07/03/2014 World News Today


07/03/2014

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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi. Russia ratchets

:00:00.:00:09.

up the pressure on Ukraine and warns Kiev it will cut off its gas soon if

:00:10.:00:14.

it doesn't pay its bills. In Donetsk in eastern Ukraine, riot

:00:15.:00:17.

police regain control of the government headquarters from

:00:18.:00:22.

pro-Russia protestors. Meanwhile, in the Russia Black Sea

:00:23.:00:25.

resort of Sochi, the Paralympic Games open. President Putin says he

:00:26.:00:29.

hopes the games will bring down the temperature on the Ukraine crisis.

:00:30.:00:33.

Also coming up, Congolese warlord Germain Katanga is found guilty of

:00:34.:00:36.

crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.

:00:37.:00:42.

And trenches where First World War's soldiers were trained for battle are

:00:43.:00:43.

discovered in a British field. Hello and welcome. Russia's

:00:44.:01:04.

President Vladimir Putin has given a statement saying he hopes some

:01:05.:01:07.

common ground can be found with western powers over Ukraine, and

:01:08.:01:11.

that the crisis won't lead to a new Cold War. But in a new chapter in

:01:12.:01:16.

the gas wars between Ukraine and Russia, Moscow's state-run oil and

:01:17.:01:19.

gas giant Gazprom is threatening to cut off Ukraine's gas. And tensions

:01:20.:01:25.

remain on the ground. A 40-strong team from the OSCE, the Organisation

:01:26.:01:28.

for Security and Co-operation was prevented from going into Crimea for

:01:29.:01:31.

the second day running to monitor what is going on there. Well, my

:01:32.:01:43.

colleague, Ben Brown is in Crimea in the town of Sevastapol and he joins

:01:44.:01:51.

us now live. The OSCE monitoring mission denied again? They have been

:01:52.:01:59.

turned away twice in the two base, a slap in the face for the OSCE and

:02:00.:02:05.

for the international community as well, and another sign of a Russian

:02:06.:02:12.

defiance. It has been another day of interesting and fast-moving

:02:13.:02:17.

developments. Ukraine's new prime minister has said that no one in the

:02:18.:02:20.

civilised world will recognise the referendum that will take place here

:02:21.:02:28.

in nine days' time. That is not how many ethnic Russians see it and they

:02:29.:02:34.

are delighted to have a vote for their future. The question will be

:02:35.:02:38.

whether to join a past Ukraine or whether they are part of Russia, and

:02:39.:02:44.

many we have been speaking to have said they will vote overwhelmingly

:02:45.:02:48.

to be part of Russia. The delegation from the Crimean parliament went to

:02:49.:02:53.

the Russian parliament today and got a standing ovation.

:02:54.:03:04.

It is another Sochi Olympics but the Crimea is already casting a shadow.

:03:05.:03:12.

The Ukrainian team at the opening ceremony was represented by a single

:03:13.:03:17.

flag bearer. The other participants refused to take part in the parade.

:03:18.:03:23.

The head of Ukraine's Paralympic team warned Russia not to escalate

:03:24.:03:31.

the conflict. If we see any steps that are escalating the conflict, or

:03:32.:03:39.

maybe, my God, somebody will be killed, we will leave these games.

:03:40.:03:50.

It is absolute, no other way. These are no games. America has said six

:03:51.:03:56.

F-16 fighter jets from Suffolk to the Baltics to boost air patrols, a

:03:57.:04:03.

show of strength on Russia's doorstep. Part of the West's

:04:04.:04:08.

response to Russian actions in the Ukraine. Western leaders have

:04:09.:04:15.

accused Russia of invading the Crimea. The Kremlin's response is

:04:16.:04:21.

that sanctions will have you just as much as they an so far Moscow is

:04:22.:04:29.

refusing to back down. Quite the opposite. In Moscow today, there was

:04:30.:04:34.

a warm welcome and strong political support for this delegation of

:04:35.:04:42.

pro-Moscow Crimean MPs. The head of Russia's upper house said that if

:04:43.:04:45.

the Crimea aborted to break away from Ukraine and join Russia,

:04:46.:04:50.

