12/01/2017 World News Today


12/01/2017

The latest national and international news, exploring the day's events from a global perspective.


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This is BBC World News Today with me, Geeta Guru-Murthy.

:00:00.:00:10.

The headlines: Relations between Donald Trump

:00:11.:00:12.

and America's spies under severe strain.

:00:13.:00:14.

to the intelligence services gives strong backing

:00:15.:00:20.

and condemns what he calls Russia's "aggressive action".

:00:21.:00:27.

It's pretty clear about what took place, among Russian involvement and

:00:28.:00:33.

efforts to hack information and have an impact on American democracy.

:00:34.:00:37.

of allegations against Mr Trump who reportedly compiled the dossier

:00:38.:00:40.

has disappeared from his home near London.

:00:41.:00:42.

Also coming up, Moscow describes a deployment of thousands

:00:43.:00:44.

of American troops and tanks in Poland

:00:45.:00:53.

as a threat to their national security.

:00:54.:00:54.

Not so much a robot - more an "electronic person".

:00:55.:00:57.

Europe draws up rules for how humans might get along with

:00:58.:00:59.

their growing band of android cousins.

:01:00.:01:15.

A week tomorrow, Donald Trump will become

:01:16.:01:17.

President of the United States.

:01:18.:01:19.

The febrile countdown to January 20th has seen increasing alarm

:01:20.:01:22.

and speculation about the exact nature

:01:23.:01:23.

of Mr Trump's relationship with Russia.

:01:24.:01:34.

But some of those he has picked for the top jobs

:01:35.:01:37.

in his administration have been sounding

:01:38.:01:42.

much more traditionally hawkish.

:01:43.:01:47.

They continue to regard Russia with a high degree of suspicion.

:01:48.:01:53.

A week before inauguration day this usually an air of expectancy.

:01:54.:01:59.

The stage is being set for Donald Trump to take the oath of office.

:02:00.:02:03.

But the mood is much more feverish and electric.

:02:04.:02:06.

As allegation swirl that Russia has compromising information

:02:07.:02:09.

about the President-elect that could make him

:02:10.:02:10.

Today Trump's choice as CIA Director agreed

:02:11.:02:21.

the Kremlin tried to interfere with the election.

:02:22.:02:27.

It is pretty clear about Russian involvement in efforts to hack

:02:28.:02:30.

information and to have an impact on American democracy.

:02:31.:02:35.

I'm clear eyed about what that intelligence report says.

:02:36.:02:37.

And I have every expectation that as we continue to develop

:02:38.:02:40.

the facts that I will relay those to the president and the team around

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him and to you all so we can have a robust discussion

:02:49.:02:53.

As to the latest allegations in the dossier...

:02:54.:02:57.

I will pursue the facts wherever they take us.

:02:58.:03:01.

And the incoming Defense Secretary took aim at Vladimir Putin,

:03:02.:03:04.

I'm all for engagement, than his new boss.

:03:05.:03:08.

but we have to recognise reality in what Russia is up to.

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There is a decreasing number of areas where we can engage

:03:19.:03:23.

And an increasing number of areas where we are going to have to

:03:24.:03:31.

confront Russia. Yesterday the President-elect

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rejected the unverified allegations You're fake news.

:03:34.:03:34.

Go ahead. After speaking last night

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to America's director of National Intelligence,

:03:38.:03:40.

James Clapper, Intelligence chiefs have made no

:03:41.:03:42.

judgments on the claim. Team Trump is defiant,

:03:43.:04:13.

saying the allegations are not true. What struck me most in Mr Clapper's

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public statement that I'm sure your viewers can access,

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is Mr Clapper reemphasising that the intelligence

:04:24.:04:25.

community gave no credibility Washington is a city used

:04:26.:04:33.

to intrigue and alleged scandal, but not

:04:34.:04:41.

on the eve of an inauguration. Barbara Plett usher is in

:04:42.:04:52.

Washington. What's coming out in the last 24 hours. These new appointees

:04:53.:05:00.

to the Cabinet, are they genuine about Russia in terms of their

:05:01.:05:08.

history on the subject, traditional Republican and hawkish, but if there

:05:09.:05:12.

was a struggle between Donald Trump and his appointees, who wins? Does

:05:13.:05:16.

the power still reside in the White House? Yes, they have a history of

:05:17.:05:21.

believing that Russia is one of the key dangers, national security

:05:22.:05:29.

threats to the United States. General Mattis elaborated on those

:05:30.:05:33.

views in his speech, that he thought Vladimir Putin was trying to build

:05:34.:05:38.

up a circle of unstable states around Russia, that he was trying to

:05:39.:05:44.

attack all week in Nato and that Nato needed to be strongly supported

:05:45.:05:53.

because of that. It was also said that Russia is a real threat. He

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then said today in his speech that it was quite aggressive and needed

:06:01.:06:05.

to be counted. Those positions are held, they are well known and Mr

:06:06.:06:08.

