Ymweliad â Llangollen, Pontcysyllte a Rhuthun cyn mynd i grombil y ddaear ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog. Featuring a visit to Llangollen, Pontcysyllte, Rhuthin and the caverns at Blaena...
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-Welcome to 100 Lle.
-Our journey begins
-above the River Dee.
-This week, we follow the Dee
-..and to Penllyn and Bala
-with Marian Delyth.
-We go underground
-in Blaenau Ffestiniog...
-a pretty Welsh market town.
-First, we visit a newly-appointed
-UNESCO World Heritage Site.
-The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.
-Work on the bridge was completed...
-..as part of the failed attempt
-to create a canal...
-..linking the rivers Mersey
-Despite its failure,
-the bridge is a testament...
-..to Thomas Telford's vision.
-There's no better place
-to see Pontcysyllte...
-..than here, underneath it.
-We can truly appreciate the might
-and magnitude of the aqueduct.
-It is utterly remarkable.
-are embedded in the River Dee...
-..and climb 35 metres
-up to the trough holding the canal.
-It stands 116 feet high.
-The pillars taper from eight metres
-wide at the bottom...
-..to five metres wide at the top.
-It's very skilfully crafted.
-The masonry work is striking too.
-There are 20 pillars in total
-and 19 arches.
-Each arch is interconnected...
-..and soldered with molten lead,
-sugar and Welsh flannel.
-They have lasted
-more than 200 years...
-..which speaks volumes
-about the craftsmanship.
-It's odd that it wasn't acknowledged
-as a World Heritage Site sooner.
-Blame Mrs Thatcher for that!
-This particular stretch...
-..from Pontcysyllte to Llangollen,
-with which we are most familiar...
-..is the final part
-of this development.
-The aqueduct was completed in 1805.
-In 1808, the canal
-was extended to Llangollen...
-..and onwards to Llantysilio...
-..not for any trading purpose...
-..but to abstract water
-from the River Dee.
-By the 19th century,
-the system's sole purpose...
-..was to supply water
-to the canals...
-..of North-West England.
-The process continued
-into the 20th century...
-..when water from this area...
-..supplied homes in Liverpool.
-Following World War Two...
-..when canals were outmoded...
-..there were calls
-to pull down this bridge.
-The people of Liverpool
-protested strongly against it.
-"Our water comes from that bridge.
-Don't pull it down."
-Liverpool's thirst for water
-has caused turbulence in Wales...
-..but it saved the masterpiece
-that is the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.
-So well done, the Liverpudlians!
-We're passing over
-the River Dee here...
-..and we have wonderful views
-of the valley below.
-The plan was to have a path
-on either side...
-..but it proved too expensive,
-so they stuck with just the one.
-Don't walk on that side
-- there's a drop of over 100 feet.
-You wouldn't survive if you fell!
-This seat belt
-is pretty much useless.
-What I need is a parachute.
-A parachute would be more useful.
-It's surprising this bridge
-wasn't used for industry.
-The construction cost
-must have been high.
-It cost 500,000
-at the end of the 18th century.
-to at least 5 million today.
-It was an investment
-that they hoped would pay dividends.
-But because it didn't link with
-the North-East Wales coalfield...
-..it didn't pay its way.
-But they were proud of it.
-People came from all over the world.
-Sir Charles Sitwell said, "I've
-seen the Pont du Gard in France...
-"..but this is so much better."
-He's right, of course.
-It's a river in the sky,
-a stream in the heavens.
-It's a real gem.
-It's a World Heritage Site
-belonging to Wales.
-Further up the River Dee
-is the famous town of Llangollen.
-Central to the town is its bridge,
-built by Bishop John Trevor in 1345.
-It's one of the seven wonders
-But Llangollen's future
-as a tourist town was sealed...
-..when it was connected
-to a network of roads in 1763.
-The canal came later,
-at the turn of the 19th century.
-The A5 through the town centre
-came later still.
-By 1830, 30 large carriages
-would pass through every day.
-Even in the 21st century, thousands
-of tourists flock to Llangollen.
-It's certainly one of the most
-picturesque towns in Wales.
-The town was held in high esteem
-by its natives centuries earlier...
-..in the 13th century
-when Gruffydd ap Madog...
-..built the imposing
-Dinas Bran castle...
-..above the abbey, founded
-by his father, Madog ap Gruffydd.
-Valle Crucis was the last
-Cistercian abbey built in Wales.
-Every other Welsh principality
-had its own abbey...
-..so Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor built
-this abbey in the 13th century...
-..in his own principality,
-It's surprising how much of it
-has survived the ravages of time.
-These are 16 surviving tombstones...
-..including that of
-Owain Glyndwr's great-grandfather.
-Valle Crucis Abbey
-was dissolved by Henry VIII...
-..in the 16th century,
-along with every other monastery.
-Although part of the building
-was used as a residence...