Russia's parliament would support that. To show that the Russian

:04:51.:04:56.

people would as well, the seasoning the Kremlin organised a rally near

:04:57.:05:01.

red Square. Everyone we spoke to was excited at the thought the Crimea

:05:02.:05:07.

would become part of their country again. Historically it was always

:05:08.:05:11.

our land. We want to be together again. What's more, criticism from

:05:12.:05:18.

Kiev and threats of sanctions just seemed to fuel the patriotism.

:05:19.:05:28.

This battle between Ukraine and Russia is not just about Crimea but

:05:29.:05:36.

about several different cities that have large Russian populations, such

:05:37.:05:42.

as Donetsk, and many people there that are part of the Russian

:05:43.:05:46.

community say they want a referendum on whether or not to be part of

:05:47.:05:54.

Russia. At the government headquarters, the

:05:55.:06:01.

shift change brings relief. The riot police face a long and cold they,

:06:02.:06:06.

but Ukraine's government has its building back. In the centre of

:06:07.:06:14.

town, pro-Russian demonstrators now meet under their most familiar

:06:15.:06:19.

symbols. Ukraine's new authorities are fighting back. They have banned

:06:20.:06:26.

large-scale demonstrations and are trying to consign demonstrators to

:06:27.:06:30.

small spaces, and they are also going after the leader of the

:06:31.:06:36.

pro-Russian movement. He is a businessman and called himself the

:06:37.:06:42.

people's governor. His virtual regime lasted less than a week. Here

:06:43.:06:52.

is the moment it ended. The police came for him as he prepared to speak

:06:53.:06:58.

to the BBC. I will charge you were attempting to the zest, the

:06:59.:07:03.

investigator warns a supporter. -- attempting to retest. It is a

:07:04.:07:10.

setback top by officers in balaclavas on the stairs. These are

:07:11.:07:22.

uncertain times. The city's new, real governor is leading the

:07:23.:07:27.

crackdown. Kiev is appointing oligarchs to control its regions. It

:07:28.:07:36.

is under complete control. The authorities control the situation.

:07:37.:07:43.

Our best people are on it. Right now in Donetsk, there are no commuters

:07:44.:07:52.

-- more commuters than protesters. The bus here is full. As the protest

:07:53.:07:59.

is representative of the majority of people here? I do not think so.

:08:00.:08:06.

First of all, during 20 years of independence, people did not stop

:08:07.:08:12.

loving Russia but we still feel that we are independent and there is a

:08:13.:08:18.

generation of young people who were born understanding themselves as

:08:19.:08:24.

citizens of Ukraine. Getting to work may be more important than breaking

:08:25.:08:30.

away. Uncertain times in Donetsk and

:08:31.:08:37.

certainly here in the Crimea. We have been up the road this afternoon

:08:38.:08:44.

we are one of the Ukrainian military bases, effectively under siege from

:08:45.:08:50.

Russian forces, has a naval signals intelligence base and they were

:08:51.:08:55.

unidentified Russian troops around the base, also some Russian Cossacks

:08:56.:09:01.

as well, but they would not say exactly who they were. They were

:09:02.:09:07.

laying siege and we managed to get inside the base and speak to the

:09:08.:09:10.

commander who said that these Russians had arrived several days

:09:11.:09:17.

ago and asked the Ukrainians to effectively surrender their weapons

:09:18.:09:19.

and put them into a locked store room, and the Ukrainians have

:09:20.:09:25.

refused and have still said they will only take orders from the

:09:26.:09:28.

Ukrainian high command, not from the Russians. That stand-off continues

:09:29.:09:34.

at that pace and many other bases around the Crimea. Still a very

:09:35.:09:39.

tense time in the run-up to this crucial referendum. Let's discuss

:09:40.:09:49.

all this is a bit more. And now I'm joined from Washington by David

:09:50.:09:52.

