Nelson Mandela: The Fight for Freedom


Nelson Mandela: The Fight for Freedom

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Nelson Mandela's life was dedicated to the struggle

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to set his people free.

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I think one of the attributes of a leader

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is that he must be in it not for himself.

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We're talking about a man who was threatened with death,

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he was in jail, but he would not bend and when he came out,

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he embraced grace, forgiveness...

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It's hard to be that type of human.

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In the fight against apartheid in South Africa,

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Mandela felt violence was justified.

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He was arrested on a charge of treason

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and sentenced to life imprisonment.

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For 27 years, he was cut off from the outside world.

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One of the things that is difficult for me to comprehend

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is that we spent such a long time here.

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Finally, in 1990, he was set free.

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Today, black and white recognise that apartheid has no future.

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CHEERING

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So help me God.

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Forgiving his oppressors, Mandela led a new South Africa.

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A freedom fighter who became a symbol of peace

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and reconciliation across the world.

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Mandela represents hope over despair,

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with a particular kind of vision that the impossible can be achieved.

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'He was the father of his country.'

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He was a wise, good, great, but exceedingly shrewd and tough man

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who understood that South Africa can only go forward together.

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'Incredibly magnanimous.'

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And with a wonderful capacity for including others.

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In the summer of 2008,

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over 40,000 people gathered in London's Hyde Park...

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..for a concert.

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For Nelson Mandela, let me see your hands!

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Mandela was celebrating his birthday.

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Looking pretty good for 90!

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# La, la, la, la... #

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Ladies and gentlemen, the one, the only, the birthday boy,

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Nelson Mandela!

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Mandela was so widely loved and respected

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that he could persuade the rich,

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the famous and the world's public to support him in his campaigns.

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Tonight...

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we can stand before you free.

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But let us remind ourselves that our work is far from complete.

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Where there is poverty and sickness,

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including AIDS,

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where human beings are being oppressed,

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there is more work to be done.

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Our work...

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is for freedom for all.

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CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

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Mandela's own fight for freedom took him on a remarkable journey

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that began nearly a century ago.

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He was born in 1918 in South Africa,

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a country where black people were oppressed by a white minority.

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His home was in this remote village in the region of the Transkei.

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'He invited me to join him here in 2003,

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'during the course of recording a series of interviews with him.'

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This is an opportunity for me to come back here, I do.

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Because it evokes very pleasant memories, my being here.

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What kind of memories? Of childhood.

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Raised in a large family, Mandela was only nine when his father died.

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He went to live with his uncle, a tribal leader.

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He was a hard-working boy and the first in his family to go to school.

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'At that time,

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'the government took no interest whatsoever

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'in the education of blacks.'

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It was the missionaries who bought land,

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who put up buildings, who furnished them,

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who employed and paid teachers.

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And that is how I was brought up.

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ORGAN MUSIC

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When he was 19, he was sent to study at a Methodist college,

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his introduction to a wider world.

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Here, he heard for the first time about the ANC,

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the African National Congress,

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the party which was fighting for black South Africans.

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'People were not talking so much about traditional leaders,

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'but were talking about modern leaders.'

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This opened my eyes to something totally different,

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and all that was shaping my attitude.

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TOWNSHIP SINGING

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Mandela's family expected him

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to take on the responsibilities of a tribal leader.

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But he had other ideas.

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He ran away, and that decision took Mandela for the first time

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to the great city of Johannesburg.

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Life in the city was strictly segregated.

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His lodgings were in a township reserved for black people.

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He once said he'd never seen such poverty.

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Like many new arrivals, he found a job in the gold mines,

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working as a night-watchman.

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There, he saw at first hand the indignity suffered

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by the black population, in a country dominated by white people.

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He's a little bit thin.

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HE PANTS

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Their colours are good. Yes.

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I think you'd better have an X-ray. There you are.

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The young Mandela, known as Madiba to his friends,

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was content to ignore politics and enjoy life.

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He took up boxing, hoping he might one day be a champion.

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DANCE MUSIC PLAYS

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He enjoyed dancing

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and other night-life attractions that Johannesburg offered.

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Our hero was Victor Silvester, the chap who was a ballroom champion.

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And we tried to imitate him.

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Then we did the waltz and the tango, you know? And so on.

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But I was never a champion.

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But I liked dancing.

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At one point, you were a kind of man about town.

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I mean, you got all the best girls and...

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No, that's true. It's true, is it?

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You're not ashamed to say so? Oh, no, no, no. I mean, it's history.

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Er, people know.

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We think of him now and the world thinks of him now

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as a great statesman. As an icon, practically.

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And yet, he was a young man once,

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and I knew him when he was young.

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Vibrant and warm, friendly and naughty.

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When he was 26, Mandela married. His wife Evelyn was a nurse.

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They had three children.

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Compared to most black people, Mandela was well educated.

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He enrolled as a law student.

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A senior member of the ANC spotted him

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and got him a job as a legal clerk.

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His name was Walter Sisulu

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and he became the most important influence on Mandela's life.

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He struck me at once to be the type of a man I had been looking for.

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I looked upon him as a future leader himself.

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He had qualities which I knew would be useful in our movement.

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Mandela joined the ANC in 1944.

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He helped set up a radical youth wing, determined to fight

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the growing nationalism of the main white minority, the Afrikaners.

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TRANSLATION:

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The 1948 election brought the Afrikaner Nationalists to power.

