9/11 Ten Years On The Conspiracy Files


9/11 Ten Years On

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We all remember where we were the day the world changed,

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but do we know what really happened?

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Look closer through the smoke and horror, say conspiracy theories,

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-and you'll find that not everything was as it first appeared.

-Oh, shit!

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'We don't know the full story.'

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We know the official story is completely disproven and a fairytale.

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There are a multitude of different conspiracy theories about 9/11

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and the internet has given them a reach and a life as never before.

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We're people who have questions.

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10 years on, the questions keep coming.

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If a large passenger jet crashed into the Pentagon, why was the hole in the exterior wall so small?

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There's no debris. I'd expect Tiger to show up to practise his putting.

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Could a controlled demolition have caused this building to collapse at the World Trade Center?

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There's something wrong here.

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If you have seen Building Seven, there is no way back.

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Without a photograph, where's the proof that the US military killed Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan?

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The intel we're getting now is that it was one of many Bin Laden doubles in the house.

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The whole thing is an elaborate hoax.

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I served at CIA for 24 years.

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We're smart, we're good.

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To believe that we could orchestrate a 10-year conspiracy... Forget that it would be immoral, unethical

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and simply unbelievable except in the movies.

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So why do so many people doubt what the American government tells them about 9/11?

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As Sherlock Holmes was fond of observing,

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"When you've eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

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'Hi. We have a problem here. We have a hijacked aircraft heading towards New York

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'And we need someone to scramble some F-16s or something up there.

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-'Is this real world or exercise?

-No, it's not an exercise or a test.

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'It's not an exercise or a test. It's not an exercise or a test...'

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This is all that remains of America's biggest crime scene.

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The World Trade Center, consigned to a hangar in a New York suburb.

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Could the secrets of 9/11 lie here?

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The official account of what happened on that day is unequivocal.

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After two years of planning, Osama Bin Laden's 19 young martyrs,

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armed with knives and box cutters, casually walked through airport security and hijacked four planes.

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Then, within the space of 77 minutes, they destroyed the iconic symbols of America's power,

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taking nearly 3,000 lives with them into the flames,

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67 British people among them.

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Two planes hit the World Trade Center in New York.

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Another ploughed into the Pentagon, HQ of the military in Washington.

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'The second tower has exploded!'

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The final plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania on its way to the capital,

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its likely target either Congress or the White House.

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WOMAN'S VOICE: 'I just wanted to let you know I love you. I'm stuck in this building'

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'A plane hit the building or a bomb went off. We don't know. I just want you to know I love you.'

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The official inquiry admitted that America was caught off guard and the response was chaotic,

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but found no conspiracy involving the government in Washington.

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-Oh, my God! The next building...!

-There's another one!

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-Oh, my God! Oh, my God!

-Another plane just flew into...

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SIRENS WAIL

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But many simply don't accept the official conclusion.

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'Big Brother. Mainstream media. Government cover-ups.

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'You want answers? Well, so does he.

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'He's Alex Jones on the GCN Radio Network.

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-'And now, live from Austin Texas, Alex Jones.'

-Let's go! Yeah!

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The loudest voice in the self-styled 9/11 truth movement broadcasts a three-hour show every day.

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He said, "Yes, we're secret. Yes, we're authoritarian. Yes, it's good.

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"And you bet we're militarising. This world is ours and we're coming for it. You'll lay down and take it!"

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Ha ha! They love it! Well, I got news for you!

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Some of us are still red-blooded!

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He's expanding his business and he says he knows the real culprits of 9/11.

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Private corporate rogue networks working in US, British and Israeli intelligence - all three groups -

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were found to have fingerprints, but the main driver was rogue networks at the top of the US government.

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Here's the thing. The government admits they've staged events before.

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The official story doesn't add up. I'm saying that it needs to be investigated.

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So what did happen on that day?

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The questions start as dawn broke on Tuesday, 11th September, 2001.

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American Airlines Flight 11 pushed back from the gate at 7.40am.

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The first report of a possible hijack came at 8.19,

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but why did the world's most powerful air force fail to intercept this or any of the four planes?

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'We have a problem here. We have a hijacked aircraft headed towards New York.'

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That morning, Colin Scoggins arrived at work in the Federal Aviation Administration,

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or FAA's Boston centre for air traffic control.

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As soon as I walked in the door, someone told me there was a hijack going on.

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But this hijack was different.

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There were multiple hijacks, four hijacks.

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They'd turned off the transponder and it also sounded like there was some violence on the aircraft.

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Now the military were looking for one plane among thousands on radar

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and it was being taken off course.

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What's more, a routine military training exercise was taking place at the US Air Defense Command.

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So it was another 27 minutes before the interceptors were scrambled.

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'We have a problem here. We have a hijacked aircraft headed for New York and we need to get...

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'We need someone to scramble some F-16s to help us out.

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-'Is this real world or exercise?

-No, this is not an exercise or test.'

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Even as the interceptors took off,

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the pilots were still unclear about where they were supposed to go.

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'I need a direction, a destination...'

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It's claimed this was the start of a carefully-planned conspiracy

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involving four hijacked passenger planes.

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It's alleged the then Vice President Dick Cheney ordered the US military not to intercept the planes.

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Cheney ordered the stand down.

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The aircraft were scrambled and, in some cases, had over 45 minutes to get where they were going

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and were told to fly around at stalling speed.

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Colin Scoggins was in constant contact with US Air Defense Command.

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I never saw any lack of responses.

