Nelson Mandela: The Fight for Freedom


Nelson Mandela: The Fight for Freedom

David Dimbleby presents a look back at the life of Nelson Mandela, featuring interviews conducted with Mandela in 2003 and contributions from Bill Clinton and Archbishop Tutu.


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Transcript


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Nelson Mandela's life was dedicated to the struggle

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to set his people free.

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I think one of the attributes of a leader

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is that he must be in it not for himself.

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We're talking about a man who was threatened with death,

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he was in jail, but he would not bend and when he came out,

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he embraced grace, forgiveness...

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It's hard to be that type of human.

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In the fight against apartheid in South Africa,

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Mandela felt violence was justified.

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He was arrested on a charge of treason

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and sentenced to life imprisonment.

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For 27 years, he was cut off from the outside world.

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One of the things that is difficult for me to comprehend

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is that we spent such a long time here.

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Finally, in 1990, he was set free.

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Today, black and white recognise that apartheid has no future.

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CHEERING

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So help me God.

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Forgiving his oppressors, Mandela led a new South Africa.

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A freedom fighter who became a symbol of peace

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and reconciliation across the world.

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Mandela represents hope over despair,

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with a particular kind of vision that the impossible can be achieved.

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'He was the father of his country.'

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He was a wise, good, great, but exceedingly shrewd and tough man

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who understood that South Africa can only go forward together.

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'Incredibly magnanimous.'

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And with a wonderful capacity for including others.

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In the summer of 2008,

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over 40,000 people gathered in London's Hyde Park...

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..for a concert.

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For Nelson Mandela, let me see your hands!

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Mandela was celebrating his birthday.

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Looking pretty good for 90!

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# La, la, la, la... #

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Ladies and gentlemen, the one, the only, the birthday boy,

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Nelson Mandela!

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Mandela was so widely loved and respected

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that he could persuade the rich,

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the famous and the world's public to support him in his campaigns.

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Tonight...

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we can stand before you free.

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But let us remind ourselves that our work is far from complete.

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Where there is poverty and sickness,

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including AIDS,

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where human beings are being oppressed,

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there is more work to be done.

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Our work...

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is for freedom for all.

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Mandela's own fight for freedom took him on a remarkable journey

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that began nearly a century ago.

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He was born in 1918 in South Africa,

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a country where black people were oppressed by a white minority.

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His home was in this remote village in the region of the Transkei.

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'He invited me to join him here in 2003,

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'during the course of recording a series of interviews with him.'

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This is an opportunity for me to come back here, I do.

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Because it evokes very pleasant memories, my being here.

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What kind of memories? Of childhood.

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Raised in a large family, Mandela was only nine when his father died.

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He went to live with his uncle, a tribal leader.

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He was a hard-working boy and the first in his family to go to school.

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'At that time,

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'the government took no interest whatsoever

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'in the education of blacks.'

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It was the missionaries who bought land,

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who put up buildings, who furnished them,

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who employed and paid teachers.

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And that is how I was brought up.

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ORGAN MUSIC

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When he was 19, he was sent to study at a Methodist college,

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his introduction to a wider world.

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Here, he heard for the first time about the ANC,

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the African National Congress,

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the party which was fighting for black South Africans.

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'People were not talking so much about traditional leaders,

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'but were talking about modern leaders.'

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This opened my eyes to something totally different,

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and all that was shaping my attitude.

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TOWNSHIP SINGING

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Mandela's family expected him

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to take on the responsibilities of a tribal leader.

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But he had other ideas.

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He ran away, and that decision took Mandela for the first time

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to the great city of Johannesburg.

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Life in the city was strictly segregated.

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His lodgings were in a township reserved for black people.

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He once said he'd never seen such poverty.

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Like many new arrivals, he found a job in the gold mines,

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working as a night-watchman.

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There, he saw at first hand the indignity suffered

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by the black population, in a country dominated by white people.

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He's a little bit thin.

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HE PANTS

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Their colours are good. Yes.

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I think you'd better have an X-ray. There you are.

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The young Mandela, known as Madiba to his friends,

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was content to ignore politics and enjoy life.

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He took up boxing, hoping he might one day be a champion.

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DANCE MUSIC PLAYS

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He enjoyed dancing

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and other night-life attractions that Johannesburg offered.

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Our hero was Victor Silvester, the chap who was a ballroom champion.

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And we tried to imitate him.

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Then we did the waltz and the tango, you know? And so on.

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But I was never a champion.

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But I liked dancing.

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At one point, you were a kind of man about town.

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I mean, you got all the best girls and...

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No, that's true. It's true, is it?

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You're not ashamed to say so? Oh, no, no, no. I mean, it's history.

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Er, people know.

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We think of him now and the world thinks of him now

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as a great statesman. As an icon, practically.

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And yet, he was a young man once,

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and I knew him when he was young.

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Vibrant and warm, friendly and naughty.

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When he was 26, Mandela married. His wife Evelyn was a nurse.

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They had three children.

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Compared to most black people, Mandela was well educated.

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He enrolled as a law student.

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A senior member of the ANC spotted him

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and got him a job as a legal clerk.

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His name was Walter Sisulu

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and he became the most important influence on Mandela's life.

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He struck me at once to be the type of a man I had been looking for.

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I looked upon him as a future leader himself.

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He had qualities which I knew would be useful in our movement.

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Mandela joined the ANC in 1944.

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He helped set up a radical youth wing, determined to fight

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the growing nationalism of the main white minority, the Afrikaners.

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TRANSLATION:

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The 1948 election brought the Afrikaner Nationalists to power.