Kramer, he's a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for

:09:53.:09:55.

European and Eurasian Affairs, where he focused on US foreign policy in

:09:56.:09:59.

Ukraine and Russia from 2005 to 2008. He is now president of Freedom

:10:00.:10:08.

House. You have been a bit critical of Barack Obama's policy towards

:10:09.:10:13.

this whole business, why do you say he has not been strong enough? He

:10:14.:10:19.

has significantly improved his position in the last 48 hours. Last

:10:20.:10:24.

weekend, the administration was too small to understand and realise the

:10:25.:10:28.

magnitude of the problem with Russian forces invading the Ukraine.

:10:29.:10:37.

The president issued a statement and the various statements were too mild

:10:38.:10:41.

and to temperate and it needed to be forceful right from the beginning.

:10:42.:10:46.

John Kerry has led that approach since including the announcement

:10:47.:10:49.

that the US was moving ahead with the imposition of sanctions, and I

:10:50.:10:57.

do think there will need to be some movement of US military ships to the

:10:58.:11:02.

Black Sea to demonstrate to Russia that the United States is very

:11:03.:11:06.

serious. You want him to go farther than he is indicating because the

:11:07.:11:10.

movement of melodic trips is not something that the White House has

:11:11.:11:15.

said explicitly they wish to do? -- military ships. I am not talking

:11:16.:11:22.

about American forces on the ground but the deployment of ships to the

:11:23.:11:26.

Black Sea which was done in 2008 with the Russian invasion of Georgia

:11:27.:11:32.

and the provision of humanitarian assistance provided back then. The

:11:33.:11:36.

same unfortunately is going to have to be done. How do you think that

:11:37.:11:40.

will go down with the American people? It would seem the

:11:41.:11:46.

President's more cautious approach chimes well with them? It is a

:11:47.:11:53.

matter of leadership and of the president explaining what is at

:11:54.:11:58.

stake, a country of 46 million people that straddles Europe and

:11:59.:12:02.

Russia. Even if no one has been killed, thank goodness, we are one

:12:03.:12:08.

drunken soldier away from firing a gun and causing a conflagration. The

:12:09.:12:14.

US has an interest and the Europeans have a major interest as well.

:12:15.:12:20.

Someone like Henry Kissinger writing in the Washington Post, you cannot

:12:21.:12:25.

see Ukraine is just another foreign country from Russia's point of view.

:12:26.:12:30.

Moreover he adds that he would not want to have Ukraine becoming a

:12:31.:12:39.

showdown between Russia and USA. In 1991 Ukraine became an independent

:12:40.:12:44.

country and it is not a satellite of Russia and Russia should not have

:12:45.:12:48.

veto authority over its membership of the European Union or membership

:12:49.:12:57.

in NATO. I do not think the United States and Russia should be deciding

:12:58.:13:03.

Ukraine's future and ruling out its membership of organisations. I am

:13:04.:13:06.

not saying they should join NATO right away but it is not helpful for

:13:07.:13:11.

Henry Kissinger or others to be speaking about what Ukraine could be

:13:12.:13:17.

doing down the road, closing down options is not what we should be up

:13:18.:13:22.

to. You want the United States to work closely with its European

:13:23.:13:24.

allies and you know the Europeans are much more cautious because they

:13:25.:13:30.

have more substantial and deep economic and financial ties. Almost

:13:31.:13:38.

ten times the amount of trade with Europe and Russia compared to the

:13:39.:13:42.

United States and Russia. No question about it, that is a factor,

:13:43.:13:47.

and the US leadership are working very closely with European allies.

:13:48.:13:52.

Germany are critical and the UK as well, and I think with the issue of

:13:53.:13:56.

US determination and leadership Europe will also come around.

:13:57.:14:02.

In South Africa, the court in the trial of the athlete Oscar Pistorius

:14:03.:14:08.

has heard him described as an angry person by a former girlfriend. She

:14:09.:14:12.

also said that he always carried a firearm when they were dating. It is

:14:13.:14:16.

the fifth day of Oscar Pistorius' trial on the charge of murdering his

:14:17.:14:19.

girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp on Valentine's Day last year.

