bad thing.

Does it have a precise

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definition?

We need to recognise

there are lots of separate problems.

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It started when people noticed there

were teenagers in places like

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Macedonia publishing made up stories

to get advertising. That was one

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kind of fake news. Another kind is

where you take real data about the

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economy, you distort it for your

political campaign. If you put both

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of those in one bucket we will never

solve anything. One of them is part

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political debate.

You can check a fat, the side of a

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bus, £350 million for the NHS, that

is not fake news but a claim you can

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check.

Absolutely -- you can check a

sacked.

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sacked. -- fact. We can check the

legal basis, all of that for you.

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I don't know what your political is

for establishing a procedure to

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investigate whether a story is true.

Journalism is a qualitative process,

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to obtain information. You don't

have hard metrics for establishing

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whether it is true. Four. You are

talking about other people's

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journalistic procedures which comes

down to the same procedures

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fore-checking whether something is

true. There is rarely a

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fundamentally absolutely objective

truth underlying any story and it is

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not obvious that is something that

can be obtained simply, quickly,

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efficiently by a public or private

agency who happens to have some

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greater measure of the tooth.

With

Lord McAlpine when he was labelled,

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there was an objective truth

underneath that which led to the

0:23:210:23:24

court room. Steve?

There is a real risk by saying, no

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one knows what the truth is, we are

throwing up our hands and saying it

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-- there is too much information,

something which has been happening

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on social media and culprit is

making that claim in what I call a

0:23:460:23:52

shock and chaos approach to fake

news. At the moment we give up on

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this idea that there are certain

things we can check like the

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full-scale about the £350 million.

And it was false. But the point is,

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there are certain things that are

false and other certain things that

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are true. The no group -- the

inauguration of crowd for Trump.

We

0:24:150:24:25

have an innate ability to critically

look at things for us to decide for

0:24:250:24:28

ourselves what is true.

. Do we have

that critical ability? It is the

0:24:280:24:37

same thing we accuse young jihadists

who are radicalised. Maybe we are

0:24:370:24:43

all losing the ability. Some people

still stand by the 350 figure, as a

0:24:430:24:51

gross figure, saying that is about

the amount of money we can put in.

0:24:510:24:58

Let us point out lots of things are

true and false, lots more important

0:24:580:25:04

things we don't know. A large part

of what we are doing is to say this

0:25:040:25:09

is as much as we do know and don't

know, be put the shades of grey back

0:25:090:25:13

in.

I want to come to you.

For me,

with fake news, a lot of times it

0:25:130:25:24

will come up on your social media

profile and you will read the

0:25:240:25:27

headline, how many go on to click?

As soon as you click you might

0:25:270:25:33

realise it is fake news. They will

read the headline, I know people who

0:25:330:25:39

then actively go on to share it and

believe that is true.

0:25:390:25:43

Facebook made a profit of £39

billion. You might say that is

0:25:430:25:52

terrible. But these adverts, they

are making money, some money.

For

0:25:520:26:02

me, social networking companies

should be held to account. We

0:26:020:26:06

mentioned education and the

Government have put forward in their

0:26:060:26:11

green paper about compulsory

education within schools with regard

0:26:110:26:14

to social media. I believe that is

one way forward in that we should be

0:26:140:26:20

educating. We have a whole

generation that had been brought up

0:26:200:26:24

with social media. They don't know a

life without social media. Shouldn't

0:26:240:26:28

we be educating them on social

media?

0:26:280:26:34

How do you counteract the business

model? There is a big paradox which

0:26:340:26:43

relies on the fakery?

That is right, this is where you

0:26:430:26:48

have the bleeding and from social to

traditional media, so much that goes

0:26:480:26:53

on is emotional targeting. Someone

will put out a scare headline to get

0:26:530:26:59

people afraid and they will click on

it and then realised the story is a

0:26:590:27:05

wind-up.

Sometimes it is not.

