09/03/2018 Breakfast


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09/03/2018

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Hello - this is Breakfast,

with Charlie Stayt

0:00:080:00:10

and Naga Munchetty.

0:00:100:00:12

An historic breakthrough

as President Trump accepts an offer

0:00:120:00:15

from North Korea to hold

talks with Kim Jong-un

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The two leaders will meet by May -

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the North Koreans also agree not

to carry out any more nuclear

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or missile tests.

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Good morning - it's Friday 9 March.

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Also this morning:

0:00:420:00:47

Pressure grows on counter-terrorism

police to identify where the nerve

0:00:470:00:49

agent, used to attack a former

Russian spy and his daughter,

0:00:490:00:52

came from.

0:00:520:00:53

The US imposes tariffs on steel

and aluminium imports.

0:00:530:00:55

Other countries have

threatened to retaliate,

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sparking fears of

a global trade war.

0:00:570:01:02

In sport, it's the biggest

ever Winter Paralympics,

0:01:020:01:05

and it begins this morning.

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Snowboarder Owen Pick will be

Great Britain's flagbearer

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at the opening ceremony

in PyeongChang.

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Sarah has the weather. Good morning.

It is another wintry start to the

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David weather is set to turn milder

over the next few days. With milder

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we are, some rain around as well.

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First, our main story.

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President Trump has accepted

an offer from North Korea to meet

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Kim Jong-un for talks.

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The meeting will happen by May.

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No serving US president has ever met

a North Korean leader.

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The shock announcement was made

by senior South Korean

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officials in Washington,

who passed on a letter

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from the North Korean leader.

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In it, he pledged to commit

to denuclearisation.

0:01:470:01:51

(ANI) He also ruled out any more

nuclear and missile tests .

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(ANI) The United States welcomed

the move but said sanctions

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would stay in place

until a deal is reached.

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(PRES) Our Washington Correspondent

Chris Buckler has this report.

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With missiles and displays

of military might,

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North Korea has at times seemed

nothing short of defiant

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in the face of sanctions

and international condemnation

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of its nuclear programme but,

despite appearances,

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it seems Kim Jong-un wants to talk.

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South Korean officials,

who met the North Korean leader,

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say he has committed himself

to denuclearisation

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and they have now delivered

a message from Kim Jong-un that

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caught many in the White House

completely off guard.

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Kim pledged that North Korea

will refrain from any further

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nuclear or missile tests.

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He understands that the routine

joint military exercises

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between the Republic of Korea

and the United States must continue.

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And he expressed his eagerness

to meet President Trump

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as soon as possible.

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The idea of a face-to-face meeting

between President Trump

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and Kim Jong-un, by May,

seems remarkable,

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given the months of insults

and threats hurled between them.

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They will be met with fire and fury.

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Rocket Man is on a suicide

mission for himself.

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But the tone has now changed.

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On Twitter, Donald Trump said that

great progress was being made

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but that sanctions will remain

until an agreement is reached.

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However, that meeting

is being planned.

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Yet, less than 24 hours earlier,

the President's own

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Some in the White House

will urge cautious

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and there will be no suspension

of the joint military exercises

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involving the United States

and South Korea.

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This may be a move away

from fire and fury,

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perhaps even towards friendship but,

in the long-term, that will depend

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on whether that message

coming from Pyongyang

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proves to be one of

propaganda or progress.

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Chris Buckler, BBc News, Washington.

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Chris joins us now from Washington -

this is an historic announcement

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and came as a bit of

a surprise, didn't it?

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This is genuinely unprecedented?

And

something of a surprise. The first

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sense that we got of anything being

this major was when President Trump

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himself put his room around the

briefing room door and said that

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there would be a big announcement

coming from South Korea. It was only

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then that we got a sense of really

what was coming. To put this into

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context, it was only 24 hours ago

that the US Secretary of State was

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ruling out any suggestion that there

could be direct talks on negotiation

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between North Korea and America. He

said that just wasn't realistic. But

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now we don't just have the two

countries talking, we potentially

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have the two leaders meeting in a

couple of months. It's important to

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say that sanctions remain in place.

South Korea wants to see concrete

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action as well as words but it is,

as you say, a historic moment.

When

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you look at the words, only

reference the words Trump is used,

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rocket man on a suicide mission. You

think about the words and then a

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meeting between the two. Tell us

about the logistics and how this

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might happen.

That is the big

question. Some people have talked

0:05:330:05:40

about China, nobody really knows.

The idea of him going to North Korea

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is something that seems too far,

even for this White House, but just

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think about the timing of this. To

suggest this meeting could happen

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within a couple of months is

something that is really quite

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surprising. If this was any other

White House, you could imagine the

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days and weeks of discussions

because this is a potential began

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the coup for Pyongyang, to have the

North Korean leader on the same

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stage as the US president but Donald

Trump says today that at that

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meeting is already being planned but

what is important not just the

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meeting itself but what follows it.

This WoW ties -- White House says he

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is a man with a reputation for

getting a deal. The deal is

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important but we have been here

before.

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We'll be speaking to the former

British Ambassador to North Korea

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at 7:30 this morning.

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Pressure is growing

on counter-terror officers

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to identify the source of a nerve

agent used in the attempted murder

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of a former Russian spy

and his daughter in Salisbury.

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Sergei and Yulia Skripal remain

in a critical condition.

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A policeman who came

to their aid is in a serious

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but stable condition.

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State media in Russia has reacted

angrily to any suggestion

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that the Kremlin

could be responsible.

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Andy Moore reports.

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In a sign of how extensive

this inquiry has become,

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police cordoned off and set a guard

over the grave of Sergei Skripal's

0:07:010:07:04

wife, in Salisbury.

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And nearby, in the same cemetery,

a similar police presence

0:07:100:07:12

at the spot where his son's

ashes are interned.

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Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey

was one of the first to help

0:07:150:07:18

the Skripals, as they

fought for their lives.

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He is said to be in a serious

condition but recovering.

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He is a great character,

he is a huge presence in Wiltshire

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police, well liked, well loved,

massively dedicated officer.

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He is clearly receiving high

specialist treatment

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so he is well set up.

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He's not the Nick that I know but,

of course,he's been receiving a high

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level of treatment.

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Boris Johnson...

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In Russia, state dominated media

made fun of Boris Johnson and joked

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about what happened

to former Kremlin spies.

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"If you are a professional traitor,"

he says, "my advice -

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don't move to England.

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Something is not right there,

the climate perhaps,

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but too many bad

things go on there."

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Sergei Skripal and his daughter,

Yulia, are still critically ill.

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The BBC has been told the nerve

agent used against them was not

0:08:180:08:21

sarin or VX but

something much rarer.

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The British government says it knows

what that substance was but is not

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naming it at the moment.

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Andy Moore, BBC News.

0:08:290:08:37

Three people questioned by police

after a black student

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at Nottingham Trent University

complained about being racially

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abused, have been released

but remain under investigation.

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Two men aged 18 were

arrested on suspicion

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of racially aggravated

public order offences .

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An 18-year-old woman

was also interviewed.

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Police have confirmed

they are treating the incident

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as a hate crime.

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NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

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to agreeing a three year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands of staff

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in England.

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The government has already said it

will abolish the one

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per cent pay cap on public sector

pay and the Chancellor has indicated

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he will provide extra funding

to meet the higher costs.

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The United States will

impose tariffs on imports

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of aluminium and steel.

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President Trump signed

an order bringing them

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in yesterday afternoon.

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That's sparked fears

of a global trade war.

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Ben is here to explain

what's going on.

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Basically, Trump wants to make it

more difficult for people in the US

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to buy foreign steel.

And this is to

fulfil a promise he made pretty

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vocally on the campaign trail and he

says, what we want to do is protect

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American interest and jobs and this

is a way of doing that. Tariffs are

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a tax. They are imposed on things

imported from abroad. Domestic

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producers might think, I will buy

the US made steel instead. He will

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impose a tariff on 25% on steel

imports and 10% on aluminium. The US

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is the larger import -- the largest

importer of steel products. What

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we've seen straightaway and response

is other countries around the world

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that sell to the United States. They

are not about -- they are not happy

0:10:180:10:23

about this. They have said they will

impose tariffs on things. Some of

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them are particularly interesting as

far as the EU is concerned. They

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have said, if we impose the steel

tariffs, we will impose tariffs on

0:10:330:10:42

Harley-Davidson motorbikes from

Wisconsin, the home state of Paul

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Ryan and a bourbon whiskey from

Kentucky, the home state of Mitch

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McConnell, impose it on orange

juice, on the key swing State of

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Florida and Levi's jeans. It doesn't

get more American than Levi's jeans.

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Other countries around the world

have said yes, we are not happy

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about this. The US is saying perhaps

there could be a bit of wiggle room

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on these tariffs. But allows

resident Trump to say he has

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fulfilled his promise and putting

America first.

It will be

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interesting to see how China reacts.

A lot of speculation this morning

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this is just the first opening

gambit in a huge trade war with

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China so one to watch.

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Now if you struggle to take

the perfect selfie, perhaps

0:11:350:11:38

you could learn a thing

from these two.

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The two Emperor penguins stumbled

across a camera on the ice

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in the Antarctic that had been left

there by Australian explorer

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Eddie Gault and were

clearly very curious.

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And they've proven to be rather

talented after finding

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the video-record switch -

and Eddie ended up with

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some lovely video.

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They are not even still photos. This

is what he ended up with, a lovely

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video of a couple of curious emperor

penguins. Very sweet.

They are

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magnificent, aren't they?

A bit of

dancing at the end. We are talking

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about cold things in wintry

conditions. It the start of the

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winter Paralympics. Some real

highlights to look forward to. Great

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Britain trying to beat record tally

of six in Russia and they have every

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chance of doing that but in the

wider games, the sledge hockey,

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always a highlight. Smashing into

each other on the hockey sticks. The

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curling is back, the wheelchair

curling. Just under five hours away

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now from the largest winter

Paralympics which will begin with

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the winter Opening Ceremony. 567

athletes.

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We're under 5 hours away

from the largest Winter Paralympics,

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that will begin with the opening

ceremony in South Korea.

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Snowboarder Owen Pick,

will be Great Britain's

0:13:020:13:04

flagbearer in PyeongChang.

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Arsenal put their recent

problems to one side,

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with a 2-nil victory over AC Milan

in the last 16 of the Europa League.

0:13:070:13:11

Goals from Henrik Mkhitaryan,

and Aaron Ramsey, put

0:13:110:13:13

Arsene Wenger's side

in control of the tie,

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with the home leg to come.

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It's a critical weekend

in the Six Nations, with Ireland

0:13:200:13:23

unbeaten and top of the table -

they take on Scotland in Dublin -

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and victory could give

them the title.

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And England coach Eddie Jones

is seeking a reaction

0:13:330:13:36

from their defeat to

Scotland last time out -

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they face France, and they need

to match Ireland's result,

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to take the championship

to the final weekend.

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In the papers, I will look at some

of the Paralympics.

The winter theme

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is good. We have had the beast from

the east, the pest from the West.

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Bring a temper tantrum and that is

it. That is exactly what happened.

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That's

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That's right, she is not coming back

until the sun comes out. We did have

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a little bit more snow yesterday

across parts of northern England,

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Scotland as well. This is how things

are looking in west Yorkshire, lying

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snow around at the moment for many

places but over the next few days we

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will wave could either that wintry

weather. Things will eventually be

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turning milder, but we have the

arrival of some rain around as well.

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So today it will most be dry and

bright across northern parts of the

0:14:390:14:43

country. Further south we will see

the cloud moving in, and things

0:14:430:14:46

turning wet later on in the day.

Mostly dry start to the day for many

0:14:460:14:51

of us. Still some showers for

central and northern parts of

0:14:510:14:54

Scotland and towards the south we

have cloud creeping in. Rain

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spreading in later this morning, and

the early parts of the afternoon

0:14:580:15:03

across Wales and parts of the North

of England as well. Some sunny

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spells for many of us, across

Northern Ireland, southern Scotland

0:15:060:15:09

into northern England as well, right

through the afternoon. Temperatures

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just about creeping into double

figures. Still about eight to 10

0:15:130:15:17

degrees out there today. That cloud

with the outbreaks of rain in the

0:15:170:15:21

South drifts further northwards this

evening and overnight, patchy

0:15:210:15:25

outbreaks of rain for much of

England and Wales in the parts of

0:15:250:15:28

Northern Ireland and southern

Scotland as we move into the early

0:15:280:15:31

hours of Saturday morning. Central

and northern Scotland are keeping

0:15:310:15:36

the clearer conditions, so still

subzero, a chilly start to the

0:15:360:15:40

weekend here. Further south things

are looking cloudy and milder.

0:15:400:15:44

Through the weekend they will be a

little bit of rain at times but

0:15:440:15:48

temperatures will certainly be on

the rise and there will be some

0:15:480:15:51

sunshine, so not a complete washout

this weekend. Keeping the cold start

0:15:510:15:55

the weekend at least across many

central and northern parts of

0:15:550:15:58

Scotland, but the yellow colours,

the milder air, creeping further

0:15:580:16:01

northwards through the weekend, so

by the end of the weekend we will be

0:16:010:16:06

seeing those temperatures a little

bit closer to where they should be

0:16:060:16:09

for the time of year. On Saturday

some rain for Northern Ireland and

0:16:090:16:13

northern England. Is that rain bumps

into the cold air across Scotland we

0:16:130:16:16

could see some snowfall, especially

for the southern up lines but at low

0:16:160:16:20

levels of will be falling as rain.

Further south, sunny spells breaking

0:16:200:16:23

through across England and Wales,

still a few showers, but look at

0:16:230:16:26

those temperatures. We could well

see 15 degrees or so, that is

0:16:260:16:30

something we have not seen for quite

awhile. Just keeping that cold air

0:16:300:16:33

for northern Scotland on Saturday.

We still have that front through

0:16:330:16:37

Saturday night, bringing a mix of

rain and hill snow across parts of

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Scotland. To the south of that, with

a southerly breeze, we are all in

0:16:400:16:54

that milder as we had through the

early hours of Sunday morning. But

0:16:570:17:01

there will be some mist and fog

patches. Quite a grey start to your

0:17:010:17:04

Sunday for many parts of the country

although it should be largely frost

0:17:040:17:08

free. Certainly starts on that

fairly cloudy and murky note with

0:17:080:17:11

some mist and fog. Still quite easy

in the west, with a few showers but

0:17:110:17:15

many of us dry. A bit of sunshine

breaking through once that fog

0:17:150:17:19

clears, so not a

0:17:190:17:20

breaking through once that fog

clears, so not a bad day.

0:17:200:17:20

Temperatures closer to where they

should be for the time of year and

0:17:200:17:24

Sunday probably the better day at

the weekend. Back to you both.

Thank

0:17:240:17:27

you very much, we will see you

later. We will have a look through

0:17:270:17:31

the papers. One story still very

much dominating the front pages. As

0:17:310:17:34

you look through the Daily Express,

the hero cop, Detective Sergeant

0:17:340:17:37

Nick Bailey who was one of the first

on the scene after the Russian spy

0:17:370:17:41

poisoning, many tributes to him

today. We are told he is in a

0:17:410:17:45

serious condition still in hospital

but sitting up and speaking.

Our

0:17:450:17:48

lads beating Vlad is the Sun's front

page, and the PM, it says, has vowed

0:17:480:17:55

revenge on the attack.

0:17:550:18:01

revenge on the attack. Saying that

Theresa May has vowed to retaliate

0:18:030:18:05

against V Putin although Russian

state television has made very clear

0:18:050:18:09

that there has been no contact

investigation which proves Russia is

0:18:090:18:14

involved.

Russian state TV mentioned

on the front of the times. You may

0:18:140:18:17

have seen some of this in earlier

reports. Russian state television

0:18:170:18:22

warning traders not to settle in

Britain, because the risk of being

0:18:220:18:27

killed is there. That is being

broadcast on Russian state TV. There

0:18:270:18:31

was another angle to this as well.

Sergeant Nick Bailey pictured on the

0:18:310:18:36

front of the Daily Telegraph. 21

people, apparently, were treated for

0:18:360:18:44

possible poisoning in the attempted

assassination. The NHS and medical

0:18:440:18:48

staff say that they have had people

who have come in, but nobody is

0:18:480:18:52

being treated currently for

poisoning.

More on the trade war we

0:18:520:18:59

have been talking about, the

imposition of tariffs by the US, in

0:18:590:19:02

the Financial Times this morning.

They are talking about, as Naga

0:19:020:19:06

touched on, it could be the opening

shot for a larger trade war with

0:19:060:19:10

China. And the figure at which you

may not be able to make out, it is

0:19:100:19:15

small in print, but it is a very big

figure as high as the trade deficit

0:19:150:19:19

is concerned. It imports billions

more than it sells to China, and

0:19:190:19:24

that is the real concern here. Trump

says that needs to change in America

0:19:240:19:28

is getting a raw deal. Elsewhere in

the papers it is about wrongdoing.

0:19:280:19:33

This is the annual list of companies

named and shamed for not paying the

0:19:330:19:37

National minimum wage. Among the

names on the list are Wagamama, TGI

0:19:370:19:46

Friday's and others. They have all

defended those claims, saying it is

0:19:460:19:50

to do with the way they do their

accounting. The co-op also in the

0:19:500:19:54

firing line, for misreading it

suppliers. They have been fined by

0:19:540:19:59

the grocery regulator because it

says it has reasonable suspicion

0:19:590:20:02

that rules have been broken. This is

all to do it how you deal with

0:20:020:20:06

suppliers. They say they have put

too many fees on them, not given

0:20:060:20:09

them enough notice to cancel their

contracts. So the co-op, which sells

0:20:090:20:14

itself as an ethical retailer

behaving very well, fined for

0:20:140:20:17

mistreating suppliers.

The Winter

Paralympics all over the back pages

0:20:170:20:23

and inside the back pages as well.

The Paralympic skier is, I think we

0:20:230:20:27

have had many nights on the sofa,

with this guide. Three skiers

0:20:270:20:33

pushing to the podium, with a Nordic

skier as well.

0:20:330:20:43

skier as well. Some debutants in the

snowboarding are the main chances of

0:20:430:20:46

a medal.

We said during the

Olympics, and the nerve of those

0:20:460:20:51

people...

Exactly, these guys, we

put special blindfolds on to find

0:20:510:20:56

out what it was like, and I didn't

go up to 80 mph, but it was scary

0:20:560:21:01

enough when you can't see where you

are going. They call the Winter

0:21:010:21:05

Olympians the Fearless, I don't know

what that makes the Winter

0:21:050:21:08

Paralympian is, because it takes it

to another scale. And I was

0:21:080:21:12

surprised that England's women's

footballers don't fly economy, and

0:21:120:21:16

the manager was saying in future

they have to fly business so they

0:21:160:21:20

can be planning on these long

flights. He might get his wish

0:21:200:21:23

there.

This was one of the things

that turned around the Ryder Cup for

0:21:230:21:27

Europe. Tony Jacklin completely

raised again when he was captain,

0:21:270:21:32

and transformed how they travelled,

BA sponsor the team, they got new

0:21:320:21:39

uniforms and took an upper level, to

make them feel... Make them feel

0:21:390:21:44

like competitors.

I guess if you do

you have a chance to get everybody

0:21:440:21:48

together and have a chinwag on the

plane over a bit of a drink and a

0:21:480:21:52

snack, rather than economy with

everyone else. He has a point, he

0:21:520:21:56

wants better for his players.

0:21:560:22:00

How do we rid our oceans of plastic?

0:22:000:22:02

It is a problem that has had

a huge amount of attention

0:22:020:22:05

in recent months.

0:22:050:22:06

From levies to coastal

clean-ups, there are number

0:22:060:22:08

of initiatives taking place.

0:22:080:22:10

Dan Johnson is in Brighton

for us this morning,

0:22:100:22:12

looking at the latest approach.

0:22:120:22:14

Good morning.

Yes, good morning. A

nice morning here on the south

0:22:140:22:22

coast, and you don't have to walk

long across the beach like this

0:22:220:22:26

until you find some of the sort of

plastic and rubbish we are talking

0:22:260:22:30

about. What these guys have

discovered just in the last few

0:22:300:22:33

minutes, that is the main article

they have recovered from the beach

0:22:330:22:36

this morning. Also lots of bits of

plastic here, but is of rope, bits

0:22:360:22:40

of old rapper, even an old glove.

Plenty to clean up, and the new

0:22:400:22:47

mission to try and clean up our

beaches is using one of these, I

0:22:470:22:50

drove -- wrappers. The idea is the

drone will take pictures of our

0:22:500:22:55

beaches, and people sitting at home

can click on to identify bits of

0:22:550:22:59

rubbish and get a better idea about

exactly how much plastic and waste

0:22:590:23:03

that is on a beach. Ellie is from

the charity behind this, and you are

0:23:030:23:07

the drone pilot. How will this work?

It is a simple system, with flight

0:23:070:23:12

over the beach, it takes lots of

photos, and people back home in

0:23:120:23:16

their pyjamas with a cup of tea can

sit and tag, like a game online,

0:23:160:23:21

they can draw boxes around the

plastic and teach the algorithm in

0:23:210:23:24

the drone itself to recognise

plastic automatically, a bit like

0:23:240:23:27

teaching a baby to recognise a dog

showing at lots of photos. So we're

0:23:270:23:31

aiming, for British Science Week

this week, and we are hoping to get

0:23:310:23:38

250,000 tags online, so hoping that

all the public can get involved.