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Racism and segregation, long common practice, were now enshrined in law.

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Black people had to carry passes to be in white-only areas.

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They had to use separate entrances, separate seats,

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in effect, lead separate lives.

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Our policy is one which is called by an Afrikaans word, apartheid.

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And I'm afraid that has been misunderstood so often.

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It could just as easily

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and perhaps much better be described as a policy of good neighbourliness.

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To fight apartheid,

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Mandela joined forces with another ANC activist, Oliver Tambo.

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They founded the first black law firm in South Africa.

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I met him for the first time

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practising with Oliver Tambo, and already

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at that time, you saw this sense of even-handedness.

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I just thought he was a handsome, tall guy,

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but I didn't think that he was going to cause a great deal of a splash.

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HE CHUCKLES

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How wrong we can be, yes. Mmm.

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Much of Mandela's work was defending black people

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against the rigid pass law offences.

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But he also took the fight against injustice to the streets.

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NEWS REPORT: In Johannesburg, premier city of South Africa,

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thousands of coloured people went to attend a protest meeting

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called by the African National Congress.

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The ANC started a defiance campaign,

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refusing to cooperate with laws they considered unjust.

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By opposing the authorities, Mandela risked jail.

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But he wanted to keep the protest peaceful.

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We hated the apartheid regime.

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We didn't want to have anything to do with them.

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But our brains said, "If you don't talk to these people,

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"this country is going to go up in smoke."

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CHANTING

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SHOUTING

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The white government rejected dialogue.

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Instead, as opposition to apartheid grew,

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they tried to suppress it by force.

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Mandela was arrested with 155 others,

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charged with plotting against the state.

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The Treason Trial, as it was known, dragged on

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for four-and-a-half years.

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Outside the court room, a new face could be seen among the crowd.

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Mandela had met and fallen in love with a social worker,

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Winnie Madikizela.

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His marriage to Evelyn had ended in divorce

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and, two years into the trial, he married Winnie.

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When he met Winnie,

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it was the end of the other girlfriends, in a sense.

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He adored her. He loved her tremendously.

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Winnie was the main attraction in his life.

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But life with Winnie was never going to be easy.

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He telephoned me and jokingly told me that he had married trouble.

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His wife was up on a charge of assaulting a policeman.

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I defended her successfully. That pleased him no end

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and that started a relationship amongst the three of us.

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I think that I probably defended her about 20 times

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during a period of 20, 25 years.

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Eventually, the Treason Trial came to an end

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and the judges reached a verdict - not guilty.

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The defendants celebrated,

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determined to continue their campaign.

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But white South Africa, feeling increasingly threatened,

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prepared for the worst.

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NEWS REPORT: Demonstrations against the South African government's

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strict apartheid policies flare into shocking violence.

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March 1960. A crowd of 10,000 protested in Sharpeville.

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The police response was devastating.

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The crowd refused to disperse. Police opened fire into the crowd...

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69 were killed, many shot in the back while running away.

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The authorities were unrepentant.

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Mandela made a public display of burning his pass,

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urging others to do the same.

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The government responded by declaring a state of emergency.

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The ANC was banned.

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Now a wanted man, Mandela was forced to leave his family

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and go underground, always on the move,

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travelling in disguise.

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By this time,

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he was becoming impatient at the failure of peaceful protest.

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His thoughts were turning to other methods.

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It was quite clear that the apartheid regime did not want

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to have any discussions with us.

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And I was the man who proposed that we should take up arms.

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Did you have any doubts about crossing the Rubicon of violence?

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No, no. I was determined that the time had come.

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There are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us

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to continue talking peace and non violence

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against a government whose reply is only savage attacks

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on an unarmed and defenceless people.

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The idea in my mind was not that we were going to win,

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but that we were going to focus

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the attention of the world on our demands.

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Mandela now established a new military wing of the ANC.

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Their targets were power supplies and government buildings.

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The aim was to avoid loss of life, but Mandela later wrote

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that if sabotage failed, he'd adopt other methods.

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You said you were starting with sabotage,

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but you said that if that didn't work, you'd consider terrorism

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and guerrilla warfare.

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How far is it right to go? We never embarked on terrorism.

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But you said you would if sabotage didn't work, didn't you?

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No, no. You wrote that you would.

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Terrorism means any individual,

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organisation or state

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that attacks innocent individuals.

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That's what terrorism is. We never did.

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In 1962, Mandela left South Africa illegally to raise funds

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and recruit fighters throughout Africa.

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We made it clear that your object is military targets.

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Part of my training was what they called demolition work.

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I was expert...

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in exploding bombs.

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When Mandela returned to South Africa,

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the intelligence services were on his trail.

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On the road to Johannesburg, he was arrested

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and charged with leaving the country without a passport.

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SIREN BLARES

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At his trial, Mandela denounced the proceedings against him,

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saying he was a black man being wrongly tried in a white man's court

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and he defiantly wore his traditional dress.

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Found guilty, he was sentenced to five years in jail.

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But the ANC continued their campaign.

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A year later, at a farmhouse in Rivonia, near Johannesburg,

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the entire top leadership was arrested.

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Police found plans for sabotage

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and guerrilla warfare which implicated Mandela.

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He and his colleagues now faced serious charges

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of plotting against the state.

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If convicted, they faced the death penalty.

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I said to our chaps,

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"We are going to die in any case.

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"Let's disappear under a cloud of glory.

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"Let's show them that we can use their platform to fight them."

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Facing the gallows,

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Mandela turned the courtroom into a political platform

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with a dramatic speech from the dock.

