Bwyd y Tywysogion


Bwyd y Tywysogion

Cawn ein tywys o wledd 'Ganol Oesol' yng Nghastell Rhuthun i fwyty Le Gallois yng Nghaerdydd. A journey from a mock medieval banquet in Ruthin Castle to the Le Gallois restauran...


Similar Content

Browse content similar to Bwyd y Tywysogion. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

-888

0:00:000:00:00

-888

-

-888

0:00:000:00:02

-888

0:00:070:00:09

-A medieval banquet will be held

-here tonight, at Ruthin Castle.

0:00:230:00:28

-What kind of food

-would you say people ate...

0:00:410:00:44

-..in the Middle Ages?

0:00:440:00:46

-Maybe the gentry and princes ate

-swans and peacocks...

0:00:460:00:49

-..and the poor barely existed

-on tasteless gruel.

0:00:490:00:53

-The truth lies somewhere in-between.

0:00:530:00:55

-We're having a medieval banquet

-tonight in the Vale of Clwyd.

0:00:550:01:00

-With me is chef Padrig Jones

-from Le Gallois restaurant, Cardiff.

0:01:000:01:04

-Later, Paj will cook authentic

-food from the Middle Ages...

0:01:050:01:09

-..and I'll help him.

0:01:090:01:11

-Paj, will you be preparing food

-similar to what we've eaten tonight?

0:01:110:01:15

-No, not really.

0:01:150:01:16

-We'll have a number of courses...

0:01:170:01:19

-..using various spices

-and ingredients...

0:01:200:01:23

-..that perhaps we wouldn't expect

-to have been available then.

0:01:230:01:27

-It'll be a very different banquet,

-with lots of surprises.

0:01:280:01:32

-I'm looking forward!

0:01:320:01:33

-We're joined

-by a number of guests...

0:01:340:01:36

-..who'll come

-to taste Paj's food in Cardiff.

0:01:360:01:40

-Here they are, stuffing their faces.

0:01:400:01:42

-Each guest has

-a special interest in food.

0:01:460:01:50

-Tudur!

0:01:510:01:52

-He's arrived just in time for food.

0:01:520:01:54

-Our Time Traveller, Tudur Owen,

-will be our tour guide...

0:01:550:01:59

-..in the places

-where these feasts were hosted.

0:01:590:02:01

-How are you, Tudur?

0:02:010:02:02

-How are you, Tudur?

-

-Hi.

0:02:020:02:03

-How do we know what people ate

-in the Middle Ages?

0:02:030:02:06

-We're very lucky in Wales,

-because of our poetic heritage.

0:02:070:02:10

-The Princes' Poets

-travelled from court to court...

0:02:100:02:13

-..writing poems for their patrons,

-praising their hospitality...

0:02:130:02:17

-..but of more relevance to us,

-praising the food that was served.

0:02:170:02:20

-These poems still exist.

0:02:200:02:22

-Although I have no poetic skills,

-I'm going to emulate the poets...

0:02:220:02:26

-..and travel to some of the

-locations described in the poems.

0:02:260:02:30

-Ruthin Castle has held

-medieval banquets for forty years.

0:02:340:02:38

-The food here, of course,

-is aimed at tourists...

0:02:380:02:42

-..giving only a hint

-of real medieval food.

0:02:420:02:46

-What do our guests think

-of the Ruthin Castle banquet?

0:02:470:02:51

-I don't think I could eat as much

-meat as that at every meal.

0:02:510:02:56

-One would soon get fed up of it.

0:02:560:02:59

-But if I kept a butcher's shop

-at the time, I'd be very happy!

0:03:000:03:04

-From contemporary evidence...

0:03:050:03:07

-..we know that a number of mansions

-had 25 kitchens.

0:03:070:03:10

-We know that a few feasts

-lasted for 19 days.

0:03:110:03:14

-The idea was to exhibit

-your wealth and power.

0:03:140:03:19

-Wealthy people ate a lot of meat,

-much more than we eat today.

0:03:200:03:24

-The meals had a high-fat content...

0:03:240:03:27

-..and were deficient

-in fruit and vegetables.

0:03:270:03:29

-I don't think they had

-the "5-a-day" we suggest nowadays.

0:03:300:03:32

-But the poor people ate what we

-encourage people to eat nowadays.

0:03:320:03:37

-The food here tonight

-is marvellous...

