Episode 15 The Culture Show


Episode 15

The Culture Show comes from the Gothic mansion Two Temple Place as it opens its doors for the first time. Miranda Sawyer meets film director David Lynch.


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collections. Also: Mark Kermode speaks to artist Steve McQueen

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about his second feature film. John Mullan meets the his son of

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Alexander Solzhenitsyn to talk about his father's extraordinary

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literary work. And Aleks Krotoski speaks to

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Wikipedia foundered Jimmy Wales about the freedom of ideas and his

:01:08.:01:16.

vision for the future. Now we have seen the Arab Spring, I think we

:01:16.:01:23.

The eclectic buildings competing for the heritage at risk award.

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Michael Smith travelled to Birmingham in search of its

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cultural soul. And I will be venturing slightly

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further afield for a photographic exhibition of Captain Scott and his

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First, a trip into the musical mind of poly math David Lynch. Not

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content with being a painter, guru of transcendental meditation, Lynch

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is back this time as a musician. Miranda Sawyer went to Paris to

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meet him and to find out if there's anything the bequiffed one can't

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turn his hand to. No filmmaker embraces the magical

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qualities of music quite like David Lynch. From the queasy shimmering

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title track of Twin Peaks, to the nightmarish lounge music of his

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recent film Inland Empire. His sounds are just as memorable as the

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And now you can give your own life a lynchian sound track for the man

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himself has released his first ever solo MP. It may have been five

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years since he last released a film, but he's found a multitude of

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creative territories to colonise. All of which begs a question, is it

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possible to hop from genre to genre and still be brilliant at

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everything?! We are here to talk about your

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music. We are actually in a very beautiful printing studios. Why are

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we here? We are here because I'm making prints in this beautiful

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space. Presses here in this room have been used by Picasso. There's

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so much of the past that you can feel when you come in. If you think

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about all the different things you do - you do painting, make films,

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animation, you print, make music - how does music fit in with that? Is

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it the most important element or is it an element? It's an element

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which is a beautiful element and each medium is infinitely deep. So

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once you start, then you can just keep going. It doesn't end. It just

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keeps going. It's just one thrill after another.

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Can I talk to you about some of the tracks on the album? Yes, you may.

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The obvious one to start with is GoodDay Today. It's not about

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something having a great day is it? No, it's a desire for a good day.

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# I want to have a good day today # Good day today... #

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The atmosphere is slightly dark and creepy in certain elements. There

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is a song which mentions maybe a bit of stalking. Is that the mood

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that you have when you make it or, does it just come out like that

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one where you talk about stalking is like the feel of that thing came

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about because that particular night, the guitar just had a different

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sound. It was incredible. I barely touched this thing and it just

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started singing. And I really like some of these little notes and the

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way it is in there. Then it's called Speed Roadster. The guitar

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started sounding like a roadster and gave birth to the lyrics.

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call your phone # You weren't talking

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# I kissed your face # Sort of soft... # Even if lyrics

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come, it's kind of an intuitive thing. It's not even... They just

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start coming, you know, it's like where do they come from, you don't

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know, they just come in, like a visitor and you want to make give

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the lyrics some coffee, I don't know. It makious very happy when

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they come visit. You grew up around the birth of pop music. The birth

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of rock'n'roll, they didn't call it pop. There were pops kls, but there

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was no pop music -- popsicle. All of a sudden, everything changed. I

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just remember being like thrilled beyond the beyond that this music

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is talking to you in a great, great, # I went down to the football game

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# I went down to the football game... #

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Also, you said in the past that pop music, I'm using the word pop music,

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I mean good music as well as bad. Sure. It's something that inspired

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you, would you ever hear a piece of music and think, I need a film to

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go with that, do you start with the music to go with the film? Yes,

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Blue Velvet was that, Bobby Vincent's song came out in 61 or 62.

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When I heard it then it wasn't rocking my boat. But, later I heard

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it and, for some reason, hearing it - I've said it a bunch of times - I

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see red lips, night, green lawns going into dark and a car. It just

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started making a dream that led to all these ideas coming for Blue

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Velvet. # She work blue velvet # Bluer than velvet was the night

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# Softer than satin was the light... There's a lot, often in your films

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of kind of performance. There's a point where there is a performance,

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where you see quite often theatre curtains opening and something

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happening. I was wondering how you yourself were thinking of

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performing your album? I won't be performing my album.

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boo! Yeah. But I would love... I've only done one thing on stage, but

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for some reason, I love the stage, I love curtains, I love the idea of

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curtains opening, because it seems like we get to go into another

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world. Curtains hide something. Then when they open, if it's dark,

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and we are moving in, it's just like about kills me it's so

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beautiful. Do you ever lose your confidence? Erm, it's not a

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question of confidence. It's ideas. So you say like sometimes writers

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they say have writer block. The ideas are not coming. That, for me,

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is the main reason, well not the main reason, but a very huge reason

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why I meditate. The ideas flow more freely. It's this negativity that

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kills the flow. It's just the squeezing of the tube. The little

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ideas can't get through. They want to help you. Poor ideas! Yes. But

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then whoa, they just flow through like these beautiful little fish

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and they come in and you catch them. So confidence is nothing to do with

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it? No. No. And David Lynch's new album Crazy Clown Time is released

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on November 8th. To a literary great now, this week sees the

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launch of a book by a man whose life story was every bit as

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remarkable as any novel. We sent Professor of English, John Mullan

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to investigate the latest work by this Russian master.

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He was known as the conscience of Russia, but Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

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was also one of the greatest writers of modern times. And he

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hainged history by exposing the horrors of the sta inist regime --

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changed history by exposing the horrors of the Stalinist regime.

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Solzhenitsyn's books couldn't be printed in the Soviet Union, but

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were read eagerly outside his land. He made his name with his 1962

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novel, one die in the life of Ivan Solzhenitsyn's writing brought him

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worldwide critical acclaim, and in 1970, he was awarded the Nobel

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Prize for Literature. But the political climate had changed and

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he had already been silenced in his own land.