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Racism and segregation, long common practice, were now enshrined in law.

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Black people had to carry passes to be in white-only areas.

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They had to use separate entrances, separate seats,

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in effect, lead separate lives.

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Our policy is one which is called by an Afrikaans word, apartheid.

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And I'm afraid that has been misunderstood so often.

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It could just as easily

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and perhaps much better be described as a policy of good neighbourliness.

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To fight apartheid,

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Mandela joined forces with another ANC activist, Oliver Tambo.

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They founded the first black law firm in South Africa.

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I met him for the first time

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practising with Oliver Tambo, and already

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at that time, you saw this sense of even-handedness.

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I just thought he was a handsome, tall guy,

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but I didn't think that he was going to cause a great deal of a splash.

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HE CHUCKLES

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How wrong we can be, yes. Mmm.

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Much of Mandela's work was defending black people

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against the rigid pass law offences.

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But he also took the fight against injustice to the streets.

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NEWS REPORT: In Johannesburg, premier city of South Africa,

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thousands of coloured people went to attend a protest meeting

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called by the African National Congress.

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The ANC started a defiance campaign,

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refusing to cooperate with laws they considered unjust.

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By opposing the authorities, Mandela risked jail.

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But he wanted to keep the protest peaceful.

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We hated the apartheid regime.

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We didn't want to have anything to do with them.

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But our brains said, "If you don't talk to these people,

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"this country is going to go up in smoke."

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CHANTING

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SHOUTING

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The white government rejected dialogue.

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Instead, as opposition to apartheid grew,

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they tried to suppress it by force.

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Mandela was arrested with 155 others,

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charged with plotting against the state.

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The Treason Trial, as it was known, dragged on

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for four-and-a-half years.

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Outside the court room, a new face could be seen among the crowd.

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Mandela had met and fallen in love with a social worker,

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Winnie Madikizela.

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His marriage to Evelyn had ended in divorce

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and, two years into the trial, he married Winnie.

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When he met Winnie,

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it was the end of the other girlfriends, in a sense.

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He adored her. He loved her tremendously.

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Winnie was the main attraction in his life.

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But life with Winnie was never going to be easy.

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He telephoned me and jokingly told me that he had married trouble.

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His wife was up on a charge of assaulting a policeman.

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I defended her successfully. That pleased him no end

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and that started a relationship amongst the three of us.

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I think that I probably defended her about 20 times

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during a period of 20, 25 years.

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Eventually, the Treason Trial came to an end

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and the judges reached a verdict - not guilty.

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The defendants celebrated,

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determined to continue their campaign.

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But white South Africa, feeling increasingly threatened,

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prepared for the worst.

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NEWS REPORT: Demonstrations against the South African government's

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strict apartheid policies flare into shocking violence.

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March 1960. A crowd of 10,000 protested in Sharpeville.

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The police response was devastating.

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The crowd refused to disperse. Police opened fire into the crowd...

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69 were killed, many shot in the back while running away.

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The authorities were unrepentant.

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Mandela made a public display of burning his pass,

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urging others to do the same.

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The government responded by declaring a state of emergency.

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The ANC was banned.

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Now a wanted man, Mandela was forced to leave his family

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and go underground, always on the move,

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travelling in disguise.

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By this time,

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he was becoming impatient at the failure of peaceful protest.

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His thoughts were turning to other methods.

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It was quite clear that the apartheid regime did not want

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to have any discussions with us.

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And I was the man who proposed that we should take up arms.

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Did you have any doubts about crossing the Rubicon of violence?

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No, no. I was determined that the time had come.

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There are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us

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to continue talking peace and non violence

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against a government whose reply is only savage attacks

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on an unarmed and defenceless people.

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The idea in my mind was not that we were going to win,

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but that we were going to focus

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the attention of the world on our demands.

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Mandela now established a new military wing of the ANC.

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Their targets were power supplies and government buildings.

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The aim was to avoid loss of life, but Mandela later wrote

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that if sabotage failed, he'd adopt other methods.

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You said you were starting with sabotage,

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but you said that if that didn't work, you'd consider terrorism

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and guerrilla warfare.

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How far is it right to go? We never embarked on terrorism.

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But you said you would if sabotage didn't work, didn't you?

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No, no. You wrote that you would.

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Terrorism means any individual,

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organisation or state

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that attacks innocent individuals.

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That's what terrorism is. We never did.

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In 1962, Mandela left South Africa illegally to raise funds

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and recruit fighters throughout Africa.

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We made it clear that your object is military targets.

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Part of my training was what they called demolition work.

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I was expert...

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in exploding bombs.

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When Mandela returned to South Africa,

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the intelligence services were on his trail.

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On the road to Johannesburg, he was arrested

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and charged with leaving the country without a passport.

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SIREN BLARES

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At his trial, Mandela denounced the proceedings against him,

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saying he was a black man being wrongly tried in a white man's court

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and he defiantly wore his traditional dress.

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Found guilty, he was sentenced to five years in jail.

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But the ANC continued their campaign.

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A year later, at a farmhouse in Rivonia, near Johannesburg,

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the entire top leadership was arrested.

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Police found plans for sabotage

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and guerrilla warfare which implicated Mandela.

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He and his colleagues now faced serious charges

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of plotting against the state.

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If convicted, they faced the death penalty.

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I said to our chaps,

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"We are going to die in any case.

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"Let's disappear under a cloud of glory.

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"Let's show them that we can use their platform to fight them."