Trump knew that when he appointed them. What that means in the

:06:09.:06:12.

Cabinet, we don't really know. The president will make the main

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decisions on policy relations with Russia but he has placed in his

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Cabinet people who have quite different views two years. He has a

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National Security Adviser who is very pro-Russian. We understand Mr

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Trump likes to operate like this in the business world, he likes to have

:06:32.:06:35.

different competing views around him and he will go with what he feels he

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wants to. But this is government and national security, and these are

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views strongly held and held by larger constituencies, by

:06:45.:06:48.

Republicans but many Democrats have these views of Russia as well, so it

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is not clear how this will play out. These testimonies are reassuring the

:06:55.:07:00.

senators who are listening to them. We have the background of the

:07:01.:07:04.

British spy, former spy, that was involved in this. If these

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allegations were true, would any of them affect Donald Trump's ability

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to govern? Are they legal or against the American Constitution? How much

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do they matter? It is difficult to say. I think the allegation that

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concerns people on Capitol Hill is the one that operatives from his

:07:29.:07:32.

campaign had contacts with the Russians about the cyber attacks on

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Hillary Clinton 's and the Democrats' operation. That raises

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all sorts of difficulties. That is something that could be quite

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damaging. But I don't know. It's quite unprecedented, really, that

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this sort of development, right before an inauguration and the

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scepticism of the intelligence agencies expressed so far, they say

:08:04.:08:06.

that they don't know whether this information is reliable. They are

:08:07.:08:11.

not coming forward and saying what the details would be of these would

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be proved to be correct. But certainly, the sort of atmosphere

:08:16.:08:19.

and the allegations themselves do strengthen a perception around Mr

:08:20.:08:23.

Trump which has been worrying for many people here.

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The former British intelligence officer who is named as the source

:08:28.:08:29.

of the latest allegations against Mr Trump

:08:30.:08:31.

Christopher Steele produced a dossier last year which included

:08:32.:08:39.

the allegations that Mr Trump had been caught

:08:40.:08:40.

in compromising financial and sexual activities.

:08:41.:08:42.

The allegations are unproven and the CIA says

:08:43.:08:44.

it has made no judgment about their credibility.

:08:45.:08:46.

Here's our security correspondent Gordon Corera

:08:47.:08:48.

The murky world of intelligence-gathering in Moscow.

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A secret dossier of allegations about Trump and Russia.

:08:57.:08:58.

All written by a former member of MI6.

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This is Christopher Steele,

:09:06.:09:14.

used to a low profile but now at the centre of controversy.

:09:15.:09:17.

He is supposed to have told neighbours to look after

:09:18.:09:20.

his cats and he is said to be lying low, fearing for his safety.

:09:21.:09:24.

What do we know about Christopher Steele?

:09:25.:09:25.

In the nineties he worked for MI6 in Moscow.

:09:26.:09:35.

He founded a private intelligence company called Orbis.

:09:36.:09:41.

Last year he was commissioned by Trump's

:09:42.:09:46.

opponents to look into Russian connections.

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He came up with 35 pages of allegations.

:09:52.:09:57.

There is no sign of Chris Steele. He is a man with contacts in Moscow.

:09:58.:10:03.

But so far there has been no confirmation that the

:10:04.:10:05.

extraordinary allegations he dug up there are definitely true.

:10:06.:10:08.

Thanks to his past as a spy, Steele is unlikely to have

:10:09.:10:12.

been able to travel to Moscow himself

:10:13.:10:19.

and will have relied on intermediaries

:10:20.:10:21.

Moscow's a difficult place to work in.

:10:22.:10:29.

The ruckses have a habit, of secrecy and deception.

:10:30.:10:36.

The other complicating factor is money.

:10:37.:10:38.

If you're going to give somebody money to tell you

:10:39.:10:40.

something, there is a strong possibility they will tell you

:10:41.:10:43.

Alexander Litvinenko, a former Russian agent

:10:44.:10:46.

who fled to London, investigated powerful

:10:47.:10:47.

figures in Moscow and was killed

:10:48.:10:49.