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After an agonising three-week delay, the judge finally gave his verdict.

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Right up to the time when the judge said,

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"Stand up for your sentence," on 12 June 1964,

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we expected the death sentence.

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There was a collective sigh of relief

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when he said, "Life imprisonment with hard labour."

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I shall never lose hope and my people shall never lose hope.

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In fact, we expect that the work will go on.

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SHOUTING

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The vast majority of the white people

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expected the death sentence to be imposed

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and they were disappointed that it was not.

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What was their view of Mandela?

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He was a terrorist.

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If you asked ten white people

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what was Mandela's occupation,

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nine would not have known that he was an attorney.

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He was just a black terrorist.

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Mandela and his co-defendants were sent to Robben Island,

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an isolated prison from which escape was impossible.

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They had avoided the death penalty,

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but faced an indeterminate sentence in jail.

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Years after he was freed, we took Mandela

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and his former colleague Kathrada back to Robben Island.

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Which was mine, now? Number four. Here we are. Uh-huh.

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Mandela's home measured 8ft by 7.

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He slept on the floor and had a bucket,

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known as a ballie, for a toilet.

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Those are not the ballies we had, remember?

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Our ballies were smaller. I see.

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One of the things that is difficult for me to comprehend

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is that we spent such a long time here.

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Of course there were painful moments

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because the apartheid regime was an expert

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in persecuting people psychologically.

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When we first arrived here,

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the warders had been indoctrinated to believe these were subhuman.

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They were trying to break us down, crush our spirits,

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so that they could have a very subservient group of prisoners.

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For 13 years, Mandela was given hard labour.

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He was forced to quarry limestone.

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Always defiant, he resisted attempts by the guards

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to humiliate and bully him.

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They use an expression which is used

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when you are driving oxen.

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In Afrikaans - haak.

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Now, we resented that.

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It was Nelson who said

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"Comrades, let's be slower than ever."

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It was clear, therefore,

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that the steps we were taking would make it impossible

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ever to reach the quarry where we were going to.

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They were compelled to negotiate with Nelson.

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MAN SPEAKS IN AFRIKAANS

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TRANSLATION: You could definitely see that Nelson Mandela was the leader.

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When he spoke to them,

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they would stop, or work, or whatever he told them.

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I watched Nelson Mandela for two hours, the way he was working.

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It took him ten minutes to lift his pickaxe,

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lift it from the ground above his head. Ten minutes!

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I charged him and he was sentenced to only receiving rice water.

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One of Mandela's heaviest burdens was being separated from Winnie.

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She was my wife. I had two children with her. I loved her.

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I thought about her very often, and that's reflected in my letters.

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But private mail was another weapon used against the prisoners.

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TRANSLATION: The head of the prison enforced the policy

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that we should try to break the prisoners down by censoring letters.

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We mixed up their correspondence,

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so they lost contact with their families.

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The prisoners knew we were burning letters

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when they picked up the butts. They were very upset.

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Family visits were severely restricted.

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Winnie was only allowed to see Mandela every six months.

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His two young daughters were refused permission to visit for ten years.

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When his son was killed in a car crash, Mandela wasn't allowed

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to the funeral, nor to his mother's when she died a year later.

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Mandela had now been in jail for 12 years,

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but the government had still not succeeded

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in crushing black opposition.

0:26:020:26:04

In 1976, the black youths of a new generation

0:26:060:26:11

protested against apartheid on the streets of Soweto.

0:26:110:26:14

NEWS REPORT: What started as a peaceful protest,

0:26:170:26:19

degenerated into a rampage which left hundreds dead

0:26:190:26:23

and cost the country an estimated 50 million rand.

0:26:230:26:26

The young ringleaders were arrested and sent to Robben Island.

0:26:260:26:31

There they came face to face with Mandela

0:26:330:26:36

and the old guard of the ANC.

0:26:360:26:38

Mandela has been here with all these people.

0:26:380:26:41

Are they still the same?

0:26:410:26:43

That was the main question.

0:26:430:26:45

Are they as revolutionary as us?

0:26:450:26:47

Are they fighters? Is that spirit of freedom still alive?

0:26:470:26:51

The fire in their bellies, like us?

0:26:510:26:54

The newly arrived firebrands were gradually won round

0:26:540:26:58

by Walter Sisulu and Mandela,

0:26:580:27:01

who'd been elected leader of the ANC prisoners.

0:27:010:27:05

Were you proud to be chosen?

0:27:050:27:07

Proud, in the sense that that was an honour.

0:27:070:27:12

At the same time,

0:27:120:27:15

the impression that you are a demigod worried me.

0:27:150:27:19

I wanted to be regarded just like an ordinary human being,

0:27:190:27:25

with virtues and vices.

0:27:250:27:27

The ANC was still outlawed.

0:27:290:27:32

It was illegal even to publish its name or to refer to Mandela.

0:27:320:27:36

The government hoped that the memory of him would fade.

0:27:370:27:41

But his wife's defiance kept Mandela's name alive.

0:27:410:27:46

We are fighting for a South Africa...

0:27:460:27:49

..which can only be led by him.

0:27:520:27:55

He is the only hope for this country.

0:27:550:28:00

That lady made a massive contribution

0:28:000:28:04

towards the struggle.

0:28:040:28:06

There was one time

0:28:060:28:08

when she became almost the pillar of the organisation inside the country.

0:28:080:28:14

Outside South Africa, support for Mandela was growing.