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Everything I saw from the military that day, there was no stand down.

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I was probably in communication with the military more than anybody else.

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He saw plenty of confusion, but no conspiracy.

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I think the biggest part was the lack of communication between the FAA and the military

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and the other part was the equipment the military had. It was designed to look out over the ocean.

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It wasn't designed to look inside the United States.

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-Holy fuck!

-A WOMAN SCREAMS

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And that's also why the interceptor jets flew the wrong way.

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It was assumed any air threat would come from overseas, so, following standard procedure,

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the fighters took off to the east.

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They didn't reach Long Island until 22 minutes after the second tower had been hit.

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'Gimme the location!'

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Upstate New York, home to the most successful conspiracy film ever.

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9.38. Arlington, Virginia.

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Hani Hanjour allegedly executes a 330-degree turn at 530 miles per hour

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to crash American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

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The first edition of Loose Change cost just 2,000.

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The latest had had a budget of a million.

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Flight 77 manages to hit the only section that was reinforced to withstand a terrorist attack.

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And Dylan Avery is the prodigy behind the film.

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-That's Jonas.

-Howdy.

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Luke. Foot soldier. One of the best people in New York for truth.

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Jay Mandresh. Cook/dishwasher.

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-Just kidding, man.

-No, it's true.

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This is our office. No one's in yet. That's our secretary's desk.

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That's really about it for this room.

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And that leads us to my room.

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-This is it.

-So this is where you work?

-This is where the magic happens. Yes, sir.

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Loose Change has become an internet phenomenon, viewed by tens of millions of people.

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To reach a global audience this big in the past, you'd have needed the backing of a Hollywood studio.

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Now all you need is a modicum of technical knowledge and a bargain basement computer.

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This is the laptop that started it all.

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In February, 2003, after saving up for about two months or so,

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I went to a Radio Shack and bought this. I had it the next morning

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and started editing what would become Loose Change, the documentary.

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His film sets out the central conspiracy theory that the World Trade Center Twin Towers

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collapsed not because of fire, but because they were rigged with explosives.

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'Do you still think that jet fuel brought down the Twin Towers?

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'In almost all the videos of the collapses, violent ejections appear

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'20-60 storeys below the demolition wave. Here.

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'Here.

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'Here.

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'And here.'

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Reports of loud bangs and the sudden collapse of the buildings are taken as proof of explosives.

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The person who should know why the buildings came down is the original structural engineer.

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Leslie Robertson's office still overlooks Ground Zero. He worked on the buildings from the 1960s.

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I guess I was involved from the very first breath of the project.

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It's a very romantic thought,

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all these ideas, but they're not real. They're not real at all.

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The official report into the collapse concluded that when the planes slammed into the towers,

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they severed and damaged support columns and dislodged fireproofing.

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Purdue University modelled how 10,000 gallons of jet fuel

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was spewed over many floors, starting widespread fires.

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Temperatures reaching up to 1,000 degrees Celsius weakened the floors and columns.

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The fires don't have to melt the steel in order to bring it down.

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just raise it high enough so that the strength of the steel is reduced to the point where failure takes place.

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Steel melts at around 1,500 degrees Celsius,

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but at 600 degrees it loses half its strength.

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Eventually, the floors sagged and the perimeter columns bent,

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starting the collapse and creating the sounds of explosions.

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The massive weight of the floors above dropped, creating a load far beyond what they were designed for.

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There was plenty of weight to bring it down.

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The floors below caved in, causing those puffs of smoke.

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There's air inside and as the building comes down, it creates very high pressures.

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It tries to break the glass out and, sure, you're going to get...

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..gas emitted from the building.

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Modern conspiracy theories

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are casting a long shadow.

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One leading structural engineer thinks they are distracting attention from a critical debate

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about the safety of the Twin Towers and he, too, has been caught up in the conspiracy theories.

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It doesn't make any sense whatsoever! They are so zealous.

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After all the discussion you make and you show there is no way it's correct,

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they go, "How about this...?" It's a complete circular discussion, continuously.

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Professor Astaneh has studied the full structural drawings of the Twin Towers.

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He points to 11 areas where the design departed from tried and tested methods

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approved by building codes,

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such as lightweight concrete floors or gypsum walls,

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and especially the use of thin bearing walls around the perimeter

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instead of the conventional structure of columns and beams.

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The reason it collapsed

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was because of that...bearing wall system.

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At the level that aeroplane hit, the thickness of the steel wall was only 6 millimetres.

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6 millimetres.

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It doesn't say that we should blame Mr Robertson or the designers for this tragedy.

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This tragedy happened because those murderers came and killed our innocent people.

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I always say that. But we have to learn lessons from these kind of tragedies

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to make sure we don't make the same mistake and the lesson in this case is that you follow the code.

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This building was not according to the code.

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Professor Astaneh claims that many of the hundreds trapped above the impact zone could have escaped

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if there had been substantial walls around the emergency staircases.

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The allegations are totally refuted by the Twin Towers' structural engineer Leslie Robertson.

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It's preposterous.

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Those walls were stronger and more airtight than walls used in the past.

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I know of no case in the World Trade Center where the structural design

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did not exceed the requirements of the building code of New York.

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There's a lot of misinformation out there and, not only that, these are extremely complex issues.

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10 years on, memories of that day remain tragic and disturbing.

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It was the people inside that then and now are still in my... in my mind, in my sleep.

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But if there was a government conspiracy, what could possibly be the motive?

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You're asking how could government get in a mindset to kill 3,000 Americans.

