02/04/2012 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi.


30 years on since the Falklands War between Argentina and Britain began,


the tensions remain. Britain says its up to the


islanders themselves to decide their future, the Argentine


president renews her country's claim on the territory.


A step forward, but still a long way to go. Aung San Suu Kyi's


supporters in Burma celebrate their sweeping victory in the


parliamentary by-elections. We hope that this will be the beginning of


a new era where there albeit more emphasis on the role of the people


and the everyday politics of our country.


Separatist rebels in Mali declare independence in the north of the


country as West African nations impose sanctions on the coup


leaders. Also coming up in the programme:


Can a nation's happiness index be measured?


The kingdom of Bhutan leads the way at a UN summit on how citizens'


well-being should be part of good economic development.


The enfant terrible of British art, Damien Hirst, gets his first


retrospective. Is there more to him than the ability to shock?


thing you have to have, is that people have to say well. I hate art


that you have to think about. Hello and welcome. 30 years ago


today, Britain and Argentina went to war over the Falkland Islands.


The Argentine military junta at the time, stunned the world when it


landed troops in Port Stanley. Britain retaliated, by sending a


naval task force to reclaim the territory. And after two and a half


months, the war ended in defeat for Argentina.


Today, both countries have been holding separate events to mark the


start of the conflict. British veterans gathered at a


memorial chapel, with the families of those who died. The UK lost 255


soldiers in the battle. And in Argentina, ceremonies have been


held across the country to remember the more than 650 troops who were


killed. The Argentine president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner,


used one ceremony to call on Britain to discuss the sovereignty


of the islands. But the UK says it will only agree to sovereignty


talks if the islanders themselves ask them to do so. The BBC's World


Affairs Editor, John Simpson, reports from the Argentinian


I am terribly sorry. We had the pictures but not the sound. We hope


to bring back to you a little later in the programme. Meanwhile let's


press on with another major story. The parliamentary by-elections in


Burma on Sunday have been hailed by the pro-democracy leader, Aung San


Suu Kyi, as marking a new era for the people. Her party, the National


Leagure for Democracy, won nearly all the 45 seats up for grabs,


though official results are not in yet. However, most of the


parliament's 600 seats are held by backers of the military, so it's


not clear what impact Aung San Suu Kyi and her party will have on


Burma's future. There are rare moments in the story


of troubled countries when hope appears. In Burma today, you could


not mistake the surge of optimism. A landslide victory bought out the


crowds to Chiyo the woman they For a few moments, the slight


figure was lost from view in the press of bodies. Then she appeared.


Mindful that the powerful military would be listening, she urged


magnanimity and reminded them that this was a Democratic victory.


is not so much our triumph but a triumph for the people who decided


they must be involved in political processes of this country. We hope


this will be the beginning of a new era where there will be more


emphasis on the role of the people and the everyday politics of our


country. We hope that in future there will be more chances for many


more people and many more parties. Thank you. There are some in her


own party and supporters who believe that entering the by-


election as a be a mistake given that they would not deliver full


democracy. Today, thanks to the sweeping victory, Aung San Suu Kyi


will feel vindicated. Images like these will make Burma's


leaders nervous. They want something in return for reforming.


An end to punitive international sanctions. We have so much


opportunity to develop our country, but this sanction cost up Torness.


They need to abandon the sanction. In all likelihood these are fading


days of economic isolation, but remember the majority of people


were not voting this time around. For families like this one, the


next step must be a general election that will bring the


Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner -- Aung San Suu Kyi to power. She will


be our president. I believe it. she wins the chair, she can help a


lot to our people. That is what our people hope for the best.


When the cheering fades, the hard talking will begin with the


government. Those uncertain neck initiations will depend whether the


woman he carried the day can carry the country.