Sometimes it is true. Look at the

0:27:050:27:11

tabloids, they have been doing this

for decades, there is emotional

0:27:110:27:15

targeting.

Every reason why we

shouldn't panic.

0:27:150:27:19

Yes, lots of things are true. We are

not machines, the world is really

0:27:190:27:29

new now, and historically every time

new communications technology has

0:27:290:27:32

come up people have panicked and

tried to limit it. When it comes to

0:27:320:27:39

the app -- the opportunity tabloids

we need to be careful.

And the

0:27:390:27:44

difference between what the tabloids

used to do and Facebook now, one of

0:27:440:27:50

the really important things we know

from cognitive science about why

0:27:500:27:53

people stick to their beliefs is

because they think they are widely

0:27:530:27:57

shared. With social media we have an

opportunity for anyone, no matter

0:27:570:28:03

how absurd their belief, that they

can find a community, like-minded

0:28:030:28:08

people on the Internet, and think

their belief is widely shared.

0:28:080:28:12

People at their seriously think the

earth is flat. You can go on to

0:28:120:28:16

Facebook and have a community of a

thousand people around the world.

We

0:28:160:28:22

are doing that debate next week!

So you will be resistant to changing

0:28:220:28:28

your belief.

300 years ago...

The last word? Google is one of the

0:28:280:28:36

most powerful companies and is

already censoring it, it's not free

0:28:360:28:41

at the moment. From WikiLeaks, we

know Google works with Hillary

0:28:410:28:48

Clinton, you mentioned four

corporations, this far away from the

0:28:480:28:51

dream of the Internet it should be

free. These are multi-billion dollar

0:28:510:28:57

company is censoring already.

We need regulation to stop it?

Like

0:28:570:29:03

we nationalised the telephone

company here, or the post office, we

0:29:030:29:08

can nationalise some of these so

they can come under democratic

0:29:080:29:13

accountability.

Broadcast

organisations in the pocket of the

0:29:130:29:17

Government?

Not in the pocket of the

Government.

Democratically

0:29:170:29:24

accountable. Thank your very much

indeed.

0:29:240:29:29

Thank you for your thoughts on that

debate.

0:29:290:29:33

You can join in all this

morning's debates by logging

0:29:330:29:37

on to bbc.co.uk/thebigquestions,

and following the link

0:29:370:29:39

to the online discussion.

0:29:390:29:40

Or you can tweet using

the hashtag #bbctbq.

0:29:400:29:44

Tell us what you think

about our last Big Question too.

0:29:440:29:47

Should we presume consent for organ

donations in England?

0:29:470:29:49

And if you'd like to apply

to be in the audience

0:29:490:29:52

at a future show, you

can email [email protected]

0:29:520:29:55

We're in Edinburgh next week,

then Newport in South Wales

0:29:550:29:57

on March 11th, and Brighton

the week after that.

0:29:570:30:00

Friday saw a successful Second

Reading of Geoffrey Robinson's bill

0:30:070:30:10

to change the basis of the organ

donor register to one

0:30:100:30:16

of presumed consent in England.

0:30:160:30:17

The Government is going to go

ahead with the idea.

0:30:170:30:20

Last autumn, Theresa May

indicated her strong support

0:30:200:30:22

of an opt-out system in a letter

to Max Johnson, a nine year old boy

0:30:220:30:25

who had received a heart transplant.

0:30:250:30:27

She said it would be

known as Max's Law.

0:30:270:30:30

But there are still several hurdles

to get across first,

0:30:300:30:34

not least whether a potential

donor's family should have a right

0:30:340:30:37

of veto when the final

decision must be made.

0:30:370:30:43

Think about that one.

0:30:430:30:45

Wales, just down the road

from here in Bath, changed

0:30:450:30:48

to an opt-out system two years ago.

0:30:480:30:49

It's fair to say the results

so far are mixed.

0:30:490:30:52

Should we presume consent for organ

donations in England?