0:28:140:28:20

Nelson Mandela had this almost mystical impact,

0:28:210:28:26

because of his power, because of his dignity,

0:28:260:28:29

and that transmitted itself

0:28:290:28:31

even from his incarceration in those cold cells

0:28:310:28:34

in Robben Island.

0:28:340:28:36

CHANTING AND SINGING

0:28:360:28:38

And it gradually seeped out into schoolchildren and communities.

0:28:380:28:42

By the mid-1980s, he had become this international figure.

0:28:450:28:49

He became a legend, increasingly,

0:28:490:28:52

so that you have roads named after him, student unions named after him.

0:28:520:28:57

PROTESTORS CHANT

0:28:570:29:00

He became the person who symbolised the freedom struggle.

0:29:000:29:04

Some of the strongest support for the anti-apartheid movement

0:29:050:29:09

came from Britain.

0:29:090:29:10

PROTESTORS SHOUT

0:29:100:29:14

Different interest groups in the United Kingdom

0:29:140:29:16

began to ask the question, what can we do?

0:29:160:29:21

And it became a classless thing.

0:29:210:29:24

It wasn't just trade unions. The civil society became

0:29:240:29:28

very, very conscious and, if you like, this particular blot

0:29:280:29:33

on the global landscape was everybody's business.

0:29:330:29:37

CHANTING: Victory to the ANC!

0:29:370:29:39

In South Africa, the white government stood firm,

0:29:390:29:43

ignoring protest and economic sanctions from around the world.

0:29:430:29:49

Mandela had been imprisoned for 20 years and there he would stay.

0:29:490:29:54

I have always been confident that we'd win, but there were times

0:29:540:30:00

when the apartheid regime appeared to be stronger...

0:30:000:30:06

and I had doubts.

0:30:060:30:07

SCREAMING

0:30:100:30:12

But the young black activists would not give in.

0:30:120:30:16

Their aim was to make South Africa ungovernable.

0:30:160:30:19

SCREAMING

0:30:230:30:25

With the country now on the verge of social and economic collapse,

0:30:250:30:29

the government needed to find a way out.

0:30:290:30:31

The South African President offered Mandela his freedom,

0:30:350:30:40

but with conditions attached.

0:30:400:30:42

I am prepared to release Mr Mandela,

0:30:420:30:48

if he would say that he rejects violence as a means to reach

0:30:480:30:55

and to achieve political ends.

0:30:550:30:58

Mandela's reply from prison was read out by his daughter at a rally

0:30:580:31:04

in Soweto - the first time he had been quoted in public for 20 years.

0:31:040:31:09

My father says, "I cannot and will not give any undertaking

0:31:090:31:16

"at a time when I and you, the people, are not free.

0:31:160:31:20

"Your freedom and mine cannot be separated."

0:31:200:31:23

CHEERING

0:31:230:31:24

"I will return. Amandla!"

0:31:240:31:26

CROWD RESPONDS

0:31:260:31:29

CHEERING

0:31:290:31:31

Mandela's uncompromising message was welcomed by the crowd.

0:31:350:31:39

Nothing less than full democracy was acceptable.

0:31:390:31:43

Around the world, calls for Mandela's release intensified.

0:31:460:31:51

In London, young people, many not born when Mandela

0:31:510:31:55

was last seen in public, joined in a celebration of his 70th birthday.

0:31:550:32:00

There was this huge feeling of support for Mandela.

0:32:000:32:04

You've got this real sense that this concert was being beamed

0:32:040:32:07

all over the world and somewhere in South Africa,

0:32:070:32:09

there were bootleg tapes being made

0:32:090:32:11

and he might see it at some point, and that was a very joyful thing.

0:32:110:32:15

This show is going out to 60 different countries.

0:32:150:32:18

That means at this moment in time, 200 million people are watching.

0:32:180:32:23

CHEERING

0:32:230:32:25

As the day progressed, you really felt

0:32:250:32:28

as if there was a massive change and understanding taking place.

0:32:280:32:32

It was a real point of arrival where young people said

0:32:320:32:38

this is not acceptable.

0:32:380:32:39

Thank you!

0:32:390:32:42

CHEERING

0:32:420:32:44

Our cause was now supported by the entire world

0:32:440:32:47

and apartheid South Africa was a polecat of the world.

0:32:470:32:52

It was completely isolated.

0:32:520:32:54

I want you to scream out loud and clear

0:32:540:32:57

five times - how long.

0:32:570:33:00

CROWD: How long? Again!

0:33:000:33:08

The following year, white South Africa elected a new President -

0:33:080:33:12

FW de Klerk.

0:33:120:33:14

He realised that Mandela held the key to any settlement.

0:33:140:33:18

Mandela had been moved to the comfort of a prison warder's house

0:33:180:33:22

near Cape Town.

0:33:220:33:25

De Klerk began secret talks with him

0:33:250:33:27

about a political settlement that would set him free.

0:33:270:33:31

But when ANC colleagues visited Mandela, they were suspicious.

0:33:310:33:35

When we reached the beautiful home,

0:33:370:33:40

this is not a prison.

0:33:400:33:42

Wine farming area,

0:33:420:33:46

swimming pool...

0:33:460:33:47

..microwaves, television sets...

0:33:490:33:53

I concluded he has sold us out.

0:33:530:33:54

The story went sweeping through the country

0:33:570:33:59

that Mandela was selling out.

0:33:590:34:01

You would hesitate to say it as a colleague of Mandela,

0:34:010:34:05

but lurking there

0:34:050:34:07

was the idea that when you are alone in a corner,

0:34:070:34:11

they have all the resources, they'll out...

0:34:110:34:14

They will bait you into a trap.