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Facing the gallows,

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Mandela turned the courtroom into a political platform

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with a dramatic speech from the dock.

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After an agonising three-week delay, the judge finally gave his verdict.

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Right up to the time when the judge said,

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"Stand up for your sentence," on 12 June 1964,

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we expected the death sentence.

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There was a collective sigh of relief

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when he said, "Life imprisonment with hard labour."

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I shall never lose hope and my people shall never lose hope.

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In fact, we expect that the work will go on.

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SHOUTING

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The vast majority of the white people

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expected the death sentence to be imposed

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and they were disappointed that it was not.

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What was their view of Mandela?

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He was a terrorist.

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If you asked ten white people

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what was Mandela's occupation,

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nine would not have known that he was an attorney.

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He was just a black terrorist.

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Mandela and his co-defendants were sent to Robben Island,

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an isolated prison from which escape was impossible.

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They had avoided the death penalty,

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but faced an indeterminate sentence in jail.

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Years after he was freed, we took Mandela

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and his former colleague Kathrada back to Robben Island.

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Which was mine, now? Number four. Here we are. Uh-huh.

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Mandela's home measured 8ft by 7.

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He slept on the floor and had a bucket,

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known as a ballie, for a toilet.

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Those are not the ballies we had, remember?

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Our ballies were smaller. I see.

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One of the things that is difficult for me to comprehend

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is that we spent such a long time here.

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Of course there were painful moments

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because the apartheid regime was an expert

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in persecuting people psychologically.

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When we first arrived here,

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the warders had been indoctrinated to believe these were subhuman.

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They were trying to break us down, crush our spirits,

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so that they could have a very subservient group of prisoners.

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For 13 years, Mandela was given hard labour.

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He was forced to quarry limestone.

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Always defiant, he resisted attempts by the guards

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to humiliate and bully him.

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They use an expression which is used

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when you are driving oxen.

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In Afrikaans - haak.

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Now, we resented that.

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It was Nelson who said

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"Comrades, let's be slower than ever."

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It was clear, therefore,

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that the steps we were taking would make it impossible

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ever to reach the quarry where we were going to.

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They were compelled to negotiate with Nelson.

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MAN SPEAKS IN AFRIKAANS

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TRANSLATION: You could definitely see that Nelson Mandela was the leader.

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When he spoke to them,

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they would stop, or work, or whatever he told them.

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I watched Nelson Mandela for two hours, the way he was working.

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It took him ten minutes to lift his pickaxe,

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lift it from the ground above his head. Ten minutes!

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I charged him and he was sentenced to only receiving rice water.

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One of Mandela's heaviest burdens was being separated from Winnie.

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She was my wife. I had two children with her. I loved her.

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I thought about her very often, and that's reflected in my letters.

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But private mail was another weapon used against the prisoners.

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TRANSLATION: The head of the prison enforced the policy

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that we should try to break the prisoners down by censoring letters.

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We mixed up their correspondence,

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so they lost contact with their families.

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The prisoners knew we were burning letters

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when they picked up the butts. They were very upset.

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Family visits were severely restricted.

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Winnie was only allowed to see Mandela every six months.

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His two young daughters were refused permission to visit for ten years.

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When his son was killed in a car crash, Mandela wasn't allowed

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to the funeral, nor to his mother's when she died a year later.

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Mandela had now been in jail for 12 years,

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but the government had still not succeeded

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in crushing black opposition.

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In 1976, the black youths of a new generation

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protested against apartheid on the streets of Soweto.

0:26:110:26:14

NEWS REPORT: What started as a peaceful protest,

0:26:170:26:19

degenerated into a rampage which left hundreds dead

0:26:190:26:23

and cost the country an estimated 50 million rand.

0:26:230:26:26

The young ringleaders were arrested and sent to Robben Island.

0:26:260:26:31

There they came face to face with Mandela

0:26:330:26:36

and the old guard of the ANC.

0:26:360:26:38

Mandela has been here with all these people.

0:26:380:26:41

Are they still the same?

0:26:410:26:43

That was the main question.

0:26:430:26:45

Are they as revolutionary as us?

0:26:450:26:47

Are they fighters? Is that spirit of freedom still alive?

0:26:470:26:51

The fire in their bellies, like us?

0:26:510:26:54

The newly arrived firebrands were gradually won round

0:26:540:26:58

by Walter Sisulu and Mandela,

0:26:580:27:01

who'd been elected leader of the ANC prisoners.

0:27:010:27:05

Were you proud to be chosen?

0:27:050:27:07

Proud, in the sense that that was an honour.

0:27:070:27:12

At the same time,

0:27:120:27:15

the impression that you are a demigod worried me.

0:27:150:27:19

I wanted to be regarded just like an ordinary human being,

0:27:190:27:25

with virtues and vices.

0:27:250:27:27

The ANC was still outlawed.

0:27:290:27:32

It was illegal even to publish its name or to refer to Mandela.

0:27:320:27:36

The government hoped that the memory of him would fade.

0:27:370:27:41

But his wife's defiance kept Mandela's name alive.

0:27:410:27:46

We are fighting for a South Africa...

0:27:460:27:49

..which can only be led by him.

0:27:520:27:55

He is the only hope for this country.

0:27:550:28:00

That lady made a massive contribution

0:28:000:28:04

towards the struggle.

0:28:040:28:06

There was one time

0:28:060:28:08

when she became almost the pillar of the organisation inside the country.