0:23:380:23:43

Some of this plastic is really tiny.

Will it be possible to see what is

0:23:430:23:47

what?

Yes, so the more people that

can get involved in tagging, the

0:23:470:23:54

better the algorithm becomes, as the

computer will learn. It can detect a

0:23:540:24:01

stick which is very, very small. But

we need hundreds of thousands of

0:24:010:24:06

people to tag as many pieces of

plastic as possible, to teach it to

0:24:060:24:10

recognise those tiny fragments.

Some

of the plastic isn't even visible to

0:24:100:24:13

the eye, though, some of the stuff

we are talking about.

So one of the

0:24:130:24:19

biggest problems is micro- plastic,

almost invisible particles suspended

0:24:190:24:24

in the ocean. That is a bigger

problem, and that is tackled by

0:24:240:24:30

banning it. There is a lot we can do

is simply in terms of mapping where

0:24:300:24:35

plastics. At the moment, we simply

don't know whether plastics are on

0:24:350:24:39

the beaches. A lot of it is missing,

so this is helping us to build a map

0:24:390:24:44

and use that information to come up

with strategies.

Let's bring in law

0:24:440:24:49

from the Marine conservation

Society. Tell us how effective you

0:24:490:24:51

think this will be -- Laura.

I think

this is very important. People can

0:24:510:24:58

have looked even if they don't live

near the beach, and the key thing is

0:24:580:25:02

we want to reduce the amount of

plastic that we get on beaches.

So

0:25:020:25:06

it is a key issue to tackle the

sources of plastic as well.

Yes,

0:25:060:25:11

this is the access beaches we can't

actually get to, and we really need

0:25:110:25:15

to be tackling that.

Thank you very

much for now. A big problem, and

0:25:150:25:20

this is just one further step in

tackling this issue.

You won't have

0:25:200:25:26

the advantage we have, but it looks

absolutely stunning behind you, I

0:25:260:25:30

don't know whether it is the light,

I don't know if it actually looks

0:25:300:25:34

that blue where you are, but the

aqua is just absolutely stunning, it

0:25:340:25:38

is gorgeous.

It is certainly a nice

place to be this morning, a little

0:25:380:25:44

bit fresh, though.

It looks

absolutely stunning, one of those

0:25:440:25:51

days.

0:25:510:25:51

How do you preserve 1,000

cannonballs that sank

0:25:510:25:53

on a ship in 1545?

0:25:530:25:55

We will be live at the salvaged

wreck of Henry VIII's Mary Rose

0:25:550:25:58

all morning, as scientists battle

to stop them rotting away.

0:25:580:26:06

the day on Saturday, and that on

Sunday a rather grey with some mist

0:29:310:29:34

and fog. -- rather grey start.

0:29:340:29:35

I'm back with the latest

from the BBC London newsroom

0:29:350:29:38

in half an hour.

0:29:380:29:39

Plenty more on our website

at the usual address.

0:29:390:29:41

Now, though it is back

to Charlie and Naga.

0:29:410:29:44

Bye for now.

0:29:440:29:49

Hello this is Breakfast

with Charlie Stayt and Naga

0:29:490:29:51

Munchetty.

0:29:510:29:53

We'll bring you all the headlines

in a moment, but also

0:29:530:29:56

on Breakfast this morning.

0:29:560:29:57

President Trump has stuck

to his word and will impose heavy

0:29:570:30:00

tariffs on steel and aluminium

from outside the USA -

0:30:000:30:03

Ben will be looking at what it means

for UK steel producers.

0:30:030:30:06

Can you remember what

happened yesterday?

0:30:060:30:08

We'll look at new research that

suggests we remember more when we've

0:30:080:30:11

had a good night of sleep.

0:30:110:30:13

And it's the last day

0:30:130:30:14

of Zoe Ball's Sport

Relief bike ride.

0:30:140:30:17

She's been out riding

since sunrise - we'll be speaking

0:30:170:30:20

to her during a quick break

about how those legs are feeling!

0:30:200:30:23

All that still to come.

0:30:230:30:25

Good morning.

0:30:250:30:25

Here's a summary of today's main

stories from BBC News.

0:30:250:30:28

President Trump has accepted

an offer to meet North Korean leader

0:30:280:30:31

Kim Jong-un for talks.

0:30:310:30:33

The first ever meeting

between a serving American president

0:30:330:30:40

and a North Korean leader

will happen by May.

0:30:400:30:43

The surprise announcement was made

by senior South Korean officials

0:30:430:30:46

in Washington after months

of heightened diplomatic tensions

0:30:460:30:48

between the two countries.

0:30:480:30:53

Earlier, our Seoul Correspondent

Laura Bicker outlined the potential

0:30:530:30:55

risks and rewards associated

with the potential meeting.

0:30:550:31:03

North Korean leaders

Kim Jong-un said he is

0:31:120:31:14

committed to denuclearisation.

0:31:140:31:15

Kim pledged that North Korea

will refrain from any further

0:31:150:31:18

nuclear or missile tests.

0:31:180:31:19

He understands that the routine

joint military exercises

0:31:190:31:21

between the Republic of Korea

and the United States must continue.

0:31:210:31:24

And he expressed his eagerness

to meet President Trump

0:31:240:31:26

as soon as possible.

0:31:260:31:33

Pressure is growing

on counter-terror officers

0:31:330:31:34

to identify the source of a nerve

agent used in the attempted murder

0:31:340:31:38

of a former Russian

spy and his daughter.

0:31:380:31:40

Sergei and Yulia Skripal remain

in a critical condition.

0:31:400:31:42

A policeman who rushed

to their aid is in a serious

0:31:420:31:45

condition, but conscious.

0:31:450:31:53

NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

0:31:550:31:58

to agreeing a three year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands of staff

0:31:580:32:02

in England.

0:32:020:32:02

The government has already said it

will abolish the one

0:32:020:32:05

per cent pay cap on public sector

pay and the Chancellor has indicated

0:32:050:32:08

he will provide extra funding

to meet the higher costs.

0:32:080:32:11

A proposal to impose a so-called

latte levy on throwaway coffee

0:32:110:32:14

cups has been rejected

by the government.

0:32:140:32:16

MPs on the Environmental Audit

Committee had suggested

0:32:160:32:18

a charge of 25 pence

for disposable coffee cups

0:32:180:32:21

to try to reduce their use.

0:32:210:32:23

Ministers say it would be better

for shops to offer voluntary

0:32:230:32:26

discounts to customers

who take in their own cups.

0:32:260:32:34

The weather coming up via but now,

sport.

The Paralympics, Britain have

0:32:360:32:45

a team of 17 but real hopes of maybe

beating the record tally of six

0:32:450:32:52

medals in Sochi, especially the

downhill skiing on the visually

0:32:520:32:55

impaired skiing. There is a problem

in the build-up. Too much snow. It

0:32:550:33:02

sounds daft, doesn't it? But of

course, the winter Paralympics have

0:33:020:33:07

been disrupted by the snow. People

try to get there. The Opening

0:33:070:33:16

Ceremony is at 11 o'clock our time.

Unlike at the Winter Olympics, North

0:33:160:33:21

Korean athletes will march certainly

to those from South Korea. Kate

0:33:210:33:26

Grays their this morning. So much to

look forward to over the coming

0:33:260:33:31

days. How bad is that snow?

0:33:310:33:38

days. How bad is that snow?

It's not

that bad today. Over the last few

0:33:390:33:45

days, there has been a lot of snow.

For the Opening Ceremony organisers,

0:33:450:33:51

that has been an issue. There has

been a full rehearsal of the Opening

0:33:510:33:58

Ceremony. It will all go off without

a hitch. We did get the news

0:33:580:34:10

yesterday that both countries will

not march but they understood the

0:34:100:34:14

decision made by the delegations. We

understand that soldier turned

0:34:140:34:22

snowboarder Owen Pick will lead the

British team. The rest of them will

0:34:220:34:30

be preparing for the races. Owen

Pick is one of the first

0:34:300:34:34

snowboarders to represent the sport

in the winter Paralympics and we've

0:34:340:34:38

already mentioned the alpine skiers.

Kelly galliga, you may remember from

0:34:380:34:43

Sochi in 2014, the first time

Britain has ever won gold in the

0:34:430:34:50

event. She will be going up with

Gary Smith in the visually impaired

0:34:500:34:55

category and for the first time in

20 years, Great Britain will be

0:34:550:34:59

competing in the Nordic skiing. Lots

of exciting athletes taking place.

0:34:590:35:08

Just a few hours into the Opening

Ceremony kicks off.

We will speak

0:35:080:35:13

again later. We saw some amazing

pictures.

0:35:130:35:19

With Arsenal's recent form,

who'd have thought Arsenal

0:35:190:35:21

would stand a chance against AC

Milan in the Europa League?

0:35:210:35:24

Well, they went to Italy

and they came back with a 2-nil

0:35:240:35:27

victory - Henrik Mkhitaryan

scored his first goal for the club

0:35:270:35:30

and Aaron Ramsey added

another at the San Siro.

0:35:300:35:33

The second leg is at

the Emirates next Thursday.

0:35:330:35:41

Look, we have one again, we are not

qualified but what the result could

0:35:420:35:50

mean, it could lift the game a

little bit. We have to be in the

0:35:500:35:55

team again because if you leave used

three games in six days, always very

0:35:550:36:00

difficult but we want to keep our

focus and finish the job next week,

0:36:000:36:04

that is what is the target.

0:36:040:36:07

It's a huge weekend

in the Six Nations, with plenty

0:36:070:36:11

of permutions but Ireland

could be crowned champions.

0:36:110:36:13

They go into their match

with Scotland in Dublin,

0:36:130:36:16

top of the table and with

three wins from three -

0:36:160:36:19

victory would keep them on course

for a first Grand Slam in 9 years

0:36:190:36:23

but remember, Scotland showed

against England last time out that

0:36:230:36:25

they're no pushovers.

0:36:250:36:26

England need to match Ireland's

result to if they're to keep

0:36:260:36:29

alive their hopes of

a third straight title.

0:36:290:36:31

Head coach Eddie Jones has named his

team for the game with France.

0:36:310:36:35

Captain Dylan Hartley misses out

through injury with Owen Farrell

0:36:350:36:37

skippering the side in his place

for the first time

0:36:370:36:40

Britain's Chris Froome

and Geraint Thomas remain in the top

0:36:400:36:43

ten after stage two

of the Tireno Adriatico

0:36:430:36:45

race in Italy.

0:36:450:36:46

They were fortunate to avoid this

crash four and a half miles

0:36:460:36:53

from the finish in

Follonica in Tuscany.

0:36:530:36:57

They and their Team Sky colleagues

occupy 5th to 10th place

0:36:570:37:00

in the standings, all of them just

nine seconds off the top rider.

0:37:000:37:03

Germany's Marcel Kittel won

the stage, while New Zealand's

0:37:030:37:06

Patrick Bevin has the overall lead.

0:37:060:37:08

This time next week, I will be

wearing tweed and smelling of horse

0:37:080:37:11

down at Cheltenham races. I'll be at

Cheltenham, rather than at home.

0:37:110:37:18

There will be no sizing up John's

chances. He is out with an injured

0:37:180:37:24

pelvis. What is happening? Am I that

painful?

What are you going to be

0:37:240:37:31

doing at Cheltenham?

It's a moving

story. I am focusing on the young

0:37:310:37:38

jockeys who ride alongside the

course but it is part of the Riding

0:37:380:37:41

for the disabled. It helps them with

learning difficulties. In the power

0:37:410:37:45

of the horse is amazing. It's really

recognised as a form of therapy. But

0:37:450:37:57

you are talking about John? Sizing

John. Injured pelvis.

0:37:570:38:05

John. Injured pelvis. It was a

winning return as he prepares for

0:38:100:38:13

his first ride at Cheltenham.

0:38:130:38:15

Rory McIlroy had a really

scrappy opening round at

0:38:150:38:17

the Valspar Championship in Florida.

0:38:170:38:19

He started with 10 straight pars

but things then fell apart

0:38:190:38:22

and he dropped 3 shots,

to finish with a 74.

0:38:220:38:24

He's 7 shots behind

the leader Corey Conners.

0:38:240:38:27

Now - staying with golf -

we've all overslept

0:38:270:38:29

- haven't we?

0:38:290:38:30

Sometimes when we need

to be somewhere important

0:38:300:38:32

like a golf tournament.

0:38:320:38:34

Spare a thought

for Pablo Larrazabal.

0:38:340:38:36

He woke up 38 minutes

before his scheduled tee-time

0:38:360:38:42

and nevertheless,

0:38:420:38:44

yesterday despite a madcap rush

to the course the Spaniard made

0:38:440:38:47

a five under par 67 which left him

two shots off the lead.

0:38:470:38:50

Here's some of the reaction

from social media:

0:38:500:38:53

He said he had a shower for ten

seconds. The mind boggles. And he

0:38:550:39:01

says he had a wild trip to the

course.

Korea remember that happen

0:39:010:39:05

to Rory McIllroy in the Ryder Cup?

He was under police export --

0:39:050:39:12

Escort.

0:39:120:39:16

It was an announcement that took

the world by surprise last night.

0:39:160:39:19

After months of threats and insults

between North Korea and the USA -

0:39:190:39:22

the leaders of both

nations are going to meet.

0:39:220:39:25

President Trump will sit

down with Kim Jong-un

0:39:250:39:27

for face-to-face talks before May,

but tough economic sanctions

0:39:270:39:29

remain in place.

0:39:290:39:30

North Korea author Paul French joins

us from our London newsroom now.

0:39:300:39:38

Thank you for your time this

morning. First of all, this happened

0:39:410:39:48

around midnight our time. Give your

initial reaction.

It's huge, it's

0:39:480:39:57

enormous, quite unprecedented. I

don't think anybody was seriously

0:39:570:40:01

expecting it to happen this quickly.

It's kind of taken everyone by

0:40:010:40:05

surprise.

Talk is through it. The

detail, we don't know. The

0:40:050:40:11

invitation has been offered and

accepted on the date put before May

0:40:110:40:16

which is very, very soon in

diplomatic terms. How do you

0:40:160:40:20

envisage this might happen?

The

White House and the State Department

0:40:200:40:27

have a lot of what they call

diplomatic heavy lifting to do.

0:40:270:40:30

There is a lot of background to get

through. There has to be a meeting

0:40:300:40:36

about what America wishes to get out

of this. Presumably the north knows

0:40:360:40:40

what it wants. Going head-to-head

like this, word is that leave

0:40:400:40:46

everybody else? South Korea, Japan,

China.

0:40:460:40:54

China.

Is it not the style of Donald

Trump that you carry on regardless?

0:40:540:40:58

He may well say, that's how we used

to do it. We would spend months or

0:40:580:41:03

years talking about what to talk

about. The setting a timeline which

0:41:030:41:08

is before May would suggest he is

just going to jump in feet first as

0:41:080:41:13

he has done with other issues.

Which

is rather worrying. We know that

0:41:130:41:18

things about is the great dealmaker

and so on but this is a meeting

0:41:180:41:22

between two men who run powerful

countries in the road and right.

0:41:220:41:27

Neither of them have great

experience in international

0:41:270:41:31

diplomacy. We know that. Donald

Trump doesn't come from a background

0:41:310:41:40

of diplomacy. Maybe that deal has to

work for the United States. And the

0:41:400:41:48

South Koreans. That is where

diplomacy needs to work.

Donald

0:41:480:41:57

Trump may well claim that this is

his HARDtalk that has resulted in

0:41:570:42:02

North

0:42:020:42:11

North Korea talking. North Korea

will claim it is a coup for them,

0:42:110:42:14

being able to sit down with a

world's most powerful man, the

0:42:140:42:18

president of the USA. Both sides

will claim this as a propaganda

0:42:180:42:23

coup.

0:42:230:42:28

coup. You make the question of

whether Donald Trump's policy on

0:42:280:42:33

Korea has caused this to happen will

be debated for years. Offering the

0:42:330:42:40

threat of a bloody nose. The

sanctions that he has been pushing

0:42:400:42:47

heavily at the United Nations and

it's certainly true that times are

0:42:470:42:51

not great in North Korea. Sanctions

have affected their more than people

0:42:510:42:58

realise.

What is without doubt is

that this is a major coup for Kim

0:42:580:43:02

Jong-un as was the Winter Olympics.

Now this is an amazing follow-up to

0:43:020:43:07

him. It's unprecedented, of course.

Thank you very much to your time.

0:43:070:43:21

It's a glorious morning to some

parts of the UK this morning. This

0:43:210:43:26

is Rossington Beach near Brighton.

Dan Johnson is down there talking

0:43:260:43:30

about plastic at how we've been

encouraged to spot plastic in the

0:43:300:43:35

water and inform beaches of that but

this looks stunning. It is chilly

0:43:350:43:41

down there, we have been told.

It's

hard to tell the horizon because the

0:43:410:43:47

colours are blurring. A different

kind of Skyline. Good morning,

0:43:470:43:54

Sarah.

0:43:540:43:56

kind of Skyline. Good morning,

Sarah.

What a difference to just a

0:43:560:44:00

week ago. It is quite a Sareen start

of the day. This time last week, we

0:44:000:44:04

were talking about all that

disrupted snow. This is how things

0:44:040:44:11

are looking in West Yorkshire. We

had a bit of snow around yesterday.

0:44:110:44:18

Yesterday was a dry day across parts

of the country. Towards the south,

0:44:180:44:23

things will cloud over and turned

pretty wet as we head through the

0:44:230:44:27

latter part of the day but for the

here and now, many places starting

0:44:270:44:30

today on a dry note. Some icy

conditions here as well. Further

0:44:300:44:36

south, cloud pushing its way in

surrender part of Cornwall, Devon,

0:44:360:44:42

south Wales as well. Sunny spells at

East Anglia, northern England,

0:44:420:44:49

southern Scotland and Northern

Ireland. Temperatures between eight

0:44:490:44:52

and 10 degrees. Still in the cool

side to this time of year. That

0:44:520:44:59

patchy rain will push across much of

England and Wales and Northern

0:44:590:45:03

Ireland. Scotland stays with the

drier clearer conditions. Still

0:45:030:45:09

widespread frost with below freezing

but further south, frost free. We

0:45:090:45:14

have double figures from the word

go. Through the weekend, some

0:45:140:45:17

outbreaks of rain but temperatures

on the rise and there will be a bit

0:45:170:45:23

of sunshine on offer as well so you

can see the cold is still in place

0:45:230:45:27

across parts of Scotland through the

weekend but the yellow colours, much

0:45:270:45:31

milder air, working northwards

across the country as we move

0:45:310:45:35

through to the end of the week. For

Saturday, we have outbreaks of rain,

0:45:350:45:40

heavy at times the Northern Ireland

and as that brain bumps into the

0:45:400:45:45

colder across Scotland, it could

well be a bit more snow, mostly of a

0:45:450:45:50

higher ground to the Southern Upton

's Grampians and further south, a

0:45:500:45:53

few showers but equally some sunny

spells.

0:45:530:46:02

Moving through into Sunday, on that

front lingering for a time across

0:46:020:46:07

Scotland, some more rain and hill

snow clearing to the north so much

0:46:070:46:12

drier conditions to start your

Sunday morning. With fairly light

0:46:120:46:15

winds there will be mist and fog

patches, so quite a murky, mild,

0:46:150:46:21

misty start the Sunday morning. The

sunshine for many of us should tend

0:46:210:46:24

to break up any mist and fog full

stops a lot of fairly dry and bright

0:46:240:46:28

weather on the cards for Sunday.

Breezy in the west, still one or two

0:46:280:46:33

showers likely here but many of us

dry, with ties of eight to 13

0:46:330:46:37

degrees. Just a hint that spring

could be on the way for some of us

0:46:370:46:42

through the weekend.

Thank you very

much. We will see you soon. And we

0:46:420:46:47

are

0:46:470:46:49

much. We will see you soon. And we

are

0:46:490:46:51

talking about the announcements by

Donald Trump and the fear of a trade

0:46:510:46:55

war which is more and more becoming

a reality.

Thank you very much, good

0:46:550:47:00

morning to you. This is a promise by

a president Trump to protect

0:47:000:47:07

American jobs and encourage American

firms to use American steel. The US

0:47:070:47:12

says it will impose a 25% tariff on

US imports of steel and 10% on

0:47:120:47:18

aluminium imports. As you would

expect it has not gone down well

0:47:180:47:21

with other countries. Some,

including the EU, have promised to

0:47:210:47:25

retaliate, saying they could put

tariffs on goods made in the US. How

0:47:250:47:29

serious is all of this? I am joined

by a steel industry expert. Good

0:47:290:47:34

morning to you. Thank you for coming

in. Let's explain what tariffs are

0:47:340:47:39

and white president Trump thinks

these are a good way of protecting

0:47:390:47:43

American jobs.

They are probably not

a good way of protecting American

0:47:430:47:47

jobs, but what they do is impose a

tax in effect on the price of all

0:47:470:47:52

steel coming into the United States,

making American steel, American-made

0:47:520:47:57

steel made in the homeland, that

much more competitive.

It is

0:47:570:48:03

designed to make American

manufacturers think instead of

0:48:030:48:05

buying it from abroad, from China or

Europe, I will buy it from America,

0:48:050:48:09

and that will be cheaper. So it

keeps their costs down.

Oh no, it

0:48:090:48:14

would put their costs up, because

presumably American steelmakers will

0:48:140:48:19

make hay while the sun shines and

put their prices up in line with the

0:48:190:48:23

tariffs. And many of these products

are not available within the United

0:48:230:48:27

States, so many manufacturers will

continue to import them from abroad,

0:48:270:48:30

but face this tariff penalty.