0:34:140:34:17

But Mandela did not sell out.

0:34:170:34:19

I was confident that when it came to argument,

0:34:210:34:26

that we want all the rights of citizenship in our country,

0:34:260:34:30

we're superior to them.

0:34:300:34:33

At times, there were about five of them, sometimes six,

0:34:330:34:36

but I was alone, so I had to prepare my case very well.

0:34:360:34:41

Mandela's demands were clear. Equal rights and equal votes for everyone.

0:34:410:34:47

His refusal to compromise gave the government no choice.

0:34:470:34:51

It became clear to me

0:34:530:34:55

that he has a pivotal role to play

0:34:550:34:59

and that he WAS playing it

0:34:590:35:01

irrespective of the fact that he was in jail.

0:35:010:35:03

I wish to put it plainly that the government has taken a firm decision

0:35:060:35:12

to release Mr Mandela unconditionally.

0:35:120:35:14

I am serious about bringing this matter to finality without delay.

0:35:140:35:19

February 11th 1990.

0:35:210:35:24

The world waited to see Mandela's face

0:35:240:35:27

for the first time in over a quarter of a century.

0:35:270:35:31

He had won his freedom on HIS terms.

0:35:310:35:34

NEWS REPORT: This is the hour. This is the hour the world has been waiting for.

0:35:340:35:40

With friends and family at his side, Mandela prepared to walk to freedom.

0:35:420:35:47

It was early on a Sunday morning

0:35:520:35:54

in Arkansas. I got my daughter up, took her down,

0:35:540:35:57

we turned on the television

0:35:570:36:00

and we watched him walk to freedom together.

0:36:000:36:03

I'll never forget it.

0:36:030:36:05

NEWS REPORT: There's Mr Mandela, Mr Nelson Mandela, a free man,

0:36:050:36:09

taking his first steps into a new South Africa.

0:36:090:36:14

NELSON MANDELA: 'When I saw that crowd,

0:36:150:36:17

'it aroused feelings of excitement

0:36:170:36:20

'I couldn't control, I couldn't describe.'

0:36:200:36:24

Nobody believed that they would ever live to see this day

0:36:240:36:28

and we all felt that we were part of this thing.

0:36:280:36:32

I felt that I was liberated.

0:36:320:36:36

I felt that I was free,

0:36:360:36:41

having seen this man, after so many years, free.

0:36:410:36:45

Mandela made his way to Cape Town,

0:36:500:36:53

where a huge crowd waited to hear him speak

0:36:530:36:57

for the first time as a free man.

0:36:570:37:00

Today, the majority of South Africans,

0:37:000:37:04

black and white,

0:37:040:37:07

recognise that apartheid has no future.

0:37:070:37:10

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:37:120:37:14

CROWD SINGS: "NKOSI SIKELEL'I AFRIKA"

0:37:160:37:21

Mandela was at last reunited with his wife Winnie,

0:37:210:37:25

but it wasn't the happy homecoming he had longed for.

0:37:250:37:29

Winnie's defiant support of her husband had come at a price.

0:37:290:37:34

She too had been persecuted and imprisoned,

0:37:340:37:38

but her own wayward behaviour had lost her sympathy.

0:37:380:37:42

MEN CHANT

0:37:440:37:47

While Mandela was in jail,

0:37:470:37:48

Winnie had recruited a young gang to protect her.

0:37:480:37:52

They were known as the Mandela United Football Club.

0:37:520:37:56

They were implicated in the murder of a 14-year-old boy,

0:37:560:38:00

and Winnie was charged with kidnap and assault.

0:38:000:38:03

I feel sad about her

0:38:050:38:07

because there is so much that she did...

0:38:070:38:09

..and yet, when she stumbled,

0:38:100:38:14

and people tried, including Madiba, to give her that support,

0:38:140:38:20

she failed to respond.

0:38:200:38:22

CHEERING

0:38:220:38:23

Mandela stood by her during her trial

0:38:230:38:26

and she escaped with a suspended sentence,

0:38:260:38:29

but his loyalty was being sorely tested.

0:38:290:38:33

Winnie was having an affair, and there had been allegations

0:38:330:38:37

of other infidelities while he was in prison.

0:38:370:38:40

Two years after he left jail,

0:38:400:38:42

Mandela bowed to the inevitable.

0:38:420:38:45

We have mutually agreed

0:38:470:38:50

that a separation would be best for each one of us.

0:38:500:38:54

Ladies and gentlemen,

0:38:570:38:58

I hope you'll appreciate...

0:38:580:39:01

..the pain I have gone through.

0:39:020:39:05

ANGRY SHOUTING

0:39:060:39:09

Mandela's release

0:39:090:39:10

and the government's willingness to negotiate with him

0:39:100:39:13

triggered a power struggle between the ANC and a rival political group,

0:39:130:39:19

the Zulu Inkatha movement.

0:39:190:39:21

Violence between the two groups

0:39:210:39:24

threatened to destroy any hope of a peaceful settlement.

0:39:240:39:27

Mandela urged young ANC supporters to make peace.

0:39:290:39:34

Take your guns,

0:39:350:39:39

your knives and your pangas

0:39:390:39:44

and throw them into the sea.

0:39:440:39:47

JEERING

0:39:480:39:50

What was your reaction

0:39:520:39:54

when you heard your words just fall on such stony ground?

0:39:540:39:59

I was not surprised.

0:40:010:40:03

That's why I said, "If I am your leader, you have to listen to me

0:40:030:40:08

"and if you don't want to listen to me, then drop me as your leader."