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In 1973, the KGB seized his manuscript of the Gulag archipelago,

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his painstaking searing history of the Soviet system of political

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imprisonment. He was denounced as a traitor in his own country. A year

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later, he was stripped of his citizenship and De ported to the

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west. He spent 20 years in exile, living as a virtual recluse.

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After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Solzhenitsyn made an epic

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journey back to Russia to a here row's welcome. - hero's welcome. It

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was here he stayed until his death. It's now been three years since

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Solzhenitsyn died and a collection of his short stories, Apricot Jam,

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already known in Russia, has finally been published for an

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English-speaking audience. Supper for the reserve regiment was

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served at six in the evening, even though lights out did not come

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until ten. Someone had correctly figured that the men would get by

:12:18.:12:28.
:12:28.:12:28.

without any more food that way and would sleep through until morning.

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Stephan, you're Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's son but the

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translator also of one of the stories in this new collection. Was

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that an emotional commitment, as well as a demanding literary job?

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It is both. It is of course both. The care you need to put into it,

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the emotional investment is of course much greater. I had a very

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big advantage. If I didn't understand something or if I wanted

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to ask about a nuance, I could just go ask dad. I could say what

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exactly does this mean or is it more like this or is it more like

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that, you know, we could discuss it. Usually translators never get that

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level of access, so I was very luck write there. Must have been

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particularly demanding with your father's fiction as well, because

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language mattered very much to him and the pressures that language was

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put under, especially under the Soviet system? He was a master of

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language and a lover of language. A lover of the Russian language,

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absolutely. Translation is tough, translation of Solzhenitsyn is even

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tougher because it's like digesting extremely nutritious very, very

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robust porridge, right, there's a lot to work through. It's very good

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:13:54.:13:56.

stuff. Now this, he said, dripping some of the thick apricot jam on to

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a spoon, this very amber transparency, this surprising

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colour and light should be present in the literary language as well.

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And indeed, every singsle apricot lay like a condensed fragment of

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:14:20.:14:20.

sun light in a crystal ball. What's distinctive about these stories,

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this new collection? They form a body of work that you could not

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have written without his return to Russia. He didn't sense it possible

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:14:40.:14:42.

to actually write them living in the West. He needed to be fed off

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the Russians. Things seemed to be rooted in his memory of experiences.

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For instance, two wartime stories, actually? Absolutely. Detail was so

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important for him and the detailed diaries of the war he kept were

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burned immediately upon his arrest in 1945. He said that basically

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it's like his memory of the war was killed with him. The details were

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not crisp enough in his memory until he actually met some of his

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mates from his unit who helped fill in some of the key details that

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inspired him to return to the military theme. So in this little

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volume, about half of what he ever wrote about World War II, is all

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In the dim light, the lieutenant scans the faces of his fighting men.

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Their expressions were gloomy, complex, biting their lips, eyes

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down, to the side, but outright repentance? No. He did not see that

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on any of their faces. What is this coming to? If we go stealing

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government property, how are we going to win the wall? Dark and

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impenetrable they stood, yet this is with whom we march, to victory

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or defeat. What would you say now to those readers who might say that

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the terrible history that made your father has gone and that his

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writing belongs with the history that has gone? I would say they

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have got it a bit wrong. He was a writer and therefore he will always

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come to be understood as a writer. That means that generations will

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continue to read him and what exactly happened in one year or

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another year won't matter so much. The power off his literature,

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however, will matter. In this new collection, Solzhenitsyn's fierce

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and prophetic voice comes to us from beyond the grave, telling us

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again about the dark history of his times. This history may now not

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matter so much to us in the West. These stories tell us that it

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should. And Apricot Jam and Other Stories

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is published by Canongate on November 3rd. While we're on books,

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World Book Night announced the list of 25 books to be handed out in

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April next year. You can check that out on their website. But now from

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the storytellers of the past to a vision of the future, as Wookey

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feed -- Wikipedia found a Jimmy Wales tells Aleks Krotoski waif he

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thinks the internet will continue to change our lights.

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One man's vision of how we access and edit information online has

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become a global phenomenon. He grew up in Huntsville, Alabama, deep in

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the American South, and for years he wrote computer code in his spare

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time before quitting his job in finance to become a full-time

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internet entrepreneur. His name is Jimmy Wales. His creation:

:18:13.:18:23.
:18:23.:18:26.

Wikipedia. Wikipedia has 20 million articles available in 222 languages,

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with 422 million people visiting the website each month, so it seems

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fitting that Jimmy Wales will be the keynote speaker at this year's

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Free-Thinking Festival, which celebrates ideas. The topics for

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2011 is changed. The festival is taking place at the Sage Gateshead,

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a suitably futuristic looking crucible for new and innovative

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ideas. We have seen so much change that has been attributed to the Web

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recently. What do you think the next change is that would involve?

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I think there are some exciting things coming. Two billion people

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online and in the next five to ten years, maybe another two billion

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people will come online and they are not coming from Europe, Japan,

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the US, they are coming from China and India, even Africa. That is

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driving a huge upsurge in the number of people connected,

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particularly in the cities. Because people sure what is interesting,

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all kinds of cool cultural influences will be flowing back and

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forth. I think it will be really big. What do you imagine will

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change when it is not just the people in the urban areas, when

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they truly engage with the Web? think a lot of things will happen,

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particularly the country's currently that have really dreadful

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governments, whether people have had not much hope of positive

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change and they will begin to see what has gone on in other places

:20:03.:20:08.

around the world and to realise that actually, we don't have to put

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up with collector crackeds any more, we don't need to have a strong man

:20:13.:20:22.

system of government -- with clipped opera. What do you imagine

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will happen, not just when everybody else has access but after

:20:25.:20:29.

they have had access for a while and their influences come back on

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us? What will happen? It is really interesting. I think China is one

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of my favourite examples. When Liu Xiaobo won the Nobel Peace Prize

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from China and China it refused to let him travel to receive the award,

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they put an empty chair on the stage to symbolise that he had not

:20:47.:20:52.

been allowed to come to receive the award and all across China, any

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mention of his name automatically gets the page filtered, so people

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were changing their profile picture, maybe not to the real empty chair

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but to any empty chair just to show, this is ridiculous, I know about

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this, right? When you get a group of people like this who are

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beginning to feel their own strength in those subtle ways, it

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is only a matter of time before they go, you guys at the top are

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part of the problem and we are going to have massive protests, we

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are going to change China. Jimmy's belief in the power of technology

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to help create positive change can be traced back to his childhood.