0:30:520:30:58

Scotland is still waiting on this

one and trying to make up their

0:30:580:31:01

minds. Here is the thing, consultant

transplant surgeon, welcome, Mike

0:31:010:31:11

Stephens, I have signed up to the

register. As an adult, I expressed

0:31:110:31:16

wishes, as an autonomous human

being, but my wife or my daughters,

0:31:160:31:21

my mother, they could stop that

happening. How can that be right?

0:31:210:31:27

You cannot think of that happening

in any other sphere.

Well, if you

0:31:270:31:34

phrase it like that, it is not

right, but I think you need to look

0:31:340:31:38

at this in the context of the whole

discussion. It is interesting we

0:31:380:31:42

start the discussion here because

the family's role is unchanged in

0:31:420:31:47

the opt-out system in Wales. They

have the same role as in the opt-in

0:31:470:31:53

system in England. The family can

overrule their relative's wishes. I

0:31:530:32:00

think the language unionist in your

introduction is part of the issue --

0:32:000:32:06

unionist. You need to change that

around, really. To make it much more

0:32:060:32:13

about your decision. You make a

decision in life and make sure

0:32:130:32:18

people know what that decision is

and you make it clear about that and

0:32:180:32:22

then it is much more difficult for

families to go against that. The is

0:32:220:32:28

families are not overriding people's

wishes, decisions for the sake of

0:32:280:32:33

being awkward -- the truth is. They

do not want to make things

0:32:330:32:39

unpleasant.

A period of intense

grief.

Absolutely. We are asking

0:32:390:32:44

families to make decisions that

probably the most emotional point in

0:32:440:32:48

their life. When you make a decision

when you are emotional, as we all

0:32:480:32:52

know, you do not always make good

decisions. Our research in Wales

0:32:520:32:57

shows that if you go back to

families who said no took organ

0:32:570:33:01

donation, a few months down the

line, many regret the decision. --

0:33:010:33:08

to organ donation.

It takes the

possibility of regret away?

You make

0:33:080:33:13

it clear it is your decision as an

individual, you convey your decision

0:33:130:33:17

to your loved ones so they know what

it is because in that moment of

0:33:170:33:23

intense emotion, they are already

brief, unexpectedly bereaved,

0:33:230:33:27

normally, because that is what organ

donors tend to be. You are asking

0:33:270:33:31

them to make this decision. Imagine

a scenario whereby you have died,

0:33:310:33:38

your family are there, incredibly

upset, somebody comes in and says,

0:33:380:33:42

they were on the organ donor

register, you say, hang on, they

0:33:420:33:46

didn't tell me that, I and their

wife, I know everything about them,

0:33:460:33:52

why did they not discuss that with

me? I don't understand. They go

0:33:520:33:56

through the process of trying to

understand. Was this really

0:33:560:34:01

important to them? Was it just

something they did when they got a

0:34:010:34:05

driving licence?

Presumed consent

does not show you have made a

0:34:050:34:08

decision.

Well, it doesn't, and the

key thing about all of this debate

0:34:080:34:13

is that what the law change has done

is given us a platform to have all

0:34:130:34:20

of these discussions, including

about what the family's role is, so

0:34:200:34:24

we can put it out there that you

have an opportunity to discuss your

0:34:240:34:29

decision in life and then your

relatives will know what to do.

I

0:34:290:34:33

cannot wait to hear from the

audience in a moment. A lot of that

0:34:330:34:40

will have resonated with you, tell

us what happened to your son?

My

0:34:400:34:45

son, Connor, he was 18 when he was

attacked, murdered. Three years ago.