:14:20.:14:33.

In court today, Oscar Pistorius character came under fire again from

:14:34.:14:37.

a former girlfriend. The witness, asked not to be filmed, cried

:14:38.:14:44.

frequently and described an incident in 2012, reconstructed here when her

:14:45.:14:47.

then boyfriend, Oscar Pistorius, fired his pistol through the sunroof

:14:48.:14:52.

after being pulled over for speeding. He was angry at the police

:14:53.:14:58.

after being stopped. Thereafter, when they wanted to fire a shot,

:14:59.:15:04.

they found it funny. They fired a shot and then they laughed. But will

:15:05.:15:12.

not help Oscar Pistorius. It is suggested he fired a shot on the

:15:13.:15:17.

night his girlfriend died. His girlfriend said he got angry with a

:15:18.:15:24.

lot of people. My sister, my best friend and another friend of ours.

:15:25.:15:32.

His name? His best friend, Alex. Samantha Taylor betrayed Oscar

:15:33.:15:37.

Pistorius as a man with a violent temper, who kept a pistol with him

:15:38.:15:42.

at all times. She was asked specifically about matters relating

:15:43.:15:47.

to the night Reeva Steenkamp was killed, where Oscar Pistorius slept

:15:48.:15:50.

in bed and what he sounded like when he screamed. If he screams and is

:15:51.:15:58.

anxious, he sounds like a woman? That is not true, he sounds like a

:15:59.:16:02.

man. Again, this is important because Oscar Pistorius defends

:16:03.:16:07.

argues he sounds like a woman when he screams but neighbours were

:16:08.:16:12.

mistaken when they thought it was his girlfriend 's grilling. When you

:16:13.:16:16.

heard him screaming, it was out of anger but not in a situation where

:16:17.:16:22.

he received his life to be threatened? No, my lady. Oscar

:16:23.:16:29.

Pistorius appeared to show no emotion as his former girlfriend

:16:30.:16:33.

stepped down and left the courtroom. Now a look at some of the day's

:16:34.:16:37.

other news. New allegations have surfaced in France accusing the

:16:38.:16:40.

former President Nicolas Sarkozy of attempting to tamper with the

:16:41.:16:44.

judicial system. The left-leaning newspaper Le Monde says Mr Sarkozy's

:16:45.:16:48.

phone has been tapped for the past year by investigators looking into

:16:49.:16:50.

alleged illegal funding of his presidential campaign. It says that

:16:51.:16:55.

a senior prosecutor in the country's highest court was feeding Mr Sarkozy

:16:56.:16:57.

confidential information about investigations affecting him and

:16:58.:17:00.

that Mr Sarkozy tried to reward the prosecutor with an official post in

:17:01.:17:07.

Monaco for his retirement. Mr Sarkozy denies the allegations and

:17:08.:17:10.

his lawyer says the phone taps were illegal.

:17:11.:17:15.

Saudi Arabia has designated the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist

:17:16.:17:18.

organisation. An Interior Ministry statement also designated two

:17:19.:17:20.

jihadist groups fighting on the rebel side in Syria, the Nusra Front

:17:21.:17:24.

and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant as terrorist groups. The

:17:25.:17:29.

statement gave Saudis fighting in Syria 15 days to return. The Muslim

:17:30.:17:34.

Brotherhood is already banned in Saudi Arabia.

:17:35.:17:39.

A Californian man who gambled away $500,000 in a single session at a

:17:40.:17:43.

casino in Las Vegas is suing the club's owners for failing to stop

:17:44.:17:47.

him. Mark Johnson played for 17 straight hours. He says he was

:17:48.:17:53.

served free drinks and loaned hundreds of thousands of dollars by

:17:54.:17:56.

the casino. Gaming regulations in Nevada prohibit casinos from

:17:57.:17:58.

allowing visibly drunk guests continuing to gamble.

