Pennod 17 100 Lle


Pennod 17

Ymweliad â Llangollen, Pontcysyllte a Rhuthun cyn mynd i grombil y ddaear ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog. Featuring a visit to Llangollen, Pontcysyllte, Rhuthin and the caverns at Blaena...


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Transcript


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-Welcome to 100 Lle.

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-Our journey begins

-above the River Dee.

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-This week, we follow the Dee

-to Llangollen...

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-..and to Penllyn and Bala

-with Marian Delyth.

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-We go underground

-in Blaenau Ffestiniog...

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-..and explore

-a pretty Welsh market town.

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-First, we visit a newly-appointed

-UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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-The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.

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-Work on the bridge was completed...

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-..as part of the failed attempt

-to create a canal...

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-..linking the rivers Mersey

-and Severn.

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-Despite its failure,

-the bridge is a testament...

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-..to Thomas Telford's vision.

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-There's no better place

-to see Pontcysyllte...

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-..than here, underneath it.

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-We can truly appreciate the might

-and magnitude of the aqueduct.

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-It is utterly remarkable.

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-The pillars

-are embedded in the River Dee...

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-..and climb 35 metres

-up to the trough holding the canal.

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-It stands 116 feet high.

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-The pillars taper from eight metres

-wide at the bottom...

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-..to five metres wide at the top.

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-It's very skilfully crafted.

-The masonry work is striking too.

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-There are 20 pillars in total

-and 19 arches.

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-Each arch is interconnected...

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-..and soldered with molten lead,

-sugar and Welsh flannel.

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-They have lasted

-more than 200 years...

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-..which speaks volumes

-about the craftsmanship.

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-It's odd that it wasn't acknowledged

-as a World Heritage Site sooner.

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-Blame Mrs Thatcher for that!

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-This particular stretch...

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-..from Pontcysyllte to Llangollen,

-with which we are most familiar...

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-..is the final part

-of this development.

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-The aqueduct was completed in 1805.

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-In 1808, the canal

-was extended to Llangollen...

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-..and onwards to Llantysilio...

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-..not for any trading purpose...

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-..but to abstract water

-from the River Dee.

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-By the 19th century,

-the system's sole purpose...

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-..was to supply water

-to the canals...

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-..of North-West England.

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-The process continued

-into the 20th century...

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-..when water from this area...

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-..supplied homes in Liverpool.

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-Following World War Two...

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-..when canals were outmoded...

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-..there were calls

-to pull down this bridge.

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-The people of Liverpool

-protested strongly against it.

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-"Our water comes from that bridge.

-Don't pull it down."

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-Liverpool's thirst for water

-has caused turbulence in Wales...

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-..but it saved the masterpiece

-that is the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.

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-So well done, the Liverpudlians!

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-We're passing over

-the River Dee here...

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-..and we have wonderful views

-of the valley below.

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-The plan was to have a path

-on either side...

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-..but it proved too expensive,

-so they stuck with just the one.

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-Don't walk on that side

-- there's a drop of over 100 feet.

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-You wouldn't survive if you fell!

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-This seat belt

-is pretty much useless.

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-What I need is a parachute.

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-A parachute would be more useful.

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-It's surprising this bridge

-wasn't used for industry.

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-The construction cost

-must have been high.

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-It cost 500,000

-at the end of the 18th century.

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-That's equivalent

-to at least 5 million today.

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-It was an investment

-that they hoped would pay dividends.

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-But because it didn't link with

-the North-East Wales coalfield...

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-..it didn't pay its way.

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-But they were proud of it.

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-People came from all over the world.

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-Sir Charles Sitwell said, "I've

-seen the Pont du Gard in France...

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-"..but this is so much better."

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-He's right, of course.

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-It's a river in the sky,

-a stream in the heavens.

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-It's a real gem.

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-It's a World Heritage Site

-belonging to Wales.

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-Further up the River Dee

-is the famous town of Llangollen.

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-Central to the town is its bridge,

-built by Bishop John Trevor in 1345.

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-It's one of the seven wonders

-of Wales.

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-But Llangollen's future

-as a tourist town was sealed...