0:34:450:34:52

As a result of his injuries being so

severe. Organ donation became an

0:34:520:34:58

option. He had decided that he did

agree with organ donation at the

0:34:580:35:06

time, he was only 16. He made that

decision. We had a conversation,

0:35:060:35:12

albeit brief, we had a conversation

about it. Never for one minute

0:35:120:35:16

thinking we would be put into that

position. And then we jumped forward

0:35:160:35:24

two years, that awful night became a

reality for us as a family and the

0:35:240:35:31

specialist donor nurse came to speak

to us, after lots of discussions

0:35:310:35:36

with the medical team, police, lots

of other individuals, to explain

0:35:360:35:42

that Conner would possibly be in a

position to become a donor and that

0:35:420:35:48

is when the conversation started. I

must say, I had a conversation with

0:35:480:35:53

Conner but his dad had not.

Initially, the reception we gave the

0:35:530:35:58

specialist donor nurse was quite

hostile, frosty.

Really?

Because

0:35:580:36:04

from me as a mum, Conner had been

through such a horrific ordeal, I

0:36:040:36:09

did not want any more pain for him.

I did not want him to be put through

0:36:090:36:14

anything more painful. So with the

specialist donor nurse, we talked

0:36:140:36:21

through lots and lots of scenarios,

questions, some of them might have

0:36:210:36:25

been really small and insignificant,

one of the biggest concerns for me

0:36:250:36:30

was, if we were to continue with

this journey, that Conner was never

0:36:300:36:35

on his own, and that was a really

big point for me and we had to

0:36:350:36:40

discuss it with

0:36:400:36:46

discuss it with her and never at any

point did we feel under pressure to

0:36:460:36:49

consent, we never felt under

pressure to continue, if we had made

0:36:490:36:54

a decision that we felt we needed to

pull back, then that was OK, that

0:36:540:36:59

was an option for us. But we made

the decision, Conner made the

0:36:590:37:06

decision, we just facilitated it. He

believed life goes on, his mantra in

0:37:060:37:10

life.

Did that in a sense keep you

going?

That kept us very focused.

He

0:37:100:37:15

had the tattoo on his arm. What did

it say?

Life goes on. His tattoo. It

0:37:150:37:22

was really poignant. But for us,

that kept us believing we were doing

0:37:220:37:29

the right thing. That is what it

was, for Conner, it was the right

0:37:290:37:36

decision. Emotionally, it wasn't

possibly for us at the time, but it

0:37:360:37:41

was about what Conner wanted and

that is what we did.

0:37:410:37:43

APPLAUSE

0:37:430:37:48

And lives were saved?

Yes, three.

APPLAUSE

0:37:540:38:07

Knowing that, that amazing thing,

three lives were saved, what is that

0:38:070:38:11

like?

It is awesome, to use Conner's

words. I remember a brief

0:38:110:38:18

conversation we had at the time and

he said, in his own naive

0:38:180:38:23

matter-of-fact way, who wouldn't

want a bit of this, mum? That was

0:38:230:38:29

his humour, his belief. To say I am

happy, it is the wrong expression.

0:38:290:38:37

But I am comfortable and I am

immensely proud that Conner make

0:38:370:38:42

that decision.

Can I ask, if you had

not had a conversation with him

0:38:420:38:48

beforehand, what would your decision

has been on that night?

It would

0:38:480:38:52

have been to continue to go through

the system. Conner was so strong

0:38:520:39:00

willed, stubborn, knowing his

personality, it was a difficult

0:39:000:39:03

decision, by no means was it easy,

but together, as a family, we would

0:39:030:39:08

have carried on through the journey.

Thoughts from the audience. Wow.

0:39:080:39:14

What would you like to say? I would

be interested as well, if there is

0:39:140:39:20

anyone here who would opt-out of the

register.

As a medical student, I

0:39:200:39:29

had the recent privilege of seeing a

kidney transplant and just seeing

0:39:290:39:35

this small grey kidney going pink

before my eyes and start working,

0:39:350:39:39

this is astonishing, amazing. I

think donation is a wonderful thing

0:39:390:39:44

and the Catholic Church encourage it

as well. I think that is a great

0:39:440:39:52

thing. We are here to discuss how we

should increase the amount of

0:39:520:39:58

donors, I think most people in the

audience...