:17:59.:18:06.

The International Criminal Court, the ICC, has convicted a Congolese

:18:07.:18:09.

warlord of war crimes and crimes against unity. Germain Katanga was

:18:10.:18:21.

found guilty of being an accessory to crimes, including murder and

:18:22.:18:24.

pillage, during an attack on a village in the east of the

:18:25.:18:27.

Democratic Republic of Congo in 2003.

:18:28.:18:33.

This was Germain Katanga's moment of judgement. This is what the former

:18:34.:18:40.

warlord had left behind in 11 years ago. His militia rampaged through

:18:41.:18:47.

the village. It was in the early hours of the morning and families

:18:48.:18:52.

were shot as they slept. Some were cut up with machetes in what

:18:53.:18:54.

prosecutors said was an effort to save alerts. More than 200 people

:18:55.:19:01.

were killed. Germain Katanga's trial has been going on since 2009. His

:19:02.:19:06.

co-accused has already been acquitted. The former man's lawyer

:19:07.:19:10.

organised the attack was legitimately targeting a rival army.

:19:11.:19:16.

The judges noted that most of the village had been wiped out. The

:19:17.:19:22.

prosecution argued that many of the women were raped or kept as sex

:19:23.:19:25.

slaves but they failed to provide sufficient evidence to convince the

:19:26.:19:31.

judge it was Germain Katanga's fault. So he was acquitted of all

:19:32.:19:35.

sexual crimes and cleared of using child soldiers will stop despite

:19:36.:19:41.

this, the prosecutor told us the verdict was a victory for justice.

:19:42.:19:46.

We hope Germain Katanga's conviction today will bring a measure of

:19:47.:19:51.

closure for victims. The victims of this brutal attack in the village.

:19:52.:19:58.

The memory of those who died and also the memory of those who

:19:59.:20:02.

survived, by bringing to account those responsible for mass crimes,

:20:03.:20:07.

we hope to prevent other crimes and save others from the same fate.

:20:08.:20:10.

Germain Katanga was driven from court through his electric wire

:20:11.:20:17.

coated gates. It could be weeks now before judges here at the ICC decide

:20:18.:20:20.

how long the man who was once known to his supporters as the lion should

:20:21.:20:27.

be locked up behind bars. But the sides are expected to appeal.

:20:28.:20:31.

To another country where there are worries about human rights abuses,

:20:32.:20:36.

South Sudan. The African Union has established a commission of enquiry

:20:37.:20:39.

into human rights abuses inside South Sudan where government troops

:20:40.:20:42.

and rebels loyal to the former vice President, Riek Machar, are

:20:43.:20:46.

fighting. The five-member commission will be headed by the Nigerian

:20:47.:20:51.

former President, Olusegun Obasanjo. Thousands of people have been killed

:20:52.:20:54.

and hundreds of thousands displaced in the conflict since December. The

:20:55.:20:58.

BBC's former Sudan correspondent James Copnall has just written a

:20:59.:21:02.

book called A Poisonous Thorn In Our Hearts, about the background to

:21:03.:21:05.

their secession of South Sudan from Sudan in 2011. He joins me now. For

:21:06.:21:18.

people like you looking at what was going on in South Sudan, the signs

:21:19.:21:22.

were there that explain the subsequent violence that erupted?

:21:23.:21:28.

Yes, nothing was inevitable but definitely, the dangers were always

:21:29.:21:33.

there. This was an incredibly underdeveloped area that had faced

:21:34.:21:36.

decades of civil war. That had an impact on the mentality of people

:21:37.:21:41.

and their opportunities. It also create a political class that where

:21:42.:21:46.

rebel leaders and they suffered through the years of separation what

:21:47.:21:53.

is called the liberation curse. The qualities to achieve freedom are not

:21:54.:21:57.

best suited for conventional government so what happened was a

:21:58.:22:03.

failure in government and power struggles in the one party that had

:22:04.:22:15.

any power. Both sides, forces loyal to the former President probably

:22:16.:22:20.