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-..when it was connected

-to a network of roads in 1763.

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-The canal came later,

-at the turn of the 19th century.

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-The A5 through the town centre

-came later still.

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-By 1830, 30 large carriages

-would pass through every day.

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-Even in the 21st century, thousands

-of tourists flock to Llangollen.

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-It's certainly one of the most

-picturesque towns in Wales.

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-The town was held in high esteem

-by its natives centuries earlier...

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-..in the 13th century

-when Gruffydd ap Madog...

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-..built the imposing

-Dinas Bran castle...

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-..above the abbey, founded

-by his father, Madog ap Gruffydd.

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-Valle Crucis was the last

-Cistercian abbey built in Wales.

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-Every other Welsh principality

-had its own abbey...

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-..so Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor built

-this abbey in the 13th century...

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-..in his own principality,

-Powys Fadog.

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-It's surprising how much of it

-has survived the ravages of time.

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-These are 16 surviving tombstones...

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-..including that of

-Owain Glyndwr's great-grandfather.

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-Valle Crucis Abbey

-was dissolved by Henry VIII...

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-..in the 16th century,

-along with every other monastery.

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-Although part of the building

-was used as a residence...

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-..for centuries afterwards,

-not much of its past glory remains.

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-Llangollen was overlooked

-by the nation for many centuries...

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-..until two special ladies

-arrived from Ireland in the 1870s.

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-Before this town

-became a tourist attraction...

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-..the Ladies of Llangollen

-fled here.

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-Eleanor Butler was pressurized

-by her mother to join a convent.

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-She was a spinster in her thirties.

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-Sarah Ponsonby was attracting the

-indecent advances of her guardian...

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-..Sir William Fownes.

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-They fled from oppression,

-religion and convention...

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-..and came here in 1778.

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-They lived at Plas Newydd

-for 50 years.

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-This wasn't how the house looked

-when the Ladies lived here.

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-The grid pattern was added later

-in the Victorian period.

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-But if you focus

-on the doors and windows...

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-..you'll notice small carvings.

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-They don't all belong

-to the same period...

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-..which is both interesting

-and bizarre.

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-Friends would bring decorative items

-and stick them to the wall.

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-As you do!

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-The interior is just as astounding.

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-Though the king's name

-is on the wall, he never visited.

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-A friend stuck a piece of wood

-to the wall...

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-..and the king's name

-happened to be on it!

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-The Ladies ended their days here.

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-The house was renowned

-for its many famous visitors...

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-..including Wordsworth,

-Shelley and Sir Walter Scott.

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-The Ladies' relationship has been

-described as a romantic friendship.

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-It was acceptable for those who

-lived within this creative circle...

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-..to follow the period's trends

-in each other's company.

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-But it appears their relationship

-was more than just a friendship.

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-As the saying goes, "There are

-two things that are certain in life.

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-"Death and taxes."

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-I'm unaware of their financial

-status at the end of their lives...

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-..but the Ladies are both buried

-in St Collen's Church.

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-In peace, and together, of course.

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-Whatever it was that attracted

-the Ladies to Llangollen...

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-..what draws many here today...

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-..is the Llangollen International

-Musical Eisteddfod...

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-..held at this wonderful pavilion.

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-The eisteddfod

-was established in 1947...

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-..as an attempt

-to unite the world through song...

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-..following the Second World War.

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-The next place on our travels

-is also famous for its culture.

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-Join us after the break

-in Penllyn and Bala.

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-Marian Delyth explains

-her choice of photographs...

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-..in the chapter

-on Penllyn and Bala.

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-As a good Christian Welshman...

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-..the one person I associate

-with Bala is Thomas Charles.

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-Is it therefore a prerequisite

-to have a photo of him in the book?

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-I thought it was important...

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-..to feature him as one of our

-national icons and as a statue.

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-I remember seeing photographs

-of this statue as a child.

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-That's maybe one of the reasons

-why I chose this photograph...

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-..to represent Penllyn.

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-The traditional photograph of Bala

-is again generic...

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-..showing its location and so on.

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-It featured in the panel

-at the top of the page.