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It's rogue criminal groups within it that make trillions off war, trillions off oil they're seizing.

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They want to control that key Central Asian/Middle East area

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that strategists say is absolutely essential to dominate the world.

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It's claimed 9/11 was part of an elaborate plot by President Bush to provoke war in Iraq

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and Afghanistan to secure long-term oil supplies, but also to remake America.

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It was a violent and aggressive seizure of power and transformation of both foreign and domestic policy.

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It was an American coup.

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# We saw the towers fall... #

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Look at all the things they've done - spy on their own citizens, torture civilians as enemy combatants.

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Would we be where we are right now without 9/11?

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The internet has provided the place to search for clues

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and also the place to meet and speculate.

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One of the first net-based conspiracy groups was set up by the man who lives here.

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This is my favourite part of the house. I have an office here where I conduct my radio shows

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and my vanity library of my own authored and edited books.

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Here I have about 10% of what I was able to retrieve when I retired.

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The history of science, philosophy of science, a lot of books on JFK and his assassination

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which is another area of research.

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Jim Fetzer set up Scholars for 9/11 Truth,

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an organisation for other like-minded academics. He's a retired Professor of Philosophy

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and former Marine Corps officer.

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We all took an oath

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to protect and defend the Constitution from all enemies, foreign and domestic.

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It is a devastating realisation to me as a former Marine Corps officer

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that some of our enemies have indeed been domestic, rather than foreign.

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And he thinks his former masters at the US Department of Defense in the Pentagon were involved.

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The official story says five hijackers arrived at Washington's Dulles Airport.

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They checked in for American Airlines Flight 77, bound for California.

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Not long into the flight, the hijackers overpowered the crew

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and turned the plane back towards the capital.

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Minutes later, a huge explosion rocked the Pentagon

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killing all 64 people in the aircraft along with 125 military and civilians on the ground.

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Loose Change claims there is little evidence of a commercial passenger plane.

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A Boeing 757 is 155 feet long,

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44 feet high,

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has a 124-foot wingspan and weighs almost 100 tonnes.

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And it disappeared into this hole without leaving any substantial wreckage on the outside.

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Some argue it was something much smaller, like this pilotless drone or a missile.

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That also explains, they say, the difficult manoeuvre approaching the Pentagon.

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The first photographs taken just minutes after the crash show a hole about 18-20 feet across

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at its narrowest point.

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Minutes later, the facade of the building collapsed.

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The plane's fuselage was 12 feet wide.

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The evidence that is very clear is that no Boeing 757 hit the Pentagon.

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There's no debris, no damage to the lawn.

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I expect Tiger to show up and practise his putting.

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The FBI has released some video of the attack on the Pentagon.

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It comes from two low-quality security cameras.

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Slowed down, something can be seen entering on the far right of this frame

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just before the explosion, but it's not conclusive.

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The second camera, analysed in detail by computer animators,

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appears to show a plane and smoke in slightly more detail here,

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but again it's not definitive.

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There are calls for the FBI to release more video.

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Critics have focused instead on pictures that don't show wreckage.

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We have photographs of the hit point. You do not have a massive pile of debris,

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you don't find the wings, you don't find the bodies, seats or the tail, all of which should be present.

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But we don't have to rely on poor-quality video.

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There are eye witnesses.

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Allyn Kilsheimer is a leading structural engineer who saw the damage and later was

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-one of the first to see inside the Pentagon.

-I walked around the corner

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and all hell was breaking loose. Fire, smoke and water everyplace.

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When I got to what I call the impact area,

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it was pretty obvious that that was where the plane had entered.

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Purdue University has built a computer model to show how the damage inside the Pentagon

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is likely to have happened. And it matches what this structural engineer saw

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when he went into the building.

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It blew out a bunch of columns.

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And then as it went through, the fuel exploded more and more.

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There were all these explosions that went out from where the plane was.

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That's why there's a big, round hole, because the explosive forces made the round hole.

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This is where what was left of the plane broke out of the building,

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but it was the explosive force of the jet fuel, not a bomb, that did the damage.

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I walked through the building and saw dead bodies. OK?

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Where were those people, the conspiracy...? They weren't there.

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And he saw plenty of evidence inside of a passenger plane.

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What I saw at the time was pieces of metal, green colour mainly, some aluminium colour,

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a lot of which were melted.

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We later found portions of uniformed people

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that had, um, airline uniforms on.

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Then much time later the black box was found and I saw the black box.

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A simple memorial now marks the route the aircraft took

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and commemorates the 184 murder victims.

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A key eye witness has now come forward.

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She arrived within an hour of the crash and took charge

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as every piece of evidence was collected and catalogued by the FBI's Evidence Response Team.

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We set up line searches and cleared the area

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surrounding the outside of the Pentagon. There were definitely pieces of metal from the aeroplane,

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some with the red and white lettering of American Airlines' colouring.

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We actually had...

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..these large, wooden crates built specifically to hold the aeroplane parts.

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The FBI retains this section of the plane in its distinctive American Airlines livery.

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I personally collected the remains of victims that came from the plane.

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And DNA and fingerprint evidence was conducted by a lab

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that absolutely confirms that they were victims from American Airlines 77.

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Every year, she visits the memorial and she's concerned about the effect the conspiracy theories are having.

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I would hope that people would see what actually happened.

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And remember the victims from that day. They are the true people that should be remembered.

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It's...

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..unfair to their families and their friends to have these theories continuing on.