0:03:380:03:40

-..vegetables, meat

-and baked potatoes...

0:03:400:03:42

-..just what children need nowadays.

0:03:430:03:46

-This is the kind of food we give

-children in Carmarthenshire.

0:03:460:03:50

-There are a number of anachronistic

-features, like the baked potatoes.

0:03:510:03:56

-Potatoes weren't available

-in the Middle Ages.

0:03:580:04:00

-But forest fruit, fine.

0:04:010:04:03

-I can imagine people in the

-Middle Ages gathering wild fruit.

0:04:030:04:09

-The food was very nice, I must say.

0:04:100:04:13

-The lamb shank was marvellous.

0:04:130:04:15

-I wasn't too happy with the jacket

-potato, it was too dry for me.

0:04:160:04:20

-But everything was very nice.

0:04:210:04:24

-People often mistakenly believe

-that in the Middle Ages...

0:04:250:04:29

-..people supped rather

-basic drinks, like mead.

0:04:300:04:34

-But there's strong evidence

-in the work of the Princes' Poets...

0:04:340:04:39

-..that they were very familiar with

-wines from regions like Bordeaux.

0:04:390:04:44

-The Bordeaux region of France

-was often at war with England...

0:04:450:04:49

-..during the era of the Princes.

0:04:500:04:52

-So I have no doubts that

-in an authentic princely feast...

0:04:520:04:55

-..wine from Bordeaux

-would be served.

0:04:560:04:58

-The poet was held

-in high status by the patron.

0:04:590:05:02

-Playing host to a popular poet

-at that time...

0:05:020:05:06

-..enhanced

-the patron's reputation...

0:05:060:05:10

-..in the eyes of his fellow patrons.

0:05:100:05:12

-Well, Tudur, the evening

-at Ruthin Castle is over.

0:05:200:05:23

-Everyone had a lot of fun.

0:05:240:05:25

-But I'm not sure if we've learned

-very much about medieval food.

0:05:260:05:30

-So I'm going to Cardiff with Paj,

-where I hope to learn more.

0:05:300:05:34

-And I have quite a long journey, to

-the places described in the poems.

0:05:340:05:38

-I'll see you in Cardiff!

0:05:380:05:39

-I'll see you in Cardiff!

-

-See you.

0:05:390:05:40

-After leaving the empty tables

-at Ruthin Castle...

0:05:420:05:46

-..I went to Dolwyddelan,

-the first stop on my journey.

0:05:460:05:50

-Circa 1500, poet Lewys Mon wrote

-a poem in praise of his patron...

0:05:560:06:01

-..a nobleman,

-Maredudd ap Ieuan ap Robert.

0:06:010:06:05

-In the poem, he lavished

-praise on the food provided.

0:06:050:06:09

-Maredudd lived here at one time,

-in Dolwyddelan Castle.

0:06:090:06:13

-Maredudd came here

-from Garndolbenmaen...

0:06:140:06:17

-..to escape from

-his quarrelsome family.

0:06:180:06:21

-Dolwyddelan was one of the castles

-built by Llywelyn the Great.

0:06:220:06:26

-But by the time Maredudd came here,

-it was in need of repair.

0:06:260:06:30

-Maredudd had over 20 children.

0:06:300:06:32

-Some say he had to build a new house

-to make room for them all.

0:06:330:06:38

-These are the remains of that house

-in Cwm Penamnen, a few miles away.

0:06:380:06:44

-Work on the site has revealed

-a lot of Penamnen's remains.

0:06:440:06:48

-It was here that Lewys Mon performed

-his poem in praise of the food.

0:06:490:06:53

-Lewys was a professional poet,

-and also a blacksmith.

0:06:550:06:59

-We'll hear more about him later.

0:06:590:07:01

-Archaeologists have recently

-discovered traces of the kitchen.

0:07:040:07:08

-It was probably here that the food

-that Lewys Mon praised, was cooked.

0:07:080:07:12

-It was deer meat or venison

-that inspired Lewys's poetry.

0:07:180:07:23

-Venison was very popular

-in the Middle Ages.

0:07:230:07:27

-Meats of all kinds were the main

-ingredients in great banquets.

0:07:270:07:31

-This is what Lewys Mon wrote.