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-I took the main photograph...

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-..as I passed through Bala

-on Boxing Day.

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-You have to take advantage

-of fine weather...

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-..when you travel around Wales.

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-The difference

-is that subjects jump out at you.

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-You're not searching for a subject.

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-The weather

-lends itself to the image.

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-The edge of the lake had frozen.

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-I enjoyed the detailed photography.

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-I thought

-you'd photographed this tree...

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-..as it's shaped like a snowflake

-to convey the cold weather.

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-I hadn't seen that,

-but it's a great observation.

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-I enjoy hearing people's remarks...

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-..because we all see

-different things in images.

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-Usually, the tree...

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-..wouldn't be the central theme

-of the photograph.

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-But the elements complement

-each other so perfectly here.

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-Perhaps that's why

-I chose the tree...

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-..as the focal point

-of this photograph.

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-You have a similar image here,

-except it's waterlogged.

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-Yes, this shows

-how an image changes...

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-..at different times,

-in a different light...

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-..and in different circumstances.

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-Again, I happened to be

-passing through Bala...

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-..after floods.

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-Although it's completely different,

-it's from the same vantage point.

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-Again, it comes down

-to the editing for the book.

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-You tend to go

-for the pretty picture...

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-..which shows Penllyn...

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-..in all its glory.

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-There aren't many places in Wales

-where spoil tips remain.

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-Old industrial terrain has been

-landscaped beyond recognition.

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-But here in Blaenau Ffestiniog...

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-..the industry of old

-is still continuing to this day.

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-In their heyday, local quarries

-employed more than 4,000 men.

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-Only a few dozen

-are employed here now.

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-This was when Blaenau Ffestiniog

-provided roofs for the entire world.

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-These days, it's more renowned

-as a tourist attraction...

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-..than the world's

-most famous slate quarry.

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-Apparently, it was the job...

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-..of this poor man on top of the

-longest ladder you've ever seen...

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-..to make sure

-this ceiling was safe...

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-..and that it wasn't

-in danger of collapsing.

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-I'm sure there were people

-queuing up for that job!

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-I think health and safety...

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-..would have a field day!

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-These men would be out of a job

-if current rules applied back then.

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-This is the cabin

-where they would eat...

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-..and discuss pressing issues.

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-The cabin was famous.

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-Of course, there wouldn't have been

-a panoramic window like this.

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-But it does give an idea of the

-confined space in which they worked.

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-Working underground

-must have been hard work.

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-By the end of the First World War...

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-..the slate industry was in decline.

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-By World War Two,

-many quarries had closed down.

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-But the war gave Manod slate quarry

-a new purpose.

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-In 1941, all the artwork

-from London's National Gallery...

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-..was transported for safe keeping

-to a cavern in Manod quarry.

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-Prior to that, some of the artwork

-was kept at Penrhyn Castle...

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-..and Pritchard Jones Hall

-in Bangor.

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-A safer location was needed

-and this quarry fitted the bill.

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-Heat and humidity levels

-had to be regulated.

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-This bridge caused problems.

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-One work of art was too tall

-to fit underneath the bridge.

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-It was a painting of Charles I.

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-Instead of chopping off his head

-for a second time...

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-..they had to lower

-the level of the road...

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-..so that the painting would fit.

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-I'm standing on the evidence here.

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-This is the difference between

-Charles I's head and shoulders!

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-Around half a metre!

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-With some elbow grease

-and lots of manual labour...

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-..Charles I eventually made it

-to Manod quarry.

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-We're in the centre of Ruthin,

-a town famed for its history.

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-This is where

-Owain Glyndwr's rebellion began.

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-It's an important place

-in the national history of Wales.

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-We're in St Peter's Square...

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-..in front of the Myddleton Arms.

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-The Myddletons brought

-a fresh water supply to London.

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-The dormer windows

-are the Seven Eyes of Ruthin.

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-Behind it is St Peter's Church.

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-The almshouses are interesting,

-and that's just for starters.

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-Ruthin is one of the few towns...

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-..to retain a large number of its

-black and white medieval houses.

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-The oldest of them all

-is Nantclwyd-y-Dre.