And

you have hit the nail on the head,

0:48:300:48:35

because tariffs can be really

self-defeating. We have heard the

0:48:350:48:38

response around the world, China

saying it is very unhappy with this,

0:48:380:48:42

the EU saying it could retaliate,

and that retaliation could be very

0:48:420:48:46

damaging.

It could be very damaging

if for example there is a

0:48:460:48:51

tit-for-tat trade war, so we put

tariffs on high-profile American

0:48:510:48:55

goods like Harley-Davidson

motorcycles, and they retaliate by

0:48:550:48:58

putting taxes on European made cars,

well a car is just steel on wheels,

0:48:580:49:05

so that would really hit the

industry.

And we know that the UK

0:49:050:49:10

sells a lot to the United States,

could we be hit these tariffs?

The

0:49:100:49:14

answer is by a small amount we only

export a small amount of steel to

0:49:140:49:20

the United States, perhaps a quarter

of a million tons a year, although

0:49:200:49:24

that is worth a bit of money, a

third of £1 billion, there are some

0:49:240:49:30

plants affected in particular, which

specialise in selling particular

0:49:300:49:34

types of bespoke steel to American

customers.

When we talk about

0:49:340:49:38

individual business in the UK, when

we are selling to the US, what will

0:49:380:49:43

they be thinking now? Are there ways

to get around these potential

0:49:430:49:47

tariffs?

It is very complicated, I

was on a steel plant in the

0:49:470:49:53

north-east, a lovely plant over the

edge of the North York Moors

0:49:530:49:56

National Park, beautifully located

by the sea, and they employ about

0:49:560:50:01

300 people and export almost 100% of

their output either directly or

0:50:010:50:07

indirectly, including perhaps 30% of

the United States. So they will

0:50:070:50:10

obviously be panicking and saying we

are going to become uncompetitive

0:50:100:50:14

with the United States. The paradox

is that Americans can't get those

0:50:140:50:22

particular bespoke products from

anywhere else, so they will have to

0:50:220:50:25

stick with their British suppliers

and take the pain.

So there are ways

0:50:250:50:30

potentially around it, if they need

to. It is good to talk to you. We

0:50:300:50:34

will talk more about those tariffs

after 7am, and what impact it could

0:50:340:50:39

have on business around the world if

that trade war is indeed created by

0:50:390:50:43

all of this.

0:50:430:50:49

When Henry VIII's doomed warship

the Mary Rose was successfully

0:50:510:50:54

lifted from the seabed in the 1980s,

it was seen as one of the most

0:50:540:50:58

important achievements

in preservation.

0:50:580:50:59

But now, some of the artefacts found

on board, including more than 1,000

0:50:590:51:02

cannonballs, need urgent attention

to stop them rotting away.

0:51:020:51:05

Breakfast's Tim Muffett

is in Portsmouth this morning

0:51:050:51:07

to find out how they

are going to do it.

0:51:070:51:10

Good morning.

I remember that day in

1982, gathering around the school

0:51:100:51:15

television and watching the raising

of the Mary Rose, and here she is in

0:51:150:51:20

majestic form. The Mary Rose Museum

in Portsmouth, she is on display

0:51:200:51:23

here, this museum was reopened in

2016. But maritime archaeology poses

0:51:230:51:29

unique challenges because seawater

has such a corrosive effect. They

0:51:290:51:32

found so many artefacts on board.

Human skeletons, weapons, clothing,

0:51:320:51:37

all sorts of things. But some items

in particular have posed a

0:51:370:51:42

particular challenge for

archaeologists, and they are

0:51:420:51:44

learning some particularly

interesting things.

0:51:440:51:50

Right, so these are the samples we

will look at today. In one of the

0:51:500:51:55

world's most advanced scientific

facilities, Eleonora and Hayley are

0:51:550:52:01

holding pieces of history. These

cannonballs are found on of the Mary

0:52:010:52:05

Rose. She sank in the Solent in 1545

was attacking an invading French

0:52:050:52:10

fleet. In 1982, millions watched on

television as she was brought back

0:52:100:52:15

to the surface. Amongst the

artefacts found, 1200 cannonballs.

0:52:150:52:18

But, since being discovered, some

have corroded. Some haven't. So the

0:52:180:52:24

team took the difficult decision to

cut out samples to find out why.

It

0:52:240:52:29

is not typical to destructively

sample like this in conservation,

0:52:290:52:33

but for us, we realised that to not

do it and watch these things that

0:52:330:52:38

might disintegrate would be

negligent.

But to analyse the

0:52:380:52:41

corrosion on such an old object you

need a very special machine.

So this

0:52:410:52:47

is the UK's National synchrotron

facility, and a synchrotron is a

0:52:470:52:51

particle accelerator that takes

electrons and accelerates them to

0:52:510:52:54

99% of the speed of light. Because

the cannibals have been exposed to

0:52:540:52:58

nature for 500 years they are very,

very complicated. And you need is

0:52:580:53:02

very precise, very accurate

measurements that you can only

0:53:020:53:05

really do with light that is of this

quality.

Well, some of the

0:53:050:53:09

cannonballs you can see an H, which

stands for King Henry. But as a

0:53:090:53:14

collection, these cannonballs are

unique. They are all the same age,

0:53:140:53:17

they have all spent the same amount

of time underwater, and they were

0:53:170:53:21

all made in the same way. We know

that because on the 16th century

0:53:210:53:25

there was only one iron blast

furnace in Britain. But they have

0:53:250:53:29

been treated in different ways. Many

were washed. Some had anticorrosive

0:53:290:53:34

applied, others were submerged in a

chemical which is a bit like baking

0:53:340:53:39

soda.

I think anybody that was about

to excavate something now, it would

0:53:390:53:45

be to think twice about doing this

active washings, you may be

0:53:450:53:49

inadvertently promotion the

formation of something that could

0:53:490:53:51

damage the material.

Weapons of war

hundreds of years old, shaping the

0:53:510:53:57

science of today.

0:53:570:54:00

It is an amazing facility, because

the light produced by that machine,

0:54:000:54:04

it produces light 10 billion times

righter than the Sun, 10 billion

0:54:040:54:08

times brighter than the sun. And it

enables archaeologists and

0:54:080:54:11

scientists to do that incredible

work. Eleanor is with us this

0:54:110:54:18

morning. So many ramifications from

what you have found. Where to now?

0:54:180:54:23

Well, we have found so much and

shown how important it was to do

0:54:230:54:27

this sampling and found out so much

we didn't know about this process.

0:54:270:54:30

Next we will be looking at trying to

look at those processes in

0:54:300:54:34

real-time, we will take bits of Mary

Rose iron and subject them to

0:54:340:54:37

different solutions and we can take

a recording each week and watch in

0:54:370:54:41

real-time what is happening.

It is

such an amazing sight, isn't it, to

0:54:410:54:44

think this ship was submerged for

hundreds of years, and what is it

0:54:440:54:48

like working here and working so

closely with her?

It is just a

0:54:480:54:51

privilege to work here, really. For

a materials scientist into such a

0:54:510:54:55

challenge, as well, because while

the materials look so great, there

0:54:550:55:00

are always new problems to solve.

And these are the gun decks, aren't

0:55:000:55:05

they?

They are, and you can see the

gun ports where the cannons would

0:55:050:55:08

have gone through.

And the

challengers maritime archaeologist

0:55:080:55:11

based are so specific, aren't they?

It is all about this corrosive

0:55:110:55:16

effect of seawater?

Is exposed to an

environment it is not used to for

0:55:160:55:21

such a long time, and typically it

is the salt from seawater which gets

0:55:210:55:24

into these artefacts which is a

challenge to deal with when they are

0:55:240:55:28

in the air and on display like this.

So going forward, for other

0:55:280:55:31

archaeologists across the world,

what should they be doing, do you

0:55:310:55:35

think, given what you have found?

In

terms of the iron, it would be

0:55:350:55:39

looking at maybe not doing the wash

we have done before, that

0:55:390:55:43

potentially are unintentionally

producing these corrosion products.

0:55:430:55:45

Thank you very much indeed, it is

absolutely fascinating, and when you

0:55:450:55:50

look at the decks here and you think

of the history of this particular

0:55:500:55:53

ship, will one of the most famous

ships in our maritime history, and

0:55:530:55:57

the work that has been done to

preserve those cannonballs and find

0:55:570:56:00

out why exactly they are decaying,

it is fascinating stuff. We leave

0:56:000:56:04

you with this beautiful view.

Thank

you very much, Tim. I know he is

0:56:040:56:10

really enjoying himself this

morning.

0:56:100:56:16

morning.

Later in the programme, we

will find out more about Detective

0:56:160:56:20

Nick Bailey, who is seriously ill in

hospital. We will be speaking to the

0:56:200:56:28

Police Federation and finding out a

little bit more about his condition

0:56:280:56:31

and about the circumstances around

the attack.

0:56:310:56:34

Time now to get the news,

travel and weather where you are.

0:56:340:59:54

I'm back with the latest

from the BBC London newsroom

0:59:540:59:56

in half an hour.

0:59:560:59:58

Plenty more on our website

at the usual address.

0:59:581:00:00

Bye for now.

1:00:001:00:03

Hello - this is Breakfast,

with Charlie Stayt and Naga

1:00:331:00:36

Munchetty.

1:00:361:00:36

An historic breakthrough

as President Trump accepts an offer

1:00:361:00:38

from North Korea to hold

talks with Kim Jong-un

1:00:381:00:41

The two leaders will meet by May -

1:00:411:00:43

the North Koreans also agree not

to carry out any more nuclear

1:00:431:00:46

or missile tests.

1:00:461:00:54

Good morning - it's Friday 9 March.

1:01:011:01:03

Also this morning:

1:01:031:01:05

Pressure grows on counter-terrorism

police to identify where the nerve

1:01:051:01:08

agent, used to attack a former

Russian spy and his daughter,

1:01:081:01:11

came from.

1:01:111:01:16

The US imposes tariffs on steel

and aluminium imports.

1:01:161:01:18

Other countries have

threatened to retaliate,

1:01:181:01:26

sparking fears of

a global trade war.

1:01:271:01:30

In sport, it's the biggest

ever Winter Paralympics,

1:01:301:01:33

and it begins this morning ...

1:01:331:01:36

Snowboarder Owen Pick will be

Great Britain's flagbearer

1:01:361:01:38

at the opening ceremony

in Pyeongchang.

1:01:381:01:43

And we will find out how you can

play your part in how to clean up

1:01:431:01:47

the beaches. This is a live picture

from down in Brighton. It's looking

1:01:471:01:51

rather beautiful.

1:01:511:01:55

from down in Brighton. It's looking

rather beautiful. It's still quite a

1:01:551:01:59

chilly start frost this morning.

Some fine weather coming but I will

1:01:591:02:04

bring you more details on about 15

minutes.

1:02:041:02:06

Good morning.

1:02:061:02:07

First, our main story.

1:02:071:02:08

President Trump has accepted

an offer from North Korea to meet

1:02:081:02:11

Kim Jong-un for talks.

1:02:111:02:12

The meeting will happen by May.

1:02:121:02:14

No serving US president has ever met

a North Korean leader.

1:02:141:02:17

The surprise announcement was made

by senior South Korean

1:02:171:02:19

officials in Washington,

who passed on a letter

1:02:191:02:21

from the North Korean leader.

1:02:211:02:23

In it, he pledged to commit

to denuclearisation.

1:02:231:02:26

He also ruled out any more

nuclear and missile tests.

1:02:261:02:31

The United States welcomed

the move but said sanctions

1:02:311:02:33

would stay in place

until a deal is reached.

1:02:331:02:36

Our Washington correspondent

Chris Buckler has this report.

1:02:361:02:43

With missiles and displays

of military might,

1:02:431:02:47

North Korea has at times seemed

nothing short of defiant

1:02:471:02:51

in the face of sanctions

and international condemnation

1:02:511:02:56

of its nuclear programme but,

despite appearances,

1:02:561:02:57

it seems Kim Jong-un wants to talk.

1:02:571:03:01

South Korean officials,

who met the North Korean leader,

1:03:011:03:03

say he has committed himself

to denuclearisation

1:03:031:03:06

and they have now delivered

a message from Kim Jong-un that

1:03:061:03:09

caught many in the White House

completely off guard.

1:03:091:03:17

Kim pledged that North Korea

will refrain from any further

1:03:171:03:20

nuclear or missile tests.

1:03:201:03:24

He understands that the routine

joint military exercises

1:03:241:03:31

between the Republic of Korea

and the United States must continue.

1:03:311:03:34

And he expressed his eagerness

to meet President Trump

1:03:341:03:38

as soon as possible.

1:03:381:03:43

The idea of a face-to-face meeting

between President Trump

1:03:431:03:45

and Kim Jong-un, by May,

seems remarkable,

1:03:451:03:47

given the months of insults

and threats hurled between them.

1:03:471:03:50

They will be met with fire and fury.

1:03:501:03:54

Rocket Man is on a suicide

mission for himself.

1:03:541:03:58

But the tone has now changed.

1:03:581:04:05

On Twitter, Donald Trump said that

great progress was being made

1:04:051:04:13

but that sanctions will remain

until an agreement is reached.

1:04:161:04:19

However, that meeting

is being planned.

1:04:191:04:23

Some in the White House

will urge cautious

1:04:231:04:25

and there will be no suspension

of the joint military exercises

1:04:251:04:28

involving the United States

and South Korea.

1:04:281:04:30

This may be a move away

from fire and fury,

1:04:301:04:33

perhaps even towards friendship but,

in the long-term, that will depend

1:04:331:04:36

on whether that message

coming from Pyongyang

1:04:361:04:38

proves to be one of

propaganda or progress.

1:04:381:04:40

Chris Buckler, BBC News, Washington.

1:04:401:04:46

More reaction from Washington in a

few minutes.

1:04:461:04:49

Pressure is growing

on counter-terror officers

1:04:491:04:51

to identify the source of a nerve

agent used in the attempted murder

1:04:511:04:54

of a former Russian spy

and his daughter in Salisbury.

1:04:541:04:57

Sergei and Yulia Skripal remain

in a critical condition.

1:04:571:04:59

A policeman who came

to their aid is in a serious

1:04:591:05:02

but stable condition.

1:05:021:05:03

State media in Russia has reacted

angrily to any suggestion

1:05:031:05:06

that the Kremlin

could be responsible.

1:05:061:05:08

Andy Moore reports.

1:05:081:05:08

In a sign of how extensive

this inquiry has become,

1:05:081:05:11

police cordoned off and set a guard

over the grave of Sergei Skripal's

1:05:111:05:15

wife, in Salisbury.

1:05:151:05:17

And nearby, in the same cemetery,

a similar police presence

1:05:171:05:22

at the spot where his son's

ashes are interned.

1:05:221:05:26

Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey

was one of the first to help

1:05:261:05:31

the Skripals, as they

fought for their lives.

1:05:311:05:35

He is said to be in a serious

condition but recovering.

1:05:351:05:38

He is a great character,

he is a huge presence in Wiltshire

1:05:381:05:43

police, well liked, well loved,

massively dedicated officer.

1:05:431:05:46

He is clearly receiving high

specialist treatment

1:05:461:05:49

so he is well set up.

1:05:491:05:52

He's not the Nick that I know but,

of course,he's been receiving a high

1:05:521:05:55

level of treatment.

1:05:551:06:01

Boris Johnson...

1:06:011:06:01

In Russia, state dominated media

made fun of Boris Johnson and joked

1:06:011:06:04

about what happened

to former Kremlin spies.

1:06:041:06:09

"If you are a professional traitor,"

he says, "my advice -

1:06:091:06:12

don't move to England.

1:06:121:06:14

Something is not right there,

the climate perhaps,

1:06:141:06:18

but too many bad

things go on there."

1:06:181:06:20

Sergei Skripal and his daughter,

Yulia, are still critically ill.

1:06:201:06:23

The BBC has been told the nerve

agent used against them was not

1:06:231:06:26

sarin or VX but

something much rarer.

1:06:261:06:28

The British government says it knows

what that substance was but is not

1:06:281:06:34

naming it at the moment.

1:06:341:06:36

Andy Moore, BBC News.

1:06:361:06:44

Three people questioned by police

after a black student

1:06:481:06:50

at Nottingham Trent University

complained about being racially

1:06:501:06:52

abused, have been released

but remain under investigation.

1:06:521:06:55

Two men aged 18 were

arrested on suspicion

1:06:551:06:57

of racially aggravated

public order offences .

1:06:571:06:59

An 18-year-old woman

was also interviewed.

1:06:591:07:00

Police have confirmed

they are treating the incident

1:07:001:07:02

as a hate crime.

1:07:021:07:10

NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

1:07:101:07:13

to agreeing a three year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands of staff

1:07:131:07:16

in England.

1:07:161:07:17

The government has already said it

will abolish the one

1:07:171:07:19

per cent pay cap on public sector

pay and the Chancellor has indicated

1:07:191:07:23

he will provide extra funding

to meet the higher costs.

1:07:231:07:28

The United States will

impose tariffs on imports

1:07:281:07:36

of aluminium and steel.

1:07:361:07:37

President Trump signed

an order bringing them

1:07:371:07:39

in yesterday afternoon.

1:07:391:07:40

That's sparked fears

of a global trade war.

1:07:401:07:42

Ben is here to explain

what's going on.

1:07:421:07:45

Not some of the tariffs themselves

but what is going to happen around

1:07:451:07:49

the world. The taxes are imposed on

things like steel and aluminium. A

1:07:491:07:54

25% tariff on steel, 10% on

aluminium and that could make them

1:07:541:08:00

more expensive to import from

overseas to the idea as American

1:08:001:08:03

manufacture wool is will think,

instead of American -- foreign-made

1:08:031:08:09

stuff, I'll buy American stuff.

1:08:091:08:15

stuff, I'll buy American stuff. You

can see them signing that

1:08:151:08:17

declaration last night. There are

some declarations of exemptions. But

1:08:171:08:25

nonetheless, a lot of countries have

threatened to retaliate. The

1:08:251:08:32

European Union says it will pit its

own tariffs on things the EU imports

1:08:321:08:37

from the United States has been very

specific. It's choosing politically

1:08:371:08:40

sensitive and products including the

Harley-Davidson might -- the

1:08:401:08:47

Harley-Davidson motorbike made in

Wisconsin, home state of Paul Ryan,

1:08:471:08:51

bourbon whiskey in Kentucky. Orange

juice from Florida. That is a key

1:08:511:08:57

swing state.

1:08:571:09:06

swing state. BT the US is saying

will post this on metal, the EU says

1:09:061:09:09

it will do something to enforce it.

Were going to see fewer people in EU

1:09:091:09:17

ride around on motorbikes drinking a

cocktail of orange and bourbon and

1:09:171:09:22

jeans. OK.

1:09:221:09:27

A proposal to impose a so-called

latte levy on throwaway coffee

1:09:351:09:38

cups has been rejected

by the government.

1:09:381:09:40

MPs on the Environmental Audit

Committee had suggested

1:09:401:09:42

a charge of 25 pence

for disposable coffee cups

1:09:421:09:44

to try to reduce their use.

1:09:441:09:46

Ministers say it would be better

for shops to offer voluntary

1:09:461:09:49

discounts to customers

who take in their own cups.

1:09:491:09:52

Back to our top story this morning

and the shock announcement that US

1:09:521:09:55

President Donald Trump has agreed

to the first ever meeting

1:09:551:09:58

between a serving US leader

and his North Korean counterpart.

1:09:581:10:00

North Korea made the offer and also

agreed to halt missile

1:10:001:10:04

tests in the meantime.

1:10:041:10:05

Earlier, our Washington

Correspondent Chris Buckler outlined

1:10:051:10:06

just how big a surprise

today's announcement was.

1:10:061:10:09

The first sense that we

got of anything being

1:10:091:10:14

this major was when President Trump

himself put his head around

1:10:141:10:21

the briefing room door

in the White House and said

1:10:211:10:24

that there would be a big

announcement coming from South

1:10:241:10:27

Korea.

1:10:271:10:27

It was only then that we

got a sense of really

1:10:271:10:30

what was coming.

1:10:301:10:31

To put this into context,

it was only 24 hours ago

1:10:311:10:38

that the US Secretary of State

was ruling out any suggestion

1:10:381:10:41

that there could be direct

talks on negotiation

1:10:411:10:43

between North Korea and America.

1:10:431:10:44

He said that just wasn't realistic.

1:10:441:10:46

But now we don't just

have the two countries talking,

1:10:461:10:48

we potentially have the two

leaders meeting in a

1:10:481:10:51

It's important to say that

sanctions remain in place.

1:10:511:10:56

South Korea wants to see concrete

action as well as words but it is,

1:10:561:11:00

as you say, an historic moment.

1:11:001:11:03

When you look at the words,

you reference the words Trump

1:11:031:11:09

used, "Rocket Man

on a suicide mission."

1:11:091:11:12

You think about the words and then

a meeting between the two.

1:11:121:11:18

Tell us about the logistics,

where and how this

1:11:181:11:20

might happen.

1:11:201:11:20

That is the big question.

1:11:201:11:24

Some people have talked about China,

nobody really knows.

1:11:241:11:26

The idea of him going to North Korea

is something that seems too far,

1:11:261:11:30

even for this White House, but just

think about the timing of this.

1:11:301:11:34

To suggest this meeting could happen

within a couple of months

1:11:341:11:37

is something that is

really quite surprising.