0:40:080:40:12

Against this background of uncertainty,

0:40:130:40:17

negotiations began for the future of South Africa.

0:40:170:40:20

Mandela, once considered a terrorist, was now the peacemaker.

0:40:200:40:24

'The first meeting was very impressive.

0:40:260:40:29

'His statement there I will never forget.'

0:40:290:40:33

It was with no bitterness, no vengefulness,

0:40:330:40:36

not a sign of hatred.

0:40:360:40:39

At no stage did he endeavour to exploit

0:40:410:40:44

or use his 27 years in prison.

0:40:440:40:48

There was a statesman speaking as if he was never in prison.

0:40:480:40:51

Talks were painstakingly slow,

0:40:510:40:55

but an event outside the negotiating room

0:40:550:40:57

brought the urgency of the task into focus.

0:40:570:41:00

NEWS REPORT: The assassination of Chris Hani

0:41:020:41:04

has shocked South Africa and triggered fears

0:41:040:41:07

in a country where violence and retaliation are commonplace.

0:41:070:41:10

Chris Hani was one of the country's most popular black politicians.

0:41:130:41:18

His assassination by a white extremist

0:41:180:41:21

threatened to trigger all-out race war.

0:41:210:41:24

INDISTINCT SPEECH

0:41:260:41:29

An outburst of rioting and looting left 70 dead.

0:41:340:41:39

Only one man now had the authority to calm the country.

0:41:390:41:43

They saw the urgency of the situation.

0:41:430:41:45

I think everybody understood that this is it.

0:41:450:41:47

So there was no argument, and that evening

0:41:470:41:51

he entered the television station, for the first time live.

0:41:510:41:55

We are a nation in mourning.

0:41:550:41:58

Our pain and anger is real.

0:41:580:42:02

Yet we must not permit ourselves

0:42:020:42:05

to be provoked by those

0:42:050:42:08

who seek to deny us the very thing Chris Hani gave his life for.

0:42:080:42:14

This is the defining moment

0:42:140:42:16

when Nelson Mandela resumed the reins

0:42:160:42:19

because he had to rescue a terrible situation in the country.

0:42:190:42:22

In effect, Mandela became President on that day.

0:42:240:42:27

The negotiations for free elections took four years.

0:42:330:42:38

But for the first time, in April 1994,

0:42:380:42:41

black South Africans were given an equal vote with whites.

0:42:410:42:46

23 million people went to the polls.

0:42:460:42:49

We were turning a new page in the history of South Africa.

0:42:540:43:00

This was in my mind as I cast that ballot paper.

0:43:000:43:06

APPLAUSE

0:43:110:43:14

People can't believe it

0:43:140:43:16

when you say, "Hey! I'm free!

0:43:160:43:18

"I'm free!"

0:43:180:43:19

And you are walking tall.

0:43:190:43:22

And cloud nine -

0:43:220:43:25

well, that's too low.

0:43:250:43:27

The outcome of the election was never in doubt.

0:43:310:43:34

The ANC won power, Nelson Mandela was the new President

0:43:340:43:39

and the world came to the capital, Pretoria,

0:43:390:43:42

to pay tribute to the man who'd led South Africa out of its nightmare.

0:43:420:43:48

# Mandela!

0:43:480:43:50

# Mandela! #

0:43:500:43:52

I never imagined that the world would give us the support we enjoyed

0:44:100:44:17

and to be known as a miracle country,

0:44:170:44:21

I had never expected that,

0:44:210:44:23

but that gave us a lot of pride.

0:44:230:44:26

I, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela,

0:44:300:44:34

do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of South Africa.

0:44:340:44:41

The election of Mandela was not a magic wand that could be waved

0:44:430:44:47

to heal the wounds of old hatreds.

0:44:470:44:50

Mandela realised he had to reach out to the white minority

0:44:500:44:53

and he did so by embracing their powerful tribal symbol - rugby.

0:44:530:44:58

It was the World Cup final,

0:44:580:45:00

the South African Springboks against the New Zealand All Blacks.

0:45:000:45:05

CROWD: Nelson! Nelson! Nelson!

0:45:050:45:08

I went round the stadium.

0:45:080:45:11

I did not expect such an ovation.

0:45:120:45:16

A momentous occasion, unbelievable occasion

0:45:170:45:20

and there was Madiba wearing a Springbok jumper.

0:45:200:45:24

I thought, "Wow!" And in his very calm, collected way, sincere way,

0:45:240:45:29

he wished the guys well.

0:45:290:45:31

Then he turned around

0:45:310:45:33

and when he turned around, I saw it was my number

0:45:330:45:36

and I was just, that's it, you know, I was ready to run through anything

0:45:360:45:40

and do whatever's necessary to win this game.

0:45:400:45:42

CROWD: Nelson! Nelson! Nelson!

0:45:420:45:44

Any other president in the world would have worn his best suit.

0:45:440:45:48

Here comes a guy that was incarcerated

0:45:480:45:51

supporting a white man's game,

0:45:510:45:53

wearing a white man's jumper. Incredible.

0:45:530:45:56

ALL SING: "NKOSI SIKELEL'I AFRIKA"

0:45:590:46:03

I couldn't sing. I was biting my lower lip

0:46:030:46:06

because I knew if I opened my mouth, I would start to cry.

0:46:060:46:09

I was just so proud, unbelievably proud.

0:46:090:46:13

In the closing minutes, the Springboks scored a drop goal

0:46:220:46:26

and won the match and, with it, the World Cup.

0:46:260:46:30

It wasn't a victory for white South Africa.