responsible for the atrocities? Yes, and that is what the commission will

:22:21.:22:27.

look into. Supporters are accused of a lot of abuses at the start of the

:22:28.:22:35.

conflict and supporters of Riek Machar are accused of fighting later

:22:36.:22:43.

in the conflict. One of the five member team recently wrote an

:22:44.:22:47.

article saying that court cannot solve problems like this, a judicial

:22:48.:22:52.

approach punishing people for these kinds of situations is not the right

:22:53.:22:57.

way to go to end a crisis like that. Give us an update on where the

:22:58.:23:09.

talks are on Ethiopia? The fighting has not stopped, there is a pause in

:23:10.:23:16.

the talks right now. Monitoring groups are coming in to monitor the

:23:17.:23:20.

cease-fire. The fighting has to stop before any serious talking can

:23:21.:23:23.

begin. You have written this book which looks both at South Sudan and

:23:24.:23:31.

Sudan after the two countries split. Give us a brief outline about the

:23:32.:23:37.

key message? Essentially these are completed at countries with

:23:38.:23:42.

contributed conflicts but in the 30 year time after separation, the

:23:43.:23:44.

Capitals did everything they could to bring down the leadership in the

:23:45.:23:49.

other state. That relationship has got that are subsequently and that

:23:50.:23:53.

has brought benefits for both states but particularly the elites in both

:23:54.:23:57.

states. Both countries can only really be prosperous if they have a

:23:58.:24:02.

good relationship but that future will only come if there is

:24:03.:24:05.

substantial improvement in the way both leaderships govern their own

:24:06.:24:15.

countries. This year marks the centenary of the

:24:16.:24:21.

outbreak of the First World War. A set of trenches used as a practice

:24:22.:24:24.

battlefield for soldiers heading to the front line in the war have been

:24:25.:24:28.

discovered overgrown and forgotten in a British coastal town. The two

:24:29.:24:31.

ditches facing each other on England's south coast were once

:24:32.:24:34.

fully stocked with weapons and barbed wire. Now the trenches are

:24:35.:24:37.

being used to reveal how the First World War transformed Britain,

:24:38.:24:51.

physically as well as socially. Nowadays we call it pre-deployment

:24:52.:24:55.

training. Final rehearsals for the task ahead in an environment that is

:24:56.:24:59.

designed to be as realistic as possible. A century ago, another

:25:00.:25:05.

army was preparing for service overseas. This aerial photo of army

:25:06.:25:18.

land near Gosport should numerous traces of its use as a training area

:25:19.:25:23.

but an observant conservation officer noticed something else. The

:25:24.:25:27.

distinct shape up to trench systems identical scene to those in France

:25:28.:25:34.

and Belgium. This is a 1951 aerial photograph that the regional

:25:35.:25:38.

archaeologist was examining and as he was looking at it, he suddenly

:25:39.:25:41.

realised there was an absolutely typical first old war trench system

:25:42.:25:46.

and when he came and looked at the site, he realised this is almost

:25:47.:25:53.

certainly training trenches. This training area was intended to give

:25:54.:25:58.

soldiers an idea of what they would face on the battlefield. Reality, of

:25:59.:26:02.

course, was rather different. War games on the coast of Hampshire

:26:03.:26:07.

would soon be a distant memory as recruits faced the mud and the

:26:08.:26:15.

bloodshed. A reminder of our main news: Russian

:26:16.:26:19.

parliamentarians have given a standing ovation to a delegation of

:26:20.:26:21.

politicians from Crimea, promising support if they wanted to become

:26:22.:26:31.

part of Russia. The region, currently occupied by Russian

:26:32.:26:34.

troops, is due to hold a referendum on whether to join Russia or remain

:26:35.:26:42.

part of Ukraine. That's all from the programme. The weather is next.

:26:43.:26:50.

part of Ukraine. That's all from the programme. The weather is next.

:26:51.:26:58.

Saturday is set to get off to a gloomy

:26:59.:26:59.

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