1:11:371:11:38

If this was any other White House,

you could imagine the days and weeks

1:11:381:11:46

of discussions because this

is a potential propaganda

1:11:471:11:49

coup for Pyongyang,

to have the North Korean leader

1:11:491:11:52

on the same stage as the US

President, but Donald

1:11:521:11:55

Trump says today that that meeting

is already being planned

1:11:551:11:58

but what is important is not

just the meeting itself

1:11:581:12:01

but what follows it.

1:12:011:12:05

This White House says he is a man

who has a reputation

1:12:051:12:08

of getting a deal.

1:12:081:12:09

The deal is important

in this but we have been

1:12:091:12:12

here before.

1:12:121:12:20

It is cold out there for many of us

this morning. Central London is

1:12:211:12:26

looking OK. A little bit hazy. That

is the view over Central London and

1:12:261:12:31

the River Thames. Sarah is gay to

tell us how chilly it is.

1:12:311:12:41

It is a chilly start, some cost

around this morning but temperatures

1:12:421:12:46

will be on the rise, especially over

a couple of days. This one is from

1:12:461:12:51

North Yorkshire, Alistair in

Hinderwell so we have some clear

1:12:511:12:57

skies out there to start the day of

the minibus, we will keep the

1:12:571:13:02

sunshine, especially across the

northern half of the country. A

1:13:021:13:06

little bit west later on. For the

here and now, it starts off dry.

1:13:061:13:13

Want to Myst and fog patches around

as well. Some cloud moving in with

1:13:131:13:19

outbreaks of rain pushing into the

likes of Devon, Cornwall and South

1:13:191:13:22

Wales. Elsewhere, a largely dry

picture. Temperatures around eight,

1:13:221:13:29

10 degrees out there today. We'll

see that patchy rain working through

1:13:291:13:34

the evening hours. Overnight,

England, Wales, Northern Ireland

1:13:341:13:39

will see those outbreaks of rain.

We've got the air coming in,

1:13:391:13:44

certainly frost free. We are in that

colder across northern Scotland so

1:13:441:13:49

that an icy night to come across

central and northern parts of

1:13:491:13:53

Scotland. How's the weekend shaping

up? There will be outbreaks of rain

1:13:531:14:00

but things are turning much milder

than they have been. It won't be a

1:14:001:14:04

write off at all. We still got the

blue colours so that colder in

1:14:041:14:10

charge across Scotland at the

moment. These yellow colours

1:14:101:14:15

indicate the milder air sweeping

northwards across the country by the

1:14:151:14:19

end of the weekend. For Saturday,

outbreaks of rain across northern

1:14:191:14:25

England, Northern Ireland. There

could be some more snow across the

1:14:251:14:30

higher ground of Scotland. It will

be falling as rain at lower levels

1:14:301:14:38

and further south, some sunny

spells, still a few showers but take

1:14:381:14:41

a look at those temperatures. We

could see 15 by Saturday, something

1:14:411:14:45

we have not seen for quite awhile.

That Ravenhill snow lingers. But

1:14:451:14:52

then we have that southerly breeze.

Quite murky to Sunday. Some Myst and

1:14:521:15:01

fog around. After that Billy Gray,

murky start, Sunday shaping up to be

1:15:011:15:07

relatively decent. Some sunny spells

breaking through, the chance of a

1:15:071:15:13

few showers in the West where it is

quite breezy but temperatures up to

1:15:131:15:17

around 13 degrees also in a sunny

spells, should feel quite pleasant

1:15:171:15:20

and different to what it was a week

ago.

1:15:201:15:24

and different to what it was a week

ago. you very much, we will talk to

1:15:241:15:30

you a bit later on.

1:15:301:15:41

Police in Wiltshire have

praised the bravery of one

1:15:421:15:45

of their officers, who went

to the aid of the former Russian

1:15:451:15:50

spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter

Yulia, after they were poisoned

1:15:501:15:53

by a nerve agent in Salisbury.

1:15:531:15:54

Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey

is still in a serious

1:15:541:15:57

condition in hospital.

1:15:571:15:58

But he's said to be

conscious and talking.

1:15:581:16:00

Mr Skripal and his daughter remain

in a critical condition.

1:16:001:16:02

Counter-terrorism officers are now

working to find the origin

1:16:021:16:05

of the nerve agent chemical used

in the attempted murder.

1:16:051:16:08

The Home Secretary has described

the attack as brazen and reckless,

1:16:081:16:11

but refused to speculate

about who is responsible.

1:16:111:16:13

Russia has strongly

denied any involvement.

1:16:131:16:14

Let's go to Salisbury

and speak to Simon Kempton

1:16:141:16:17

from the Police Federation.

1:16:171:16:18

Good morning, thank you very much

for talking to us. Am I right, this

1:16:181:16:22

is the scene where the two people,

the two Russians were found, Sergei

1:16:221:16:29

Skripal and his daughter were found,

after being poisoned?

That's right,

1:16:291:16:36

where we are stood now.

And the

investigation obviously is still

1:16:361:16:39

going on. Can you tell us anything

about that?

No, I am not here to

1:16:391:16:45

talk about the investigation. It is

important that our colleagues in the

1:16:451:16:48

counterterrorism command do that. I

am here to talk about Nick, really.

1:16:481:16:52

In the work he has done with his

colleagues.

We have seen his picture

1:16:521:16:57

on all of the front pages this

morning, and of course we are

1:16:571:17:01

wishing him well. Can you tell us

what you know now of his condition?

1:17:011:17:05

We understand that he is talking and

is conscious, but obviously in a

1:17:051:17:09

very serious condition.

That's

right, he is visited by his chief

1:17:091:17:13

constable last night, and he was

able to have a conversation. And it

1:17:131:17:16

is heartening to see that his

condition seems to have improved,

1:17:161:17:22

but he is still very seriously ill,

and of Italy we are very worried

1:17:221:17:25

about him.

I have said he is

talking, he is conscious, has he

1:17:251:17:29

been able to say anything about what

has happened, in terms of how he

1:17:291:17:33

reacted to the scene, and what he

saw? -- obviously we are very

1:17:331:17:38

worried about him.

Yes, he has had a

conversation with the chief

1:17:381:17:44

constable and his colleagues, but to

be honest I will leave that to them

1:17:441:17:48

to talk about.

All right, so will

you talk to us about how he is

1:17:481:17:53

feeling himself, how he is

physically recovering?

Yes, like

1:17:531:17:56

they say, he is still very seriously

ill, and what the Police Federation

1:17:561:18:00

and Wiltshire police are doing is

supporting his wife and his family,

1:18:001:18:04

which is very important. Every

police officer needs to support

1:18:041:18:07

their family, and we are here today

to support them. And all of Nick's

1:18:071:18:12

colleagues worked really hard,

really well together, and their

1:18:121:18:15

professionalism is unsurpassed. They

have been able to put their feelings

1:18:151:18:18

to one side and will come into work,

day after day, to perform on behalf

1:18:181:18:27

of the public, to keep them safe.

I

am not sure how much training

1:18:271:18:31

someone would get for something like

this. Obviously police prepare for

1:18:311:18:35

many situations, but already one

officer has said after seeing Nick,

1:18:351:18:39

he is not the no, this has come as a

huge shock in terms of what you

1:18:391:18:45

would come across in everyday life.

Absolutely, I mean, this just

1:18:451:18:50

doesn't happen in the United

Kingdom, does it? We have officers

1:18:501:18:53

who have been trained to a high

standard to deal with hazardous

1:18:531:18:57

materials, incidents that involve

things like that. But for the

1:18:571:19:01

average bobby on the street, we get

a call for help from the public and

1:19:011:19:05

we rushed towards the public to keep

them safe, to help them. And we

1:19:051:19:09

don't know what we will go into. I

think it is important to reflect

1:19:091:19:13

that when a police officer goes into

work, they never know what they will

1:19:131:19:17

deal with, how dangerous that day is

going to be. And today we can all be

1:19:171:19:21

really proud of the Police Service

for the job they are doing, stepping

1:19:211:19:24

up, especially in Salisbury but

across the country, every day.

I

1:19:241:19:27

imagine that you have spoken to

colleagues and family members, and

1:19:271:19:31

Detective Sergeant Bailey joined the

force at 17, a decorated and well

1:19:311:19:36

respected officer. Many perhaps

unsurprised that he rushed to the

1:19:361:19:39

aid of two people who were obviously

insignificant distress. -- in

1:19:391:19:44

significant distress.

I don't know

him personally, but he is a friend

1:19:441:19:51

of a friend and is highly regarded.

He really is the best that we have.

1:19:511:19:56

He was instrumental in bringing to

justice a very dangerous and

1:19:561:19:59

prolific sexual offender and was

decorated for that, quite rightly,

1:19:591:20:03

and it just shows the esteem in

which he is held that what has

1:20:031:20:07

happened to Nick has sent ripples

across the Police Service, wider

1:20:071:20:10

than Wiltshire.

And as you say, this

has sent ripples across the Police

1:20:101:20:14

Service. Many will be looking at

what has happened to Detective

1:20:141:20:18

Sergeant Bailey and saying what do

we need to do? How should we be

1:20:181:20:24

approaching anyone who seems in

distress now? What are the

1:20:241:20:28

repercussions of this?

That's right,

and I think possibly one of the

1:20:281:20:32

scariest things about this incident

is that, right up until it changed

1:20:321:20:34

and we understood what we were

dealing with, it was probably a

1:20:341:20:38

fairly routine call, something that

I have dealt with numerous times,

1:20:381:20:42

all of us have. And again, it just

reinforces even the seemingly

1:20:421:20:47

routine calls can evolve into

something life changing,

1:20:471:20:50

potentially. But you're right, Nick

rushed to the assistance of the

1:20:501:20:55

public, along with his colleagues,

as we all do.

And just finally, Nick

1:20:551:21:02

is obviously still in hospital,

Detective Sergeant Bailey. Is there

1:21:021:21:07

any inclination or implication of

how long he will be there, what the

1:21:071:21:11

next age of treatment is for him?

Not at the moment, no. He is in the

1:21:111:21:18

safest possible hands with the NHS.

They are doing an amazing job, not

1:21:181:21:21

just with Nick, but with the members

of the public who are injured. They

1:21:211:21:25

are continuing to support them, to

treat him. And obviously they will

1:21:251:21:31

give updates as and when.

I just

want to reflect some of those

1:21:311:21:41

comments from fellow officers,

praise for the officer. Detective

1:21:411:21:45

Sergeant Nick Daly, 38 years old,

many people commenting on the fact

1:21:451:21:52

that this is an ordinary day in an

ordinary town, and a police officer

1:21:521:21:55

going about his business who had to

step into what was an extraordinary

1:21:551:21:59

situation.

The Daily Express

praising Nick Bailey, Detective

1:21:591:22:04

Sergeant Nick Bailey, aged 38, hero

cop who risked life to save spy,

1:22:041:22:10

saying let's give the officer a

bravery honour.

1:22:101:22:13

How do we rid our oceans of plastic?

1:22:131:22:15

It is a problem that's had

a huge amount of attention

1:22:151:22:18

in recent months.

1:22:181:22:19

From levies to coastal

clean-ups, there are number

1:22:191:22:21

of initiatives taking place.

1:22:211:22:22

Dan Johnson is in Brighton

for us this morning,

1:22:221:22:25

looking at the latest approach.

1:22:251:22:30

A brisk morning at the beach, but

people are very keen to keep it

1:22:301:22:35

clean.

They are indeed, yes. A

beautiful beach, but not without its

1:22:351:22:41

problem of litter and rubbish that

we see everywhere. Just look at some

1:22:411:22:45

of the stuff we have collected, even

just in the last hour of this

1:22:451:22:49

morning. All sorts in there, plastic

bottles and even someone's

1:22:491:22:53

Wellington which has been lost at

sea and washed up on the beach. It

1:22:531:22:57

is that sort of stuff that these

guys want to combat using one of

1:22:571:23:01

these, a drone. The idea is that

that goes up, takes pictures of the

1:23:011:23:05

beach, and people can use that from

home to tag where there is rubbish

1:23:051:23:08

on the beach. Ellie flies the drone.

Is it that simple, you tag where

1:23:081:23:13

there is rubbish and we come and

clean it up?

It is, so we are

1:23:131:23:19

pleased to be partnering with

British Science Week, and we are

1:23:191:23:24

hoping to get 250,000 tags, so our

images of the beaches are going

1:23:241:23:27

online, and anyone anywhere in their

pyjamas, with a cup of tea, even if

1:23:271:23:32

you are not on the beach and don't

live near the coastlines, you can

1:23:321:23:35

get involved with tagging, it is

like playing a game. You can tag the

1:23:351:23:39

plastics in the images, and the

clever thing about it, there is a

1:23:391:23:43

clever algorithm in there which

means that the drone learns to find

1:23:431:23:47

plastic on its own. This means we

will build-up a picture of where the

1:23:471:23:50

plastic is on the beach, so we can

send our resources and recycling

1:23:501:23:54

teams, volunteers like the guys

behind us, to the beaches which are

1:23:541:23:57

worst hit, and they can tidy it for

us.

1:23:571:24:04

us.

Will it really be possible to

identify from the air what is what?

1:24:071:24:11

Some of these pieces of plastic are

very small.

They are very small, and

1:24:111:24:15

a camera technology on the drone is

as good if not better than the naked

1:24:151:24:19

eye, but we need to teach the drone

to recognise the plastic. That is

1:24:191:24:22

why we need a body to get involved,

children, adults, scientists,

1:24:221:24:25

nonscientists. That is why we are

proud to be involved in British

1:24:251:24:29

Science Week and getting people

involved in Citizen science. They

1:24:291:24:31

are part of scientific data and

teaching the drone to recognise even

1:24:311:24:35

those tiny fragments.

Matt is from

the British science Association. How

1:24:351:24:38

big is this Latics problem, and

could this be something of a

1:24:381:24:41

solution?

Yes, everyone who watched

Blue Planet Two would note that this

1:24:411:24:48

is a serious problem. We can only

track 1% of the plastic which enters

1:24:481:24:51

the sea, so part of the problem is

using less plastic, but part of it

1:24:511:24:56

is finding out what happens to it,

so we can find out how to stop that

1:24:561:25:02

problem happening.

Are the beaches

the front lines of this fight?

Yes,

1:25:021:25:07

I come to the beach every day and

sometimes it looks really terrible.

1:25:071:25:12

We need to understand how we can

stop this plastic entering the sea.

1:25:121:25:18

Certainly a huge problem, one with a

lot of attention over the last few

1:25:181:25:22

months, with renewed interest in the

whole plastics problem. This is one

1:25:221:25:28

hi-tech solution that people are

hoping will lead to cleaner beaches,

1:25:281:25:31

and hopefully reduce the amount of

plastics out there.

Thank you very

1:25:311:28:56

and then on Sunday a rather grey

start, with some mist and fog.

1:28:561:28:59

I'm back with the latest

from the BBC London newsroom

1:28:591:29:02

in half an hour.

1:29:021:29:03

Bye for now.

1:29:031:29:05

Hello - this is Breakfast with

Charlie Stayt and Naga Munchetty.

1:29:131:29:20

The potential meeting

between Donald Trump

1:29:211:29:23

and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un

has been described as a "diplomatic

1:29:231:29:26

coup" for the US President.

1:29:261:29:34

North Korean leader

Kim Jong-un said he is

1:29:351:29:37

committed to denuclearisation.

1:29:371:29:39

Kim pledged that North Korea

will refrain from any further

1:29:391:29:47

nuclear or missile tests.

1:29:471:29:48

He understands that the routine

joint military exercises

1:29:481:29:50

between the Republic of Korea

and the United States must continue.

1:29:501:29:54

And he expressed his eagerness

to meet President Trump

1:29:541:29:56

as soon as possible.

1:29:561:30:04

Earlier, our Seoul Correspondent

Laura Bicker outlined the potential

1:30:131:30:15

risks and rewards associated

with the potential meeting.

1:30:151:30:23

It is a huge PR win

for Donald Trump.

1:30:331:30:36

He will believe his maximum

policy is working.

1:30:361:30:38

The people in Seoul,

the ministers who have been deftly

1:30:381:30:41

and diplomatically negotiating these

two sides to the table also.

1:30:411:30:43

The potential risks are also huge.

1:30:431:30:45

It could also be that Kim Jong-un

sees it as a propaganda win.

1:30:451:30:50

He is incredibly savvy.

1:30:501:30:51

Those army of beauties,

sent to the Winter Olympics,

1:30:511:30:53

managing to almost upstage

the sporting arena.

1:30:531:30:55

When it comes to dealing with this

kind of diplomatic opportunity,

1:30:551:30:58

he has had years of practice

watching his grandfather

1:30:581:31:01

and his father who both got

to the table and then walked away

1:31:011:31:04

and continued to build

nuclear weapons.

1:31:041:31:06

When it comes to the risks

for President Trump

1:31:061:31:08

and President Moon Jae-in,

it could be that North Korea

1:31:081:31:11

is playing them but right now

the rewards outweigh the risks.

1:31:111:31:19

Pressure is growing

on counter-terror officers

1:31:331:31:34

to identify the source of a nerve

agent used in the attempted murder

1:31:341:31:38

of a former Russian

spy and his daughter.

1:31:381:31:40

Sergei and Yulia Skripal remain

in a critical condition.

1:31:401:31:43

A policeman who rushed

to their aid is in a serious

1:31:431:31:46

condition, but conscious.

1:31:461:31:54

The European Union is considering

retaliating with charges on bourbon,

1:31:561:32:00

motorbikes and oranges in relation

to Donald Trump's steel and

1:32:001:32:04

aluminium tariffs.

1:32:041:32:07

NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

1:32:071:32:09

to agreeing a three year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands of staff

1:32:091:32:13

in England.

1:32:131:32:13

The government has already said it

will abolish the one

1:32:131:32:16

per cent pay cap on public sector

pay and the Chancellor has indicated

1:32:161:32:20

he will provide extra funding

to meet the higher costs.

1:32:201:32:22

A proposal to impose a so-called

latte levy on throwaway coffee

1:32:221:32:25

cups has been rejected

by the government.

1:32:251:32:27

MPs on the Environmental Audit

Committee had suggested

1:32:271:32:29

a charge of 25 pence

for disposable coffee cups

1:32:291:32:32

to try to reduce their use.

1:32:321:32:33

Ministers say it would be better

for shops to offer voluntary

1:32:331:32:36

discounts to customers

who take in their own cups.

1:32:361:32:44

Now if you struggle to take

the perfect selfie, perhaps

1:32:451:32:47

you could learn a thing

from these two.

1:32:471:32:49

The two Emperor penguins stumbled

across a camera on the ice

1:32:491:32:52

in the Antarctic that had been left

there by Australian explorer

1:32:521:32:55

Eddie Gault and were

clearly very curious.

1:32:551:32:57

And they've proven to be rather

talented after finding

1:32:571:33:00

the video-record switch -

and Eddie ended up with

1:33:001:33:02

some lovely video.

1:33:021:33:10

If he hold on a minute, you will see

a lovely little dance.

Does that

1:33:131:33:20

mean they are happy? I think so.

It's as if they are sending a

1:33:201:33:24

message to Sir David Attenborough.

Where are you, Sir David?

That's

1:33:241:33:28

what it needed, it needed Sir David

Attenborough voicing it.

Or Johnny

1:33:281:33:33

Morris in his heyday.

1:33:331:33:36

Well the build up to

the Winter Paralympics,

1:33:361:33:44

has been disrupted by heavy snow.

1:33:451:33:49

If the winter Olympians are

fearless, what does that make the

1:33:491:33:53

Paralympic and is?

Going down the

slopes barely able to see? You have

1:33:531:34:00

the six skiers, the Nordic skiers,

the sledge hockey, the wheelchair

1:34:001:34:04

curlers. But heavy snow has

disrupted. It affects Tron sport.

1:34:041:34:12

And it means going into the Opening

Ceremony, they haven't had a dress

1:34:121:34:16

rehearsal. Katy Gray 's leading out

team this morning.

1:34:161:34:24

Anyone who has been in a school play

knows the importance of a dress

1:34:241:34:28

rehearsal that they haven't had one?

You're not wrong there. They haven't

1:34:281:34:34

been able to complete a full Opening

Ceremony rehearsal maybe because of

1:34:341:34:40

the constant snowball -- snow fall

that has been happening. The

1:34:401:34:44

snowfall has stopped.

1:34:441:34:50

snowfall has stopped. They will have

everything crossed later on today

1:34:501:34:53

that it will go off without a hitch

and the snowfall does stay there. We

1:34:531:34:58

found out yesterday that North Korea

and South Korea will march out

1:34:581:35:02

separately at the Opening Ceremony.

The international Paralympic

1:35:021:35:06

committee admit they are

disappointed. In terms of Great

1:35:061:35:12

Britain, snowboarder Owen Pick will

lead out the team as the flag

1:35:121:35:16

bearer. Most of them are preparing

themselves to the days ahead of

1:35:161:35:20

competition and Owen is one of three

snowboarders will be competing here

1:35:201:35:24

for Great Britain for the first in

snowboarding. He has got a great

1:35:241:35:30

honour of leading out the team.

Looking ahead to other action on the

1:35:301:35:34

slopes, the alpine skiing was a big

medal haul in Russia. You may

1:35:341:35:39

remember Cally

1:35:391:35:46

remember Cally -- Kelly Gallagher

making history. She is back in

1:35:461:35:48

action here. She will have tough

competition from her team-mates.