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I mean, it basically belittles

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these people's lives.

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It makes them...appear that they didn't ever exist.

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As Flight AA77 descended in a wide turn over the capital and lined up on its target,

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there was a military C-130 plane like this one

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flying above Washington.

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It's suggested the C-130 was a control vehicle and part of the conspiracy.

0:27:460:27:53

It's very strange this debris, which was not present after the crash - you had this clear, clean lawn -

0:27:530:27:59

starts showing up later. You can't have enlisted men rushing out to plant the debris.

0:27:590:28:05

If it's trickling down from the air, however, it might seem like a natural phenomenon.

0:28:050:28:11

I believe it was actually, in all probability, put out from the C-130. I believe that was its role.

0:28:110:28:17

Whether the officer in charge was aware that that's what he was doing is another question.

0:28:170:28:22

This is that aircraft.

0:28:240:28:27

Here's the chart of the Washington, DC, area...

0:28:270:28:31

And this is the pilot.

0:28:310:28:33

We departed out of Andrews and climbed to 3,000 feet, which took us by the south side.

0:28:330:28:40

Lt Colonel O'Brien was on a routine flight, but as he flew over central Washington,

0:28:400:28:45

air traffic control reported an unidentified jet fast approaching on his left-hand side.

0:28:450:28:52

'Six miles south-east of the White House.

0:28:520:28:56

'Six miles south-east of the White House?'

0:28:560:28:59

It had that distinctive silver finish. In our minds it was definitely American Airlines.

0:28:590:29:07

And as he moved

0:29:070:29:09

to our 11 o'clock position, he started his turn.

0:29:090:29:13

By the time he got to our 12 o'clock position, right out at the front,

0:29:130:29:18

he was rolled up into about, I would estimate, 30-40 degrees of bank, which is considerable.

0:29:180:29:24

And then all of a sudden we saw this big explosion.

0:29:290:29:33

I keyed the mic again and said, "Washington, that aeroplane has hit the west side of the Pentagon."

0:29:330:29:39

Later, when Steve O'Brien was back home in Minnesota, he found himself

0:29:390:29:43

-at the centre of a conspiracy theory.

-Not having ever been part of a major event like this before,

0:29:430:29:50

you're somewhat detached, but when you're a witness to it, it's a lot more personal.

0:29:500:29:56

And concerning to me that people would think that I would have the ability to do something

0:29:560:30:03

or want to do something like this.

0:30:030:30:06

So it's a little bit disconcerting, but, at the same time,

0:30:060:30:10

it gives you another insight into how wrong a lot of these conspiracies are,

0:30:100:30:16

but yet they continue and take on a life of their own, so to speak.

0:30:160:30:21

Now a new theory has evolved about a third huge skyscraper that was destroyed on 9/11,

0:30:280:30:34

but this one was not hit by a plane.

0:30:350:30:38

World Trade Center 7 has become the focus for conspiracy theories.

0:30:380:30:43

The New York City Command Centre for Civil Emergencies was based here.

0:30:440:30:50

The Secret Service, Pentagon and the CIA all had offices in the building.

0:30:500:30:54

Some argue that's just too suspicious.

0:30:540:30:58

The official explanation is that it collapsed because of uncontrolled fires that burned for 7 hours.

0:31:080:31:15

But if that is the case,

0:31:150:31:17

this is the first time a steel-framed skyscraper has collapsed because of fire.

0:31:170:31:23

Now a retired Danish chemistry professor thinks he has discovered

0:31:300:31:35

the smoking gun that will unlock the biggest conspiracy ever perpetrated.

0:31:350:31:41

Three high-rises, only two airliners.

0:31:430:31:45

You don't have to have a PhD in physics to count to three, OK?

0:31:450:31:50

So what happened to Building 7,

0:31:500:31:53

which was roughly a little less than half the height of the Twin Towers?

0:31:530:31:58

It collapsed on its own, seven hours after the North Tower.

0:31:580:32:02

And the way it came down indicates that it was a controlled explosion.

0:32:020:32:07

There is no way a steel-framed high-riser

0:32:070:32:12

can come down due to fire.

0:32:120:32:15

The official investigators said the building had collapsed at near freefall for about two seconds.

0:32:170:32:24

It's argued only explosives could make it collapse so quickly.

0:32:260:32:31

These buildings were definitely brought down by demolition charges.

0:32:350:32:39

The collapse of Building 7 here looks similar.

0:32:390:32:43

Building 7 is coming down in freefall. Obviously a controlled demolition.

0:32:430:32:49

He worked alongside Professor Steven Jones in the USA, analysing dust found in downtown Manhattan.

0:32:510:32:58

They focused on a number of tiny red and grey chips.

0:32:580:33:02

They're red on one side and grey on the other side.

0:33:030:33:08

The red side is interesting because it shows all the signs

0:33:080:33:13

of being a thermitic material.

0:33:130:33:15

Thermite burns at 2,000 degrees Celsius and melts metal.

0:33:150:33:21

The military use it to disable artillery. It's not known to have ever been used to destroy buildings.

0:33:210:33:27

Professor Harrit thinks there's evidence that tons of thermite were planted in the WTC buildings

0:33:270:33:34

and that both incendiaries and explosives were used.

0:33:340:33:37

When you heat the chips up, they take off, they react.

0:33:370:33:42

I will not call it an explosion, but they react violently and show

0:33:420:33:46

all the characteristics of a thermite reaction.

0:33:460:33:50

-What's been the reaction of scientists to your conclusions?