0:28:080:28:14

Outside South Africa, support for Mandela was growing.

0:28:140:28:20

Nelson Mandela had this almost mystical impact,

0:28:210:28:26

because of his power, because of his dignity,

0:28:260:28:29

and that transmitted itself

0:28:290:28:31

even from his incarceration in those cold cells

0:28:310:28:34

in Robben Island.

0:28:340:28:36

CHANTING AND SINGING

0:28:360:28:38

And it gradually seeped out into schoolchildren and communities.

0:28:380:28:42

By the mid-1980s, he had become this international figure.

0:28:450:28:49

He became a legend, increasingly,

0:28:490:28:52

so that you have roads named after him, student unions named after him.

0:28:520:28:57

PROTESTORS CHANT

0:28:570:29:00

He became the person who symbolised the freedom struggle.

0:29:000:29:04

Some of the strongest support for the anti-apartheid movement

0:29:050:29:09

came from Britain.

0:29:090:29:10

PROTESTORS SHOUT

0:29:100:29:14

Different interest groups in the United Kingdom

0:29:140:29:16

began to ask the question, what can we do?

0:29:160:29:21

And it became a classless thing.

0:29:210:29:24

It wasn't just trade unions. The civil society became

0:29:240:29:28

very, very conscious and, if you like, this particular blot

0:29:280:29:33

on the global landscape was everybody's business.

0:29:330:29:37

CHANTING: Victory to the ANC!

0:29:370:29:39

In South Africa, the white government stood firm,

0:29:390:29:43

ignoring protest and economic sanctions from around the world.

0:29:430:29:49

Mandela had been imprisoned for 20 years and there he would stay.

0:29:490:29:54

I have always been confident that we'd win, but there were times

0:29:540:30:00

when the apartheid regime appeared to be stronger...

0:30:000:30:06

and I had doubts.

0:30:060:30:07

SCREAMING

0:30:100:30:12

But the young black activists would not give in.

0:30:120:30:16

Their aim was to make South Africa ungovernable.

0:30:160:30:19

SCREAMING

0:30:230:30:25

With the country now on the verge of social and economic collapse,

0:30:250:30:29

the government needed to find a way out.

0:30:290:30:31

The South African President offered Mandela his freedom,

0:30:350:30:40

but with conditions attached.

0:30:400:30:42

I am prepared to release Mr Mandela,

0:30:420:30:48

if he would say that he rejects violence as a means to reach

0:30:480:30:55

and to achieve political ends.

0:30:550:30:58

Mandela's reply from prison was read out by his daughter at a rally

0:30:580:31:04

in Soweto - the first time he had been quoted in public for 20 years.

0:31:040:31:09

My father says, "I cannot and will not give any undertaking

0:31:090:31:16

"at a time when I and you, the people, are not free.

0:31:160:31:20

"Your freedom and mine cannot be separated."

0:31:200:31:23

CHEERING

0:31:230:31:24

"I will return. Amandla!"

0:31:240:31:26

CROWD RESPONDS

0:31:260:31:29

CHEERING

0:31:290:31:31

Mandela's uncompromising message was welcomed by the crowd.

0:31:350:31:39

Nothing less than full democracy was acceptable.

0:31:390:31:43

Around the world, calls for Mandela's release intensified.

0:31:460:31:51

In London, young people, many not born when Mandela

0:31:510:31:55

was last seen in public, joined in a celebration of his 70th birthday.

0:31:550:32:00

There was this huge feeling of support for Mandela.

0:32:000:32:04

You've got this real sense that this concert was being beamed

0:32:040:32:07

all over the world and somewhere in South Africa,

0:32:070:32:09

there were bootleg tapes being made

0:32:090:32:11

and he might see it at some point, and that was a very joyful thing.

0:32:110:32:15

This show is going out to 60 different countries.

0:32:150:32:18

That means at this moment in time, 200 million people are watching.

0:32:180:32:23

CHEERING

0:32:230:32:25

As the day progressed, you really felt

0:32:250:32:28

as if there was a massive change and understanding taking place.

0:32:280:32:32

It was a real point of arrival where young people said

0:32:320:32:38

this is not acceptable.

0:32:380:32:39

Thank you!

0:32:390:32:42

CHEERING

0:32:420:32:44

Our cause was now supported by the entire world

0:32:440:32:47

and apartheid South Africa was a polecat of the world.

0:32:470:32:52

It was completely isolated.

0:32:520:32:54

I want you to scream out loud and clear

0:32:540:32:57

five times - how long.

0:32:570:33:00

CROWD: How long? Again!

0:33:000:33:08

The following year, white South Africa elected a new President -

0:33:080:33:12

FW de Klerk.

0:33:120:33:14

He realised that Mandela held the key to any settlement.

0:33:140:33:18

Mandela had been moved to the comfort of a prison warder's house

0:33:180:33:22

near Cape Town.

0:33:220:33:25

De Klerk began secret talks with him

0:33:250:33:27

about a political settlement that would set him free.

0:33:270:33:31

But when ANC colleagues visited Mandela, they were suspicious.

0:33:310:33:35

When we reached the beautiful home,

0:33:370:33:40

this is not a prison.

0:33:400:33:42

Wine farming area,

0:33:420:33:46

swimming pool...

0:33:460:33:47

..microwaves, television sets...

0:33:490:33:53

I concluded he has sold us out.