It is alleged, on the orders of the Kremlin. His widow told me that such

:10:50.:10:59.

allegations carry risks. I believe it is dangerous,

:11:00.:11:00.

particularly after the death of my husband, because when you just

:11:01.:11:03.

approach specific information, particularly when this

:11:04.:11:05.

information very close might be in this line and you just

:11:06.:11:06.

easily might be killed. The Russian dossier

:11:07.:11:12.

was not written But American spies have briefed

:11:13.:11:13.

its outlines to man it is about, Its author never expected

:11:14.:11:27.

to be in the spotlight. But in the atmosphere

:11:28.:11:30.

of American politics secrets are no longer

:11:31.:11:34.

The attitude of the President-elect to the Nato alliance will be watched

:11:35.:11:46.

around the world. Especially if he departs from current US policy.

:11:47.:11:49.

Thousands of American troops, tanks, and armoured vehicles

:11:50.:11:51.

in the biggest such operation Nato's eastern frontier

:11:52.:11:55.

by the US since the end of the Cold War.

:11:56.:11:57.

These American military reinforcements in Europe are part

:11:58.:11:59.

of President Barack Obama's response to reassure Nato allies

:12:00.:12:01.

who are concerned about a more aggressive Russia.

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Within the next few days, our soldiers will be showcasing their

:12:09.:12:15.

lethal abilities as they begin to train on the bygone ranges. To

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arrive at this point so swiftly as proof that, when we work as a team,

:12:21.:12:25.

not only within the ranks of our tireless US Army but also as allied

:12:26.:12:32.

nations, a team of teams, no challenges to to overcome, no

:12:33.:12:35.

distance is too far to cross when the need arises.

:12:36.:12:37.

Russia has called the presence of American tanks and troops

:12:38.:12:39.

in Poland as a threat to national security.

:12:40.:12:41.

The Russian Foreign Ministry spokesperson described

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TRANSLATION: It is always the goal of these efforts of hasty deployment

:12:44.:12:56.

of military assets in Europe is an attempt of the outgoing Obama

:12:57.:12:59.

Administration to complicate as much as possible the bilateral relations

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and make the new American administration a hostage of

:13:04.:13:08.

continuous to put it mildly unfriendly policy towards Russia.

:13:09.:13:14.

Now a look at some of the day's other news.

:13:15.:13:16.

Shares in the Italian-American car-maker, Fiat Chrysler,

:13:17.:13:18.

fell by over 15% after the US authorities said

:13:19.:13:20.

They said Fiat Chrysler used software that allowed

:13:21.:13:23.

excess diesel emissions in over 100,000 vehicles.

:13:24.:13:25.

The company's boss has denied the allegations,

:13:26.:13:33.

The first aircraft Iran has bought directly from a western manufacturer

:13:34.:13:35.

The arrival of the Airbus plane is being seen as symbolic

:13:36.:13:41.

of Iran's emergence from decades of economic

:13:42.:13:43.

isolation, after economic sanctions were lifted.

:13:44.:13:45.

There's been a call in the British Parliament

:13:46.:13:47.

for a suspension of the sale of UK-made weapons to Saudi Arabia.

:13:48.:13:50.

The chairman of the Committees on Arms Export Controls said

:13:51.:13:53.

the sales should stop until the UN can investigate alleged breaches

:13:54.:13:55.

of humanitarian law by Saudi forces in the war in Yemen.

:13:56.:14:06.

from Donald Trump's press conference yesterday.

:14:07.:14:10.

It was his first in several months,

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and the first since he became president-elect.

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He had an exchange with CNN correspondent and would not allow

:14:18.:14:26.

him to ask a question. Go ahead, not you, not you, your organisation

:14:27.:14:33.

is... Can I just asked the question, so? Go-ahead. Don't be rude. Don't

:14:34.:14:43.

be rude. Can you give us a question? You're not getting a question. You

:14:44.:14:51.

are fake news. Donald Trump in that press conference yesterday.

:14:52.:14:53.

Someone who's covered a few presidencies in his time,

:14:54.:14:55.

and seen more than a few press conferences, is the White House

:14:56.:14:58.

correspondent for the National Journal, George Condon.

:14:59.:15:00.

He joins me now from our Washington studio.

:15:01.:15:02.

What did you make of yesterday, first of all Which? That was a great

:15:03.:15:11.

start. It is going to be a wonderful relationship. We have a lot of work

:15:12.:15:17.

to do. How damaging and incredible is it, really, that Donald Trump is

:15:18.:15:22.

taking on established broadcasters, for example? It is not knew that a

:15:23.:15:28.

president or President-elect doesn't like his coverage. That goes back to

:15:29.:15:36.