Earlier, I spoke to the UN's envoy to Burma, Vijay Nambiar. I asked


him if this vote raises expectations about the reform


process. In a sense, for the first time, the


fact that this election though a small by election, includes


political forces that have been excluded for 20 years. It therefore


has the potential of changing fundamentally a quality of


political diversity in the country. It will help bring a change that


has so far been irreversible. There is a potential for it becoming


irreversible as you go along, but there are still problems. There are


problems of the ongoing peace process, the humanitarian problems,


the questions of human rights as well as a serious Medes associate


economic development. Therefore the tasks have just begun. Sure enough,


I want to reiterate that because how much of a foothold is this


going to give Aung San Suu Kyi? Shall only have 40 odd seat out of


a Parliament where there are 600 seats. Yes, but it provides her


with a platform as she herself mentioned, the members are not


important. It provides an opportunity inside Parliament to


reach out to the persons who are now members of parliament including


those in the army and it provides her an opportunity to build on the


basis she has already established for a larger political collective


political future. Is she going to be able to weave this difficult


path in meeting those expectations, but also keeping a channel open to


the authorities, in particular the President? Yes, she has actually


expressed a confidence that she would be able to proceed in that


direction, meet up with the political leadership in a


constructive manner. She wants to work towards the larger issues that


confront the people. In the social and economic to ballot mental


concerns, it is the larger areas of peace recognition that she will


address. Now a look at some of the days


other news, and unemployment across the countries that use the euro,


The Argentine president has today renew her commitment to regain the


territory. I will World Affairs terror -- our world affairs


correspondent has been testing the mood in one us Aires.


Early morning. The elegant understated memorial to more than


600 Argentine dead in the war is about to input. Miguel is waiting


to pay his respects to friends and comrades. TRANSLATION: 30 years on,


so many lives loss for no reason. It was not worth a single life.


Captain Armando was one of the pilot. TRANSLATION: I am sorry that


22 Britons died. As professionals we had to do our job and that


caused casualties. After 30 years, attitudes remain unchanged. The


students were not even born then, but they all think the same way.


TRANSLATION: People were taken from us by M empire. Will there be


another war over the Falklands? Yes or no? No. Argentina could not do


it anyway. Ever since the collapse of the military regime here after


the Falklands war, successive civilian governments have been


cutting back savagely on military spending. No new players for 30


years, only just enough money to pay the wages. This is a country


which was chosen unilaterally to disarm itself. Now it is conducting


a diplomatic war to get the islands. Gabriella, political ally for the


government, thinks it is a success. It is the first time that we are in


the same way with Argentina in his claim. It is important to show that


there is support. This is the first time that this happened.


British doubt it. Most Latin American countries are apparently


saying quietly that they do not want to get involved. People in


Argentina would be mistaken if they thought Britain was retreating from


the scene or not interested in the region or weakening in any way in


our commitment to the people of the Falkland Islands. Critics of the


government here think the reason the diplomatic battle is heating up


is that Argentina's economy is in trouble on all of this provides


useful distraction. Even the critics think the islands belong to


Argentina. 30 years since the start there.


Let's look at other news in brief. Unemployment across the euro-zone


has gone up to almost 11% in February.


10.8% of people in Eurozone countries are unemployed. That's


the highest figure since the formation of the euro back in 1999.


The worst figures are in Spain, where 23.6% of people are out of


work. And there was bad news in France - manufacturing output is at


its worst level there for three years.


Kofi Annan has said there has been no process on the ground in


implementing a ceasefire which is a key condition of his ceasefire. He


has been briefing the UN Council. A rising death toll for military it


pro-reform protesters. I'm the three widows of Osama Bin Laden


have been given jail sentences for living in Pakistan illegally.


All five were captured during the raid on the compound where Osama


Bin Laden was found and killed. They will each serve 45 days.


The head of Russia's civil aviation agency has said that the plane that


crashed in Siberia on Monday appears to have not been properly


de Iced before it took off. 31 people were killed after the crash.


12 of those on board survived, but are in a serious condition in


hospital. The West African regional body has


impose sanctions on the soldiers to seize power in Mali de weeks ago.


The junta had been forced to promise a return to democratic rule,


but that was not enough. In Mali, rebels have captured the historic


trading town of Timbuktu giving them control of the north of the


The rapid advance in Mali has taken many by surprise. Heavily a dark --


armed, they have taken a position to gain ground. They are currently


in the ancient city of Timbuktu, which gives them for control of the


north of the country. Nearly 1,000 years old, the significance of the


city cannot be overestimated. Once a regional hub of, say, today it


still possesses a vast cultural well. -- harbour of Commerce. The


library told ancient manuscripts dating through the centuries. So


who are the rebels now control in Timbuktu and the rest of the North?