1:35:481:35:56

Also, look out for Scott Nino. He

will be going in the Nordic skiing.

1:35:561:36:02

Also, lots of wheelchair curling

action. Lots to look forward to.

1:36:021:36:10

Conditions will hopefully improve in

terms of the snow.

1:36:101:36:17

With Arsenal's recent form,

who'd have thought Arsenal

1:36:171:36:19

would stand a chance against AC

Milan in the Europa League?

1:36:191:36:22

Well, they went to Italy

and they came back with a 2-nil

1:36:221:36:26

victory - Henrik Mkhitaryan

scored his first goal for the club

1:36:261:36:29

and Aaron Ramsey added

another at the San Siro.

1:36:291:36:31

The second leg is at

the Emirates next Thursday.

1:36:311:36:33

It's a huge weekend

in the Six Nations, with plenty

1:36:331:36:36

of permutions but Ireland

could be crowned champions.

1:36:361:36:38

They go into their match

with Scotland in Dublin,

1:36:381:36:41

top of the table and with

three wins from three -

1:36:411:36:44

victory would keep them on course

for a first Grand Slam in 9 years

1:36:441:36:48

but remember, Scotland showed

against England last time out that

1:36:481:36:50

they're no pushovers.

1:36:501:36:56

It is a Super Rugby style that they

plan that makes them very potent on

1:36:561:37:00

the counter-attack very potent

attacking from loose ball and very,

1:37:001:37:05

I suppose, dangerous in those wider

channels.

1:37:051:37:09

England need to match Ireland's

result to if they're to keep

1:37:091:37:12

alive their hopes of

a third straight title.

1:37:121:37:14

Head coach Eddie Jones has named his

team for the game with France.

1:37:141:37:18

Captain Dylan Hartley misses out

through injury with Owen Farrell

1:37:181:37:20

skippering the side in his place

for the first time

1:37:201:37:23

I think these weeks when you are

coming back from a loss in test

1:37:231:37:27

rugby, they really test your metal,

test the medal of the coaches, test

1:37:271:37:31

the medal of the players, the

ability to keep focus, generate that

1:37:311:37:35

energy and zest and brutality that

you need to the next game.

Hopefully

1:37:351:37:44

at this time, we will be lifting the

Gold Cup. They let you hold it? You

1:37:441:37:52

haven't dropped it? It's not very

happy. Of course you would say that.

1:37:521:37:57

I have seen you. Looking ahead to

the big race, there is no chance to

1:37:571:38:03

size up John's chances. Sizing John

is out, he has an injured pelvis. It

1:38:031:38:13

was a reading return the Walsh as he

prepares his first ride at

1:38:131:38:19

Cheltenham.

1:38:191:38:29

Cheltenham. I play tennis last night

and I couldn't drop off. I'm a

1:38:341:38:38

terrible sleeper.

1:38:381:38:48

Getting a good night's sleep has

been from everything to lowering

1:38:521:38:57

stress and reducing diabetes. We

will talk to the man behind some

1:38:571:39:01

research on the moment but there is

an explanation of an experiment that

1:39:011:39:05

is being used.

1:39:051:39:07

What I'm doing here, what I meant to

be doing here is making associations

1:39:071:39:12

between the words in the picture so

here, for example, this is the word

1:39:121:39:18

"Artistic", there is a picture of a

hairdresser so I have to make a

1:39:181:39:22

mental link between artistic and

hairdressers. This is military and

1:39:221:39:25

potato pillow. Maybe soldiers

carrying potato pillars. And as I'm

1:39:251:39:30

tucked into the world's most

unnatural nap, it's time for my

1:39:301:39:34

brain to get to work.

You are good

to go, we will be back in around 90

1:39:341:39:38

minutes, just try and relax and

enjoy some sleep.

To demonstrate

1:39:381:39:42

what happens to us every night

during slow wave sleep, some of the

1:39:421:39:46

words learned earlier are played to

me over a loudspeaker to see if I

1:39:461:39:51

can remember them better.

Extreme.

What's amazing is that it was easier

1:39:511:39:57

for me to recall the word

associations that were played to me

1:39:571:40:01

during sleep.

1:40:011:40:05

Scott is here and he is a sleep

psychologist.

1:40:051:40:17

What we trying to do? We know that

sleep is important the memory and

1:40:181:40:22

one way they support memories is by

reactivating them in the brain while

1:40:221:40:26

we are asleep. The information we

have acquired during the day is

1:40:261:40:30

reactivated. What we did in that

study was trying manipulate the

1:40:301:40:34

process to understand what was going

on in the brain while Chris was

1:40:341:40:38

asleep.

1:40:381:40:46

While he was asleep, we replayed a

subset of those words with the idea

1:40:461:40:50

we could to trigger the

reactivation.

1:40:501:40:57

You mean he read out stories and the

day and pick highlights of it? It

1:40:571:41:04

would be a typical adjectives like

the word American and a picture of a

1:41:041:41:11

banana or a scene such as a golf

course.

He learned that during the

1:41:111:41:20

day and you replayed those words

while he was asleep? You make it

1:41:201:41:24

took a nap in our sleep lab and we

saw he had gone to slow wave sleep,

1:41:241:41:29

we then started replaying those

words to him. Drew speakers that

1:41:291:41:36

were in the room?

With the intention

of reactivating the manipulation

1:41:361:41:44

that were associated with those

words. What we can do is replayed

1:41:441:41:52

associated words during sleep and

those that weren't replayed during

1:41:521:41:55

sleep and we can see that memory

performs better than those that are

1:41:551:41:59

replayed during sleep. These are

facts, they last breath different

1:41:591:42:09

amount of times. The interactions

between reactivation.

1:42:091:42:16

between reactivation. Does this

prove that sleep is good or any

1:42:231:42:29

sleep is good for memory? What are

the techniques we use a snap studies

1:42:291:42:34

to focus on the brain process that

is going on and indeed, it appears

1:42:341:42:38

that any kind of sleep after

learning does boost your memory

1:42:381:42:41

performance. We should say these are

done in highly controlled

1:42:411:42:45

environments. We carry out

experiments in the lab and look at

1:42:451:42:48

different processes that go on in

relation to these facts but

1:42:481:42:52

certainly the data over many years

is demonstrating that sleep is very,

1:42:521:42:55

very important the row memory.

Out

of curiosity, who was being

1:42:551:43:03

experimented on?

Chris.

When he

worked up after the experiment, did

1:43:031:43:08

he have any recollection of what was

happening, as you do when you wake

1:43:081:43:12

up? You have a dream, your member

something about the time were

1:43:121:43:16

asleep.

This didn't remember any of

the word being replayed to him and

1:43:161:43:21

what Bill Bayes do in these studies

is ask people first thought they

1:43:211:43:24

were aware of any of these words

being replayed and they usually say

1:43:241:43:28

no and to get them to carry out

tests where we replayed all the

1:43:281:43:32

words from next permit and guess

which ones were replayed and which

1:43:321:43:35

ones.

Was he subconsciously where of

them?

His brain was that he wasn't

1:43:351:43:42

consciously aware.

What is the

practical use of this? Children at

1:43:421:43:46

school who start about 830 but don't

get till bed until nine o'clock.

1:43:461:43:50

There is a big gap between the

learning period and sleeping period.

1:43:501:43:55

This is another line of research we

are carrying out at the moment to

1:43:551:43:58

understand how the timing of sleep

and the timing between sleep that

1:43:581:44:02

children get in the evening and a

learning during the day affects the

1:44:021:44:07

benefits of sleep and memory

consolidation. In terms of the

1:44:071:44:11

practical benefits we have been

carrying out, it enables us to get

1:44:111:44:16

new insights into how the sleeping

brain processes memories at how we

1:44:161:44:20

can adapt our memories. That is

important just for understanding how

1:44:201:44:24

our memory systems work.

How much

sleep did you get last night?

Not

1:44:241:44:29

much, a few hours. Three hours, four

hours. I was fairly nervous about

1:44:291:44:35

coming on this morning.

With zero --

with your knowledge, you would be

1:44:351:44:40

performing below par this morning

because you have not slept enough. I

1:44:401:44:46

have had some in this morning. I

know that people who should sleep

1:44:461:44:56

really well weather presenters

because everything they do is all

1:44:561:44:59

from memory. We can find out from

Sarah, you can tell how well sell a

1:44:591:45:06

slept last night as to how many

marks you will score out of ten deal

1:45:061:45:10

weather forecast.

1:45:101:45:12

Bye for now.

1:45:121:45:15

We are very good at grabbing sleep

whenever we can. Whether it is in

1:45:151:45:19

the afternoon, 2am, sleep is very

precious and should be taken at any

1:45:191:45:24

opportunity. So the Sun has risen

this morning and it is a beautiful,

1:45:241:45:29

Serena start to the day for many of

us. This is the view in North

1:45:291:45:33

Yorkshire, showing those clear

skies. Moving through the day, it

1:45:331:45:37

will not stay sunny everywhere.

Increasing amounts of cloud moving

1:45:371:45:39

on from the south will bring some

outbreaks of rain later on. A few

1:45:391:45:43

snow showers across Scotland but

elsewhere a lot of fairly dry and

1:45:431:45:48

bright weather on the cards. This

morning many of us start off on that

1:45:481:45:51

dry note. We have the cloud working

in from the south but also a few

1:45:511:45:56

mist and fog patches dotted around

as well. A few snow showers

1:45:561:45:59

lingering for Central Scotland,

could be another few centimetres

1:45:591:46:02

before they ease away during the

course of the afternoon. The rain

1:46:021:46:05

moves in across south-west England,

south Wales, and temperatures around

1:46:051:46:09

eight to 11 degrees. It is milder

than it was this time last week. On

1:46:091:46:14

into the evening hours, the rain in

the south continuing its way

1:46:141:46:18

northwards. Patchy rain really

across much of England, Wales and in

1:46:181:46:21

the Northern Ireland through the

night. Further north, for Scotland

1:46:211:46:25

we have the clear skies in the cold

air. Another cold, frosty night with

1:46:251:46:29

subzero temperatures and the risk of

some icy stretches as well.

1:46:291:46:34

Elsewhere, we are in that milder air

and things are looking frost free to

1:46:341:46:38

start Saturday morning, with a few

outbreaks of rain around as well.

1:46:381:46:42

How is the weekend shaping up? Some

rain at times, but temperatures will

1:46:421:46:46

be on

1:46:461:46:51

be on the rise as well, and there

will be a little bit of sunshine on

1:47:041:47:08

offer. For many of us at times.

Through the day on Saturday we have

1:47:081:47:12

that cold air in place across parts

of Scotland, but through the weekend

1:47:121:47:15

you will notice these yellow

colours, the Marlborough area just

1:47:151:47:18

drifting further northwards so by

the end of the weekend we're all in

1:47:181:47:21

that much milder air. During

Saturday, with the transition to the

1:47:211:47:24

milder air there is wet weather.

Rain for East Anglia, northern

1:47:241:47:27

England and Northern Ireland,

pushing northwards and as that rain

1:47:271:47:30

bumps into the cold air for Scotland

there could be a little bit more

1:47:301:47:34

snow. We are likely to see several

centimetres for the southern Upland,

1:47:341:47:37

the Grampians, for instance as well.

Down below that it will be falling

1:47:371:47:41

as rain, elsewhere showers and sunny

spells, temperatures reaching 15

1:47:411:47:43

degrees in the south, making it

potentially the warmest day of the

1:47:431:47:47

year so far. On through Saturday

night, we still have front lingering

1:47:471:47:50

across Scotland, so some rain and

hill snow likely here, slowly

1:47:501:47:53

clearing to the north, and a dry

spell of weather on into the early

1:47:531:47:57

hours of Sunday morning. Some mist

and fog likely, so a little bit

1:47:571:48:00

murky but frost free first thing.

And then that mist and fog should

1:48:001:48:04

break up. For many of us, sunny

spells and temperatures certainly a

1:48:041:48:08

lot milder than there

1:48:081:48:08

spells and temperatures certainly a

lot milder than there have been

1:48:081:48:09

recently. To you both.

Sarah, ten

out of ten as usual. You recalled

1:48:091:48:12

everything, not that I would have

known otherwise. We had to

1:48:121:48:15

apologise, during your forecast we

have a little bit of a technical

1:48:151:48:18

glitch and there was an odd shot, so

we didn't get all the graphics fully

1:48:181:48:23

for about 15 seconds, so sorry about

that. Sorry of course to our viewers

1:48:231:48:26

as well.

It was showing us in the

studio, waiting for the weather to

1:48:261:48:30

continue. We will rule out any

further gremlins. We will talk about

1:48:301:48:34

technology, amongst other things.

1:48:341:48:39

Good morning to you. We are talking

about the world's biggest car show.

1:48:401:48:50

The Geneva Motor show is a chance

for the world's carmakers to show

1:48:501:48:53

off new models, but there is one

this year that is particularly

1:48:531:48:57

futuristic - a road-legal,

ready-to-buy flying car.

1:48:571:48:59

We spoke to the boss of the Dutch

company that has made it.

1:48:591:49:05

Flying cars have been tried for 100

years, but it required the

1:49:051:49:11

development of technologies to come

to the state where you can build

1:49:111:49:15

something like this. The big

breakthrough was tilting technology

1:49:151:49:19

with which we can have folded

aeroplane, which flies well, up to a

1:49:191:49:24

road vehicle which can drive at 160

kilometres per hour safely on the

1:49:241:49:28

road. The people that buy this, they

buy Vista go to their business,

1:49:281:49:32

having fun, having adventures, or

even one of our entrepreneurs who

1:49:321:49:35

bought it, he buys it to show to his

customers that he is part of the

1:49:351:49:40

innovative world.

So there it is. If

you want one, they don't come cheap

1:49:401:49:45

but that one sells for £500,000.

1:49:451:49:52

but that one sells for £500,000. And

we are looking at those pictures,

1:49:521:49:54

will this be one of those things

which in ten years time we will look

1:49:541:49:59

back and say how ridiculous is that?

There is a very real risk that this

1:49:591:50:03

is answering a question which nobody

has asked. The idea of the flying

1:50:031:50:08

car has been around for a long time.

Henry Ford talked about them in the

1:50:081:50:13

1920s and said they would come. But

whether we can take this into the

1:50:131:50:21

mainstream remains to be seen.

And

the conversion takes ten minutes?

1:50:211:50:25

The conversion takes ten minutes, it

still needs the space of an airfield

1:50:251:50:29

to take off. It is not like it can

transform and skipper the traffic.

1:50:291:50:34

There are a few practical issues.

Pricetag aside, about £500,000, we

1:50:341:50:41

are looking at these pictures and it

needs a runway to land. Frankly, at

1:50:411:50:45

that price, if you can afford to buy

one, you might already have a posh

1:50:451:50:49

car and private plane yourself.

Absolutely, the question they are

1:50:491:50:53

trying to answer is that when people

go to an airfield they have two

1:50:531:50:58

drive on afterwards. But if you have

that much money you probably have a

1:50:581:51:02

means to an end regardless. So it is

absolutely part of a conundrum. We

1:51:021:51:06

can see a future where drones might

be delivering goods, could they

1:51:061:51:10

deliver human beings? There are a

lot of companies working in this

1:51:101:51:14

space and clever people who think

there might be something in this

1:51:141:51:17

technology. At the moment we are

very much in the early stages.

I

1:51:171:51:21

don't want to be too cynical about

it, because everything has to start

1:51:211:51:24

somewhere. Could this be the

precursor to something a little more

1:51:241:51:27

slick later on?

I think it could be.

I think it is interesting, the

1:51:271:51:32

people investing in the technology

are clever people with good track

1:51:321:51:35

records. There is absolutely

something in drones entering our

1:51:351:51:39

lives and bringing deliveries, and

why can't humans be part of that

1:51:391:51:43

process? And a drone could take you

to where you want to be, rather than

1:51:431:51:47

sticking to an airfield. So there is

something in it.

Let's talk about

1:51:471:51:51

the wider Geneva motor show.

Electric was a really big thing this

1:51:511:51:55

year. We know all the big carmakers

are trying to get on board and work

1:51:551:51:59

out a viable model. Is that what you

were hearing?

Absolutely, the mantra

1:51:591:52:04

is that the car industry will change

more in the next five to ten years

1:52:041:52:08

that it has in the last 100,

electrification will be at the

1:52:081:52:12

forefront of that. Electrically

driven cars, autonomous cars, cars

1:52:121:52:16

which are connected and can talk to

each other, these are coming in

1:52:161:52:19

really quite a short time.

Thank you

very much. Have you got your name

1:52:191:52:25

down to buy one?

Not yet, saving up.

How about you guys, a flying car?

1:52:251:52:36

Yes!

Where would you landed?

Just

outside.

You could land at 5:55am in

1:52:361:52:45

front of the sofa?

1:52:451:52:54

front of the sofa? In 1982? How old

do you think I was in 1982?

Ten?

I

1:52:541:53:02

was one.

1:53:021:53:04

When Henry VIII's doomed warship

the Mary Rose was successfully

1:53:041:53:07

lifted from the seabed

in the 1980s, it was seen

1:53:071:53:10

a major archaeological achievement.

1:53:101:53:11

More than 1,000 cannonballs

were found on board.

1:53:111:53:13

But they need urgent attention,

as they are rotting away.

1:53:131:53:16

Breakfast's Tim Muffett

is in Portsmouth this morning

1:53:161:53:18

to find out how they are

trying to save them.

1:53:181:53:26

Right, so these are the samples

we will look at today.

1:53:261:53:29

In one of the world's most advanced

scientific facilities,

1:53:291:53:37

Eleanor and Hayley are

holding pieces of history.

1:53:391:53:41

These cannonballs are

from the Mary Rose.

1:53:411:53:43

She sank in the Solent in 1545,

whilst attacking an invading

1:53:431:53:46

French fleet.

1:53:461:53:52

In 1982, millions watched

on television as she was brought

1:53:521:53:55

back to the surface.

1:53:551:54:01

Amongst the artefacts found -

1,200 cannonballs.

1:54:011:54:03

But, since being discovered,

some have corroded, some haven't.

1:54:031:54:11

This is part of the Cannonball, you

can see the curve right there.

1:54:121:54:16

So the team took the difficult

decision to cut out samples

1:54:161:54:19

to find out why.

1:54:191:54:21

Most of the ways drills work is you

need some sort of lubricant, and

1:54:211:54:26

they often use oil or water, so we

used a hacksaw.

How did it feel at

1:54:261:54:31

that moment?

1:54:311:54:33

It's not typical

to destructively sample

1:54:331:54:35

like this, in conservation.

1:54:351:54:36

But for us, we realised that to not

do it, and watch these things that

1:54:361:54:40

might disintegrate,

would be negligent.

1:54:401:54:42

But, to analyse the corrosion

on such an old object,

1:54:421:54:44

you need a very special machine.

1:54:441:54:49

So this is Diamond Light Force,

the UK's national synchrotron

1:54:491:54:52

facility.

1:54:521:54:52

And a synchrotron is a particle

accelerator, that takes electrons

1:54:521:54:55

and accelerates them to 99%

of the speed of light.

1:54:551:54:58

Because the cannibals have been

exposed to nature for 500 years,

1:54:581:55:01

they are very, very complicated,

and you need these very precise,

1:55:011:55:04

very accurate measurements,

that you can only really do

1:55:041:55:06

with light that is of this quality.

1:55:061:55:08

Well, on some of the cannonballs

you can see an H, which stands

1:55:081:55:12

for King Henry.

1:55:121:55:20

But, as a collection,

these cannonballs are unique.

1:55:231:55:25

They are all the same age,

they have all spent the same amount

1:55:251:55:28

of time underwater,

and they were all made

1:55:281:55:31

in the same way.

1:55:311:55:32

We know that because,

in the 16th century,

1:55:321:55:34

there was only one iron

blast furnace in Britain.

1:55:341:55:36

But they have been treated

in different ways.

1:55:361:55:38

Many were washed.

1:55:381:55:40

Some had anticorrosive applied,

others were submerged in sodium

1:55:401:55:43

sesquicarbonate, a chemical

which is a bit like baking soda.

1:55:431:55:46

This is basically like baking soda.

These ones are not showing any signs

1:55:461:55:52

of corrosion, whereas the ones we

have put in this active washing

1:55:521:55:56

process to show corrosion.

What are

the implications for archaeologists,

1:55:561:56:00

not just in the UK, but around the

world?

1:56:001:56:04

I think anybody

that was about to excavate something

1:56:041:56:07

now,

it would be to think twice

1:56:071:56:09

about doing this active washings.

1:56:091:56:10

You may be inadvertently promoting

the formation of something that

1:56:101:56:13

could damage the material.

1:56:131:56:14

Weapons of war, hundreds of years

old, shaping the science of today.

1:56:141:56:18

Time now to get the news,

travel and weather where you are.

1:56:181:59:37

I'm back with the latest

from the BBC London newsroom

1:59:371:59:40

in half an hour.

1:59:401:59:41

Plenty more on our website

at the usual address.

1:59:411:59:44

Bye for now.

1:59:441:59:46

Hello, this is Breakfast, with

Charlie Stayt and Naga Munchetty.

1:59:471:59:50

An historic breakthrough

as President Trump accepts an offer

1:59:501:59:52

from North Korea to hold

talks with Kim Jong-un.

1:59:521:59:54

The two leaders will meet by May.

1:59:541:59:56

The North Koreans also agree not

1:59:561:59:57

to carry out any more

nuclear or missile tests.

1:59:572:00:05

Good morning.