-..for centuries afterwards,
-not much of its past glory remains.
-Llangollen was overlooked
-by the nation for many centuries...
-..until two special ladies
-arrived from Ireland in the 1870s.
-Before this town
-became a tourist attraction...
-..the Ladies of Llangollen
-Eleanor Butler was pressurized
-by her mother to join a convent.
-She was a spinster in her thirties.
-Sarah Ponsonby was attracting the
-indecent advances of her guardian...
-..Sir William Fownes.
-They fled from oppression,
-religion and convention...
-..and came here in 1778.
-They lived at Plas Newydd
-for 50 years.
-This wasn't how the house looked
-when the Ladies lived here.
-The grid pattern was added later
-in the Victorian period.
-But if you focus
-on the doors and windows...
-..you'll notice small carvings.
-They don't all belong
-to the same period...
-..which is both interesting
-Friends would bring decorative items
-and stick them to the wall.
-As you do!
-The interior is just as astounding.
-Though the king's name
-is on the wall, he never visited.
-A friend stuck a piece of wood
-to the wall...
-..and the king's name
-happened to be on it!
-The Ladies ended their days here.
-The house was renowned
-for its many famous visitors...
-Shelley and Sir Walter Scott.
-The Ladies' relationship has been
-described as a romantic friendship.
-It was acceptable for those who
-lived within this creative circle...
-..to follow the period's trends
-in each other's company.
-But it appears their relationship
-was more than just a friendship.
-As the saying goes, "There are
-two things that are certain in life.
-"Death and taxes."
-I'm unaware of their financial
-status at the end of their lives...
-..but the Ladies are both buried
-in St Collen's Church.
-In peace, and together, of course.
-Whatever it was that attracted
-the Ladies to Llangollen...
-..what draws many here today...
-..is the Llangollen International
-..held at this wonderful pavilion.
-was established in 1947...
-..as an attempt
-to unite the world through song...
-..following the Second World War.
-The next place on our travels
-is also famous for its culture.
-Join us after the break
-in Penllyn and Bala.
-Marian Delyth explains
-her choice of photographs...
-..in the chapter
-on Penllyn and Bala.
-As a good Christian Welshman...
-..the one person I associate
-with Bala is Thomas Charles.
-Is it therefore a prerequisite
-to have a photo of him in the book?
-I thought it was important...
-..to feature him as one of our
-national icons and as a statue.
-I remember seeing photographs
-of this statue as a child.
-That's maybe one of the reasons
-why I chose this photograph...
-..to represent Penllyn.
-The traditional photograph of Bala
-is again generic...
-..showing its location and so on.
-It featured in the panel
-at the top of the page.
-I took the main photograph...
-..as I passed through Bala
-on Boxing Day.
-You have to take advantage
-of fine weather...
-..when you travel around Wales.
-is that subjects jump out at you.
-You're not searching for a subject.
-lends itself to the image.
-The edge of the lake had frozen.
-I enjoyed the detailed photography.
-you'd photographed this tree...
-..as it's shaped like a snowflake
-to convey the cold weather.
-I hadn't seen that,
-but it's a great observation.
-I enjoy hearing people's remarks...
-..because we all see
-different things in images.
-Usually, the tree...
-..wouldn't be the central theme
-of the photograph.
-But the elements complement
-each other so perfectly here.
-Perhaps that's why
-I chose the tree...
-..as the focal point
-of this photograph.
-You have a similar image here,
-except it's waterlogged.
-Yes, this shows
-how an image changes...
-..at different times,
-in a different light...
-..and in different circumstances.
-Again, I happened to be
-passing through Bala...
-Although it's completely different,
-it's from the same vantage point.
-Again, it comes down
-to the editing for the book.
-You tend to go
-for the pretty picture...
-..which shows Penllyn...
-..in all its glory.
-There aren't many places in Wales
-where spoil tips remain.
-Old industrial terrain has been
-landscaped beyond recognition.
-But here in Blaenau Ffestiniog...
-..the industry of old
-is still continuing to this day.
-In their heyday, local quarries
-employed more than 4,000 men.
-Only a few dozen
-are employed here now.
-This was when Blaenau Ffestiniog
-provided roofs for the entire world.
-These days, it's more renowned
-as a tourist attraction...
-..than the world's
-most famous slate quarry.
-Apparently, it was the job...
-..of this poor man on top of the
-longest ladder you've ever seen...
-..to make sure
-this ceiling was safe...
-..and that it wasn't
-in danger of collapsing.
-I'm sure there were people
-queuing up for that job!
-I think health and safety...
-..would have a field day!
-These men would be out of a job
-if current rules applied back then.
-This is the cabin
-where they would eat...
-..and discuss pressing issues.
-The cabin was famous.
-Of course, there wouldn't have been
-a panoramic window like this.
-But it does give an idea of the
-confined space in which they worked.
-must have been hard work.
-By the end of the First World War...