Well, they consist of a bewildering array of groups, including


Islamists but the majority are tour Rake, fighting a separatist cause.


They are less fighting for and the autonomous state -- they say they


are fighting for an autonomous state, and given that they control


the north, they will stop fighting and begin defending their territory.


Our objective is not to go farther than the borders. We do not want to


create problems for the government of Marley and the region. So from


the moment we have liberated our Tel Reyes -- territories, we have


achieved our objective, we will stop there. They may say they have


no intentions of destabilising the region, but nonetheless the


neighbouring countries are very I think that the prospect of power


falling into the hands of fundamentalists is a nightmare, not


only for us, but all the countries in the region and we will take all


measures to make sure the fundamentalists do not take power.


Back in the capital city, residents are bracing themselves for the


impact of the economic sanctions that have just been imposed by the


To talk some more is the veteran West African analyst, Kaye Whiteman.


Do you think the gains by the rebels in the north are


irreversible? Not irreversible, but they will be hard to undo. They do


have limited objectives anyway. imposition of sanctions on the


leaders of the coup, will this further complicate matters and


allow the rebels to exploit the confusion even more? Certainly will


not help, because the confusion is already considerable. But will they


want to move in on Bamako? At the moment they seem to want to


consolidate their own power having captured three major towns in


north-eastern Marley. They will probably want to consolidate that.


There also are Islamists with them who were not as important, but they


have another agenda. Their objectives could very well be that


they would like to take over the whole of the country, but I think


there is a more limited agenda. Traditionally, they are not known


as people having sympathies with Al co-leader -- Al-Qaeda or or more


Jihad est movements. They are seen as more moderate. One wonders why


they have this alliance with the Islamist fighters. I think the


Islamists are piggy-backing on their back. They are there because


of the fall of Gaddafi. They were in the army and they got kicked out


and took an awful lot of their arms there and establish themselves in


the north-east. This is the result, a direct consequence. Do you think


the actions could trigger similar actions elsewhere, like in Niger or


Mauritania? The name of what they consider their homeland stretches


to five or six different countries through Algeria, Libya, Mauritania


and Niger. That is important because of the Ukrainian. These are


things that remain to be seen. -- because of the uranium. What would


they base that on? Ethnically, of a uniform regardless of where they


live? If you look at the Kurdish groups, they speak a different


language dependent on whether they are in Turkey, Syria or Iraq?


have a definite culture of their own. They have their own language


with a different dialect. They are known as a different group in terms


of music, jury. By a quite homogenous, regardless of the


geographical to Eric -- territory - - are they quite a homogenous? Has


their homeland got a front really? That is the question. Now do you


think that bringing happiness to a country can really be measured in


any meaningful way? Well, the UN is hosting a special summit called by


the tiny Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan to discuss this. Bhutan


believes that any economic system must take happiness into account.


Last year, the UN adopted Bhutan's proposal to make happiness a


development indicator, using a model from the kingdom, that


defines the quality of life as a balance between the material and


the spiritual. One survey actually ranked the Bhutanese as the


"happiest" people in Asia, even though their average income is just


over $100 a month. Jeffrey Sachs is currently an economist at Columbia


University. He's also seeking to become president of the World Bank.


And he joins us now from the Happiness and Wellbeing Summit at


the UN in New York. Can governments really measure an individual or a


nation's happiness in any meaningful way that works for


economists? You s, they can. And many are already doing so -- yes


they can. Many global surveys do exactly that, they ask people in


different ways if they are happy. Were you happy yesterday? Or in a


somewhat different manner, how do you evaluate your life? Are you


satisfied with your life, all things considered? How do you feel


your life is going? So there are different types of happiness. There


is the mood, emotions, the ups and downs of the everyday. There is the


evaluative happiness and then the sense of purpose in happiness which


Aristotle put a virtue one. All of these things can be measured and


are being measured, and a tremendous amount is being learned


from the measurements. In terms of economics and economic development,


is there a link between how productive a country might be,


depending on how happy its people are? If you look at China, they


should be pretty happy, because they are productive. Well, in


general, there is a relationship that higher incomes are associated


with more happiness, but income is by no means the main determinant or


even a powerful determinant of overall happiness. Some poorer


countries have rank very high. The United States has had the


unfortunate reality of going 50 years since 1960 travelling the


gross national product per-person but having no movement of the


needle of happiness -- troubling. Income counts, but it isn't


everything. Public health also counts. There are social support


systems that can. What counts our trust in your government and


individuals in the community, and the resilience he of the community.