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The area he is from was a rural backwater until NASA moved in in

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the early 1960s. # Sweet Home Alabama #.

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The place where you grew up, Huntsville Alabama, also known as

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Rocket City. That is cool. How much of that experience contributed to

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your creating technology? Absolutely a lot. Certainly, I have

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memories from being a child of windows rattling as they were

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testing the rockets and you knew what they were working on, going to

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the moon. Amazing. There was a sense of optimism. Technology

:22:26.:22:30.

changing the world for the better. That spirit I think is implicit on

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all of my work, it is who I am and where I came from. The idea of the

:22:36.:22:42.

internet as a force for positive change, it is the real "beauty is

:22:42.:22:46.

in the eye of the beholder" statement. There are limitations to

:22:47.:22:52.

that? I don't think so. For me it is almost completely overwhelmingly

:22:52.:22:57.

obvious that it is a tool for change. I was in Taiwan, and one of

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the local Wikipedia volunteers offered to drive me around and he

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said he was raised in a very nationalist household and that they

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really hated mainland Communist China and he had been raised to

:23:09.:23:12.

believe that the mainland Chinese were completely brainwashed and

:23:12.:23:16.

then he said he started working at Wikipedia and he said, I still

:23:16.:23:20.

think they are wrong at certain things but I can see that a kind of

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have a point. You see that sort of thing, helpful in reducing tensions,

:23:25.:23:31.

in reducing the ability of militias politicians working people into a

:23:31.:23:36.

frenzy to go and fight someone. Every war in the entire world

:23:36.:23:39.

becomes in a sense of civil war because we have all become closer

:23:39.:23:44.

to each other. I see this Utopian visions stretching ahead of us. I

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am thrilled people are like you in the world who think the internet

:23:48.:23:53.

will bring us all a global group hug but I do not see that happening.

:23:53.:23:58.

I am not a Utopian, I am a very optimistic person but I think that

:23:58.:24:06.

none of these things happen automatically. Nothing about

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technology in a tacit -- necessitates certain outcomes but

:24:09.:24:13.

there is a great opportunity for minimising war, having a lot less

:24:13.:24:19.

of it. I am an optimist! Thank you very much, Jimmy. Thank you for

:24:19.:24:23.

having me. And Jimmy Wales will be delivering

:24:23.:24:26.

his keynote speech on change at The Sage Gateshead next Friday, which

:24:26.:24:33.

will be broadcast on BBC Radio 3. Still to come, we have brilliant

:24:33.:24:37.

photographic records of the Scott- Shackleton polar expeditions,

:24:37.:24:42.

Michael Smith's search for the cultural high as a Birmingham and

:24:42.:24:47.

Mark Kermode's journey to the sad truths of sex addiction in the new

:24:47.:24:51.

film, Shame. But first it is all about repairing the damage and the

:24:51.:24:56.

final category of the Heritage Angel Awards. This week Simon

:24:56.:25:01.

Thurley looks at the four eclectic buildings competing inherited at

:25:01.:25:06.

risk award category. Not many people today would

:25:06.:25:11.

consider a cemetery a fashionable place to go, but in its heyday

:25:11.:25:14.

Arnos Vale Cemetery in Bristol was the fashionable place to be seen.

:25:14.:25:20.

It was also the fashionable place to be buried. The huge fortify they

:25:20.:25:25.

get necropolis was opened in 1839, just two years after Queen Victoria

:25:25.:25:31.

came to the throne -- 45 acre. It is not surprising it was dubbed a

:25:31.:25:38.

necropolis. Over 300,000 people were buried here, from mayors,

:25:38.:25:42.

industrialists to railway workers, but that is what makes this place

:25:42.:25:48.

so special. It contains a complete cross-section of Victorian society.

:25:48.:25:52.

When, in the 1990s, the private owners announced that they intended

:25:52.:25:57.

to close Arnos Vale Cemetery and build 400 new houses on the site,

:25:57.:26:02.

locals rallied round and petitioned to the council. The plan was to

:26:02.:26:06.

remove the monumental masonry and to do mass exhumation.

:26:06.:26:12.

dreadful! It was dreadful. At that time my father had passed away and

:26:12.:26:17.

he was buried here and there was no way I was going to let that happen.

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And your husband Richard has sadly subsequently died. Yes, he's still

:26:21.:26:27.

here, yes. All that energy you have put into here and your husband's

:26:28.:26:33.

devotion to it, this place must mean a great deal to you. Yes, it

:26:33.:26:38.

always has. Sometimes it is hard to come here on my own. But there is

:26:38.:26:48.
:26:48.:26:50.

no way I will not come because my Victorian memorials to the dead

:26:50.:26:56.

come in many shapes and sizes. Nestling in the picturesque village

:26:56.:26:59.

of the Staffordshire peaks is one man's memorial to his dearly

:26:59.:27:09.
:27:09.:27:09.

beloved wife. The I'm a memorial cross was built in 1841 by a

:27:09.:27:13.

wealthy industrialist, J C Watts Russell, in memory of his wife who

:27:13.:27:19.

died suddenly aged just 48. Years of weathering saw the cross fall

:27:19.:27:25.

into serious disrepair and the job of restoring it fell to Ian Ward, a

:27:25.:27:29.

master mason on the regeneration project. Some of the figures were

:27:29.:27:35.

very badly eroded so they were re- card. There were six Angel figures

:27:35.:27:40.

and they are all slightly different, they have a melancholy quality,

:27:40.:27:45.

especially in their distress sway. Absolutely beautiful things. They

:27:45.:27:54.

are like guardian angels watching over the village. The third

:27:54.:28:00.

building competing for the award is the deconsecrated church of St

:28:00.:28:07.