-None. None.

0:33:500:33:56

It is beyond doubt the best peer paper ever in my career.

0:33:570:34:02

I would like to know how many times it has been downloaded, how many people have actually read it.

0:34:020:34:08

Nobody has challenged the conclusions.

0:34:080:34:12

Steel City. Pittsburgh, USA.

0:34:160:34:19

Home to world-leading research on iron and steel.

0:34:190:34:23

We asked two experts at Carnegie Mellon University to look at Prof Harrit's published theory.

0:34:260:34:32

If you showed me

0:34:320:34:35

a pile of dust, I could find almost anything in there, but not in a large quantity.

0:34:350:34:42

1.2 million tonnes of building materials were pulverised.

0:34:430:34:48

The US Geological Survey took 38 dust samples. Later, the research group RJ Lee

0:34:480:34:55

took about 100,000 samples and analysed them all thoroughly.

0:34:550:34:59

Professor Harrit and his colleagues rely on four samples.

0:34:590:35:03

They selected the particles they wanted to examine and then made the most dramatic verdict.

0:35:030:35:10

They concluded that it was a highly energetic material.

0:35:100:35:15

And on a kilogram basis,

0:35:150:35:18

it gives off less energy than burning paper.

0:35:190:35:24

His colleague, Professor Pistorius, thinks there may be a simpler explanation.

0:35:280:35:34

-They found bits of paint, I think.

-Paint?

-Yes.

0:35:350:35:39

It is not unusual to use as a primer

0:35:390:35:44

or an intermediate coat of paint

0:35:440:35:47

pigments of things like micaceous iron oxide, which is a flaky kind of iron oxide,

0:35:470:35:53

and aluminium, which is what they found.

0:35:530:35:57

The Danish chemist, Niels Harrit, and his colleagues have looked at one primer paint from the WTC.

0:35:590:36:05

They say it doesn't match their mysterious red/grey chips.

0:36:050:36:10

Any large structure like what the World Trade Center was would have lots of coatings on it.

0:36:100:36:17

The interior coatings, these red and grey layers,

0:36:170:36:22

they are typical for paint from structural steelwork.

0:36:220:36:26

This type of primer is painted all over the Manhattan Bridge to protect the steel cables.

0:36:290:36:35

And the temperature at which the red/grey chips start to react

0:36:360:36:40

is exactly what you would expect from this type of paint.

0:36:400:36:45

So why has Professor Harrit's theory gone unchallenged?

0:36:460:36:50

This is how science works.

0:36:500:36:52

A hypothesis is correct until proven wrong.

0:36:520:36:57

So nobody has bothered to take the time to do this.

0:36:570:37:02

It doesn't mean it's right. It just hasn't been proven wrong.

0:37:020:37:06

There are lots of reasons why nobody would take the time.

0:37:060:37:11

It's frankly, I think, irrelevant.

0:37:110:37:13

It...it would be fairly easy to rebut,

0:37:130:37:17

but everybody's got more interesting things to do, I think.

0:37:170:37:21

There's something wrong here. If you have seen Building 7, there's no way back.

0:37:230:37:29

So you can try to cheat on yourself or you can speak up and live with dignity.

0:37:310:37:37

For the 9/11 truth movement, the fate of the fourth hijacked plane

0:37:410:37:46

is clear evidence of a government cover-up. There were 44 people on United Flight 93.

0:37:460:37:53

According to the official account, the passengers tried to seize back control of the aircraft,

0:37:530:37:59

but as they fought their way into the cockpit, the hijackers crashed in rural Pennsylvania.

0:37:590:38:04

-'United 93. Have you got information on that yet?

-Yeah, he's down.

0:38:040:38:09

-'He's down?!

-Yes.

-Where did he land because we have confirmation...

0:38:090:38:13

-'He did not land.

-Oh, he's down?'

0:38:130:38:15

That crater they show me looks like no aircraft crash I've ever seen in my life.

0:38:150:38:21

We know F-16s are in the area. My government sources, high level,

0:38:210:38:25

have even identified the squadron that was involved

0:38:250:38:30

in the shoot down of Flight 93.

0:38:300:38:32

And then you say, "Wait. I thought there was a stand down."

0:38:320:38:36

Don't edit this. The point is the generals did not follow orders and ordered the shoot down Flight 93.

0:38:360:38:43

It's argued the Boeing started to disintegrate in mid-air

0:38:430:38:47

after being hit by a missile,

0:38:470:38:50

so only part of the plane crashed in this crater.

0:38:500:38:54

There have been reports of debris being found miles from this site.

0:38:540:38:59

Ten years on, a new memorial is being built to commemorate the people who lost their lives

0:39:000:39:06

when United 93 crashed.

0:39:060:39:10

And this is where it was reported that wreckage was found.

0:39:110:39:14

There was talk of parts of a wing and an engine.

0:39:140:39:18

If debris had been recovered here, it would provide strong evidence

0:39:180:39:23

to support the conspiracy theory because, it's claimed,

0:39:230:39:26

Indian Lake is nearly 7 miles from the crash site.

0:39:260:39:30

Journalists and 9/11 investigators came up with the distance by typing the two locations in search engines

0:39:300:39:37

and used the result in their articles -

0:39:370:39:40

6.9 miles.

0:39:400:39:43

It does seem to check out.

0:39:430:39:46

But the road goes the long way round. In a straight line, it's just over a mile from the crash site

0:39:460:39:54

and the wind was blowing in that direction on September 11th.