Presumed consent, what

0:39:580:40:03

are your thoughts specifically on

that?

Not not system, one, it has no

0:40:030:40:08

clear evidence that will increase

donors? -- and opt-out system. In

0:40:080:40:15

some cases, it hasn't not increased

donors. It is morally dubious and it

0:40:150:40:22

is based upon this notion of

presumed consent which is

0:40:220:40:25

nonsensical. How can you say I have

said yes to something, I haven't?

We

0:40:250:40:31

have a man who knows about the

evidence, Professor Roy Thomas. You

0:40:310:40:36

have studied this, looked at the

evidence, what is it?

We started

0:40:360:40:40

looking at the evidence in 2007 in

Wales and that is why we have the

0:40:400:40:45

law now and you have two connecting

groups. Connectivity being

0:40:450:40:50

important. Conner, the family, and

the donors. The recipients, and the

0:40:500:40:56

donors working together. It is

important to realise because we have

0:40:560:41:00

10,000 people waiting in the UK.

They call it the invisible death

0:41:000:41:05

row. The invisibility because they

do not have advocacy. Brave

0:41:050:41:11

families, like Conner's case, they

are important, they are only 1%.

0:41:110:41:18

When they say there is no moral

ethical guidance here, there is.

0:41:180:41:22

There is a moral base in Wales for

this, it is not about the law, that

0:41:220:41:27

is important. The third group, the

group that now can opt-out. That is

0:41:270:41:32

important as well. They can opt-out,

perhaps some people argue we say

0:41:320:41:40

opting out of humanity, maybe, that

is an argument point in moral

0:41:400:41:45

ethics, but the key thing is we duck

and discuss it in the round -- the

0:41:450:41:52

key thing is we look. The ethical

debate is important, as we are

0:41:520:41:57

having today, but most people want

this law now. Two thirds of the

0:41:570:42:01

people want this law because it

saves lives and there are 500 people

0:42:010:42:07

who died last year, five bosses went

over the cliffs of Dover, and that

0:42:070:42:12

is a big deal, it used to be one bus

in Wales -- five bosses went over

0:42:120:42:21

the cliffs.

You put your hand up,

gentleman with the glasses, who

0:42:210:42:26

would opt-out?

I would opt-out.

Organ donation is a very moral

0:42:260:42:32

thing. If you want to be moral and

ethical, do not force your morality

0:42:320:42:37

on me, that is unethical. It is

quite perverse we are to assume that

0:42:370:42:45

all women and children born after

this law passes, the government will

0:42:450:42:48

assume the rights to harvest their

organs like a demented keeper, a

0:42:480:42:54

disturbing precedent, not the role

of the state. Be moral, donate. But

0:42:540:42:57

do not force it on me.

Hand up

beside you.

I agree. My heart goes

0:42:570:43:05

out to Conner and his mother. It is

not some nightmare...

Body

0:43:050:43:10

snatchers?

We are talking about

lives here, lives that can be saved

0:43:100:43:17

by that person making the choice, be

it for personal, spiritual or

0:43:170:43:22

religious reasons, they want to

opt-out, OK, but the assumption is

0:43:220:43:28

taken however, that we can save

human lives with their organs that

0:43:280:43:34

you have agreed to give up, should,

God forbid, the worst happen to you

0:43:340:43:39

or a member of your family. A very

important point for those who do not

0:43:390:43:43

agree with that, if it was one of

your loved ones that desperately

0:43:430:43:47

needed the organ, how would you feel

then?

Anyone else who would opt-out?

0:43:470:43:54

I just want to know...

I am kind of

on the fence, brought up in the

0:43:540:44:01

Jewish faith we would not give

donations at that point in our life,

0:44:010:44:07

we can give live donations, it is

quite a contentious... Sorry?

The

0:44:070:44:13

Jewish leaders do not agree with

that. They looked deeper, they

0:44:130:44:16

would...