0:07:320:07:34

-"A round haunch of venison

0:07:350:07:37

-"And Maredudd's warm welcome

0:07:370:07:39

-"A supper never finer seen

0:07:400:07:42

-"Of venison stew, on a fine eve"

0:07:430:07:45

-Iwan Llwyd,

-Nia Powell and Twm Morys...

0:07:460:07:49

-..are all poets

-who have a keen interest...

0:07:490:07:52

-..in the work of the medieval

-Poets of the Nobility.

0:07:520:07:55

-It reminds me

-of a Chinese banquet...

0:07:550:07:58

-..with a variety of foods

-in small dishes...

0:07:590:08:03

-..and you pick what you want.

0:08:030:08:05

-They didn't have a plate, as we do

-now, but a piece of thick bread...

0:08:050:08:11

-..which was quite dry, perhaps.

0:08:120:08:14

-It was usually very salty bread.

0:08:150:08:17

-They'd take a spoonful

-from the various dishes...

0:08:170:08:21

-..and put it on the bread.

0:08:210:08:23

-The sauces would drip through

-the bread, and they'd eat the meat.

0:08:240:08:28

-Curiously, they gave the bread,

-the 'plates'...

0:08:290:08:33

-..to the poor waiting at the door.

0:08:330:08:36

-So in a way,

-everyone enjoyed the feast.

0:08:360:08:40

-But although there were dishes

-in abundance on Penamnen's table...

0:08:410:08:44

-..life wasn't always easy

-for Maredudd.

0:08:440:08:47

-Bandits from Ysbyty Ifan

-frequently attacked Penamnen...

0:08:480:08:52

-..very often when the family

-had gone to church on Sunday.

0:08:520:08:56

-So Maredudd built a new church in

-Dolwyddelan, nearer to his home...

0:08:570:09:01

-..and placed guards between

-the church and Penamnen...

0:09:020:09:05

-..to protect them from the rogues

-of the neighbouring parish.

0:09:050:09:08

-Some things never change

-in Ysbyty Ifan!

0:09:080:09:12

-There's a brass memorial

-in the church to Maredudd ab Ifan...

0:09:130:09:16

-..showing him kneeling in armour...

0:09:170:09:19

-..and encouraging us

-to pray for his soul.

0:09:190:09:22

-Paj, I'll chop the onions.

0:09:280:09:31

-Are you using venison

-for the first course?

0:09:320:09:34

-Yes, a venison casserole...

0:09:350:09:37

-..with onions, carrots,

-red wine and spices.

0:09:380:09:42

-What spices?

0:09:420:09:44

-What spices?

-

-Juniper, cloves...

0:09:440:09:46

-..a little cumin...

0:09:470:09:49

-..and black pepper.

0:09:500:09:52

-To finish it off, parsley and sage.

0:09:530:09:55

-Only the hunter who killed the deer

-could eat its testicles...

0:09:570:10:01

-..a great delicacy

-in the Middle Ages.

0:10:020:10:05

-Brown the meat in the pan.

0:10:080:10:11

-I'll leave it to brown.

0:10:180:10:20

-Is this your own recipe?

0:10:200:10:22

-I've taken the ingredients

-from the books I read...

0:10:230:10:28

-..about food in the Middle Ages.

0:10:280:10:30

-I've cooked it in a modern style...

0:10:300:10:33

-..but using the same ingredients.

0:10:330:10:36

-I put a little cumin,

-and break up the juniper by hand...

0:10:370:10:42

-..to help extract the taste.

0:10:430:10:45

-Juniper and venison go together

-well, even on menus nowadays.

0:10:450:10:50

-Add the onions now.

0:10:510:10:53

-Will you crush the garlic?

0:10:560:10:58

-Three cloves.

0:11:000:11:01

-In here too?

0:11:020:11:03

-In here too?

-

-Yes, please.

0:11:030:11:04

-I'll add the carrots.

0:11:050:11:07

-I've browned the meat, and

-softened the carrots and onions...

0:11:120:11:15

-..so the taste and natural

-sugar comes out.

0:11:150:11:18

-I'll add some flour...

0:11:180:11:20

-..to thicken the sauce.

0:11:210:11:23

-Some red wine.

0:11:240:11:26

-When it's ready, I'll add

-a little parsley and sage...

0:11:290:11:33

-..and a little vinegar and sugar,

-perhaps...

0:11:340:11:37

-..to bring out the taste and juices.

0:11:370:11:40

-I'll put the lid on and leave it

-to cook for about three hours...