George Washington. But there is a personal element to it this time,

:15:37.:15:42.

and a lack of institutional knowledge of how the system is

:15:43.:15:46.

supposed to work that makes it particularly troubling. In terms of

:15:47.:15:50.

the way that covering the White House works, there is a White House

:15:51.:15:56.

court, a lobby group, is that going to happen under the Trump leadership

:15:57.:16:02.

because that has all -- always been about the close scrutiny of the

:16:03.:16:08.

president. We have what the House correspondents Association and

:16:09.:16:10.

former than 100 years we have been the group that deals with the White

:16:11.:16:15.

House on press relations. Can a president totally ignore us and try

:16:16.:16:20.

to crack down? Sure. He's a president. But the presidents who

:16:21.:16:26.

have tried that have all, without exception, come to regret it.

:16:27.:16:32.

Whether they think that all they need is Twitter and 140 characters

:16:33.:16:37.

to communicate American policy, they soon discover that they do need what

:16:38.:16:47.

has been called the dishonest establishment. Is it true that there

:16:48.:16:51.

has been some unhealthy collaboration? In many countries,

:16:52.:16:58.

those at the top of journalism, politics and business, where people

:16:59.:17:02.

outside might think that, actually, that system should be smashed apart.

:17:03.:17:08.

The people who say that frankly don't have the faintest idea what

:17:09.:17:12.

they are talking about. Our system is built on the foundation that you

:17:13.:17:20.

question government, you question power, and the people who do that

:17:21.:17:28.

questioning day in and day out, 24 hours a day is the press corps that

:17:29.:17:34.

follows the president, that knows the policy. That doesn't mean you

:17:35.:17:38.

cant have other questioners and other communication devices. Every

:17:39.:17:43.

president looked for different ways of doing it. But you still need that

:17:44.:17:49.

questioning. You cannot do away with the daily press briefing, for

:17:50.:17:52.

example and vigour that you are too powerful to be questioned. That is

:17:53.:17:59.

not the American system. -- and figure that you are to par four.

:18:00.:18:03.

Killer whales and humans are two of only three species

:18:04.:18:07.

Now, a 40-year study of a population of orcas is helping researchers

:18:08.:18:13.

understand why any species, including us, might have evolved

:18:14.:18:15.

to stop having babies at a certain point in life.

:18:16.:18:18.

Here's our science reporter, Victoria Gill.

:18:19.:18:22.

These researchers have been documenting

:18:23.:18:29.

the lives of killer whales here for four decades.

:18:30.:18:31.

Their findings have revealed new insight into something we humans

:18:32.:18:37.

share with a mammal so very different from us.

:18:38.:18:39.

Orcas and humans are two of only three mammals on the planet

:18:40.:18:48.

which stop reproducing part way through our lives.

:18:49.:18:52.

This 40 year study of killer whales has already

:18:53.:18:54.

shown grandmothers play a crucial role, leading the pod

:18:55.:18:56.

Scientists have now used this unique dataset, which has

:18:57.:19:08.

recorded births and deaths in every orca family here,

:19:09.:19:11.

here, to prove that when

:19:12.:19:12.

grandmothers stop having babies of their own, their daughter's

:19:13.:19:14.

offspring have a significantly higher chance of survival.

:19:15.:19:16.

The benefits of grandmothering are not enough

:19:17.:19:18.

to explain why human menopause has evolved.

:19:19.:19:19.

It's only when you consider the conflict and

:19:20.:19:21.

competition in the family group you can understand

:19:22.:19:23.

and explain why menopause has evolved.

:19:24.:19:28.

Avoiding this so-called reproductive conflict between

:19:29.:19:30.

the generations seems to give the babies the best possible chance.

:19:31.:19:33.

It would be really interesting to see just how

:19:34.:19:36.

That is something which could finally

:19:37.:19:38.

explain the evolutionary story of human menopause.

:19:39.:19:46.

Like us, these highly intelligent, now endangered animals,

:19:47.:19:49.

have close family bonds and this long observation of killer whale

:19:50.:19:54.

society could change our perspective on our own.

:19:55.:19:58.

The European Parliament has raised the issue

:19:59.:20:03.

of whether to give robots legal status as "electronic persons".

:20:04.:20:09.

Some of them take inspiration and robots should interact.

:20:10.:20:13.

from the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.

:20:14.:20:14.

Today's report says that robots could eventually

:20:15.:20:16.

become so intelligent, that they could challenge

:20:17.:20:18.

humanity's capacity to be in charge of its own destiny.

:20:19.:20:20.

Jennifer Neville is Associate Professor of Computer Science

:20:21.:20:24.

and Statistics at Purdue University and joins me live from Indiana.

:20:25.:20:28.