The Jewish faith is quite

interesting insofar as there are

0:44:160:44:22

many beliefs and many different

interpretations, so what I am trying

0:44:220:44:27

to say is I have been brought up in

a belief we would not donate,

0:44:270:44:31

however, I have been living... I'm

finding this very emotive. My

0:44:310:44:38

11-year-old Sun is likely to need a

kidney transplant multiple times in

0:44:380:44:44

his life, currently going through

potential bladder reconstruction as

0:44:440:44:48

well, so for me to sit here and say

I would expect myself or someone

0:44:480:44:52

asked to donate to him but on death

not to...

Makes you more likely to

0:44:520:45:00

give than receive? Important point.

You have to look at this from so

0:45:000:45:06

many different angles. But I think

my inclination would be I would have

0:45:060:45:09

to say that I would not opt-out

although I do not believe in the

0:45:090:45:13

system being proposed, I believe

that if you are going to come in

0:45:130:45:16

with a system like that, the

transition state from how we

0:45:160:45:20

currently are to where you are

planning to go towards, it has to be

0:45:200:45:25

managed very carefully, you have to

know exactly what it is all about

0:45:250:45:29

and just to presume whether it

0:45:290:45:39

and just to presume whether it is at

16, 18, whatever age, the minute

0:45:390:45:41

your birthday comes, does that mean

you have to sign on the dotted line

0:45:410:45:44

to make sure God forbid you are not

caught in the two-year window?

0:45:440:45:46

Fascinating points. I will be right

with you. So interesting. As you

0:45:460:45:51

say, so moving too, thinking about

those situations. Sadly, heart

0:45:510:45:55

health campaigner, critical heart

condition, at any moment, you could

0:45:550:46:00

need a heart transplant, if a viable

heart was found in the family

0:46:000:46:06

decided ultimately not to consent

and to save your life, what would

0:46:060:46:12

that be like for you?

0:46:120:46:17

Of course that would be appalled but

I want to approach it a different

0:46:170:46:21

way. As a heart patient, everybody

says to me, surely you must be in

0:46:210:46:26

favour of the opt out system? I am

not in favour at all because it is

0:46:260:46:33

the word, presumed, that really

worries me.

0:46:330:46:35

I have spent the year talking with

lots of decision makers who are

0:46:350:46:42

invested in this, charities, the

NHS, the team at Papworth Hospital,

0:46:420:46:48

and my conclusion is something that

everybody I am sure would agree

0:46:480:46:52

with, the most important part of the

process is having a conversation

0:46:520:46:57

with your loved ones. Going for

presumed consent can take away the

0:46:570:47:01

need for the conversation.

How to make sure we have those

0:47:010:47:07

conversations?

I want a mandatory decision making

0:47:070:47:09

process. People have their own

thoughts and feelings and emotions

0:47:090:47:17

about this. This isn't about

bullying anybody into making the

0:47:170:47:22

decision. What this is about is

saying, you need to make a decision.

0:47:220:47:27

I have three children. When my

eldest son turned 18, he could vote

0:47:270:47:35

for the first time so we had a right

of passage conversation, who will

0:47:350:47:40

you vote for? He could drive, so we

discussed never drinking and

0:47:400:47:45

driving. As part of that rite of

passage, I think the majority of

0:47:450:47:50

families in this country will sit

down together and say, you are 18

0:47:500:47:54

now, you have to make a decision,

let us discuss this, this is a rite

0:47:540:47:59

of passage for you. You can tick yes

or no but you have to make a

0:47:590:48:05

decision and that forces the

conversation, encourages the

0:48:050:48:10

conversation in the family. The

heart transplant sessions I have

0:48:100:48:12

spoken to have said they have a care

for the patient but also how to care

0:48:120:48:21

for the family. They will never ruin

another life to save a rice -- save

0:48:210:48:29

a life. They will never go against

wishes because they are humans

0:48:290:48:35

themselves. They don't go into that

profession to cause damage and upset

0:48:350:48:38

to others.