Stephen's, Rosslyn Hill, in London's leafy Hampstead. It is

:28:07.:28:13.

architect -- the architect's masterpiece and is often referred

:28:13.:28:19.

to as his mighty jet. And no wonder. It was his most expensive

:28:19.:28:25.

Commission -- is mighty church. It cost �27,000, an astronomical sum

:28:25.:28:35.
:28:35.:28:38.

in 1869. Toulan, he was a rogue, a group of Victorian architects who

:28:38.:28:46.

tore up the rule book, who mixed and matched their starts. We have

:28:46.:28:52.

both Fantine brickwork, French Gothic, English Gothic and

:28:52.:28:57.

Renaissance thrown in for good measure -- by Santino. I think it

:28:57.:29:01.

is like a Ragnar, you'll love it or you hate it, and we fell in love

:29:01.:29:08.

with it. It had been derelict for 20 years. The floor was a rotting

:29:08.:29:13.

in places. It looked like the black hole of Calcutta. There was 60 tons

:29:13.:29:21.

of garbage from squatters. Thanks to Michael Taylor and his wife, the

:29:21.:29:24.

head of a small prep school attached to the church, St

:29:24.:29:28.

Stephen's has been given a new lease of life. Most of the schemes

:29:28.:29:32.

that had been put forward over the 20 years of dereliction wanted to

:29:32.:29:36.

make large structural intrusion into the main body of the building.

:29:36.:29:40.

We came up with the idea of extending the existing undercroft

:29:40.:29:44.

so that another branch of the school could move into it and that

:29:44.:29:47.

has left the main body of the building as you see it in all its

:29:47.:29:51.

former glory. I know the local community, many of whom have given

:29:52.:29:56.

money, are very pleased with what we have done. I am told by people

:29:56.:30:01.

who pass by in the street, Mr Taylor, isn't it wonderful to see

:30:01.:30:11.
:30:11.:30:11.

the children bringing life back to The final building on the short

:30:12.:30:15.

list is the Dome Cinema in the Sussex coastal town of Worthing

:30:15.:30:21.

which has hardly changed since it was built in 1911 as a plush

:30:21.:30:27.

picture palace. It was very glamorous. People would

:30:27.:30:31.

have entered through the double doors, having bought their tickets

:30:31.:30:36.

at this wonderful pay kiosk, swept up the Titanic staircase and down

:30:36.:30:40.

into the auditorium and it was so romantic. People loved that, you

:30:40.:30:45.

know, the fact that they were sitting in this wonderful dark

:30:45.:30:50.

auditorium with this marvellous magical atmosphere watching a film

:30:50.:30:53.

which was accompanied by an orchestra.

:30:53.:30:56.

We had queues all around the building for the Big Philments we

:30:56.:31:01.

managed to get. Every house was packed up. You just couldn't get in,

:31:01.:31:06.

because the films were in quite short supply in England just after

:31:06.:31:09.

the war. John Whittington was a teenager when he started working at

:31:09.:31:15.

the Worthing Dome in 1945 as a projectionist. If the film broke,

:31:15.:31:20.

the audience used to bring alarm clocks and let them off, and apart

:31:20.:31:24.

from the shouting and that, you could hear all the alarm clocks

:31:24.:31:27.

going off. That was quite fun, really.

:31:27.:31:31.

Not for us, because we were trying to fix the film, but it was good

:31:31.:31:37.

fun. Next week, we'll reveal who all the

:31:37.:31:41.

winners are at the Heritage Angel Award z ceremony in London. But

:31:41.:31:47.

next tonight, it's been 100 years since Captain Scott ice ill-fated

:31:47.:31:51.

expedition to the Antarctic. To mark that centenary, there's a new

:31:51.:31:53.

photographic exhibition at the Queen's Gallery charting his

:31:53.:31:57.

exploits and those of the slightly later polar explorer Ernest

:31:57.:32:02.

Shackleton. I met up with modern explorer Sir Ranulph Fiennes to try

:32:02.:32:07.

to understand the unswerving pioneering spirit that drove those

:32:07.:32:17.
:32:17.:32:26.

It can be easy to forget that there was once a world the ends of which

:32:26.:32:32.

were undiscovered, untouched by the cloud of technology and endeavour,

:32:32.:32:38.

tantalisingly unglimpsed by mankind. That was the world that men like

:32:38.:32:42.

Robert falcon-Scott and Ernest Shackleton set out to conquer. Now,

:32:42.:32:46.

it might almost seek lick stating the obvious to say that the poles

:32:46.:32:50.

of the earth can be traversed, of course we can do it. Those extremes

:32:50.:32:55.

can be withstood. We've got maps, GPS, we know it can be done. But,

:32:55.:33:05.

100 years ago, that was far less certain.

:33:05.:33:09.

It's thanks to photographers Herbert Ponting who accompanied

:33:09.:33:11.

Scott and Frank Hurley who travelled with Shackleton that

:33:11.:33:16.

proof of these explorations exist. They brought these images back from

:33:16.:33:21.

the edge of the world. Finding an uncanny grandeur and forms like

:33:21.:33:25.

abstract sculpture many the Antarctic's ice scape. But they're

:33:25.:33:29.

also about a human achievement, only surpassed when man walked on

:33:29.:33:34.

the moon. Sophie, I'm amazingly struck by

:33:34.:33:38.