Thank you for joining us. Goodness knows what it must be like to think

:20:29.:20:40.

of a robot that is much smarter than humans. What are the challenges that

:20:41.:20:47.

people are worried about? To focus on robots is a little narrower at

:20:48.:20:54.

this point. We should be focused on general, autonomous AI systems that

:20:55.:20:58.

are being rolled out in a great aspect of our lives right now, from

:20:59.:21:02.

how we read information online to treatments developed for us when we

:21:03.:21:06.

go to the doctor, and things like that. There are two primary concern

:21:07.:21:12.

is that people are concerned about, fairness and safety. From a fairness

:21:13.:21:18.

perspective, what that means is we want these systems to treat

:21:19.:21:22.

everybody equally and fairly, but the systems themselves learn from

:21:23.:21:33.

data in the world of algorithms and human bias is reflected in that

:21:34.:21:40.

data, so what is on online and on Twitter is not always the truth and

:21:41.:21:43.

reflects individual buyers. If you look at data about arrest and

:21:44.:21:48.

sentencing that owns in judicial systems, that is going to reflect

:21:49.:21:55.

the inherent bias of police officers, judges and lawyers in the

:21:56.:22:00.

system, and so, when the systems are trained on data that has bias in it,

:22:01.:22:04.

it's inevitable that that buyers will show up in the systems later on

:22:05.:22:11.

and to be able to adjust for that's algorithmically, to ensure that the

:22:12.:22:13.

systems make the kind of decisions we would like them to, is a really

:22:14.:22:18.

important concern right now in the research. The ideal of electronic

:22:19.:22:24.

persons, we've heard about people having robots in the home and

:22:25.:22:31.

everything in the home being electronic and feeding data back

:22:32.:22:35.

into bigger systems, so what is it that people are most concerned

:22:36.:22:38.

about? Can you give as practical examples? Is an example, you could

:22:39.:22:48.

think of a personal assistant with AI, not an actual robot but

:22:49.:22:55.

something like Siri or an online system that is gathering information

:22:56.:22:58.

and presenting it to you to read everyday. We have already seen the

:22:59.:23:03.

impact that fake news can have on our political process, so one

:23:04.:23:10.

concern would be if a system is deciding what information to give

:23:11.:23:13.

you in order to help improve your life, the system could also be

:23:14.:23:20.

guiding the information that you see in that system to make you behave in

:23:21.:23:29.

ways that it wants to. So, if the AI system taking over the world could

:23:30.:23:34.

do it much more suddenly just by propaganda... We're out of time.

:23:35.:23:37.

Thank you so much for filling us in. The romantic musical comedy

:23:38.:23:40.

La La Land has already won seven Golden Globe awards

:23:41.:23:43.

and 11 Bafta nominations. Our Arts editor Will Gompertz has

:23:44.:23:45.

spoken to the film's writer # Are you

:23:46.:23:47.

shining just for me? Welcome to La La Land,

:23:48.:23:56.

the Hollywood musical starring Anna Stone and Ryan Gosling

:23:57.:24:01.

which looks like it's going to sing It is a genre of

:24:02.:24:04.

film-making which its 31-year-old director

:24:05.:24:13.

thinks is unfairly derided I don't think musicals

:24:14.:24:15.

are this outdated thing They're also not just a purely

:24:16.:24:18.

fantastical thing that people I think musicals can

:24:19.:24:25.

say a greal deal about real life and human

:24:26.:24:36.

emotions and humanity # Here's to the ones who dream

:24:37.:24:38.

And the need for dreams. From a writer and a director's point

:24:39.:24:47.

of view, what can you do any song

:24:48.:24:55.

that you can't do in a script? I think of a song in a musical

:24:56.:24:59.

as a reflection of It is feelings that can't be

:25:00.:25:02.

described in dialogue It is feelings that

:25:03.:25:19.

need the outlet of a song. We had about a 3-4 month rehearsal

:25:20.:25:26.

period of Prep where everyday Ryan and Emma were in dance lessons,

:25:27.:25:29.

singing lessons, piano lessons. I think it's also kind of fun,

:25:30.:25:34.

if you're going to work with movie stars, put them outside

:25:35.:25:37.

their comfort zone, Damien Chisell is not yet

:25:38.:25:39.

32 but already being lauded and applauded

:25:40.:25:49.

for his talents, he is a young director

:25:50.:25:51.

living La La Land's dream. That's all from the team here for

:25:52.:26:01.

now. Goodbye. Good evening. Lots of very

:26:02.:26:14.

unpleasant weather around, around the country. A wash-out in the south

:26:15.:26:17.

with some of their brain now turning to snow. The risk of ice in many

:26:18.:26:22.

parts of the UK. Further snow showers expected

:26:23.:26:23.

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