0:33:530:33:54

The story went sweeping through the country

0:33:570:33:59

that Mandela was selling out.

0:33:590:34:01

You would hesitate to say it as a colleague of Mandela,

0:34:010:34:05

but lurking there

0:34:050:34:07

was the idea that when you are alone in a corner,

0:34:070:34:11

they have all the resources, they'll out...

0:34:110:34:14

They will bait you into a trap.

0:34:140:34:17

But Mandela did not sell out.

0:34:170:34:19

I was confident that when it came to argument,

0:34:210:34:26

that we want all the rights of citizenship in our country,

0:34:260:34:30

we're superior to them.

0:34:300:34:33

At times, there were about five of them, sometimes six,

0:34:330:34:36

but I was alone, so I had to prepare my case very well.

0:34:360:34:41

Mandela's demands were clear. Equal rights and equal votes for everyone.

0:34:410:34:47

His refusal to compromise gave the government no choice.

0:34:470:34:51

It became clear to me

0:34:530:34:55

that he has a pivotal role to play

0:34:550:34:59

and that he WAS playing it

0:34:590:35:01

irrespective of the fact that he was in jail.

0:35:010:35:03

I wish to put it plainly that the government has taken a firm decision

0:35:060:35:12

to release Mr Mandela unconditionally.

0:35:120:35:14

I am serious about bringing this matter to finality without delay.

0:35:140:35:19

February 11th 1990.

0:35:210:35:24

The world waited to see Mandela's face

0:35:240:35:27

for the first time in over a quarter of a century.

0:35:270:35:31

He had won his freedom on HIS terms.

0:35:310:35:34

NEWS REPORT: This is the hour. This is the hour the world has been waiting for.

0:35:340:35:40

With friends and family at his side, Mandela prepared to walk to freedom.

0:35:420:35:47

It was early on a Sunday morning

0:35:520:35:54

in Arkansas. I got my daughter up, took her down,

0:35:540:35:57

we turned on the television

0:35:570:36:00

and we watched him walk to freedom together.

0:36:000:36:03

I'll never forget it.

0:36:030:36:05

NEWS REPORT: There's Mr Mandela, Mr Nelson Mandela, a free man,

0:36:050:36:09

taking his first steps into a new South Africa.

0:36:090:36:14

NELSON MANDELA: 'When I saw that crowd,

0:36:150:36:17

'it aroused feelings of excitement

0:36:170:36:20

'I couldn't control, I couldn't describe.'

0:36:200:36:24

Nobody believed that they would ever live to see this day

0:36:240:36:28

and we all felt that we were part of this thing.

0:36:280:36:32

I felt that I was liberated.

0:36:320:36:36

I felt that I was free,

0:36:360:36:41

having seen this man, after so many years, free.

0:36:410:36:45

Mandela made his way to Cape Town,

0:36:500:36:53

where a huge crowd waited to hear him speak

0:36:530:36:57

for the first time as a free man.

0:36:570:37:00

Today, the majority of South Africans,

0:37:000:37:04

black and white,

0:37:040:37:07

recognise that apartheid has no future.

0:37:070:37:10

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:37:120:37:14

CROWD SINGS: "NKOSI SIKELEL'I AFRIKA"

0:37:160:37:21

Mandela was at last reunited with his wife Winnie,

0:37:210:37:25

but it wasn't the happy homecoming he had longed for.

0:37:250:37:29

Winnie's defiant support of her husband had come at a price.

0:37:290:37:34

She too had been persecuted and imprisoned,

0:37:340:37:38

but her own wayward behaviour had lost her sympathy.

0:37:380:37:42

MEN CHANT

0:37:440:37:47

While Mandela was in jail,

0:37:470:37:48

Winnie had recruited a young gang to protect her.

0:37:480:37:52

They were known as the Mandela United Football Club.

0:37:520:37:56

They were implicated in the murder of a 14-year-old boy,

0:37:560:38:00

and Winnie was charged with kidnap and assault.

0:38:000:38:03

I feel sad about her

0:38:050:38:07

because there is so much that she did...

0:38:070:38:09

..and yet, when she stumbled,

0:38:100:38:14

and people tried, including Madiba, to give her that support,

0:38:140:38:20

she failed to respond.

0:38:200:38:22

CHEERING

0:38:220:38:23

Mandela stood by her during her trial

0:38:230:38:26

and she escaped with a suspended sentence,

0:38:260:38:29

but his loyalty was being sorely tested.

0:38:290:38:33

Winnie was having an affair, and there had been allegations

0:38:330:38:37

of other infidelities while he was in prison.

0:38:370:38:40

Two years after he left jail,

0:38:400:38:42

Mandela bowed to the inevitable.

0:38:420:38:45

We have mutually agreed

0:38:470:38:50

that a separation would be best for each one of us.

0:38:500:38:54

Ladies and gentlemen,

0:38:570:38:58

I hope you'll appreciate...

0:38:580:39:01

..the pain I have gone through.

0:39:020:39:05

ANGRY SHOUTING

0:39:060:39:09

Mandela's release

0:39:090:39:10

and the government's willingness to negotiate with him

0:39:100:39:13

triggered a power struggle between the ANC and a rival political group,

0:39:130:39:19

the Zulu Inkatha movement.

0:39:190:39:21

Violence between the two groups

0:39:210:39:24

threatened to destroy any hope of a peaceful settlement.

0:39:240:39:27

Mandela urged young ANC supporters to make peace.