0:39:540:39:58

OK. Don't go too fast and we won't get too cold.

0:39:590:40:04

Local residents heard the crash and soon after watched debris come down on the lake.

0:40:050:40:11

Debris was floating through the air. This was on the ground.

0:40:120:40:16

Pieces similar to this. Nothing of any size. Just small pieces.

0:40:160:40:21

-And no large parts of an engine or wings?

-No.

-Not at all. We had nothing of that.

0:40:210:40:27

It was just scraps of paper and insulation that had blown here on the wind.

0:40:280:40:34

On the internet and in the media, the story that it was actually much more than this,

0:40:380:40:44

that it was heavy debris, circulated unchecked for years.

0:40:440:40:48

I'm not so sure that we'll ever be able to totally dispel

0:40:530:40:58

all of the opinions and rumours that have come from this.

0:40:580:41:03

You think it will go on being talked about and speculated over for years, decades?

0:41:030:41:08

I think there are people that will never change their minds on it

0:41:080:41:12

because there's no way to really truly prove it

0:41:120:41:16

because 92% or 93% of the remains of the aircraft

0:41:160:41:21

and the people are still in that hole.

0:41:210:41:26

So how could a passenger plane disappear into such a small crater?

0:41:260:41:31

This whole thing is stage-managed.

0:41:310:41:34

There's no evidence, no massive debris, no tail, no wings.

0:41:340:41:38

Not even luggage or bodies there.

0:41:380:41:40

The internet carries quotes from the local coroner that appear to support this conspiracy theory.

0:41:400:41:47

I said I stopped being a coroner after about 20 minutes

0:41:520:41:56

because it was perfectly clear what the cause and manner of death was. It was a plane crash, but a homicide,

0:41:560:42:03

because the terrorists hijacked the plane and killed the people! And the terrorists committed suicide.

0:42:030:42:09

-That was a misquote.

-Yes, it was a misquote because the point I was trying to make was

0:42:090:42:15

after that it more or less became a large funeral service.

0:42:150:42:20

Wally Miller can say whatever he wants,

0:42:200:42:24

but look at the crater in Shanksville. Physical evidence.

0:42:240:42:27

We've talked to the people who were there, to Wally Miller, the local coroner...

0:42:270:42:33

-Who went public four times and said he didn't see any drops of bodies.

-He said that.

0:42:330:42:38

-He said it seemed as if the plane let its passengers off beforehand.

-Exactly. And that was a simile.

0:42:380:42:45

He was talking that it looked as if that had happened, as if someone had taken a scrap truck, dug a ditch

0:42:450:42:51

and dumped trash in it, but he didn't mean that literally.

0:42:510:42:55

-He was saying it as a simile.

-The fact is if a 757 had crashed there, loaded with fuel and passengers,

0:42:550:43:02

we'd have a lot more than a 20-foot crater.

0:43:020:43:06

If there's a fringe of people out there that want to try to make something out of it that isn't,

0:43:060:43:12

I don't have any control over that. That's what makes our country great. You do whatever you want to do.

0:43:120:43:18

You sound very phlegmatic about it.

0:43:180:43:20

I don't know that there's a lot you can do. I'm not going to get coronary artery disease over it.

0:43:200:43:26

Photographs taken at the crash site tell their own story.

0:43:260:43:31

But in the face of this, some still question the official account.

0:43:330:43:38

They believe that United 93 could have landed somewhere else entirely

0:43:390:43:43

and the passengers abducted.

0:43:430:43:46

The whole business with the people is very strange.

0:43:460:43:50

It looks as though this was some kind of elaborate charade.

0:43:510:43:56

You have another story about 93 that it landed at Cleveland

0:43:560:44:00

and went to a distant airport and over 200 passengers were offloaded from this plane.

0:44:000:44:06

Even the Mayor came out and was interviewed by ABC.

0:44:060:44:10

It's true that a passenger jet was diverted to Cleveland, Ohio, that morning

0:44:110:44:16

after reports that it might have been hijacked, but it wasn't United 93.

0:44:160:44:21

It was a Delta Airlines flight and this woman was on it.

0:44:210:44:26

Delta 1989 took off from Boston, the same airport where two other jets were hijacked.

0:44:260:44:32

It was also bound for the West Coast on the same air corridor as United 93.

0:44:320:44:38

When that plane was hijacked and deviated from its flight path,

0:44:380:44:42

air traffic controllers mistakenly thought they were dealing with a Delta plane.

0:44:420:44:48

The air traffic controller Colin Scoggins was at Boston centre through all the confusion.

0:44:490:44:56

'Another one!'

0:44:560:44:58

There was no Delta 89.

0:44:580:45:01

A Delta 1989 was not hijacked,

0:45:010:45:04

I was incorrect when I made that call, but at that time anything that looked like a hijack

0:45:040:45:10

we were treating as a hijack. If you missed a frequency transfer you were considered hijacked.

0:45:100:45:16

That happened with Delta 1989.

0:45:160:45:18

-'Delta 1989 is a hijack...'

-Thinking it had been hijacked,

0:45:180:45:22

air traffic control ordered the Delta to land immediately.

0:45:220:45:27

'Another one!'

0:45:270:45:30

Suddenly, the captain came on and announced, "Ladies and gentlemen,

0:45:310:45:36

"I regret to tell you we're going to have to make an emergency landing in Cleveland."

0:45:360:45:41

And then the Mayor of Cleveland

0:45:410:45:44

was holding a press conference to say we were hijacked and they might blow up our plane.