All of these factors have been demonstrated to play a major role


in how people feel about their lives, and governments can do


something about it. You have worked for many years with impoverished


communities around the world. Do you say that money is not


everything, go and be happy even if you are poor? You can't say that,


can you? Of course one does not say that. A low levels of income, the


need for basic needs is absolutely the life-and-death issue and is a


crucial source of happiness. Money counts a lot for very poor people,


but once the high incomes are reached, other things count. Even


along the path of development it is possible to have a more balanced


approach when it takes into account community, social support, mental


health and the honesty of government. They all play a very


important role. Very quickly, are you happy, Jeffrey? I am extremely


happy and very pleased that the world is taking up this issue in a


very realistic way today. Ending with a smile, thank you very much.


It's put a smile on my face as well. Damien Hirst is often seen as the


enfant terrible of contemporary British art. Loved and loathed in


equal measure, the Tate Modern Gallery in London is staging the


first major survey show of his work in the UK. Surprising perhaps for


the artist who, for the past 20 years or so, has so often been in


the headlines, whether it's over his pickled shark, rotting cow's


head or diamond encrusted skull. Our Arts Editor Will Gompertz has


Damien Hirst in front of the art work that made him famous, and


shaped his image as the bad boy of British art. But that was more than


20 years ago. Today, he has grown up and has grey hairs and is during


a career retrospective at Tate Modern. A greatest-hits show of


spot paintings and dead animals in formaldehyde. People have to go,


well! I hate art that you have to think about. I like art that grabs


you, like in the National History Museum -- Natural History Museum.


What is the difference between your work and a piece not in a museum?


Any thing done well his art. Somebody once said to me, how do


you know it is art? Is it in an art gallery? In 2008, Damien Hirst


bought these pieces and many others to Sotheby's for an unprecedented


auction of new works by living artists. It turned out to be a


momentous occasion. He ended up taking away over �100 million.


Meanwhile, on the other side of the Atlantic, the Leman brothers were


in the process of going bust. pushing the point too far to say


that making money is part of your We all need money to survive and


you have to respect money because there are so many people without it.


I became aware that she can definitely use money to get


people's attention. After I did my auction at Sotheby's I started to


get notice on the street by businessmen. Behind the scenes, you


are a generous man who supports a lot of artists, but your public


image is that you were a money- grabbing show off? Really? Really!


I think the image is important to who you are. I don't see it as an


image, it is what I represent. I would rather I wasn't just a money-


grabbing show of underneath. Damien Hirst told me it was strange having


a retrospective. And becoming part of the Establishment. In my mind, I


always thought I wanted to be upon. I wanted young think -- kids to


think I am called, stupid things like that. In the end you become


like an old fart. He's not still doing those animals in formaldehyde,


EC? That sort of thing. Damien Hirst said he was not the sort to


look back at his work. He prefers to look to the future and what he


sees as infinite possibilities. Which has always been his approach


A reminder of our main news: The Argentine President has reaffirmed


her country's claim to the Falkland Islands during a ceremony to mark


the 30th anniversary of the start of the Falklands war with Britain.


Well that's all from the programme. Next the weather. But for now from


me Zeinab Badawi and the rest of Hello there. Yes, the rumours are


true. After a mild weather, things are turning to snow. An ample


warning for tonight across the northern half of Scotland for heavy


snowfall as we head through the night. This weather front brings a


band of rain and the heavier it gets interacting with the cold it


will steadily turn to cold. Five or 10 centimetres away from the


immediate coast across northern Scotland, and later in the night


through the borders, and through the northern hills of England. To


up to five centimetres in the four cars. In the south, dry and mild,


but further north the temperatures fall away and it is likely to be I


see as well as Meli. Tomorrow, strong, biting winds across the


northern areas but in the south it turns cloudy and wet. As the


weather moves into southern England, the Midlands, we will see the cloud


feeling in and it will hold on to double-digit temperatures. Highs of


only five or six degrees in Scotland tomorrow. Snow falling


across the hills of northern England as we head through Tuesday


evening with strong winds, and we could see blizzard conditions. The


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