Frank Hurley's photographs of the Shackleton expedition, in

:33:38.:33:44.

particular this amazing sequence of pictures where he charts step by

:33:44.:33:49.

step the crashing of their boat by the ice? They're extraordinary

:33:49.:33:53.

aren't they? It really shows how determined Hurley was to capture

:33:53.:33:57.

the story of the expedition once it had gone wrong and it unfolded. He

:33:57.:34:00.

wanted to be there on the ice the whole time, so once the ship

:34:00.:34:04.

started to become crushed, he spent about three days out on the ice. He

:34:04.:34:08.

just was determined not to miss a single moment of the sequence of

:34:08.:34:12.

events as the ship slowly disappeared beneath the ice. It's

:34:12.:34:18.

grizzly, almost like a still camera version of a movie. A disaster

:34:18.:34:23.

movie. Yes, and that's what I can't get over, I suppose, the fact that

:34:23.:34:25.

it's as if he might be photographing his own death because,

:34:25.:34:30.

with the loss of the boat, things don't look very good? We come with

:34:30.:34:34.

the knowledge of what eventually happened and the fact that they all

:34:34.:34:37.

survived. Of course, Hurley and the men at that time were watching

:34:37.:34:42.

their only way home slowly disappear under the ice. It was

:34:42.:34:44.

really quite extraordinary that he had the presence of mind to be

:34:44.:34:54.
:34:54.:34:55.

there to record all of this. Am I right in thinking that, as the

:34:55.:34:59.

expedition got into deeper and deeper trouble, he had to make some

:34:59.:35:04.

very, very tough editorial decisions? He did. There was the

:35:04.:35:08.

moment when they'd taken everything off the ship and the ship had been

:35:08.:35:11.

crushed that they realised they were going to have to get into the

:35:11.:35:15.

lifeboats in order to find land. That meant they were limited in

:35:16.:35:20.

what they could take and the glass plates that Hurley was producing

:35:20.:35:24.

was incredibly heavy. From about 500 negatives he'd already made, he

:35:24.:35:28.

had to narrow it down to a selection of about 120. So, he sits

:35:28.:35:35.

there, with Shackleton, and say s yes, we'll keep that, no, we won't

:35:35.:35:42.

keep that one. The ones they decide not to keep, they smash because

:35:42.:35:45.

Hurley might have wanted to run back for them. Don't put temptation

:35:45.:35:51.

in the way? Chactly. -- exactly. It's apparent that when they are in

:35:51.:35:56.

the lifeboats and have to lose more weight in order to keep going. They

:35:56.:36:02.

make the decision to throw the food overboard in order to keep the

:36:02.:36:06.

films and the cameras, so it really shows how important they are.

:36:06.:36:09.

Looking at the photographs, it's daunting to consider the conditions

:36:09.:36:13.

Ponting and Hurley endured to take them. A man who survived the

:36:13.:36:16.

extremes is Sir Ranulph Fiennes. He talked me through the earlier

:36:16.:36:20.

doomed expedition of Captain Scott who hoped to be the first to reach

:36:20.:36:22.

the South Pole. Little did he know that another

:36:22.:36:30.

party from Norway were already on their way.

:36:31.:36:36.

When they set out from New Zealand, we met one of his stokers, Stoker

:36:36.:36:41.

Burton was his name. He was in his '80s, but he was on Scott's

:36:41.:36:45.

expedition and there he was live living in New Zealand. That is

:36:45.:36:50.

amazing. Yes, it's 70 years later, but it's within living memory.

:36:50.:36:54.

is it like travelling on a boat like that, on a sea like that,

:36:54.:37:00.

because it looks absolutely vatiginous? Ponting was stramed

:37:00.:37:04.

with his camera on the rigging which might have been sea-sick

:37:04.:37:11.

making. -- strapped with his camera. There were unpleasant days and I

:37:11.:37:14.

took a lot of pills and stuck on a lot of patches which Scott wouldn't

:37:15.:37:19.

have been able to do. That looks like a cold, harsh sea? You don't

:37:20.:37:23.

want to make mistakes with the cold. If you are on a hot desert

:37:23.:37:27.

expedition, you can learn by your mistakes. You don't learn by your

:37:27.:37:31.

mistakes. I've lost a load of fingers in that side in one three-

:37:31.:37:34.

minute mistake. You can see how much finger got lost. That was just

:37:34.:37:40.

three minutes because I travelled at a dangerous time and my sledge

:37:40.:37:44.

with all my safety gear fell in. It was minus 46, the ice was breaking

:37:44.:37:47.

up everywhere and the only way I could get the sledge back out of

:37:47.:37:51.

the sea was to put one hand in and then of course it got cold and

:37:51.:37:56.

within the three minutes, there was no life left in these fingers, so

:37:56.:38:01.

you have a nightmarish situation caused by an initial error.

:38:01.:38:05.

I find these pictures in particular quite haunting because they're

:38:05.:38:11.

taken, of course, by the explorers themselves. Yes. So we know that

:38:11.:38:16.

those plates, for those pictures, were actually recovered with their

:38:16.:38:21.

bodies. You can sense that they feel gutted that they found the

:38:21.:38:25.

tent, the flag, they realised that the Norwegians got there first. Do

:38:25.:38:29.

you think that was De moralising for them? It would have been for

:38:29.:38:32.

anybody. But it wouldn't have stopped their will to survive and

:38:32.:38:39.

to get back would have taken over their disappointment to not have

:38:39.:38:43.

gotten there first. Sadly it wasn't enough. Scott and the team were

:38:43.:38:48.

trapped by an apoll lick tick blizzard 11 miles from salvation

:38:48.:38:54.

where they eventually succumbed to the Antarctic cold. These were

:38:55.:38:59.

raised over their bodies, entombing them in the ice forever.

:38:59.:39:04.