0:45:440:45:50

'At this moment we have a Boeing 767 in a secure area of Hopkins International Airport.

0:45:500:45:58

'The initial reports were that this plane was hijacked

0:45:590:46:04

'and there was a bomb on it.'

0:46:040:46:07

It was soon realised that the Delta plane was in the clear.

0:46:070:46:11

Local TV rapidly corrected their earlier misleading reports.

0:46:110:46:15

We do now know that plane was not hijacked. It was diverted here.

0:46:150:46:19

But the original inaccurate news reports have continued to echo around conspiracy chat rooms

0:46:190:46:25

and websites ever since.

0:46:250:46:28

It's very clear what the facts were. I know - I was on that flight.

0:46:280:46:32

This is my very boarding pass. It's hard for people to accept a simple or more elaborate explanation.

0:46:320:46:39

There has to be something more than that. It's hard for people to believe

0:46:390:46:44

that something this well done, frankly, could be just the product

0:46:440:46:49

of a few al-Qaeda members.

0:46:490:46:52

I think they just find that they have to have some other explanation

0:46:520:46:57

and then it becomes whispered down the alley. That's what we say.

0:46:570:47:01

One person will say one thing, then it gets repeated and distorted and the distortion gets repeated

0:47:010:47:08

and it just goes on and on and on.

0:47:080:47:10

There's one place where conspiracy theories are eagerly embraced.

0:47:120:47:17

As a storyteller, I've thought a lot about conspiracies. I love them in fiction.

0:47:200:47:26

They're very powerful and appealing.

0:47:260:47:29

Creating myths is one of the oldest activities of man.

0:47:290:47:33

You can see them on the caves of early man.

0:47:330:47:37

Depictions of myths that were important to them. We need them to make sense of the world.

0:47:370:47:43

Frank Spotnitz became the subject of a conspiracy theory himself

0:47:470:47:52

because of a film he made six months before 9/11.

0:47:520:47:56

It tells the story of a government conspiracy to hijack a plane from Boston and fly it into the WTC

0:47:560:48:02

as a pretext for a war in the Middle East.

0:48:020:48:07

They could crash the plane into the World Trade Center.

0:48:070:48:11

-Only, this being Hollywood, disaster is averted at the very last moment.

-We've got manual override.

0:48:110:48:17

There was some theory that we had done this to prepare the ground

0:48:240:48:28

so people would be ready when this happened. It doesn't quite make much sense to me.

0:48:280:48:34

We live in the age of anxiety and this is one of the prime components - we don't know who to trust.

0:48:340:48:40

It's very appealing and powerful because it's like having the magic key

0:48:400:48:46

that fits all these pieces together and opens the door. "Oh, that's what's going on! What a relief

0:48:460:48:53

"to know this is what's going on." It relieves your anxiety in a strange way.

0:48:530:48:58

No matter how, um...disturbing the conspiracy theory may be,

0:48:580:49:03

it's still an answer in a world that doesn't offer many answers.

0:49:030:49:07

If the government tells you the world is flat and you don't agree, you're a conspiracy theorist.

0:49:100:49:16

Today conspiracy theory is the heresy, but they've used that so much, it doesn't work any more.

0:49:160:49:23

Alex Jones is tapping into a rich vein of cynicism about America's leaders.

0:49:230:49:29

His listeners have little trust in government because they've been misled before.

0:49:290:49:34

I love my country, I fear my government.

0:49:340:49:37

So I'm one of those guys that follows what the Founding Fathers, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, said

0:49:370:49:43

and I think I'm in good company not trusting government,

0:49:430:49:48

especially with the long history of governments lying.

0:49:480:49:52

There can be no whitewash... at the White House.

0:49:520:49:57

I did not have sexual relations with that woman.

0:50:000:50:05

The danger to our country is growing.

0:50:050:50:08

The Iraqi regime possesses biological and chemical weapons.

0:50:080:50:13

When you can't trust your leaders, that creates anxiety and fear.

0:50:130:50:18

People want to know what to believe, understandably.

0:50:180:50:21

And if you can't trust the official leaders of your government, where do you turn?

0:50:210:50:27

Nearly ten years on, the US military wrote what they hoped would be the final chapter of 9/11.

0:50:290:50:36

An audacious helicopter mission carried US Navy Seals into the heart of Pakistan.

0:50:370:50:43

They'd finally tracked the man responsible.

0:50:430:50:47

Osama Bin Laden was shot dead and his body buried at sea,

0:50:480:50:54

but in the absence of photographs, critics have questioned whether he was really killed there and then.

0:50:540:51:00

It's utterly astonishing that we should be able to kill a man

0:51:030:51:07

who actually died nine years earlier than this fantasy event in Pakistan.

0:51:070:51:12

I guess I should have looked in my freezer because I participated in the CIA activities

0:51:130:51:19

to hunt for Bin Laden, so we must have had thousands of people

0:51:190:51:23

in a conspiracy not only to hunt for the guy when he was dead,

0:51:230:51:27

but to keep it secret for nine years. I did not see one secret

0:51:270:51:33

when I was at CIA that hasn't found the light of day. Not one.

0:51:330:51:37

But is there a story where the evidence stacks up against the government?

0:51:380:51:43

The FBI and CIA insist they had no specific warnings of the hijackings on 9/11,

0:51:430:51:49

but it seems they did have important intelligence about al-Qaeda before the attacks.

0:51:490:51:55

January, 2000.

0:52:000:52:02

Two terrorists arrive in California from the Far East.