2:00:112:00:13

It's Friday, the 9th of March.

2:00:132:00:14

Also this morning.

2:00:142:00:16

Pressure grows on

counter-terrorism police

2:00:162:00:20

to identify where the nerve agent

used to attack a former Russian spy

2:00:202:00:23

and his daughter came from.

2:00:232:00:26

The US imposes tariffs on steel

and aluminium imports.

2:00:262:00:28

Other countries have threatened

to retaliate, sparking fears

2:00:282:00:30

of a global trade war.

2:00:302:00:33

In sport.

2:00:332:00:36

It's the biggest ever

Winter Paralympics,

2:00:362:00:40

and it begins in three hours.

2:00:402:00:41

Snowboarder Owen Pick

will be Great Britain's

2:00:412:00:43

flagbearer at the opening

ceremony in Pyeongchang.

2:00:432:00:46

And we'll find out how

you can play your part

2:00:462:00:49

in helping to clean up our beaches.

2:00:492:00:57

This is the Brighton, looking a

little overcast.

2:00:572:01:00

And Sarah has the weather.

2:01:002:01:06

AJ Lee start to the day but we have

sunshine on offer. Some outbreaks of

2:01:062:01:12

rain in the south but Northern areas

will see the sunshine for longest,

2:01:122:01:16

more in 15 minutes.

2:01:162:01:19

Good morning.

2:01:192:01:20

First, our main story.

2:01:202:01:23

President Trump has accepted

an offer from North Korea to meet

2:01:232:01:25

Kim Jong-un for talks.

2:01:252:01:26

The meeting will happen by May.

2:01:262:01:28

No serving US president has ever met

a North Korean leader.

2:01:282:01:31

The surprise announcement was made

by senior South Korean

2:01:312:01:33

officials in Washington

who passed on a letter

2:01:332:01:35

from the North Korean leader.

2:01:352:01:40

In it he pledged to commit

to denuclearisation.

2:01:402:01:44

He also ruled out any more

nuclear and missile tests.

2:01:442:01:46

The United States welcomed

the move but said

2:01:462:01:48

sanctions would stay in place

until a deal is reached.

2:01:482:01:52

Our Washington correspondent

Chris Buckler has this report.

2:01:522:01:59

With missiles and displays

of military might,

2:01:592:02:02

North Korea has at times seemed

nothing short of defiant

2:02:022:02:04

in the face of sanctions

and international condemnation

2:02:042:02:08

of its nuclear programme.

2:02:082:02:13

But, despite appearances,

2:02:132:02:14

it seems Kim Jong-un wants to talk.

2:02:142:02:18

South Korean officials,

who met the North Korean leader,

2:02:182:02:20

say he has committed

himself to denuclearisation

2:02:202:02:23

and they have now delivered

a message from Kim Jong-un that

2:02:232:02:26

caught many in the White House

completely off guard.

2:02:262:02:31

Kim pledged that North Korea

will refrain from any further

2:02:312:02:34

nuclear or missile tests.

2:02:342:02:39

He understands that the routine

joint military exercises

2:02:392:02:41

between the Republic of Korea

and the United States must continue.

2:02:412:02:49

And he expressed his eagerness

to meet President Trump

2:02:492:02:53

as soon as possible.

2:02:532:02:54

The idea of a face-to-face meeting

between President Trump

2:02:542:02:56

and Kim Jong-un, by May,

seems remarkable,

2:02:562:02:58

given the months of insults

and threats hurled between them.

2:02:582:03:05

They will be met with fire and fury.

2:03:052:03:09

Rocket Man is on a suicide

mission for himself.

2:03:092:03:12

But the tone has now changed.

2:03:122:03:15

On Twitter, Donald Trump said that

great progress was being made

2:03:152:03:17

but that sanctions will remain

until an agreement is reached.

2:03:172:03:23

However, that meeting

is being planned.

2:03:232:03:25

Some in the White House

will urge cautious

2:03:252:03:27

and there will be no suspension

of the joint military exercises

2:03:272:03:30

involving the United States

and South Korea.

2:03:302:03:35

This may be a move away

from fire and fury,

2:03:352:03:38

perhaps even towards friendship but,

in the long-term, that will depend

2:03:382:03:40

on whether that message

coming from Pyongyang

2:03:402:03:42

proves to be one of

propaganda or progress.

2:03:422:03:44

Chris Buckler, BBc News, Washington.

2:03:442:03:52

More on that historic breakthrough

from Chris in Washington.

2:04:062:04:10

The first sense that we got

of anything being this major

2:04:102:04:12

was when President Trump himself

put his head around the briefing

2:04:122:04:15

room door in the White House

and said that there would be a big

2:04:152:04:18

announcement coming

from South Korea.

2:04:182:04:20

It was only then that we got a sense

of really what was coming.

2:04:202:04:23

To put this into context,

it was only 24 hours ago that the US

2:04:232:04:26

Secretary of State was ruling out

any suggestion that there could be

2:04:262:04:29

direct talks on negotiation

between North Korea and America.

2:04:292:04:32

He said that just wasn't realistic.

2:04:322:04:34

But now we don't just

have the two countries talking,

2:04:342:04:37

we potentially have the two

leaders meeting in a matter

2:04:372:04:39

of couple of months.

2:04:392:04:45

It's important to say that

sanctions remain in place.

2:04:452:04:48

South Korea wants to see concrete

action as well as words but it is,

2:04:482:04:51

as you say, an historic moment.

2:04:512:04:54

Within the past hour,

Koreans in America have been

2:04:582:05:00

giving their reaction

to the landmark announcement.

2:05:002:05:04

It is a big step it is the first

time since his regime he is meeting

2:05:042:05:09

with the US president so I hope they

can definitely reach a deal about

2:05:092:05:14

the nuclear programme going on in

North Korea. And most likely I hope

2:05:142:05:19

President Trump is open to his ideas

so they can really breach is

2:05:192:05:23

accessible deal. Hopefully something

that might bring an end to the

2:05:232:05:27

nuclear programme.

Yes, it is a good thing they are

2:05:272:05:32

meeting up. But I really hope it

goes down to the point where

2:05:322:05:37

President John still supports South

Korea and North Korea they speak to

2:05:372:05:43

us about what they are actually

thinking, considering their nuclear

2:05:432:05:46

technology.

I think right now it is testing the

2:05:462:05:52

waters to see if it is possible at

all. But I am hoping they are taking

2:05:522:05:58

this very seriously because it will

be a very big step.

2:05:582:06:01

The reaction to those living in the

US on the impending meeting.

2:06:012:06:18

Let us talk to our correspondent in

Salisbury. The investigation

2:06:332:06:38

continues into what is happening. We

have the good news detective

2:06:382:06:44

Sergeant Nick Bailey is conscious

and talking, yet now comes the

2:06:442:06:48

politics about who was involved and

who can be accused of being

2:06:482:06:52

involved?

Police are bracing to find out

2:06:522:06:58

exactly how, when, why Sergei

Skripal and his daughter were

2:06:582:07:04

subjected to this nerve agent, they

were found collapsed on a bench

2:07:042:07:09

under the tent. They want to find

out how this substance was

2:07:092:07:16

transported into Salisbury city

centre and administered and who

2:07:162:07:19

might have done it.

2:07:192:07:25

might have done it. Yesterday, at

the home of Sergei Skripal, police

2:07:262:07:29

were setting up an operation, that

is a site of interest. Cordons

2:07:292:07:34

remain in place at a nearby

restaurant where they are known to

2:07:342:07:39

have had lunch and a pub they

visited before they collapsed.

2:07:392:07:45

Police are understood to have

examined a car. Police want to

2:07:452:07:53

establish this time line. Sergei

Skripal and his daughter remained in

2:07:532:07:58

critical condition in hospital.

2:07:582:08:00

Three people questioned by police

2:08:002:08:01

after a black student

at Nottingham Trent University

2:08:012:08:03

complained about being racially

abused, have been released

2:08:032:08:05

but remain under investigation.

2:08:052:08:07

Two men aged 18 were

arrested on suspicion

2:08:072:08:10

of racially aggravated

public order offences.

2:08:102:08:12

An 18-year-old woman

was also interviewed.

2:08:122:08:14

Police have confirmed

they are treating the

2:08:142:08:17

incident as a hate crime.

2:08:172:08:23

NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

2:08:232:08:25

to agreeing a three-year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands

2:08:252:08:27

of staff in England.

2:08:272:08:29

The Government has already said

it will abolish the 1%

2:08:292:08:31

pay cap on public sector pay.

2:08:312:08:32

And the Chancellor has indicated

he will provide extra funding

2:08:322:08:35

to meet the higher costs.

2:08:352:08:42

The US will impose tariffs on

imports of aluminium and steel,

2:08:432:08:47

President Trump has signed that

order yesterday. It is interesting

2:08:472:08:54

seeing the footage of him signing.

He has the steel workers he so much

2:08:542:09:00

appealed to in his campaign around

him.

2:09:002:09:03

He says this is fulfilling the

promise he made on the campaign

2:09:032:09:07

trail to protect American jobs. By

imposing these tariffs which our

2:09:072:09:13

taxes, any steel or aluminium

imported from overseas will be

2:09:132:09:17

subject to 25% on steel, 10% on

aluminium, which will impact on the

2:09:172:09:22

cost when it is imported. Here's

hoping American manufacturers will

2:09:222:09:28

save rather than buying expensive

foreign stuff we will hide domestic.

2:09:282:09:34

It is a significant move. America is

the world's largest importer of

2:09:342:09:39

steel. It has not gone down very

well with other countries who say

2:09:392:09:44

this is unfair, against the walls of

free trade and could end up sparking

2:09:442:09:49

a trade war. Countries like China

will impose tariffs in return but

2:09:492:09:57

the EU has targeted a list of

specific products produced in

2:09:572:10:01

America, Harley-Davidson, urban

whiskey, orange juice from Florida,

2:10:012:10:09

and Levi jeans, it doesn't get more

American. They say if you impose

2:10:092:10:13

tariffs on our steel we will impose

tariffs on you.

2:10:132:10:19

Your weekend will be very expensive.

Riding your Harley-Davidson! You

2:10:192:10:26

will have to think of a different

way of spending your weekend.

2:10:262:10:31

The potential meeting

between Donald Trump

2:10:312:10:33

and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un

has been described as a "diplomatic

2:10:332:10:36

coup" for the US President.

2:10:362:10:39

For more on our top story,

let's talk to John Everard,

2:10:392:10:42

the former British ambassador

to North Korea who is

2:10:422:10:44

in our London newsroom.

2:10:442:10:46

Thank you for your time. You must be

taken by surprise as you woke up

2:10:462:10:56

this morning to the news of this

invitation and acceptance of the

2:10:562:11:01

invitation.

Surprise at the news of the

2:11:012:11:03

invitation. Not necessarily, we knew

the South Korean team currently in

2:11:032:11:08

Washington were bringing some kind

of message to Donald Trump from Kim

2:11:082:11:11

Jong-un. But yes, the fact Donald

Trump has accepted so rapidly and

2:11:112:11:18

has said it will happen before May,

that wasn't accept -- expected which

2:11:182:11:26

flies in the face of what the

Secretary of State has been saying.

2:11:262:11:29

The wake diplomacy normally works

is, with such an important meeting,

2:11:292:11:36

there would be a lot of preparatory

work, on the basis of the timeline

2:11:362:11:40

outside, this happens almost

straightaway.

2:11:402:11:44

That is right, without any of the

preparation. There will be some

2:11:442:11:49

preparatory work because the South

Koreans have been working with the

2:11:492:11:54

North Koreans, we just had the South

Korean delegation in Pyongyang, they

2:11:542:11:58

will be preparing a separate summit

between South

2:11:582:12:06

between South America -- with South

Korea toured the end of April. There

2:12:062:12:11

is not a lot of time for the

Americans to do their own

2:12:112:12:16

preparation. They don't have many

staff, they don't have an ambassador

2:12:162:12:19

in South Korea, that point man on

North Korean affairs is the time.

2:12:192:12:26

Those who know quite a lot about

dealing with North Korea are not now

2:12:262:12:31

working for the administration.

With

the benefit of your experience,

2:12:312:12:37

could you look ahead to where and

how and one thing being the

2:12:372:12:44

geography, but the choreography of

this extraordinary meeting, how do

2:12:442:12:48

you envisage it?

Where is a

difficult question, it will be

2:12:482:12:53

difficult for Kim Jong-un to travel

to many places outside North Korea.

2:12:532:12:59

How might it play out? I wonder

whether Hamburger will make an

2:12:592:13:05

appearance. They will want to size

each other up, there will be a lot

2:13:052:13:12

of backscratching, we will be

watching them sit down to a meal.

2:13:122:13:16

And both will be what Ching --

watching the weak points, who gets

2:13:162:13:24

more out of the other which will

determine whether this summit if it

2:13:242:13:27

goes ahead is a success for world

peace or it plunges us into a more

2:13:272:13:34

dangerous time.

A real issue is who

benefits most? Donald Trump may

2:13:342:13:39

claim this is a great success. He

came across as the strongman forcing

2:13:392:13:46

someone to the table. Equally well

Kim Jong-un will be saying he gets

2:13:462:13:51

the chance to sit at a table

face-to-face with the US president.

2:13:512:13:57

That in itself could be a huge

propaganda coup.

2:13:572:14:00

That is right, both men have reasons

to claim this is theirs. Frankly

2:14:002:14:05

does it really matter which deserves

more credit forgetting to where we

2:14:052:14:11

are? Whether it is a great success,

I don't think we can even start to

2:14:112:14:18

talk about that. Remember that

summits don't always work and if

2:14:182:14:22

this goes wrong and we have talked

about the lack of preparation, we

2:14:222:14:25

could be in trouble.

Like you.

2:14:252:14:31

-- thank you.

2:14:322:14:38

Here's Sarah with a look

at this morning's weather.

2:14:382:14:42

Earlier you had some snow, so

perhaps this offers some sunshine

2:14:422:14:46

for some.

2:14:462:14:49

That's right. We have overlying snow

in the country, but temperatures on

2:14:492:14:52

the rise over the next few days, so

a hint of something more springlike

2:14:522:14:57

in the air. This is this morning in

Shropshire, blue sky, sunshine and

2:14:572:15:02

many parts of the country could keep

sunny skies through the day

2:15:022:15:07

especially the northern half of the

UK where is further south we have

2:15:072:15:10

increasing amount of cloud and rain

as well. This morning we are largely

2:15:102:15:14

drive. There snow showers across

central and northern Scotland and a

2:15:142:15:19

few centimetres more there and some

icy stretches. Elsewhere, clear

2:15:192:15:23

skies and sunshine but the is

creeping in and later in the

2:15:232:15:27

afternoon we will see outbreaks of

rain, especially in the South West

2:15:272:15:32

and South Wales. Temperatures are

between eight and 11 degrees, so on

2:15:322:15:36

the cool side for the time of year

but we have a mild air working in

2:15:362:15:40

from the south. With the arrival of

that air here is the rain and that

2:15:402:15:45

patchy rain will affect much of

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

2:15:452:15:49

as well. Scotland stays largely dry

and clear, so still a frosty night

2:15:492:15:55

for Scotland, subzero temperatures

and icy stretches, but further

2:15:552:15:59

south, cloudy and damp start of the

weekend. We will see a few outbreaks

2:15:592:16:04

of rain through the weekend but

temperatures will be on the rise and

2:16:042:16:07

we will see a bit of sunshine

breaking through at times, so not a

2:16:072:16:11

wash-out. We will start with cold

air in place across Scotland and you

2:16:112:16:15

can see the blue colour on the map

mother heading through the weekend

2:16:152:16:19

the yellow returns for the weekend,

so milder air pushing in from the

2:16:192:16:22

south. That will bring outbreaks of

rain with the mild air and during

2:16:222:16:28

Saturday rain for East Anglia and up

to Northern Ireland and the bulk

2:16:282:16:31

will shift to the north. As it bumps

into the cold air in Scotland we

2:16:312:16:35

could see snow. The Southern uplands

and the Grampians could see several

2:16:352:16:41

centimetres, but at low levels it

will fall right -- as rain. A few

2:16:412:16:47

showers, but sunny spells and we

could see temperatures of 14 or 15

2:16:472:16:52

degrees, potentially the warmest day

of the year so far. Moving through

2:16:522:16:56

Saturday, a front lingers across

Scotland bringing rain until snow

2:16:562:17:00

but it should clear towards the

north so most of the country will

2:17:002:17:03

start Sunday morning on a dry note

but what we will see is missed and

2:17:032:17:09

fog patches. The mist and fog should

thin and break out and there should

2:17:092:17:14

be some low cloud but a pretty

decent day for many of us largely

2:17:142:17:19

dry, sunny spells and breezy with a

few showers for the western parts of

2:17:192:17:23

the country were temperatures not

quite as mild as we will see on

2:17:232:17:27

Saturday but still 13 degrees or so

and it should feel pleasant in the

2:17:272:17:30

sunny spells.

2:17:302:17:34

We are pretty grateful for 13

degrees.

2:17:342:17:41

Suggestions that the Kremlin

may have been involved

2:17:412:17:43

in the poisoning of a former spy

and his daughter in Salisbury,

2:17:432:17:46

have sparked anger in Russia.

2:17:462:17:47

President Putin himself is yet

to make a public comment,

2:17:472:17:50

but state media has complained

of an anti-Russian

2:17:502:17:52

campaign by the West.

2:17:522:17:53

We're joined now by Patrick Forbes,

who's made a documentary

2:17:532:17:55

about President Putin's

time in office.

2:17:552:17:57

Good morning. What do you make of

all this?

I was absolutely amazed

2:17:572:18:04

when the news broke because the

convention is that spies who had

2:18:042:18:09

been left in a spy swap, they are

left to run their lives in perfect

2:18:092:18:16

peace.

That is the implication,

because he was with his daughter.

I

2:18:162:18:23

don't know anything about the exact

facts of this case but what is

2:18:232:18:26

becoming clearer and clearer is that

it has something to do with his

2:18:262:18:31

past, and that opens up only one of

two avenues. It's either the

2:18:312:18:35

government, which I would have said

was unlikely, or it is somebody out

2:18:352:18:40

for some form of revenge. But that

is complete speculation and I have

2:18:402:18:44

no immediate knowledge.

Having

examined Vladimir Putin which is

2:18:442:18:48

what your programme is about this

evening, and knowing how he operates

2:18:482:18:53

and his whole clamour for power, his

non-reaction so far, what you make

2:18:532:18:59

of that?

That is how he operates. He

is a very cool customer. I first got

2:18:592:19:07

interested in him about two decades

ago when he slowly but surely took

2:19:072:19:10

out all of the obstacles to him

remaining in power, those being

2:19:102:19:15

three very powerful men, one

politician, one Russia's richest man

2:19:152:19:20

and the other who put him on the

throne. One by one he remove some of

2:19:202:19:24

the most ruthless and toughest men

in the world and they did not see it

2:19:242:19:29

coming. That showed to me then, you

some form cool customer. -- you are

2:19:292:19:35

some form.

His silence now is not to

be interpreted as him not being on

2:19:352:19:42

top of it?

No. He is the consummate

politician and he will be waiting

2:19:422:19:47

and waiting to see how the situation

develops before he says anything. It

2:19:472:19:54

is a marker of how powerful he is.

When you go to Moscow, the whole

2:19:542:19:58

world waits for him to say anything

and as soon as it is said,

2:19:582:20:02

everything changes. It is

extraordinary going there now.

2:20:022:20:08

Linking up the events this week in

Wiltshire and Alexander Litvinenko,

2:20:082:20:13

we had a judge led enquiries that

said that Vladimir Putin had

2:20:132:20:17

probably ordered the murder of

Alexander Litvinenko. That is as

2:20:172:20:24

categorical as it could get, really.

Did that have any impact on Vladimir

2:20:242:20:28

Putin?

Domestically? If anything it

probably made him more popular

2:20:282:20:35

because the whole essence of his

popularity at home is really an

2:20:352:20:43

aggressive foreign policy. His

country is not powerful economic

2:20:432:20:45

league, so the way he stays in power

is to project an image of a tough

2:20:452:20:50

Russia, Russia to be feared. And he

has one core belief, that the West

2:20:502:20:56

cannot be trusted. As a consequence,

he feels himself liberated to do

2:20:562:21:00

whatever he feels is necessary.

So

if the notion is out there, and it's

2:21:002:21:05

out there in this country, and the

Russians are scathing about the way

2:21:052:21:09

the British media and politicians

talk about the possibility they

2:21:092:21:12

could be behind this so soon, but do

you think he quite likes that that

2:21:122:21:18

is a subject talks about around the

world? It's hard to imagine, because

2:21:182:21:24

in normal circumstances, to be

charged with murdering somebody in

2:21:242:21:28

this fashion on foreign shores,

foremost leaders, you think that

2:21:282:21:32

could only be bad.

Domestically, it

could not be bad for him. I agree

2:21:322:21:37

with your thesis. In a sense it goes

to projecting his image as a hard

2:21:372:21:42

man. That said, and he gave a speech

last week where he can find the

2:21:422:21:48

world to a new global arms race, not

an attractive prospect, so this

2:21:482:21:54

coming hard on its heels does not

look great for him. The Kremlin

2:21:542:21:57

won't be that thrilled by that

confluence of events, but he likes

2:21:572:22:03

being the tough guy and being a

tough guy means taking people out,

2:22:032:22:07

he signed a disorder in 2000...