Then it comes to the last room of all. I suppose that's the great

:39:04.:39:10.

relbic, I suppose, the flag he actually planted -- relic. It lay

:39:10.:39:14.

with the dead bodies for eight months. When they discovered the

:39:14.:39:18.

death tent, there was only about ten inches of it sticking above the

:39:18.:39:22.

snow drifts, so they'd arrived there a week later, the tent would

:39:22.:39:25.

have disappeared, the diaries, the flag, everything else and the

:39:25.:39:29.

bodies would never have been found, nobody would have known anything

:39:29.:39:34.

about what happened to the expedition. He was found with his

:39:34.:39:39.

two great friends lying dead on either side of him. They died quite

:39:39.:39:44.

a few days before he did, so he lingered on and somehow managed to

:39:44.:39:48.

write his diary until within four or five days of his death. It

:39:48.:39:58.
:39:58.:39:58.

wouldn't have been a good way to go. And that exhibition, the Heart of

:39:58.:40:04.

the great Alone opened on 2 October and continues until 22nd April next

:40:04.:40:09.

year. In a similarly intrepid spirit, we sent Michael Smythe to

:40:09.:40:12.

explore the cultural landscape of Birmingham.

:40:12.:40:19.

Recently voted the most boring city in all of Europe!

:40:19.:40:23.

Birmingham's a blank in my mind, a blind spot in the heart of Middle

:40:23.:40:28.

England. It's been voted the most boring city in Europe by trip

:40:28.:40:32.

advisor's travel website, shunned by the Lonely Planet guide books

:40:32.:40:36.

and has even lost out to Londonderry for the coveted title

:40:36.:40:41.

of City of Culture. There's a restless and unsettled quality

:40:41.:40:44.

about Birmingham, like the place has never really worked out what it

:40:44.:40:49.

is. It's a bewildering place for a visitor, it's messy, formless

:40:49.:40:53.

confusion of different styles. You get the Industrial Revolution torn

:40:53.:40:59.

down to make way for '60s brutalist high-rise and motorways. Then that

:40:59.:41:05.

failed future gets torn down to make way for this bland and sterile

:41:05.:41:08.

millennium architecture. The soul's been squeezed out of the

:41:08.:41:15.

centre of Birmingham. Even artist Gillian Wareing's new project to

:41:15.:41:18.

find a family to be the face of the city is currently being exhibited

:41:18.:41:22.

in this corporate hotel. When it's done, the bronze sculpture of the

:41:23.:41:27.

family will be plonked outside yet another new building, the generic

:41:27.:41:35.

box of the library. Bored tourists would never find it,

:41:35.:41:41.

but escape the oppressive blandness and find art hidden away in the

:41:41.:41:51.

dilapidated buildings just east of the city centre. Abandoned Curzon

:41:51.:41:54.

Street Station has been taken over by some very strange machines.

:41:54.:41:58.

The artists have responded to the space with places inspired by

:41:58.:42:03.

trains, machines and the mechanical process. Tape cassette recorders

:42:03.:42:11.

wear and clunk, machines project cosmic light and old camera lenses

:42:11.:42:14.

frame. The exhibition chimes perfectly with the industrial

:42:14.:42:22.

messiness of the city. Messiness is in Birmingham's DNA, once known as

:42:22.:42:27.

the city of a thousand trades and teamed with small scape workshops.

:42:27.:42:33.

This area was the Crucible of Birmingham where the confusion of

:42:33.:42:37.

workshops clustered. The 20th century version of this are the

:42:37.:42:41.

small artist studios gathered teeth by Jowell with the remaining

:42:41.:42:47.

industry. There's loads of art pieces tucked

:42:47.:42:51.

away here. This is a piece of graffiti commissioned by a local

:42:51.:42:56.

gallery and it's activated when you touch these two points. The sounds

:42:56.:42:59.

all come from the motorcycle repair shop next door and it's interesting

:42:59.:43:05.

to think the sounds of the city that inspired heavy metal are also

:43:05.:43:14.

inspiring works like these. The East side projects run one of the

:43:14.:43:24.
:43:24.:43:29.

bigst galleries here. It opened Brummy sausage art! So Birmingham's

:43:29.:43:34.

been voted the most boring city in Europe for a few years running. Why

:43:34.:43:37.

do you think it still has that reputation with all this going on?

:43:37.:43:41.

Well, I mean, I don't know, partly maybe if you ask a stupid question

:43:41.:43:45.

you get a stupid answer, but it's a pain in the cars that Birmingham is

:43:45.:43:49.

the stupid answer. I left Birmingham when I was a kid because

:43:49.:43:53.

I didn't think it was interesting, I thought it was boring but I moved

:43:53.:43:57.

back five years ago because I think it's something else now. What is

:43:57.:44:01.

distinctive about Birmingham's art scene? What I thought was weird

:44:01.:44:04.

about the city in a way is, it's such a massive city and never

:44:04.:44:08.

really had an art scene, so we try and learn from something like

:44:08.:44:12.

Glasgow, we've learned from scenes, scenes arise in Manchester or

:44:12.:44:18.

Newcastle. I think we can be really ambitious because it could grow in

:44:18.:44:27.

principle. The city could support a massive art scene.

:44:27.:44:33.

The creative enclave here seems in tune with the self--efacing and

:44:33.:44:36.

independent Brummy spirit. For a second city, there's always been

:44:36.:44:39.

something strangely humble about it, just quietly getting on with things

:44:39.:44:43.

and not feeling the need to shout about itself.

:44:43.:44:48.

To me, this area feels like a grass roots DIY ant dote to all that's

:44:48.:44:53.

gone wrong in the city centre. You've just got to know where to

:44:53.:45:00.

look. Hiya. Hi, you all right? Totally intriguing this project,

:45:00.:45:04.

Pigeon project. Is it a strong Brummy tradition? Yes, Birmingham

:45:04.:45:10.

and the Black Country. Within a three mile radius here, there's 45

:45:10.:45:15.

competitive pigeon flyers. Do you race them? Yes, in a local pigeon

:45:15.:45:20.

club. There's also a lot of local artists and galleries that sponsor

:45:20.:45:25.

pigeons as part of our syndicate. How do you make art with pigeons?