0:46:340:46:38

This was a victory for all of South Africa

0:46:380:46:41

and he was there, sharing it with us.

0:46:410:46:44

Let's follow the detractors' route

0:46:440:46:46

and say, "It was a very shrewd political move." OK, fine.

0:46:460:46:50

But the way in which he carried that political move was just tremendous.

0:46:500:46:54

CROWD CHEERS

0:46:560:46:59

TRANSLATION: If they can just show us the bones of my child,

0:47:040:47:10

I will be grateful.

0:47:100:47:13

Where did they leave the bones of my child?

0:47:130:47:17

Where did they take him?

0:47:170:47:20

The toughest challenge Mandela faced

0:47:200:47:23

was to persuade South Africa to forget the horrors of the past

0:47:230:47:28

and not seek revenge. At public hearings,

0:47:280:47:31

victims were encouraged to confront their aggressors,

0:47:310:47:35

who escaped prosecution if they confessed.

0:47:350:47:38

TRANSLATION: He took my genitals

0:47:380:47:41

and Mr X shut the drawer.

0:47:410:47:46

He squeezed and squeezed.

0:47:500:47:52

What kind of man, listening to those moans and cries and groans,

0:47:520:47:59

and taking each of those people very near to their deaths,

0:47:590:48:04

what kind of man is that?

0:48:040:48:08

Not only you have asked me that question.

0:48:090:48:12

If we don't forgive them,

0:48:120:48:16

then that feeling of bitterness and revenge will be there

0:48:160:48:21

and we are saying, "Let us forget the past.

0:48:210:48:26

"Let's concern ourselves with the present and the future, but to say

0:48:260:48:31

"the atrocities of the past will never be allowed to happen again."

0:48:310:48:36

My wife was sitting right at the door where you came in.

0:48:360:48:40

VOICE BREAKING: She was wearing a long blue coat.

0:48:420:48:45

Can you remember if you shot her?

0:48:450:48:48

When he says, "Guys, we've got to forgive,"

0:48:540:48:58

nobody could say, "You are being facile,

0:48:580:49:02

"you are talking glibly about forgiveness.

0:49:020:49:04

"What do you know about suffering?" 27 years, you know.

0:49:040:49:08

TRANSLATION: We are sorry...

0:49:080:49:10

..for what we have done.

0:49:110:49:13

It was the situation in South Africa.

0:49:150:49:18

BILL CLINTON: He did something almost historically unique...

0:49:180:49:23

We are asking from you,

0:49:230:49:26

please do forgive us.

0:49:260:49:28

..which raised the prospect that people could be held accountable

0:49:310:49:35

without being punished in a traditional sense.

0:49:350:49:39

This is something virtually without precedent in humanity.

0:49:390:49:43

..two...three!

0:49:490:49:52

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:49:530:49:56

On his 80th birthday,

0:49:560:49:58

Mandela married once more.

0:49:580:50:00

His third wife was Graca Machel,

0:50:030:50:06

widow of the President of Mozambique,

0:50:060:50:09

who'd died 12 years earlier.

0:50:090:50:11

The beginning of our closeness, if I can say,

0:50:130:50:18

it was two people

0:50:180:50:21

who had been very hurt by life.

0:50:210:50:25

That sense of being lonely

0:50:260:50:30

and trying to find answers for a very deep sense of pain and loss,

0:50:300:50:36

I think that's what sparked our connection.

0:50:360:50:38

One, two, three!

0:50:380:50:41

Take off your shoes and your skirt and go and jump with them!

0:50:430:50:47

LAUGHTER

0:50:470:50:49

Between them, Nelson and Graca had 45 grandchildren

0:50:490:50:53

and great-grandchildren.

0:50:530:50:55

Madiba had very little of family life before.

0:50:570:51:02

He was married, he had children,

0:51:040:51:07

but because of his obligations,

0:51:070:51:09

he never had time to have a normal family life.

0:51:090:51:13

It was that possibility again

0:51:210:51:25

of him regaining a family

0:51:250:51:28

and the space where you take away all your defences

0:51:280:51:33

and you are just a human being.

0:51:330:51:36

# Nelson Mandela

0:51:410:51:43

# Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela... #

0:51:430:51:47

At the end of his five-year term as President,

0:51:470:51:50

Mandela kept his promise to step down,

0:51:500:51:53

but had no intention of leaving the stage.

0:51:530:51:55

I'll have to get you the Sowetan. Oh, I see. I'll get it now.

0:51:580:52:03

Retirement didn't change the hectic pace of his life.

0:52:030:52:07

You'll get me these people too, you know, get all those. Yeah.

0:52:070:52:11

And then I would like to speak to the Pope

0:52:110:52:14

and then to President Putin

0:52:140:52:18

and then Sukarnoputri. OK.

0:52:180:52:22

MUSIC AND CHEERING

0:52:230:52:25

He used his pulling power with world leaders and celebrities

0:52:290:52:33

to raise millions for children, education

0:52:330:52:36

and AIDS - an issue which

0:52:360:52:39

he had been criticised for ignoring while President.

0:52:390:52:42

He established a charity to help fight the disease,

0:52:420:52:47

which claims hundreds of lives every day in South Africa.

0:52:470:52:51

He called it after his prison number - 46664.

0:52:510:52:56

A silent serial killer stalks the land.

0:52:570:53:01

Mandela was no longer President

0:53:010:53:04

and now we're looking at an elderly statesman

0:53:040:53:08

who had realised that the HIV/AIDS pandemic was ravaging the country

0:53:080:53:14

and the message was no longer about apartheid, obviously.