With

this piece, that is where you

2:22:072:22:12

started from. The most humble

beginnings. It is a remarkable

2:22:122:22:16

story.

That's not the least of it.

As we discovered, the people in the

2:22:162:22:24

film say, when he was first asked to

be President's reaction was, no, I

2:22:242:22:27

don't want it. -- when he was first

asked to be president, his reaction

2:22:272:22:35

was. So it is a complete turnaround

from no power to absolute power.

2:22:352:22:40

It's a fascinating story. His rise

in itself and you track this with

2:22:402:22:44

the documentary this evening. Thank

you so much for joining us.

2:22:442:22:49

Putin: The New Tsar

is on BBC Two, tonight at 9pm.

2:22:492:22:55

How do we read our oceans or

plastic? It's had huge attention in

2:22:552:23:00

recent months and Dan Johnson is in

Brighton,, on the beach. And they

2:23:002:23:05

are taking a new approach to how you

find plastic and

2:23:052:23:12

find plastic and report it, all with

the means of stopping it rolling

2:23:132:23:15

onto the shore.

It's an old school

approach to collecting the rubbish,

2:23:152:23:19

I look at the stuff we have found

this morning, just in a couple of

2:23:192:23:23

hours, we collected all the rubbish

and plastic. But in terms of

2:23:232:23:27

identifying the wider problem there

is a high-tech solution involving

2:23:272:23:31

one of these drone cameras which

takes pictures of the beach, and the

2:23:312:23:36

photos are uploaded to the Internet

and people can click on where there

2:23:362:23:41

is plastic. Ellie is the drone

pilot. How does it work when you

2:23:412:23:46

identify the plastic?

It's simple.

When people login and they tag, they

2:23:462:23:50

can do it sitting in their pyjamas

with a cup of tea from home, they

2:23:502:23:53

teach the algorithm, the computer in

the drone to recognise plastic on

2:23:532:23:58

its own. Eventually the drone will

be able to survey beaches and we can

2:23:582:24:02

build up a giant map and see whether

plastics are that will help us.

But

2:24:022:24:06

the drone cannot pick the plastic

up?

Unfortunately not. Maybe in the

2:24:062:24:12

future we will be able to pick it up

as well. But we still rely on the

2:24:122:24:15

massive teams of volunteers. We have

fantastic people on the beaches, but

2:24:152:24:19

the good thing that we can direct

that manpower to the right beaches

2:24:192:24:24

at the right times.

You are here

from the Marine conservation

2:24:242:24:29

Society. Will this solution help?

I

think it's a fabulous step. We can

2:24:292:24:36

spend maybe in our so doing a 100

meter survey, so it's a small

2:24:362:24:40

section but you are able to do it in

that time and the drone can access

2:24:402:24:43

some of the beaches we cannot

normally see what we will actually

2:24:432:24:47

see is as much higher concentration

of litter. We know there are 718

2:24:472:24:53

pieces per hundred metres and those

beaches that aren't survey had

2:24:532:24:57

offered and art inaccessible, higher

concentrations will be found.

Lots

2:24:572:25:03

of plastic washes up, but the

majority is out there at sea.

That

2:25:032:25:07

is a real problem, and we really

need to take steps so we reduce the

2:25:072:25:10

plastic footprint... You can take

your coffee cup... You can take a

2:25:102:25:21

water bottle.

Do you feel the tide

is turning on the issue? It's had a

2:25:212:25:28

lot of focus over the last few

months.

We have seen a lot of focus

2:25:282:25:32

and we need to turn it into actual

action. This morning, in the news,

2:25:322:25:36

they're talking about what is

happening and the charge for single

2:25:362:25:42

use coffee cups and what we need to

see is people reducing the amount of

2:25:422:25:48

plastic they use.

Clicking on

photographs at home might help.

2:25:482:25:50

Would it be more used to come down

to the beach and do some collecting?

2:25:502:25:55

It's great to be able to sort of...

A few problems with the microphones

2:25:552:26:04

down in Brighton. Apologies to that.

Maybe the outdoor conditions, not

2:26:042:26:09

quite sure. A rather lovely morning,

but a bit chilly. I know you love

2:26:092:26:14

things like this. In about 15

minutes, we are going to pose a

2:26:142:26:18

maths problem, and I won't do it to

you live on air, but I'm preparing

2:26:182:26:23

you and the viewers because there is

a maths problem. We have been

2:26:232:26:25

talking a lot about maths on BBC

breakfast. Tim, me, and Jane, will

2:26:252:26:33

be doing the maths GCSE. That will

be the piece of paper I just threw.

2:26:332:26:37

I did put in front of you. We have

been giving a challenge and we will

2:26:372:26:41

present it to you in about ten

minutes and see if you can solve it

2:26:412:26:46

by around five to nine. It's been

said by Bobby Segal from University

2:26:462:26:50

challenge. Just preparing even that.

Pencils and paper at the ready. You

2:26:502:26:55

may even need a ruler.

2:26:552:26:56

Time now to get the news,

travel and weather where you are.

2:26:562:26:59

I'm back with the latest

from the BBC London

2:30:232:30:26

Hello, this is Breakfast with

Charlie Stayt and Naga Munchetty.

2:30:292:30:34

President Trump has accepted

an offer to meet North Korean leader

2:30:342:30:37

Kim Jong-un for talks.

2:30:372:30:39

The first ever meeting

between a serving American president

2:30:392:30:41

and a North Korean leader

will happen by May.

2:30:412:30:45

The surprise announcement was made

by senior South Korean officials

2:30:452:30:47

in Washington after months

of heightened diplomatic tensions

2:30:472:30:49

between the two countries.

2:30:492:30:57

North Korean leader Kim Jong Evans

said he is committed to

2:30:582:31:06

demutualisation. He pledged North

Korea will refrain from any further

2:31:062:31:11

nuclear missile tests. He

understands that the routine joint

2:31:112:31:14

military exiles within the Republic

of Korea and the United States must

2:31:142:31:20

continue. And he expressed his

eagerness to meet President Trump as

2:31:202:31:26

soon as possible.

2:31:262:31:36

It will be developed for Kim Jong-un

to travel to many places outside

2:31:472:31:50

North Korea so the venue will have

people scratching their heads. How

2:31:502:31:55

might it play out? I wonder if

Hamburg will make an appearance. I

2:31:552:32:00

think the two men will want to set

each other up, there will be all

2:32:002:32:04

quite a lot of backscratching, we

are almost certainly going to be

2:32:042:32:07

watching them sit down to some kind

of meal together. And both of course

2:32:072:32:11

will be looking from the others weak

points. Who actually gets more out

2:32:112:32:16

of the other is the $64,000 question

and will determine whether the

2:32:162:32:21

summit, if it goes ahead, we are not

there yet remember, is a success for

2:32:212:32:25

world peace or if it plunges us into

a more dangerous time.

2:32:252:32:32

We can get the reaction out

of South Korea now with our reporter

2:32:322:32:35

Hyung Kim who is in Seoul.

2:32:352:32:40

Good to have you with us, tell us

the reaction, this message was

2:32:402:32:46

delivered by South Korea for this

meeting between North Korea and the

2:32:462:32:49

United States and its been quite a

surprise globally.

It has been a

2:32:492:32:57

surprise to South Koreans as well.

Last year, when you look at last

2:32:572:33:01

year, talks of war even

INAUDIBLE

Things have been

INAUDIBLE

2:33:012:33:10

Rapids change. When the South Korean

envoy came back earlier this week

2:33:102:33:19

they said the North will refrain

from nuclear and missile activities

2:33:192:33:24

whilst talks are underway but this

time they took it one step further

2:33:242:33:27

INAUDIBLE

Will refrain from those activities

2:33:272:33:32

without giving conditions.

Thank you

for talking to us, apologies for the

2:33:322:33:39

slight sound problems, hopefully the

impression is that this is not only

2:33:392:33:44

a surprise globally, it is also a

surprise for South Koreans. Pictures

2:33:442:33:49

just coming into us live from

Wiltshire this morning. Amber Rudd

2:33:492:33:56

has just arrived at the scene of the

attack, this was where the former

2:33:562:34:05

spy and his daughter were targeted

on Sunday afternoon. We know the

2:34:052:34:11

Home Secretary is visiting as we

speak, speaking to the police

2:34:112:34:16

officers involved. We know

detectives are and Nick Bailey at

2:34:162:34:19

the police officer who first came to

the scene is still in a serious

2:34:192:34:25

condition but described as stable

and no conscious. We know he has

2:34:252:34:29

been speaking and the police

investigation is of course are

2:34:292:34:32

ongoing. You can see the police

cordon is still in place and as the

2:34:322:34:39

shot widens I think just to the

left, you can't quite see, but the

2:34:392:34:45

bench that the Father and daughter

were sitting on is a bit further

2:34:452:34:49

rounded to the left and it is still

shrouded in one of those covers. We

2:34:492:34:56

might hear about later on this

morning from Amber Rudd, she has

2:34:562:34:59

just arrived on the scene. Not

expecting her to talk to the press

2:34:592:35:04

immediately but no further updates

in terms of the investigation

2:35:042:35:07

itself. You can see Amber Rudd

talking to police officers, we will

2:35:072:35:11

keep you updated on any

developments.

2:35:112:35:17

The United States will impose

tariffs on imports of aluminium and

2:35:182:35:21

steel. President Trump signed off on

the move of the White House late

2:35:212:35:25

yesterday. It has sparked a fear of

a global trade war. The European

2:35:252:35:30

Union considers retaliating with

putting charges on American-made

2:35:302:35:33

products like genes, motorbikes,

bourbon and orange juice.

2:35:332:35:37

NHS employers and health unions

are understood to be close

2:35:372:35:40

to agreeing a three year pay deal

for hundreds of thousands

2:35:402:35:43

of staff in England.

2:35:432:35:44

The government has already said it

will abolish the 1% pay cap

2:35:442:35:46

on public sector pay

and the Chancellor has indicated

2:35:462:35:49

he will provide extra funding

to meet the higher costs.

2:35:492:35:57

And coming up here

on Breakfast this morning:

2:35:582:36:00

She's been pedalling south all week

- as she reaches the end

2:36:002:36:03

of her three hundred mile ride

for Sport Relief, we'll

2:36:032:36:05

speak to Zoe Ball -

and her dad Johnny, who's

2:36:052:36:07

supported her all the way.

2:36:072:36:12

20 years after the first episode

of 'Who Wants to be a Millionaire',

2:36:122:36:15

it's returning to ITV

with Jeremy Clarkson

2:36:152:36:17

as the new quizmaster.

2:36:172:36:20

Has it still got the appeal to pull

in 19 million viewers?

2:36:202:36:28

We are going to talk to the first

ever millionaire!

2:36:302:36:34

And World Wars, Kings and Queens

and Viking landings -

2:36:342:36:36

Dan Snow's 'History Hit' podcast

is an ever expanding archive

2:36:362:36:38

of big historic moments.

2:36:382:36:39

He'll be here to talk

about taking it on the road.

2:36:392:36:47

Seven is the magic number for Great

Britain at the Paralympics.

2:36:512:37:01

Britain at the Paralympics. Seven is

the ideal for Great Britain in terms

2:37:012:37:06

of medals at the Winter Paralympic

games, they are looking for between

2:37:062:37:10

6-12 ideally but it would be the

most in the modern era since the

2:37:102:37:13

lottery funding.

How do they decide the target?

2:37:132:37:22

World Championship results, formed.

Team of 17 in five different sports,

2:37:222:37:27

world champions, they are pretty

confident, even though it is a

2:37:272:37:31

lottery they do go on form and how

athletes have done.

2:37:312:37:36

As long as they can get there with

the snow.

2:37:362:37:40

Yes, I have a snow disrupting

things.

2:37:402:37:45

We're only a couple of hours away

now from the Opening Ceremony

2:37:452:37:48

at the Winter Paralympics -

our reporter Kate Grey

2:37:482:37:50

is in Pyeongchang for us -

and Kate, they haven't managed

2:37:502:37:53

to fit in a rehearsal, have they?

2:37:532:37:55

Not a full rehearsal, because it was

snowing very heavily yesterday, they

2:37:552:38:01

were able to mirror her certain

elements so they are going into it

2:38:012:38:08

about nervously, not knowing how it

will unfold. It is late afternoon,

2:38:082:38:12

the snow. But a lot of cloud cover

coming and which is another concern.

2:38:122:38:17

We also found out yesterday from the

International Paralympic committee

2:38:172:38:20

that North Korea and South Korea

will walk out separately. In terms

2:38:202:38:29

of Great Britain, snowboarder Orlin

Pet will lead the team as if like

2:38:292:38:41

what a great honour for him. Looking

to other athletes, you might

2:38:422:38:48

remember Kelly Gallagher from four

years ago making history becoming

2:38:482:38:52

the first British athlete to win a

gold medal on snow. She will go in

2:38:522:38:56

the Alpine skiing but will have

tough competition from her

2:38:562:39:03

team-mates. There will be Nordic

skiing, the first time Great Britain

2:39:032:39:09

will be represented for Nordic

skiing in 20 years. And we cannot

2:39:092:39:15

forget about real chill wheelchair

curling. Lots to look forward to.

2:39:152:39:29

Cannot wait to see that unfold in

the mist and fog behind you.

2:39:292:39:35

With Arsenal's recent form,

who'd have thought they would stand

2:39:352:39:37

a chance against AC Milan

in the Europa League?

2:39:372:39:45

Well, the Gunners went

to Italy and they came back

2:39:472:39:50

with a 2-0 victory -

Henrik Mkhitaryan scored his first

2:39:502:39:52

goal for the club and Aaron Ramsey

added another at the San Siro.

2:39:522:39:55

The second leg is at

the Emirates next Thursday.

2:39:552:39:57

It's a huge weekend

in the Six Nations,

2:39:572:39:59

with plenty of permutions,

but Ireland could be

2:39:592:40:01

crowned champions.

2:40:012:40:02

They go into their match

with Scotland in Dublin,

2:40:022:40:05

top of the table and with three wins

from three - victory would keep them

2:40:052:40:08

on course for a first Grand Slam

in nine years but remember,

2:40:082:40:11

Scotland showed against England that

they're no pushovers.

2:40:112:40:17

England are away to France -

and they need to match Ireland's

2:40:172:40:20

result to keep alive their hopes

of a third straight title.

2:40:202:40:22

Head coach Eddie Jones

has named Owen Farrell

2:40:222:40:24

as captain for the first time,

with Dylan Harley out injured.

2:40:242:40:31

Serena Williams has won her comeback

match, six months after giving

2:40:312:40:34

birth to her daughter -

she admitted she was

2:40:342:40:36

a bit rusty but she beat

Zarina Diyas in straight sets

2:40:362:40:38

at the Indian Wells event.

2:40:382:40:42

But Britain's Heather Watson

is out - she just can't

2:40:422:40:44

beat Victoria Azarenka -

this is the sixth time they've met

2:40:442:40:47

and the six time Watson has lost.

2:40:472:40:55

Now tomorrow we start our build up

to the Commonwealth Games

2:40:562:40:59

in Australia, less than a month

away, and over the next four

2:40:592:41:02

Saturdays we'll be looking athletes

from all the home nations.

2:41:022:41:04

Starting with Wales,

and Anna Hursey, who's

2:41:042:41:07

just 11 years old -

and look at what she can

2:41:072:41:10

do in table tennis.

2:41:102:41:13

I faced her spinning serve this week

in her school lunch hour.

2:41:132:41:21

And she had me running

to all corners of the hall.

2:41:232:41:26

Ahe started when she was five

and says she's not going

2:41:262:41:29

to the Gold Coast just

for the experience -

2:41:292:41:31

more on that tomorow.

2:41:312:41:35

The first shot you showed was not

sped up?

2:41:352:41:40

No, the coach feeds her ball after

ball so she can get used to it. It

2:41:402:41:45

is believed she will be the youngest

ever competitor at a senior

2:41:452:41:50

Commonwealth Games.

She will be part of a team?

2:41:502:41:55

Part of the senior squad because

she's the best under 18 in the whole

2:41:552:41:59

of Wales so she automatically

qualifies for the Welsh show Ord and

2:41:592:42:02

beats most of the seniors.

How long has she been playing?

2:42:022:42:07

Since she was five, so six years.

She spent time in China, she went to

2:42:072:42:12

a camp face the best in the world.

More on that tomorrow.

2:42:122:42:17

Thank you very much.

2:42:172:42:22

You may remember these pictures.

2:42:222:42:23

The raising of Henry VIII's doomed

warship the Mary Rose back in 1982.

2:42:232:42:29

At the time, this was a major

achaeological achievement.

2:42:292:42:36

More than 1,000 cannonballs

were found on board,

2:42:362:42:41

but some are now rotting away

and need urgent attention.

2:42:412:42:47

Breakfast's Tim Muffett

is in Portsmouth to find out how

2:42:472:42:50

they're trying to save them.

2:42:502:42:56

I remember that day being in the

school hall, the school TV was

2:42:562:43:00

wheeled out and we watched those

amazing scenes but look at these

2:43:002:43:02

amazing scenes, here she is as she

is today at the museum in

2:43:022:43:08

Portsmouth, magnificent sight,

incredible to be so close to this

2:43:082:43:13

key part of our maritime history but

maritime archaeology poses unique

2:43:132:43:18

challenges, sea water has such a

corrosive effect on our thousands of

2:43:182:43:22

artefacts found on board, weapons,

clothing, human remains as well.

2:43:222:43:27

Some items in particular have posed

a particular challenge for

2:43:272:43:30

archaeologists.

2:43:302:43:32

Right, so these are the samples

we will look at today.

2:43:322:43:35

In one of the world's most advanced

scientific facilities,

2:43:352:43:38

Eleanor and Hayley are holding

pieces of history.

2:43:382:43:45

These cannonballs were found

in the wreck of the Mary Rose.

2:43:452:43:48

She sank in the Solent

in 1545, whilst attacking

2:43:482:43:50

an invading French fleet.

2:43:502:43:52

In 1982, millions watched

on television as she was brought

2:43:522:43:54

back to the surface.

2:43:542:43:58

Amongst the artefacts

found, 1200 cannonballs.

2:43:582:44:01

But, since being discovered,

some have corroded, some haven't.

2:44:012:44:07

So the team took the difficult

decision to cut out

2:44:072:44:09

samples to find out why.

2:44:092:44:17

It's not typical to destructively

sample like this in conservation.

2:44:202:44:22

But, for us, we realised that to not

do it, and watch these

2:44:222:44:25

things disintegrate,

would be negligent.

2:44:252:44:26

But to analyse the corrosion

on such an old object,

2:44:262:44:29

you need a very special machine.

2:44:292:44:30

So this is the UK's national

synchrotron facility.

2:44:302:44:32

And a synchrotron is a particle

accelerator that takes electrons

2:44:322:44:34

and accelerates them up to 99%

of the speed of light.

2:44:342:44:37

Because the cannonballs have been

exposed to nature for 500 years,

2:44:372:44:40

they are very, very complicated,

and you need this very precise,

2:44:402:44:42

very accurate measurement,

that you can only really do

2:44:422:44:45

with light that is of this quality.

2:44:452:44:50

On some of the cannonballs

you can see an "H",

2:44:502:44:55

which stands for King Henry.

2:44:552:44:57

But, as a collection,

these cannonballs are unique.

2:44:572:44:59

They are all the same age,

they have all spent the same amount

2:44:592:45:02

of time under water,

and they were all made

2:45:022:45:04

in the same way.

2:45:042:45:05

We know that because,

in the 16th century,

2:45:052:45:07

there was only one iron blast

furnace in Britain.

2:45:072:45:10

But they have been treated

in different ways.

2:45:102:45:12

Many were washed, some had

anti-corrosives applied,

2:45:122:45:17

others were submerged in a chemical

called sodium sesquicarbonate,

2:45:172:45:23

which is a bit like baking soda.

2:45:232:45:29

I think for anybody that was about

to excavate something now,

2:45:292:45:32

it would be to maybe think twice

about doing this active washings.

2:45:322:45:35

You may be inadvertently promoting

the formation of something that

2:45:352:45:38

could damage the material.

2:45:382:45:38

Weapons of war, hundreds of years

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:382:45:45

And

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:452:45:46

And Jordi

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:462:45:46

And Jordi Murphy

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:462:45:47

And Jordi Murphy is

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:472:45:47

And Jordi Murphy is Alex,

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:472:45:48

And Jordi Murphy is Alex, head

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:482:45:48

And Jordi Murphy is Alex, head of

old, shaping the science of today.

2:45:482:45:48

And Jordi Murphy is Alex, head of

research at the Mary Rose Trust and

2:45:482:45:51

you were an original diver working

on the rack. How important has it

2:45:512:45:56

been for the understanding of marine

archaeology?

Huge because it was

2:45:562:46:01

just beginning when the excavation

happen. There was no rule book,

2:46:012:46:06

toolkit, so we borrowed from other

industries and learned as we went.

2:46:062:46:14

We went out to North Sea oil

industry, looking

2:46:142:46:21

industry, looking for the wreck,

acoustic positioning, something we

2:46:212:46:24

have done right the way through.

Going out to scientists working

2:46:242:46:30

specifically on things or two big

companies to get the equipment we

2:46:302:46:33

need.

It is a magnificent sight and

important to preserve the artefacts.

2:46:332:46:38

The science we saw will help to do

that. I know you will enjoy the next

2:46:382:46:43

thing. We are talking about maths.

Feeling good about maths studies? Do

2:46:432:46:50

not get me started on maths

revision. It is a big part of my

2:46:502:46:54

life at the moment.