:45:25.:45:29.

curated an exhibition for which the pigeons carried art works from

:45:29.:45:33.

different low cases across the country in different artist studios

:45:33.:45:38.

carrying little message tunes and USB sticks with videos on and GPS

:45:38.:45:42.

systems and the pigeons clifred the art work. So the exhibition was in

:45:42.:45:47.

their pigeon lofts -- delivered the art work. Do you think Birmingham

:45:47.:45:50.

and the art scene is distinctive? Is it unusual? Yes, definitely

:45:50.:45:53.

exciting and edgy. You can do things in Birmingham that I don't

:45:53.:45:57.

think you would be able to do in other parts of the country. I could

:45:57.:46:01.

never imagine keeping pigeons under a viaduct in the centre of London.

:46:01.:46:06.

Can I see a pigeon? Yes, I'll get you one of the pile Errolers. It

:46:07.:46:16.
:46:17.:46:24.

does backflips along the floor and We are five minutes from the city

:46:24.:46:28.

centre but we may as well be in a different kettle world. It is

:46:28.:46:33.

ridiculous to say that Birmingham is the most boring city in Europe.

:46:33.:46:36.

Birmingham is boring if you are boring, but if you don't want your

:46:36.:46:40.

culture spoon-fed, if you are adventurous and wedding to go off

:46:40.:46:47.

the beaten track, it is all here and waiting for you to discover it.

:46:47.:46:52.

Now we join Alex Renton, who went to Armenia with Oxfam up to report

:46:52.:46:56.

on the food crisis, where five years ago almost a quarter of the

:46:56.:46:59.

population were undernourished, with half of that figure living on

:46:59.:47:05.

less than $2 a day. The result is a series of photographs of empty

:47:05.:47:08.

kitchens to sit alongside the shocking statistics, illustrating

:47:08.:47:18.
:47:18.:47:19.

I find kitchens moving and revealing. They can often tell you

:47:19.:47:24.

much more about the people who live in them than looking at their

:47:24.:47:28.

bookshelf or music collection can. I am a journalist, I write about

:47:28.:47:32.

development. I was keen to write about somewhere where people were

:47:33.:47:36.

newly poor and newly hungry but Armenia was particularly moving

:47:36.:47:42.

because these people, on the edge of Europe, are very easily

:47:42.:47:46.

identified with and they have gone middle class to abject poverty,

:47:46.:47:51.

African levels of poverty, in 20 years. The collapse of the Soviet

:47:51.:47:54.

Union meant subsidised wheat did not come through, climate change

:47:54.:47:58.

has made the traditional crops in these mountains harder to grow and

:47:58.:48:05.

a lot of the people are refugees who came from Azerbaijan with no

:48:05.:48:08.

skills on how to live up on the slow line and grow vegetables

:48:08.:48:14.

because they were the urban middle class. The most moving for me with

:48:14.:48:20.

these guys, the Josephians. Hasmik with her five children and her

:48:20.:48:30.

Plastic sheeting in the windows. We went into the mountains above the

:48:30.:48:34.

village and this is what Hasmik does every day to feed her children.

:48:34.:48:38.

She finds the roots and vegetables wild and this is the first green as

:48:38.:48:42.

they had seen in six months so this is exciting. In the evening she

:48:42.:48:49.

cooked us an omelette with the greens but it was one egg. The rest

:48:50.:48:53.

of the meal was some pasta, which in the traditional way they fry up

:48:53.:48:58.

till it is almost burned and then boil it, and for the children this

:48:58.:49:03.

is a treat, they gobbled it up like a roast chicken. In these countries

:49:03.:49:08.

where you have seen this very swift economic collapse, there are

:49:08.:49:13.

enormous cultural changes. People are thrown back into the lifestyles

:49:13.:49:18.

of 600, a 1,000 years ago. What interests me is that the basic

:49:18.:49:22.

principles of how you sit down with your family and get joy even if

:49:22.:49:27.

there is not enough food remains the same.

:49:27.:49:32.

While we were watching her cook, I was distracted and fascinated by

:49:32.:49:36.

the way she had arranged her cooking implements. All of them

:49:36.:49:41.

were old and battered and much loved, I think. She laid a piece of

:49:41.:49:45.

cloth against the wall so she could hang them up to drive and be ready

:49:45.:49:52.

to grab, as all of us do, and to protect the wallpaper. So after we

:49:52.:49:57.

had been in Hasmik's house, I made sure I made a few minutes in the

:49:57.:50:03.

other people's kitchens, looking at these natural still lives. And

:50:03.:50:09.

realised there was something there, an internal beauty about the way we

:50:09.:50:17.

organise our everyday objects. So I This is another lady in another

:50:17.:50:22.

village. She said she had brought these plates 20 years ago from her

:50:22.:50:28.

city when she became a refugee and preserved them. In the way they

:50:28.:50:31.

boarded their dishcloth, they arranged their pots and their much

:50:31.:50:37.

loved old saucepan, those told a story of the struggle and these

:50:37.:50:41.

terrible circumstances, the struggle to stay civilised and

:50:41.:50:49.

dignified and provide, as you must, Next we move from the kitchens of

:50:49.:50:53.

Armenia to the bedrooms and boardrooms of New York, the setting

:50:53.:50:59.

for Steve McQueen's new film, Shame. It has already picked up a Best

:50:59.:51:03.

Actor award at the Venice Film Festival Paul Michael Fassbender's

:51:03.:51:08.

performance as a sex addict and it has just had its UK premiere at the

:51:08.:51:12.

London Film Festival. Mark Kermode went to meet the director to talk

:51:12.:51:22.
:51:22.:51:49.

about the challenges of using such Not content with beating Tracey

:51:49.:51:53.

Emin to the Turner Prize in 19 99th and serving as an official war

:51:53.:51:57.

artist in Iraq, Steve McQueen is making a mark in the world of

:51:57.:52:02.

feature films. His new film Shame centres on a sex addict in New York,

:52:02.:52:08.

with life is falling apart. This is the second time he has collaborated

:52:08.:52:13.

with Michael Fassbender. They first worked together on Hunger, about

:52:13.:52:23.
:52:23.:52:23.