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-Each room is furnished differently,

-but that's more apparent upstairs.

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-When the vicar of Llanfwrog

-lived here, he had a study.

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-They even had a telephone...

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-..which was very progressive

-in the 1900s.

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-They also had electricity.

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-One room is furnished

-as a school for the daughters...

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-..of Ruthin's fashionable families.

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-Ruthin's answer to a private school.

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-There are dozens of plaques

-and papers to read.

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-You could be here all day.

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-It's a very interesting place.

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-The town's oldest site

-is that on which the castle stands.

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-From the outside,

-it doesn't look much like a castle.

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-It was built

-on a red sandstone ridge.

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-Due to its colour, it was known as

-the red castle in the great marsh.

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-It was a temptation

-to build something on the ridge!

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-There was a castle here

-in the late 13th century.

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-Llywelyn the Last's brother,

-Dafydd, lived here.

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-It may have been

-a motte and bailey castle.

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-The plot to attack Hawarden Castle

-was conceived here...

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-..which ultimately ended the reign

-of Gwynedd's royal family.

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-Little remains from the Middle Ages.

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-This particular wall

-has a medieval look about it.

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-The tower and some other sections

-have a medieval feel to them.

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-It operated as a clinic at one time.

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-Buildings were added to it

-back then.

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-These days, it's a hotel.

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-It's one of the few places in Wales

-where you can actually sleep...

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-..within the walls

-of a medieval castle.

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-The lions are nice too.

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-The lions are nice too.

-

-They're the best things about it!

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-Our next place

-is far from luxurious.

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-It's a fine example of Her Majesty's

-hotels - Ruthin Gaol!

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-It belongs to the second half

-of the 19th century.

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-It follows

-a somewhat classical theme.

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-One man can keep an eye

-on 100 cells from this spot.

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-There are close to 100 cells here.

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-There are six times as many

-male cells as female cells...

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-..which suggests females either get

-away with it or commit fewer crimes.

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-Perhaps the most famous story

-is that of Coch Bach Y Bala.

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-He was born in the 1850s

-in Llanfor near Bala.

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-He'd be referred to

-as a kleptomaniac nowadays.

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-He certainly

-couldn't leave anything alone.

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-He spent over half his life

-in prison.

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-But he had this incredible knack

-of escaping.

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-People refer to him

-as the Welsh Houdini.

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-He apparently escaped twice

-from this very prison in Ruthin.

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-The last time he escaped, he was

-shot dead by the people hunting him.

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-He was so famous that postcards

-of his funeral were printed.

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-It suggests

-a certain level of fame...

0:22:050:22:09

-..if people want to buy

-a postcard of your funeral!

0:22:090:22:13

-From one institution

-rooted in the past...

0:22:160:22:19

-..to a new institution which looks

-to the future for its success.

0:22:190:22:25

-Ruthin Craft Centre has won awards

-for its design and initiative.

0:22:250:22:31

-This is the centre's art gallery.

0:22:360:22:39

-It's a brand-new building

-with a design...

0:22:400:22:43

-..that echoes the shape

-of the Clwydian Hills.

0:22:430:22:46

-It won a RIBA Award

-for architectural design in 2009.

0:22:470:22:51

-There are lots of little shops

-selling the work of Welsh craftsmen.

0:22:510:22:56

-I like the fact that the cafe

-didn't sell modern refreshments!

0:22:590:23:03

-It sold dandelion and burdock.

0:23:040:23:06

-Although it's a modern building...

0:23:060:23:09

-..it takes its cues from the past

-in a very constructive way.

0:23:090:23:14

-We sound like a pair of old fogeys.

0:23:140:23:16

-We sound like a pair of old fogeys.

-

-That's because we are!

0:23:160:23:19

-S4C Subtitles by Eirlys A Jones

0:23:400:23:43

-.

0:23:430:23:43

Ymweliad â Llangollen, Pontcysyllte a Rhuthun cyn mynd i grombil y ddaear ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog. Featuring a visit to Llangollen, Pontcysyllte, Rhuthin and the caverns at Blaenau Ffestiniog.