0:52:020:52:06

Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar were known to be active members of an al-Qaeda cell.

0:52:070:52:13

But it didn't arouse any suspicions when the smartly-dressed young men

0:52:140:52:19

presented their passports at Immigration. Their names had not been added to the watch list

0:52:190:52:25

for terrorist suspects. al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar were allowed on their way unchallenged.

0:52:250:52:31

Welcome to Los Angeles International Airport. Please keep your personal belongings with you at all times.

0:52:310:52:39

They soon moved into a San Diego suburb and lived openly

0:52:390:52:43

under their real names.

0:52:430:52:46

They had come on a mission.

0:52:500:52:53

And this is where they learnt to fly.

0:52:540:52:58

At about the same time, a CIA cable confirmed that one of them was in the country,

0:52:580:53:03

but this lead wasn't passed on to the FBI.

0:53:030:53:07

So, at the time, the local FBI didn't know they were here.

0:53:080:53:13

We're just coming up here on the apartments where the two hijackers lived,

0:53:160:53:23

over here on my left.

0:53:230:53:25

Not fancy apartments by US standards.

0:53:250:53:29

This is where they lived. Later, they moved on to the doorstep of the Feds. Literally.

0:53:290:53:36

They rented rooms from an FBI informant, but he suspected nothing.

0:53:360:53:40

What's more, one of the terrorists was actually listed in the San Diego phone book.

0:53:410:53:47

I think we could have identified some of these potential hijackers before September 11th.

0:53:470:53:54

It's very frustrating to me personally,

0:53:540:53:58

It's very frustrating to everybody

0:53:580:54:01

that worked on it so hard here in the FBI in San Diego.

0:54:010:54:05

I think everybody has to ask themselves, "Was there something that could have saved 3,000 lives?"

0:54:060:54:12

That's in the forefront of everybody's mind. It still hurts.

0:54:120:54:17

Whilst the two terrorists were learning to fly, intelligence was streaming in to the FBI

0:54:180:54:24

that al-Qaeda could be planning an attack.

0:54:240:54:28

By the spring of 2001, the system was blinking red, according to intelligence chiefs.

0:54:280:54:35

But there was nothing specific for the FBI to go on.

0:54:350:54:39

When I was in the White House, there were lots of conspiracy theories. We investigated every theory.

0:54:390:54:44

The former Chief Counter-Terrorism Adviser questions

0:54:440:54:49

whether there was a conspiracy not to make 9/11 happen, but which might have allowed 9/11 to happen.

0:54:490:54:55

I still don't have an adequate explanation as to why the CIA,

0:54:560:55:01

so many people, 60 people,

0:55:010:55:04

knew that Mihdhar and Hazmi were in the United States and didn't tell me or the FBI. That's an open book.

0:55:040:55:12

At last, 19 days before 9/11, the FBI was finally told.

0:55:140:55:19

Had the two terrorists in San Diego been arrested,

0:55:190:55:23

there was a chance that the whole plot could have been prised open,

0:55:230:55:27

but they had long moved on and disappeared.

0:55:270:55:31

CIA insiders say prior to 9/11 the focus wasn't on al-Qaeda and they were under-resourced.

0:55:310:55:38

These aren't 60 people responsible for two guys in San Diego.

0:55:400:55:44

They are 60 people responsible for a global counter-terrorism campaign,

0:55:440:55:50

so to say that those two individuals coming into this country indicates a massive intelligence failure

0:55:500:55:56

to me is entirely misleading.

0:55:560:55:58

The evidence points to intelligence mistakes before 9/11.

0:55:590:56:04

The 9/11 conspiracy theories are just that - theories.

0:56:060:56:10

The evidence doesn't support them.

0:56:100:56:12

But their authors insist they will fight on against what they see

0:56:120:56:16

as a dangerous and ruthless government conspiracy.

0:56:160:56:20

If they kill me, they'll turn me into a martyr, so the system attempts to assassinate my character

0:56:200:56:26

and to edit and misrepresent what I've said and done

0:56:260:56:31

as an attempt to assassinate the ideas that I put out,

0:56:310:56:35

but that doesn't work because ideas are bullet-proof.

0:56:350:56:39

I have no way back. If you fight, you might lose.

0:56:470:56:51

But if you don't fight, you have lost.

0:56:510:56:55

There is no way that our civilisation can continue

0:56:550:57:00

without facing these unsolved questions of 9/11.

0:57:000:57:05

Conspiracy theories, by and large,

0:57:080:57:11

are, um, they're just that. They're theories with very little substance behind them.

0:57:110:57:17

It's very upsetting to the people who cling to these beliefs. You're taking away from then a comfort.

0:57:170:57:23

It's like attacking someone's faith and offering nothing in exchange except for uncertainty.

0:57:230:57:30

The 9/11 conspiracy file seems certain to remain open for a long time to come,

0:57:400:57:47

however distressing and painful that will be for the families of those who died that day.

0:57:470:57:53

'United 93, do you still hear Cleveland?

0:58:000:58:04

'United 93, United Niner-Three, do you hear Cleveland?

0:58:060:58:10

'United 93, United 93...

0:58:130:58:16

'United 93, United 93, do you hear Cleveland Centre?

0:58:180:58:23

'United 93, United Niner-Three...'

0:58:230:58:25

Subtitles by Subtext for Red Bee Media Ltd - 2011

0:58:400:58:44

Email [email protected]bbc.co.uk

0:58:450:58:47

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