I do not believe presumed consent is

0:48:380:48:43

the way to go. We have to make a

mandatory decision and then educate

0:48:430:48:49

from a very early age.

You don't approve of the opt out

0:48:490:48:57

system?

Everyone here, we all believe in

0:48:570:49:04

organ donation, we will want to

increase organ donation and see more

0:49:040:49:08

transplants. My criticism is it

doesn't work. The evidence from the

0:49:080:49:16

Welsh Government report which was

still ambivalent, there has been no

0:49:160:49:24

change in the rate. There may be a

change in awareness and consent

0:49:240:49:28

rates have gone up but the hard

numbers has not happened. I am a

0:49:280:49:35

firm believer in organ donation. If

you are happy to receive a

0:49:350:49:40

transplant you should be happy to be

a donor. Any other position is

0:49:400:49:43

hypocritical. There are different

things we can do.

That is

0:49:430:49:53

interesting. Am I right in saying

you think there should be a

0:49:530:49:59

prioritisation for those who have

agreed?

I do. There are different

0:49:590:50:06

systems in the world. Certainly,

Israel edged used a system where

0:50:060:50:10

they bring this system of

reciprocity. -- have introduced a

0:50:100:50:15

system. There are our priority

points, if you are waiting for a

0:50:150:50:22

heart or liver, your medical aid

overrides everything. Kidney

0:50:220:50:27

transplantation where we do have

dialysis which is not as good...

NHS

0:50:270:50:36

should not be about the choices

people make in life.

0:50:360:50:44

And the NHS versus private?

The figures are really important.

0:50:460:50:55

This is fact, if we knew the answer

whether or not opt out what we would

0:50:550:51:01

have done it years ago. We don't

have strong statistical evidence to

0:51:010:51:04

prove it. We have got associations

but not strong evidence. We may get

0:51:040:51:12

it soon because of what has happened

in Wales. But the numbers are small

0:51:120:51:17

and the fluctuations of great. This

law change is about consent change,

0:51:170:51:24

a different way of consenting so the

only thing that is relevant in terms

0:51:240:51:27

of success is has the consent rate

gone up. Year on year since the

0:51:270:51:35

update -- the opt out was introduce

in Wales, the rates have gone up.

On

0:51:350:51:43

the statistics and arguments?

In Belgium in the mid-19 80s they

0:51:430:51:48

introduced opt out. They saw a 50%

increase in organ donation rates in

0:51:480:51:55

five years, a clear statistic there

for everyone to see. In the opt out

0:51:550:52:02

countries, Spain, Denmark, Norway,

they have a better organ donation

0:52:020:52:06

rate than we have in the UK. It is

important to look at that. Germany

0:52:060:52:14

hasn't, at the other end of the

scale. Facts show presumed consent

0:52:140:52:20

works and studies at Harvard,

Chicago, they showed these facts.

0:52:200:52:25

Presumed consent works.

Spain is

usually cited as the perfect example

0:52:250:52:32

of presumed consent.

Spain don't

have an opt out register.

But

0:52:320:52:39

Belgium does. Wales has not shown

the same.

It is too early.

0:52:390:52:52

the same.

It is too early. We need

to take the right lessons from

0:52:520:52:54

Spain. The Spanish have said it has

nothing to do with presumed consent

0:52:540:53:01

but investment, education, raising

awareness.

0:53:010:53:05

APPLAUSE

0:53:050:53:10

APPLAUSE We have done all those

things, we haven't had the consent

0:53:130:53:17

rate increase so it is time the

something else in addition.

0:53:170:53:23

I would like to say, I want to thank

my donor's family every day, really,

0:53:230:53:32

so much.

I had a liver transplant just over a

0:53:320:53:35

year ago. I was one of the lucky

ones with how quickly it happened.