0:39:290:39:34

Take your guns,

0:39:350:39:39

your knives and your pangas

0:39:390:39:44

and throw them into the sea.

0:39:440:39:47

JEERING

0:39:480:39:50

What was your reaction

0:39:520:39:54

when you heard your words just fall on such stony ground?

0:39:540:39:59

I was not surprised.

0:40:010:40:03

That's why I said, "If I am your leader, you have to listen to me

0:40:030:40:08

"and if you don't want to listen to me, then drop me as your leader."

0:40:080:40:12

Against this background of uncertainty,

0:40:130:40:17

negotiations began for the future of South Africa.

0:40:170:40:20

Mandela, once considered a terrorist, was now the peacemaker.

0:40:200:40:24

'The first meeting was very impressive.

0:40:260:40:29

'His statement there I will never forget.'

0:40:290:40:33

It was with no bitterness, no vengefulness,

0:40:330:40:36

not a sign of hatred.

0:40:360:40:39

At no stage did he endeavour to exploit

0:40:410:40:44

or use his 27 years in prison.

0:40:440:40:48

There was a statesman speaking as if he was never in prison.

0:40:480:40:51

Talks were painstakingly slow,

0:40:510:40:55

but an event outside the negotiating room

0:40:550:40:57

brought the urgency of the task into focus.

0:40:570:41:00

NEWS REPORT: The assassination of Chris Hani

0:41:020:41:04

has shocked South Africa and triggered fears

0:41:040:41:07

in a country where violence and retaliation are commonplace.

0:41:070:41:10

Chris Hani was one of the country's most popular black politicians.

0:41:130:41:18

His assassination by a white extremist

0:41:180:41:21

threatened to trigger all-out race war.

0:41:210:41:24

INDISTINCT SPEECH

0:41:260:41:29

An outburst of rioting and looting left 70 dead.

0:41:340:41:39

Only one man now had the authority to calm the country.

0:41:390:41:43

They saw the urgency of the situation.

0:41:430:41:45

I think everybody understood that this is it.

0:41:450:41:47

So there was no argument, and that evening

0:41:470:41:51

he entered the television station, for the first time live.

0:41:510:41:55

We are a nation in mourning.

0:41:550:41:58

Our pain and anger is real.

0:41:580:42:02

Yet we must not permit ourselves

0:42:020:42:05

to be provoked by those

0:42:050:42:08

who seek to deny us the very thing Chris Hani gave his life for.

0:42:080:42:14

This is the defining moment

0:42:140:42:16

when Nelson Mandela resumed the reins

0:42:160:42:19

because he had to rescue a terrible situation in the country.

0:42:190:42:22

In effect, Mandela became President on that day.

0:42:240:42:27

The negotiations for free elections took four years.

0:42:330:42:38

But for the first time, in April 1994,

0:42:380:42:41

black South Africans were given an equal vote with whites.

0:42:410:42:46

23 million people went to the polls.

0:42:460:42:49

We were turning a new page in the history of South Africa.

0:42:540:43:00

This was in my mind as I cast that ballot paper.

0:43:000:43:06

APPLAUSE

0:43:110:43:14

People can't believe it

0:43:140:43:16

when you say, "Hey! I'm free!

0:43:160:43:18

"I'm free!"

0:43:180:43:19

And you are walking tall.

0:43:190:43:22

And cloud nine -

0:43:220:43:25

well, that's too low.

0:43:250:43:27

The outcome of the election was never in doubt.

0:43:310:43:34

The ANC won power, Nelson Mandela was the new President

0:43:340:43:39

and the world came to the capital, Pretoria,

0:43:390:43:42

to pay tribute to the man who'd led South Africa out of its nightmare.

0:43:420:43:48

# Mandela!

0:43:480:43:50

# Mandela! #

0:43:500:43:52

I never imagined that the world would give us the support we enjoyed

0:44:100:44:17

and to be known as a miracle country,

0:44:170:44:21

I had never expected that,

0:44:210:44:23

but that gave us a lot of pride.

0:44:230:44:26

I, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela,

0:44:300:44:34

do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of South Africa.

0:44:340:44:41

The election of Mandela was not a magic wand that could be waved

0:44:430:44:47

to heal the wounds of old hatreds.

0:44:470:44:50

Mandela realised he had to reach out to the white minority

0:44:500:44:53

and he did so by embracing their powerful tribal symbol - rugby.

0:44:530:44:58

It was the World Cup final,

0:44:580:45:00

the South African Springboks against the New Zealand All Blacks.

0:45:000:45:05

CROWD: Nelson! Nelson! Nelson!

0:45:050:45:08

I went round the stadium.

0:45:080:45:11

I did not expect such an ovation.

0:45:120:45:16

A momentous occasion, unbelievable occasion

0:45:170:45:20

and there was Madiba wearing a Springbok jumper.

0:45:200:45:24

I thought, "Wow!" And in his very calm, collected way, sincere way,

0:45:240:45:29

he wished the guys well.

0:45:290:45:31

Then he turned around

0:45:310:45:33

and when he turned around, I saw it was my number

0:45:330:45:36

and I was just, that's it, you know, I was ready to run through anything

0:45:360:45:40

and do whatever's necessary to win this game.

0:45:400:45:42

CROWD: Nelson! Nelson! Nelson!

0:45:420:45:44

Any other president in the world would have worn his best suit.