Bobby Sands. Shame adds almost as a companion to Hunger, as Steve

:52:23.:52:29.

McQueen unflinching leak explores all things corporeal. What is it

:52:29.:52:33.

about the subject of sex addiction that intrigues you? In the film, as

:52:33.:52:37.

his addiction becomes more and more rampant, he becomes more and more

:52:37.:52:47.

alienated, although he says that is What fascinated me was that this

:52:47.:52:51.

eviction, in some ways you need someone to facilitate it. Not all

:52:51.:52:57.

the time of course. I love the idea of that drama, there are two people,

:52:58.:53:02.

one wanted something from the other person, that control, but also it

:53:02.:53:07.

was all about struggle, and knowing you had a problem in the first

:53:07.:53:14.

place. When I first read about sex addiction I found it funny but then

:53:14.:53:17.

you realise this person, similar to an alcoholic, longs to get through

:53:17.:53:26.

a day without relieving himself, I don't know how many times a day,

:53:26.:53:31.

but that is sad. It ceases to become funny. I think to be in love

:53:31.:53:36.

with someone is pretty brave. That person can break your heart. For

:53:36.:53:42.

him, somewhere along the line in his life, he didn't want that to

:53:42.:53:46.

happen and he didn't want the possibility of being vulnerable.

:53:46.:53:49.

Many of the scenes involves a degree of physical nakedness and

:53:49.:53:54.

also emotional nakedness. Tell me how difficult that may be to work

:53:54.:53:58.

with a cast. One imagines that acting without your clothes on is

:53:59.:54:03.

not something which everybody is comfortable with. No, then they are

:54:03.:54:08.

not very good actors, are they? If Michael was walking around with a

:54:09.:54:14.

bazooka and an AK- 47, no one would say anything, but the bizarre is

:54:14.:54:18.

normal and abnormal is bizarre. He is an actor and we had to get to

:54:18.:54:24.

the emotional depth of the character. This is 1951, a lot of

:54:24.:54:27.

people didn't wear pyjamas, they got up and they were naked, that is

:54:28.:54:33.

what you do. End of story. There have been comparisons made between

:54:33.:54:37.

Michael Fassbender and Marlon Brando in terms of physical

:54:37.:54:42.

performance and people now view Michael fast bend as arguably one

:54:42.:54:46.

of the greatest screen actors of his generation -- Michael

:54:46.:54:52.

Fassbender. TUC a connection? I do. -- do you see a connection

:54:52.:54:58.

was made he is a man's man but there is a certain fragility which

:54:58.:55:02.

is beautiful. You can project yourself as the audience on him and

:55:02.:55:07.

see yourself. This gite nailed it today. You are

:55:07.:55:17.
:55:17.:55:19.

the man. Your pitch was amazing -- this guy it nailed it today. He is

:55:19.:55:26.

just picking colours randomly! can bring you in. He doesn't push

:55:26.:55:29.

you away. He can bring you in because he is not afraid to show

:55:29.:55:34.

his vulnerability. He is exceptional. Tell me about

:55:34.:55:38.

Brandon's relationship with free. There is a key confrontation

:55:38.:55:43.

between them when she says, we are not bad people but we come from a

:55:43.:55:47.

bad place. One of the things I admire it is that you are never

:55:47.:55:50.

explicit about what that bad places although it seems to me the film

:55:50.:55:55.

had suggestions as to what it might be. Tell me what you can about what

:55:55.:56:01.

that line meant. I wanted to make their past familiar rather than

:56:01.:56:07.

mysterious. I also didn't want it to be and let out for Brandon...

:56:07.:56:13.

Like an explanation. Precisely, for what he does in the movie. It is

:56:13.:56:17.

their past. When we meet people in general, we know nothing about them

:56:17.:56:23.

other than what they present and sometimes there are tales of the

:56:23.:56:29.

past in the present when you are with them. In the film, the biggest

:56:29.:56:32.

tell was when Carey Mulligan is singing New York New York to

:56:32.:56:36.

Brandon and it is the only time when Brandon listens to secede and

:56:36.:56:42.

he has to listen to her, he can't move and he can't escape, it is a

:56:42.:56:47.

performance. He has to listen, he is forced do. In terms of where you

:56:47.:56:52.

go from here, two feature films, critically very well received, do

:56:53.:56:58.

you see future from making as the primary part of your future or do

:56:58.:57:02.

you see yourself as a visual artist who happens to work in film?

:57:02.:57:06.

don't want people to make me have to choose! I want to do what I want

:57:06.:57:12.

to do. Next time I might want to dance, I don't know! No, really, it

:57:12.:57:17.

is not even a joke. As an artist, as a person who wants to do stuff,

:57:17.:57:24.

you should do stuff, whatever it is. There is no barrier or divide. I

:57:24.:57:34.
:57:34.:57:35.

Shame is released in the UK on the 13th of January next year. Next

:57:35.:57:38.

week's Culture Show is on Saturday at 6pm, where Mark Wallinger talks

:57:38.:57:41.

about the White Horse project, Terence Conran shows us the Way we

:57:41.:57:44.

Live now and the Journalist Anne McElvoy investigates the power of

:57:44.:57:54.
:57:54.:57:59.

The Culture Show comes from the Gothic mansion Two Temple Place as it opens its door for the first time.

Andrew Graham-Dixon looks at King George V's photographic collection of Scott and Shackleton's Antarctic expeditions, while Simon Thurley continues his search for the most dedicated saviours of the British heritage. Michael Smith looks for the positive in what some consider Europe's most boring city - Birmingham.

Mark Kermode talks to award-winning artist and director Steve McQueen about his new film Shame, and Miranda Sawyer travels to Paris meet film director David Lynch as he releases his new album Crazy Clown Time.