0:53:140:53:17

The message was that a genocide was taking place in his country.

0:53:170:53:21

Mandela's global campaign was brought home to him personally

0:53:210:53:27

when Makgatho, his only surviving son, died of AIDS in 2005.

0:53:270:53:32

Mandela chose to speak publicly about the cause of his death.

0:53:320:53:39

It gives a very bad reflection indeed to the members of the family

0:53:390:53:43

that they themselves should not come out and say bravely

0:53:430:53:47

that a member of my family has died of AIDS.

0:53:470:53:51

That's why we took the initiative

0:53:510:53:55

to say a member of our family has died -

0:53:550:54:00

in this particular case, my son.

0:54:000:54:04

I was the one who told my dad about Gatho's condition, you know.

0:54:040:54:09

And I know the day that I told him, how he reacted,

0:54:090:54:13

you know, like any other normal parent would react.

0:54:130:54:17

It was not an easy thing for him to accept.

0:54:170:54:20

I think for him, who has been a role model, you know,

0:54:230:54:28

in this country in many, many spheres,

0:54:280:54:31

it was important for him to come out and say,

0:54:310:54:34

"Look, my son also had HIV, lived through HIV and died."

0:54:340:54:37

Mandela lent his support to other campaigns.

0:54:390:54:43

On a winter's day, he came to London

0:54:430:54:45

to ask a crowd of 20,000 to make poverty history.

0:54:450:54:49

APPLAUSE

0:54:490:54:51

He's hugely personable.

0:54:510:54:54

He holds your hand, he just beams and lights up.

0:54:540:54:58

He is properly the real deal

0:54:580:55:00

and you sort of think, "Oh, my God, it's Mandela,"

0:55:000:55:03

and you remember all his life,

0:55:030:55:04

and then you meet him and it's that, plus.

0:55:040:55:07

As long as poverty, injustice

0:55:070:55:11

and gross inequality persist in our world,

0:55:110:55:15

none of us can truly rest.

0:55:150:55:18

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:55:180:55:21

Ladies and gentlemen, Nelson Mandela!

0:55:210:55:24

Nelson Mandela's 90th birthday concert in Hyde Park

0:55:270:55:31

was his last visit to London.

0:55:310:55:34

THEY SING: "Free Nelson Mandela"

0:55:340:55:37

The famous anthem of 20 years earlier was sung in tribute.

0:55:390:55:42

# Freedom!

0:55:420:55:44

# Free Nelson Mandela

0:55:440:55:50

# Freedom

0:55:500:55:51

# Free Nelson Mandela

0:55:510:55:58

# Freedom!

0:55:580:56:00

# Free Nelson Mandela! #

0:56:000:56:08

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:56:080:56:12

His legacy is himself. He was a huge influence on the world.

0:56:120:56:16

To see the terrible regime of apartheid be dismantled

0:56:160:56:21

is an extraordinary testament to his tenacity and his strength.

0:56:210:56:27

He taught us something about peace and reconciliation

0:56:280:56:31

in stoically enduring 27 years of imprisonment and abuse

0:56:310:56:36

and coming out on the other side of it without rancour or bitterness

0:56:360:56:39

and asking people to put their anger behind.

0:56:390:56:42

People need symbols.

0:56:440:56:47

People need inspiration.

0:56:470:56:50

What was he looking for? He's looking for freedom -

0:56:500:56:54

not for himself.

0:56:540:56:56

It is freedom for all of these others.

0:56:560:57:00

After nearly 90 years of life,

0:57:000:57:06

it is time for new hands to lift the burdens.

0:57:060:57:11

It is in your hands now.

0:57:110:57:14

I thank you.

0:57:140:57:17

At the closing ceremony of the 2010 Football World Cup,

0:57:220:57:26

with his wife Graca at his side,

0:57:260:57:28

Nelson Mandela made one of his last public appearances.

0:57:280:57:32

85,000 spectators rose to their feet

0:57:340:57:37

to welcome Madiba, the father of their nation,

0:57:370:57:41

a man who'd sacrificed his liberty for their freedom.

0:57:410:57:45

If I had to live again, I would do exactly the same thing.

0:57:590:58:04

As long as our people are oppressed

0:58:040:58:07

and deprived of everything to make human beings happy and to enjoy life,

0:58:070:58:13

it was my duty to be involved

0:58:130:58:15

and I would do it over and over again.

0:58:150:58:18

My family was here

0:58:200:58:22

and I would like to be buried here, at home.

0:58:220:58:26

But I don't want to take long about death, and so on.

0:58:280:58:32

OK!

0:58:320:58:34

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

0:59:090:59:12

Nelson Mandela (1918 - 2013) was a freedom fighter, loved and respected around the world.

In his struggle against apartheid, Mandela felt violence was justified. He was considered by the South African government, and many others, to be a terrorist. He was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment.

During his 27 years in jail, world leaders, pop stars and the public called for his freedom and an end to apartheid. Finally in 1990, at the age of 72, he was freed.

Forgiving his oppressors, Mandela negotiated with the South African government, and in 1994 the country held its first free election. Twenty-three million people voted and Mandela won by an overwhelming majority, becoming the first black president of a new South Africa.

In his retirement he worked ceaselessly to combat poverty, injustice and HIV.

David Dimbleby presents a look back at Nelson Mandela's life - including interviews Dimbleby conducted with Mandela in 2003. World leaders and well-known artists commenting on Mandela's life include Bill Clinton, Archbishop Tutu, Bob Geldof, Annie Lennox and Lenny Henry.


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