0:45:440:45:48

Here comes a guy that was incarcerated

0:45:480:45:51

supporting a white man's game,

0:45:510:45:53

wearing a white man's jumper. Incredible.

0:45:530:45:56

ALL SING: "NKOSI SIKELEL'I AFRIKA"

0:45:590:46:03

I couldn't sing. I was biting my lower lip

0:46:030:46:06

because I knew if I opened my mouth, I would start to cry.

0:46:060:46:09

I was just so proud, unbelievably proud.

0:46:090:46:13

In the closing minutes, the Springboks scored a drop goal

0:46:220:46:26

and won the match and, with it, the World Cup.

0:46:260:46:30

It wasn't a victory for white South Africa.

0:46:340:46:38

This was a victory for all of South Africa

0:46:380:46:41

and he was there, sharing it with us.

0:46:410:46:44

Let's follow the detractors' route

0:46:440:46:46

and say, "It was a very shrewd political move." OK, fine.

0:46:460:46:50

But the way in which he carried that political move was just tremendous.

0:46:500:46:54

CROWD CHEERS

0:46:560:46:59

TRANSLATION: If they can just show us the bones of my child,

0:47:040:47:10

I will be grateful.

0:47:100:47:13

Where did they leave the bones of my child?

0:47:130:47:17

Where did they take him?

0:47:170:47:20

The toughest challenge Mandela faced

0:47:200:47:23

was to persuade South Africa to forget the horrors of the past

0:47:230:47:28

and not seek revenge. At public hearings,

0:47:280:47:31

victims were encouraged to confront their aggressors,

0:47:310:47:35

who escaped prosecution if they confessed.

0:47:350:47:38

TRANSLATION: He took my genitals

0:47:380:47:41

and Mr X shut the drawer.

0:47:410:47:46

He squeezed and squeezed.

0:47:500:47:52

What kind of man, listening to those moans and cries and groans,

0:47:520:47:59

and taking each of those people very near to their deaths,

0:47:590:48:04

what kind of man is that?

0:48:040:48:08

Not only you have asked me that question.

0:48:090:48:12

If we don't forgive them,

0:48:120:48:16

then that feeling of bitterness and revenge will be there

0:48:160:48:21

and we are saying, "Let us forget the past.

0:48:210:48:26

"Let's concern ourselves with the present and the future, but to say

0:48:260:48:31

"the atrocities of the past will never be allowed to happen again."

0:48:310:48:36

My wife was sitting right at the door where you came in.

0:48:360:48:40

VOICE BREAKING: She was wearing a long blue coat.

0:48:420:48:45

Can you remember if you shot her?

0:48:450:48:48

When he says, "Guys, we've got to forgive,"

0:48:540:48:58

nobody could say, "You are being facile,

0:48:580:49:02

"you are talking glibly about forgiveness.

0:49:020:49:04

"What do you know about suffering?" 27 years, you know.

0:49:040:49:08

TRANSLATION: We are sorry...

0:49:080:49:10

..for what we have done.

0:49:110:49:13

It was the situation in South Africa.

0:49:150:49:18

BILL CLINTON: He did something almost historically unique...

0:49:180:49:23

We are asking from you,

0:49:230:49:26

please do forgive us.

0:49:260:49:28

..which raised the prospect that people could be held accountable

0:49:310:49:35

without being punished in a traditional sense.

0:49:350:49:39

This is something virtually without precedent in humanity.

0:49:390:49:43

..two...three!

0:49:490:49:52

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:49:530:49:56

On his 80th birthday,

0:49:560:49:58

Mandela married once more.

0:49:580:50:00

His third wife was Graca Machel,

0:50:030:50:06

widow of the President of Mozambique,

0:50:060:50:09

who'd died 12 years earlier.

0:50:090:50:11

The beginning of our closeness, if I can say,

0:50:130:50:18

it was two people

0:50:180:50:21

who had been very hurt by life.

0:50:210:50:25

That sense of being lonely

0:50:260:50:30

and trying to find answers for a very deep sense of pain and loss,

0:50:300:50:36

I think that's what sparked our connection.

0:50:360:50:38

One, two, three!

0:50:380:50:41

Take off your shoes and your skirt and go and jump with them!

0:50:430:50:47

LAUGHTER

0:50:470:50:49

Between them, Nelson and Graca had 45 grandchildren

0:50:490:50:53

and great-grandchildren.

0:50:530:50:55

Madiba had very little of family life before.

0:50:570:51:02

He was married, he had children,

0:51:040:51:07

but because of his obligations,

0:51:070:51:09

he never had time to have a normal family life.

0:51:090:51:13

It was that possibility again

0:51:210:51:25

of him regaining a family

0:51:250:51:28

and the space where you take away all your defences

0:51:280:51:33

and you are just a human being.

0:51:330:51:36

# Nelson Mandela

0:51:410:51:43

# Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela... #

0:51:430:51:47

At the end of his five-year term as President,

0:51:470:51:50

Mandela kept his promise to step down,

0:51:500:51:53

but had no intention of leaving the stage.

0:51:530:51:55

I'll have to get you the Sowetan. Oh, I see. I'll get it now.

0:51:580:52:03

Retirement didn't change the hectic pace of his life.

0:52:030:52:07

You'll get me these people too, you know, get all those. Yeah.

0:52:070:52:11

And then I would like to speak to the Pope

0:52:110:52:14

and then to President Putin

0:52:140:52:18

and then Sukarnoputri. OK.