0:53:350:53:44

From feeling just tired and being

told it was a virus, to going yellow

0:53:440:53:52

and having a life-saving transplant

two you -- weeks later. I got my

0:53:520:53:59

gift. Having said I don't agree with

opt out, there are Laverty points,

0:53:590:54:06

one is consent, the biggest one is

family. At the moment, even if you

0:54:060:54:12

haven't signed up to the register

your family can sign up for you.

You

0:54:120:54:17

say, my gift. Is it an important

concept that it was a gift?

You

0:54:170:54:25

can't even get close to what it

feels like when you wake up from a

0:54:250:54:29

transplant.

APPLAUSE

0:54:290:54:38

I was 48 hours away, I was on a

super urgent list where your life is

0:54:390:54:46

in danger.

I was at peace with the fact it

0:54:460:54:54

might not happen for me.

0:54:540:55:00

might not happen for me. When I got

woken up, I could breathe for

0:55:000:55:04

myself, my transplant coordinator

grabbed my hand and said, we have

0:55:040:55:08

found you a liver and it was the

most incredible feeling. There was

0:55:080:55:16

hope, it was amazing. Next thing, I

was woken up and it is like a

0:55:160:55:26

euphoria, you can't comprehend,

there are no words, when someone

0:55:260:55:30

else says the life. It is one thing

getting better, battling cancer, but

0:55:300:55:36

when someone else saves your life

for you, it changes everything. I

0:55:360:55:41

like to think I speak for all people

who have had transplants, we don't

0:55:410:55:46

go back to the lives we had before,

we are conscious of the

0:55:460:55:50

responsibility we had to the person

who helped keep us alive that we try

0:55:500:55:57

and live bigger and better and

richer lives.

0:55:570:56:04

richer lives. Organ donations are

incredibly important but it will

0:56:040:56:07

never be as simple as opt in or opt

out. Probably one year to the date

0:56:070:56:14

my donor died, my best friend's mum

died in the same situation and I saw

0:56:140:56:20

it from the other side. In that

moment I realised it is not clean

0:56:200:56:23

cut. But only are you so vulnerable,

in agony with grief, but she had

0:56:230:56:29

this huge hope, even if there is no

hope. You still think that maybe

0:56:290:56:37

they have got it wrong. That is a

huge thing. It is not simple. It has

0:56:370:56:44

to be a conversation, a change in

culture.

0:56:440:56:47

On the point about it is not simple

as opt in and opt out. In Wales we

0:56:470:56:56

have devised a resource pack due to

go out to bring about a conversation

0:56:560:57:01

with young adults around the subject

of organ donation. We give lots of

0:57:010:57:07

advice at school, mental health

advice, sexual health advice but no

0:57:070:57:14

one likes to talk about the other

side, the dark side of life. In this

0:57:140:57:19

pack, we have got a conversation

going within groups that will answer

0:57:190:57:25

those questions. Giving those young

people the knowledge it is OK not to

0:57:250:57:31

agree. There is no right or wrong

answer but furnishing them with the

0:57:310:57:35

information of the process. What are

the steps? If they feel they need to

0:57:350:57:43

know those. We spent a long time

asking lots of questions and that is

0:57:430:57:49

what the resource pack is for, to

give information and to use my son's

0:57:490:57:56

case as a living case. It does

matter, these early conversations

0:57:560:58:01

can make a difference.

The keyword you used, living.

0:58:010:58:08

That is it. Because three people are

alive because of your son.

0:58:080:58:11

Yes, living.

It is really important we talked to

0:58:110:58:22

the young people it affects, don't

talk to those already buying into it

0:58:220:58:28

or on the donor list, but the young

people who need to sign up and don't

0:58:280:58:34

presume their consent, let them make

their decision.

0:58:340:58:38

You are a professional, thank you!

0:58:380:58:40

As always, the debates will continue

online and on Twitter.

0:58:400:58:42

Next week we're in Edinburgh,

so do join us then.

0:58:420:58:45

But for now, it's goodbye from Bath

and have a great Sunday.

0:58:450:58:47

APPLAUSE.

0:58:470:58:50

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