-..the slate industry was in decline.
-By World War Two,
-many quarries had closed down.
-But the war gave Manod slate quarry
-a new purpose.
-In 1941, all the artwork
-from London's National Gallery...
-..was transported for safe keeping
-to a cavern in Manod quarry.
-Prior to that, some of the artwork
-was kept at Penrhyn Castle...
-..and Pritchard Jones Hall
-A safer location was needed
-and this quarry fitted the bill.
-Heat and humidity levels
-had to be regulated.
-This bridge caused problems.
-One work of art was too tall
-to fit underneath the bridge.
-It was a painting of Charles I.
-Instead of chopping off his head
-for a second time...
-..they had to lower
-the level of the road...
-..so that the painting would fit.
-I'm standing on the evidence here.
-This is the difference between
-Charles I's head and shoulders!
-Around half a metre!
-With some elbow grease
-and lots of manual labour...
-..Charles I eventually made it
-to Manod quarry.
-We're in the centre of Ruthin,
-a town famed for its history.
-This is where
-Owain Glyndwr's rebellion began.
-It's an important place
-in the national history of Wales.
-We're in St Peter's Square...
-..in front of the Myddleton Arms.
-The Myddletons brought
-a fresh water supply to London.
-The dormer windows
-are the Seven Eyes of Ruthin.
-Behind it is St Peter's Church.
-The almshouses are interesting,
-and that's just for starters.
-Ruthin is one of the few towns...
-..to retain a large number of its
-black and white medieval houses.
-The oldest of them all
-Each room is furnished differently,
-but that's more apparent upstairs.
-When the vicar of Llanfwrog
-lived here, he had a study.
-They even had a telephone...
-..which was very progressive
-in the 1900s.
-They also had electricity.
-One room is furnished
-as a school for the daughters...
-..of Ruthin's fashionable families.
-Ruthin's answer to a private school.
-There are dozens of plaques
-and papers to read.
-You could be here all day.
-It's a very interesting place.
-The town's oldest site
-is that on which the castle stands.
-From the outside,
-it doesn't look much like a castle.
-It was built
-on a red sandstone ridge.
-Due to its colour, it was known as
-the red castle in the great marsh.
-It was a temptation
-to build something on the ridge!
-There was a castle here
-in the late 13th century.
-Llywelyn the Last's brother,
-Dafydd, lived here.
-It may have been
-a motte and bailey castle.
-The plot to attack Hawarden Castle
-was conceived here...
-..which ultimately ended the reign
-of Gwynedd's royal family.
-Little remains from the Middle Ages.
-This particular wall
-has a medieval look about it.
-The tower and some other sections
-have a medieval feel to them.
-It operated as a clinic at one time.
-Buildings were added to it
-These days, it's a hotel.
-It's one of the few places in Wales
-where you can actually sleep...
-..within the walls
-of a medieval castle.
-The lions are nice too.
-The lions are nice too.
-They're the best things about it!
-Our next place
-is far from luxurious.
-It's a fine example of Her Majesty's
-hotels - Ruthin Gaol!
-It belongs to the second half
-of the 19th century.
-a somewhat classical theme.
-One man can keep an eye
-on 100 cells from this spot.
-There are close to 100 cells here.
-There are six times as many
-male cells as female cells...
-..which suggests females either get
-away with it or commit fewer crimes.
-Perhaps the most famous story
-is that of Coch Bach Y Bala.
-He was born in the 1850s
-in Llanfor near Bala.
-He'd be referred to
-as a kleptomaniac nowadays.
-couldn't leave anything alone.
-He spent over half his life
-But he had this incredible knack
-People refer to him
-as the Welsh Houdini.
-He apparently escaped twice
-from this very prison in Ruthin.
-The last time he escaped, he was
-shot dead by the people hunting him.
-He was so famous that postcards
-of his funeral were printed.
-a certain level of fame...
-..if people want to buy
-a postcard of your funeral!
-From one institution
-rooted in the past...
-..to a new institution which looks
-to the future for its success.
-Ruthin Craft Centre has won awards
-for its design and initiative.
-This is the centre's art gallery.
-It's a brand-new building
-with a design...
-..that echoes the shape
-of the Clwydian Hills.
-It won a RIBA Award
-for architectural design in 2009.
-There are lots of little shops
-selling the work of Welsh craftsmen.
-I like the fact that the cafe
-didn't sell modern refreshments!
-It sold dandelion and burdock.
-Although it's a modern building...
-..it takes its cues from the past
-in a very constructive way.
-We sound like a pair of old fogeys.
-We sound like a pair of old fogeys.
-That's because we are!
-S4C Subtitles by Eirlys A Jones
Ymweliad â Llangollen, Pontcysyllte a Rhuthun cyn mynd i grombil y ddaear ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog. Featuring a visit to Llangollen, Pontcysyllte, Rhuthin and the caverns at Blaenau Ffestiniog.