0:52:180:52:22

MUSIC AND CHEERING

0:52:230:52:25

He used his pulling power with world leaders and celebrities

0:52:290:52:33

to raise millions for children, education

0:52:330:52:36

and AIDS - an issue which

0:52:360:52:39

he had been criticised for ignoring while President.

0:52:390:52:42

He established a charity to help fight the disease,

0:52:420:52:47

which claims hundreds of lives every day in South Africa.

0:52:470:52:51

He called it after his prison number - 46664.

0:52:510:52:56

A silent serial killer stalks the land.

0:52:570:53:01

Mandela was no longer President

0:53:010:53:04

and now we're looking at an elderly statesman

0:53:040:53:08

who had realised that the HIV/AIDS pandemic was ravaging the country

0:53:080:53:14

and the message was no longer about apartheid, obviously.

0:53:140:53:17

The message was that a genocide was taking place in his country.

0:53:170:53:21

Mandela's global campaign was brought home to him personally

0:53:210:53:27

when Makgatho, his only surviving son, died of AIDS in 2005.

0:53:270:53:32

Mandela chose to speak publicly about the cause of his death.

0:53:320:53:39

It gives a very bad reflection indeed to the members of the family

0:53:390:53:43

that they themselves should not come out and say bravely

0:53:430:53:47

that a member of my family has died of AIDS.

0:53:470:53:51

That's why we took the initiative

0:53:510:53:55

to say a member of our family has died -

0:53:550:54:00

in this particular case, my son.

0:54:000:54:04

I was the one who told my dad about Gatho's condition, you know.

0:54:040:54:09

And I know the day that I told him, how he reacted,

0:54:090:54:13

you know, like any other normal parent would react.

0:54:130:54:17

It was not an easy thing for him to accept.

0:54:170:54:20

I think for him, who has been a role model, you know,

0:54:230:54:28

in this country in many, many spheres,

0:54:280:54:31

it was important for him to come out and say,

0:54:310:54:34

"Look, my son also had HIV, lived through HIV and died."

0:54:340:54:37

Mandela lent his support to other campaigns.

0:54:390:54:43

On a winter's day, he came to London

0:54:430:54:45

to ask a crowd of 20,000 to make poverty history.

0:54:450:54:49

APPLAUSE

0:54:490:54:51

He's hugely personable.

0:54:510:54:54

He holds your hand, he just beams and lights up.

0:54:540:54:58

He is properly the real deal

0:54:580:55:00

and you sort of think, "Oh, my God, it's Mandela,"

0:55:000:55:03

and you remember all his life,

0:55:030:55:04

and then you meet him and it's that, plus.

0:55:040:55:07

As long as poverty, injustice

0:55:070:55:11

and gross inequality persist in our world,

0:55:110:55:15

none of us can truly rest.

0:55:150:55:18

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:55:180:55:21

Ladies and gentlemen, Nelson Mandela!

0:55:210:55:24

Nelson Mandela's 90th birthday concert in Hyde Park

0:55:270:55:31

was his last visit to London.

0:55:310:55:34

THEY SING: "Free Nelson Mandela"

0:55:340:55:37

The famous anthem of 20 years earlier was sung in tribute.

0:55:390:55:42

# Freedom!

0:55:420:55:44

# Free Nelson Mandela

0:55:440:55:50

# Freedom

0:55:500:55:51

# Free Nelson Mandela

0:55:510:55:58

# Freedom!

0:55:580:56:00

# Free Nelson Mandela! #

0:56:000:56:08

CHEERING AND APPLAUSE

0:56:080:56:12

His legacy is himself. He was a huge influence on the world.

0:56:120:56:16

To see the terrible regime of apartheid be dismantled

0:56:160:56:21

is an extraordinary testament to his tenacity and his strength.

0:56:210:56:27

He taught us something about peace and reconciliation

0:56:280:56:31

in stoically enduring 27 years of imprisonment and abuse

0:56:310:56:36

and coming out on the other side of it without rancour or bitterness

0:56:360:56:39

and asking people to put their anger behind.

0:56:390:56:42

People need symbols.

0:56:440:56:47

People need inspiration.

0:56:470:56:50

What was he looking for? He's looking for freedom -

0:56:500:56:54

not for himself.

0:56:540:56:56

It is freedom for all of these others.

0:56:560:57:00

After nearly 90 years of life,

0:57:000:57:06

it is time for new hands to lift the burdens.

0:57:060:57:11

It is in your hands now.

0:57:110:57:14

I thank you.

0:57:140:57:17

At the closing ceremony of the 2010 Football World Cup,

0:57:220:57:26

with his wife Graca at his side,

0:57:260:57:28

Nelson Mandela made one of his last public appearances.

0:57:280:57:32

85,000 spectators rose to their feet

0:57:340:57:37

to welcome Madiba, the father of their nation,

0:57:370:57:41

a man who'd sacrificed his liberty for their freedom.

0:57:410:57:45

If I had to live again, I would do exactly the same thing.

0:57:590:58:04

As long as our people are oppressed

0:58:040:58:07

and deprived of everything to make human beings happy and to enjoy life,

0:58:070:58:13

it was my duty to be involved

0:58:130:58:15

and I would do it over and over again.

0:58:150:58:18

My family was here

0:58:200:58:22

and I would like to be buried here, at home.

0:58:220:58:26

But I don't want to take long about death, and so on.

0:58:280:58:32

OK!

0:58:320:58:34

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