I think you are

the expert.

2:46:542:46:59

We have a quiz.

2:46:592:47:04

Are we doing the question now? It

has a Mother's Day theme. Shall I

2:47:052:47:10

start? Do you have pen and paper

ready?

2:47:102:47:18

start? Do you have pen and paper

ready?

2:47:182:47:18

A mum of three is spending time

with her children when one

2:47:182:47:21

of them says, "Sorry, mummy,

I haven't got you a Mother's Day

2:47:212:47:24

gift yet, but I've got

a mathematical treat for you.

2:47:242:47:28

I've noticed that if you square

the age of me and my two siblings

2:47:282:47:35

and then add them up,

this total is the same as your age,

2:47:362:47:39

which is also a square number."

2:47:392:47:42

We need to assume the mother has not

reached retirement age, let's say

2:47:482:47:54

she is under 60. If you know that,

you have to find the age of the

2:47:542:47:59

mother and three children and the

age

2:47:592:48:01

mother and three children and the

age of the mother is a square

2:48:012:48:02

number.

Have you got it?

2:48:022:48:09

I was in charge of reading the

question.

2:48:092:48:13

That is a job qualification! If you

want to look at the question again,

2:48:132:48:19

go to the website and we will reveal

the answer after 9am and you can

2:48:192:48:23

tweet the answer to us. The three

children's ages can be the same.

2:48:232:48:30

Are you doing it? Yes, I have

started.

2:48:302:48:35

Sarah has already solved it. Good

morning. How is the weather?

2:48:352:48:38

Sarah has already solved it. Good

morning. How is the weather?

2:48:382:48:43

I will be channelling my inner

A-level maths students. Maps, if you

2:48:432:48:47

do not lose -- use it, you lose it

after a while.

2:48:472:48:55

Sunshine out there. Blue skies in

Shropshire. Through the day, I think

2:48:552:49:00

we will keep the blue skies and

sunshine in the north. In the south,

2:49:002:49:05

increasing cloud and rain working

its way in and snow showers in

2:49:052:49:12

Scotland. Dry and sunny weather. In

southern England and South Wales,

2:49:122:49:21

cloud moving in bringing outbreaks

of rain for Devon, Cornwall, South

2:49:212:49:27

Wales. By lunchtime.

2:49:272:49:35

Wales. By lunchtime. We have got

patchy rain through this evening.

2:49:352:49:39

Working its way northwards.

Overnight pushing into Northern

2:49:392:49:43

Ireland. A damp and cloudy but mild

start to Saturday morning for many.

2:49:432:49:50

Frost free. Temperature is already

in double figures in the south-west.

2:49:502:49:54

In Scotland, quite a cold and frosty

morning to come. Through the weekend

2:49:542:50:00

there will be rain. Temperatures

will be on the rise, turning milder,

2:50:002:50:05

and there will be sunshine to be

enjoyed also. We still have blue

2:50:052:50:10

colours across Scotland indicating

the cold. Milder in the South with

2:50:102:50:15

yellow colours. Spreading across the

country by the end of the weekend.

2:50:152:50:22

Saturday morning, rain, heavy in

East Anglia, up to Northern Ireland.

2:50:222:50:27

Rain pushing northwards through the

day. As it goes

2:50:272:50:36

day. As it goes into Scotland, in

places we can see further snowfall.

2:50:362:50:41

In the south, on Saturday,

temperatures could reach 14 degrees

2:50:412:50:45

so potentially one of the warmest

days of the year so far. In

2:50:452:50:52

Scotland, more rain and hill snow

for a time. We are all in the milder

2:50:522:50:56

air by Sunday morning but there will

be some fog around. It should break

2:50:562:51:06

up reasonably well. Perhaps showers

in south-west England. Many places

2:51:062:51:12

looking dry, and with brighter

spells feeling pleasant, probably

2:51:122:51:15

not as mild as Saturday. Fairly

light winds and sunny spells, I

2:51:152:51:23

think we will get a hint that spring

is on the

2:51:232:51:29

about time we have that hint.

Better than a week ago. Look forward

2:51:292:51:35

to getting your maths answer in.

2:51:352:51:41

If you've been watching this week,

you'll know we've been following

2:51:412:51:44

Zoe Ball's Sport Relief challenge.

2:51:442:51:49

She's got just over 60 miles

left of a 350-mile bike

2:51:492:51:53

ride from Blackpool,

where she was born, to her home town

2:51:532:51:56

of Brighton in just five days.

2:51:562:52:01

It's an endeavour Zoe undertook

to raise awareness for people living

2:52:012:52:03

with mental health problems.

2:52:032:52:11

We can see Zoe Ball now joined by

her dad Johnny.

How are you doing?

2:52:122:52:18

Good morning. Morning. He has been

doing the sums.

I was complaining

2:52:182:52:26

they did not give her a tandem.

On

the back, of course. It is scary on

2:52:262:52:32

the back of a tandem.

We have been

talking to you about a fall the day

2:52:322:52:38

before yesterday and some pretty

nasty weather but we know your dad

2:52:382:52:40

has supported you all the way.

What

is in store today? What is in store

2:52:402:52:49

today? We have just done Winter

Hill, which was really steep and

2:52:492:52:54

quite hideous to do early but it is

pretty from here.

Going downhill.

2:52:542:53:01

Until the hilly bit at the end.

Going to Windsor, and then off to

2:53:012:53:12

Cranley and all the way along to

Brighton Pier, hoping to get to

2:53:122:53:15

Brighton Pier about 5pm. If anybody

wants to come down and give us a

2:53:152:53:23

boost, it would be lovely. It has

made a difference, people shouting

2:53:232:53:28

and screaming at the side of the

road, pulling over in their car and

2:53:282:53:33

tooting.

Incredible. Off the bike,

you cannot believe it, Zoe is

2:53:332:53:37

walking like she is still on the

bike! Max Wall would have been proud

2:53:372:53:44

of that walk!

It is true, it sort of

goes like this.

Good morning,

2:53:442:53:51

Charlie here. I was thinking, the

shot widened and I thought Johnny

2:53:512:53:59

might have been having his lycra,

below the waist, as a tribute to

2:53:592:54:06

your performance.

I am wearing

trousers over it, don't worry. I am

2:54:062:54:12

not a cyclist. We once bought

bicycles and I went one mile, put

2:54:122:54:18

the bike in the shed and never got

on it again.

I see a future Sport

2:54:182:54:22

Relief challenge coming up for your

dad.

I think so, as well. Just to

2:54:222:54:32

remind people why I am doing this.

Obviously I lost my boyfriend last

2:54:322:54:38

year, Billy, and I wanted to do

something and find hope for people

2:54:382:54:43

living with mental illness, whether

it is bullying, bereavement,

2:54:432:54:47

anxiety, depression, to find hope

and to see projects helping people.

2:54:472:54:55

It has been an incredible journey in

many senses of the word. In 2016

2:54:552:55:01

over 6000 people died by suicide so

help is needed and I thank everybody

2:55:012:55:06

who has donated because an

incredible amount has been raised.

2:55:062:55:10

There is another day to go, keep

giving.

Dad, good messaging. I

2:55:102:55:18

really want to grab one man and

thank him. I could not have done it

2:55:182:55:24

without this man, Professor Greg

White. The unsung hero of all Sport

2:55:242:55:29

Relief challenges, who gets me up

those hills. And ditches. He is an

2:55:292:55:36

amazing man and I could not do it

without him.

These two boys. You are

2:55:362:55:43

in excellent company. Thank you for

supporting all the challenges, Greg

2:55:432:55:48

White. The support you are getting

is testament to what you are doing

2:55:482:55:53

and the passion you put into this

and it means a lot to many people.

2:55:532:55:57

Good luck today. We really wish you

well.

Thank you very much, thank

2:55:572:56:05

you, darling, and all the viewers.

2:56:052:56:07

Sport Relief takes place

from Saturday 17th to Friday 23rd

2:56:072:56:09

March, leading to an unmissable

night of TV on the BBC.

2:56:092:56:16

I can still hear Zoe Ball.

She is. She is cracking with the

2:56:172:56:23

ride. To take part...

2:56:232:56:29

Visit SportRelief.com

to unlock exclusive content

2:56:292:56:31

and ensure every step

counts across the week.

2:56:312:56:35

and ensure every step

counts across the week.

2:56:352:56:35

To donate £5, text ZOE to 70205.

2:56:352:56:39

To donate £10, text ZOE to 70210.

2:56:392:56:47

Text cost your donation plus your

standard network message charge.

2:56:472:56:49

100% of your donation

will go to Sport Relief.

2:56:492:56:52

You must be 16 or over and please

ask the bill payer's permission.

2:56:522:56:55

For full terms go

to bbc.co.uk/radio2.

2:56:552:56:58

We wish Zoe all the best.

2:57:042:57:12

Do you want to phone a friend?

Sometimes this morning I wished I

2:57:122:57:17

could phone a friend.

It is a catchphrase from Who Wants

2:57:172:57:22

To Be A Millionaire.

It is coming back. Jeremy Clarkson

2:57:222:57:27

will be coming back as quizmaster.

No one for Top Gear, taking the

2:57:272:57:33

place of Chris Tarrant who was

quizmaster.

2:57:332:57:38

At the height of its popularity,

the millionaire-making quiz pulled

2:57:382:57:41

in just over 19 million viewers.

2:57:412:57:42

Judith Keppel was the first

person to win the coveted

2:57:422:57:44

one-million-pound prize.

2:57:442:57:45

We'll speak to her in just a moment,

but first, let's take a look

2:57:452:57:49

at the moment she gave the winning

answer

2:57:492:57:51

Which King was married

to Eleanor of Aquitaine?

2:57:512:57:53

She had £500,000.

2:57:532:57:54

She could have walked

away with that.

2:57:542:57:55

She didn't have to play.

2:57:552:57:57

She knew if she had given

a wrong answer she would

2:57:572:57:59

have lost £468,000.

2:57:592:58:06

She did decide to play

and she went with Henry II.

2:58:062:58:09

You have

2:58:092:58:10

just won £1 million!

2:58:102:58:18

£1 million!

2:58:212:58:23

You have been absolutely incredible!

Lets talk to Judith. Good morning. I

2:58:292:58:41

assume you could hear some of that.

What are your memories? It was the

2:58:412:58:46

most exciting moment of my entire

life.

Chris Tarrant was a master of

2:58:462:58:53

dragging out the moment. It was the

person we saw in the audience with

2:58:532:58:56

head in hands?

That, I think was my

daughter Rosie. I think it must've

2:58:562:59:07

been higher.

So many people watched

in those days. We were talking about

2:59:072:59:12

viewing figures with 19 million

watching.

2:59:122:59:19

Absolutely, I am so glad it is

coming back. It was sad when it went

2:59:192:59:23

off.

People instantly know that you

are involved now in Eggheads which

2:59:232:59:31

has a different feel because there

is not the big money involved but

2:59:312:59:36

part of the lure of Who Wants To Be

A Millionaire? Was that there was a

2:59:362:59:39

huge cash prize.

Yes it was like

changing sums of money, if you win

2:59:392:59:46

million pounds you could buy a

house. It is life changing.

What did

2:59:462:59:50

change for you?

Massive, I already

had a house so I did not need to buy

2:59:502:59:57

another one but I bought one in

France now that I think about it, I

2:59:573:00:00

went to live in France for a bit and

I became a Eggheads. And I think we

3:00:003:00:07

played each other...

I was so hoping

you would not mention that because I

3:00:073:00:14

think it has happened twice and it

has never worked out well. For me.

3:00:143:00:19

You must come again!

Judith has a

knack, I think it is a tricky play

3:00:193:00:25

very well is that you have this

sense that it's all a bit random and

3:00:253:00:29

you are not quite sure what is going

on and you absolutely have all the

3:00:293:00:33

information which is why you won

million pounds.

I was very lucky

3:00:333:00:39

because I had done this

extraordinary thing of going to the

3:00:393:00:44

tomb on the way home from France in

the summer that summer, two months

3:00:443:00:49

before the summer and I saw the tomb

and next to her was Henry the

3:00:493:00:51

second. It raised the errors on the

back of my neck because it was so

3:00:513:00:56

odd.

Chris Tarrant did it

fantastically, we know Jeremy

3:00:563:01:03

Clarkson will be taking over, how do

you feel about that?

I think he will

3:01:033:01:09

be brilliant. They are big shoes to

fill because Chris Tarrant was

3:01:093:01:12

brilliant at it but I'm sure Jeremy

Clarkson, he has a huge personality

3:01:123:01:19

and I'm sure he will do it

extraordinarily well.

How much

3:01:193:01:23

overhead do you get from the

quizmaster, when you're sitting

3:01:233:01:26

opposite Chris did you have any idea

that he was about to announce you

3:01:263:01:38

had won million pounds?

Nothing at

all. After I answered the £1 million

3:01:383:01:43

question he broke off under the

commercials, you don't have any idea

3:01:433:01:47

what he will do.

I have too asked

because you demolish to Charlie in

3:01:473:01:52

Eggheads... Do you still born up,

are you still researching all the

3:01:523:02:01

time and learning all the time in

preparation for Eggheads?

I am

3:02:013:02:06

supposed to, what I do is read the

papers, particularly the sports

3:02:063:02:12

section, that sort of thing. Reading

the papers is one of the best ways

3:02:123:02:15

to revise for general knowledge.

Phone a friend is probably the most

3:02:153:02:22

famous catchphrase, who was your

phone a friend?

She was called

3:02:223:02:26

Gillian and she was brilliant, she

said I know the answer to this one

3:02:263:02:30

100%.

How did she know so much?

It

was a literature question and she is

3:02:303:02:39

an author. That's field so she knew

exactly, immediately

lovely to see

3:02:393:02:49

you there. May be will meet again in

the studios?

Please come back!

I

3:02:493:03:02

hope I don't. Thank you Judith.

You know the trick? Don't pick

3:03:023:03:07

Judith!

But they all know a lot of stuff.

3:03:073:03:16

We are going to talk to Dan Snow

shortly about his latest tour, he is

3:03:173:03:23

talking history so you will find out

more about that but first let's

3:03:233:03:26

could look at the headlines were you

3:03:263:05:01

We're back at 1:30pm

with the lunchtime news.

3:05:013:05:03

Plenty more on our website

at the usual address.

3:05:033:05:05

Now though it's back

to Charlie and Naga.

3:05:053:05:11

We said hello to Dan Snow who is

only so far. Good news and bad news,

3:05:113:05:16

you are very welcome which is good

news but you have timed it badly

3:05:163:05:22

because we have the maths quiz.

This

is making me very nervous.

People

3:05:223:05:27

tell us off when we say I don't like

maths or I struggle with maths

3:05:273:05:32

because those people who are

enthusing and that is the point of

3:05:323:05:35

these things, say what you have to

do is don't be afraid of it, embrace

3:05:353:05:39

it.

Yes, my kids, I don't want to

get them just into the arts, I want

3:05:393:05:47

my daughter in particular to get

interested in numbers.

OK listen to

3:05:473:05:53

this and approach it properly.

3:05:533:05:56

Ahead of Mother's Day on Sunday,

one of her three children said

3:06:023:06:05

the following to their mum.

3:06:053:06:07

"Sorry, mummy, I haven't got

you a mother's day gift yet,

3:06:073:06:09

but I've got a mathematical

treat for you.

3:06:093:06:11

I've noticed that if you square

the age of me and my two siblings

3:06:113:06:14

and then add them up,

this total is the same as your age,

3:06:143:06:18

which is also a square number."

3:06:183:06:21

Dan, you looked puzzled. Charlie

looks in pain.

Four square is 16,

3:06:473:06:54

five squared is 25, so 41, plus

three, 50.

But that is not the

3:06:543:07:05

square number.

3:07:053:07:07

And there are two correct answers.

3:07:073:07:09

The first is 49,

which is seven squared.

3:07:093:07:11

Her three children are aged

two, three and six.

3:07:113:07:18

And the second answer is 36,

which is six squared,

3:07:243:07:27

making her children

four, four, and two.

3:07:273:07:32

There is only one mum! How can she

be two different ages?

The children

3:07:333:07:38

could be different ages.

Let's explain the method that then

3:07:383:07:43

we shall move on and taught history.

3:07:433:07:50

Do you mind me saying, the thing I

would say, bearing in mind I work

3:08:083:08:13

for this programme... I think that

question is hard, to be honest. If

3:08:133:08:19

you are trying to get people

involved in maths I don't think

3:08:193:08:23

that's an easy starting point. For

somebody like me, I am not on your

3:08:233:08:28

level, you're way ahead of me but

that puts me off, there you go. I

3:08:283:08:33

have said my piece, I am done.

Nice

easy history one, when was the

3:08:333:08:40

Battle of Hastings?

But is 1066 not

disputed?

Not that much by not that

3:08:403:08:49

many people.

You are going on a live

tour, tell us about that.

I have

3:08:493:08:56

launched a whole TV channel and I am

going on a live tour to get

3:08:563:09:02

interest. People are fascinated with

history at the moment. We have got

3:09:023:09:10

fake news, International politics,

Korea, Iran, populism in Italy,

3:09:103:09:18

Brexit, Trump, people are

fascinated.

When you do a tour of

3:09:183:09:23

history is it a different subject or

era every time or is there a theme?

3:09:233:09:27

It's difficult to do a potted

history.

That is right, that is me

3:09:273:09:32

as a youngster dressed up in all

that stuff going on manoeuvres with

3:09:323:09:34

the Army. What I will be doing is

talking to people about why history

3:09:343:09:40

is a great subject, lie it is the

most important. Particularly at the

3:09:403:09:47

moment, look at the news this

morning, North Korea trade

3:09:473:09:52

relationships, tariffs on steel, the

Syrian Civil War.

This is recent

3:09:523:09:57

history, how far, you could go back

to ancient civilisations, how do you

3:09:573:10:03

choose how far back you go to keep

interest?

What I love, that is a

3:10:033:10:09

great question because I, the

starting point as kids was mum and

3:10:093:10:16

dad going to cover the coal miners

strikes are going to Libya so we

3:10:163:10:19

were interested in the history which

shaped the world as we experienced.

3:10:193:10:25

That could be very ancient, the

struggle in Syria goes all the way

3:10:253:10:29

back to the feuds within Islam after

the death of Muhammad. Or the

3:10:293:10:36

Ottoman role in the Middle East. But

I love going to places where the

3:10:363:10:43

modern world will suddenly make

sense to me.

Will we learn from

3:10:433:10:48

history any practical sense? I'm

interested in your reference to

3:10:483:10:50

Donald Trump and trade wars, people

talk about the great depression and

3:10:503:10:54

suggest problems with trade and

trade wars had a bearing on the

3:10:543:10:58

great depression and terrible things

which happened after that?

3:10:583:11:04

which happened after that?

Trade

massively exacerbated tensions, it

3:11:053:11:06

makes sense, you can see why people

said, it's a big economic

3:11:063:11:11

depression, we can ring fence our

country and protect these jobs but

3:11:113:11:15

of course actually that might

benefit a few but overall most

3:11:153:11:18

people lose, we look back at history

and we know that reducing those

3:11:183:11:24

trading barriers, creating energy

across borders, clever people

3:11:243:11:27

selling things to each other...

And

we have pictures of Donald Trump

3:11:273:11:33

signing a document surrounded by

steelworkers saying this is good.

3:11:333:11:38

But for more of those American

workers who rely on cheap steel it

3:11:383:11:42

is bad for them. People say you

never learn from history, we've

3:11:423:11:47

built the most extraordinary world,

we send people into space, if your

3:11:473:11:50

liver packs up we can put a new one

inside you. We watch the news every

3:11:503:11:57

morning and see terrible events,

eye-catching setbacks and tragedies

3:11:573:12:00

but we should not forget we are so

lucky to be alive. Women have more

3:12:003:12:05

opportunities, hundreds of millions

of people lifted out of poverty, few

3:12:053:12:08

paper per capita dying violently

than ever in history. We have

3:12:083:12:15

learned under building on it but

there are eye-catching frustrations.

3:12:153:12:19

What do you make of how history is

portrayed on TV? We were talking to

3:12:193:12:24

me the

3:12:243:12:29

me the beard did so important I

think at whatever age you are that

3:12:303:12:34

history is presented in an

accessible way, not as a lecturer.

3:12:343:12:37

That is true and we are lucky on TV,

digital and podcasts, we can share

3:12:373:12:43

short videos on Facebook, I love

doing 360 degrees videos, I did one

3:12:433:12:49

on this Viking ship. We have all

these tools and loads of

3:12:493:12:57

these tools and loads of different

people, there are a phenomenal range

3:13:013:13:05

of people presenting history and so

many platforms now, my new digital

3:13:053:13:12

platform, podcasts, TV channels.

A

moment in history that if you could

3:13:123:13:17

live or immerse yourself in?

That is

a really difficult question. The

3:13:173:13:21

18th-century when male fashion was

better than it is now. Frills,

3:13:213:13:27

everyone looked great. Also the

modern idea is taking shape, rights

3:13:273:13:33

of men and women, politics,

industrial and scientific

3:13:333:13:36

revolution.

I think if you came out

on your tour wearing one of those

3:13:363:13:40

outfitted might add something to the

occasion. Who knows, think about it.

3:13:403:13:46

An Evening with Dan Snow will be

touring the country from June

3:13:463:13:49

and you can watch History Hit

TV right now.

3:13:493:13:51

That's all from us this morning.

3:13:513:13:52

We'll be back tomorrow from six.

3:13:523:13:54