0:11:410:11:45

-..on the corner

-of the stove, slowly.

0:11:450:11:48

-It's ready!

0:11:490:11:50

-Venison

0:11:550:11:56

-Venison, cut into small pieces.

0:11:560:11:58

-Onions, carrots, garlic, red wine,

-juniper, cloves, cumin...

0:11:590:12:02

-..black pepper, parsley, sage,

-vinegar, sugar.

0:12:020:12:06

-Cook for three hours.

0:12:060:12:08

-Come back after the break, to see

-what Paj does with these birds...

0:12:130:12:16

-..duck, pheasant, and quail.

0:12:170:12:19

-.

0:12:200:12:20

-888

0:12:270:12:29

-With so many courses to prepare...

0:12:370:12:39

-..Paj and his cooks had a lot

-to do before the guests arrived.

0:12:400:12:44

-My mouth was watering already.

0:12:510:12:54

-Our next stop is at one

-of Wales's most beautiful abbeys...

0:12:590:13:03

-..Valle Crucis, near Llangollen.

0:13:030:13:06

-The original abbey

-was founded in 1201...

0:13:110:13:15

-..by Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor,

-Prince of Powys.

0:13:150:13:19

-But why would a prince,

-like Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor...

0:13:200:13:24

-..go to the trouble and expense

-of building this glorious abbey?

0:13:240:13:28

-The Welsh Princes

-founded monasteries...

0:13:330:13:36

-..to ensure their place in heaven.

0:13:370:13:39

-The monks would repay them

-by praying for the Princes' souls.

0:13:390:13:43

-That was the church's power

-and influence in the 13th century.

0:13:440:13:48

-Tudur Aled praised this abbey

-over three centuries later...

0:13:490:13:53

-..only a few years prior...

0:13:540:13:56

-..to the Dissolution

-of the Monasteries by Henry VIII.

0:13:560:14:00

-Valle Crucis was dissolved in 1537,

-in Tudur Aled's lifetime.

0:14:020:14:06

-His poems are considered...

0:14:060:14:08

-..the high point

-of medieval Praise Poetry.

0:14:080:14:11

-The Church focused prominently

-in his poetry.

0:14:120:14:14

-He was a nobleman.

0:14:150:14:17

-He probably had a certain licence

-to compose poetry as he pleased.

0:14:170:14:21

-He travelled a lot around Wales,

-from one mansion to the next.

0:14:220:14:27

-He praised and recorded

-these great banquets...

0:14:280:14:32

-..and wrote a lot about

-the food we've been discussing...

0:14:330:14:37

-..as well as the splendid houses

-and generous patrons.

0:14:370:14:41

-In his poem to Valle Crucis,

-the poet praises...

0:14:430:14:46

-.."The brem and the brawn

0:14:460:14:48

-"The grapes and grain

-from overflowing jugs."

0:14:480:14:51

-But what is "brawn" and "brem"?

0:14:520:14:54

-"Brawn" is the meat of wild boar...

0:14:550:14:58

-..and "brem" is the fish, bream.

0:14:590:15:02

-Six centuries later, fish

-still swim here in the archaic pool.

0:15:020:15:07

-Thirteen monks and the abbot

-lived here in the Middle Ages.

0:15:110:15:14

-The rules of the Cistercian Order

-insisted that the monks...

0:15:150:15:19

-..had to live a meagre existence.

0:15:190:15:21

-They wore coarse, undyed, woollen

-habits and couldn't eat meat.

0:15:210:15:25

-But the Valle Crucis monks were

-punished by the Order's leaders...

0:15:250:15:29

-..for living too opulently.

0:15:300:15:32

-Apparently, the monks didn't

-celebrate mass or communion...

0:15:320:15:35

-..and lived

-a life of luxury - almost!

0:15:360:15:39

-They had four courses at every

-meal, served on silver platters...

0:15:390:15:44

-..and drank sparkling red wine.

0:15:440:15:47

-So you can bet that this place

-witnessed many merry evenings.

0:15:500:15:54

-These fish are very similar to those

-we saw at Valle Crucis Abbey.

0:15:580:16:02

-They're bream, aren't they, Chef?

0:16:020:16:03

-They're bream, aren't they, Chef?

-

-That's it.

0:16:030:16:04

-I'll use some of this fennel

-and put a little inside the fish.

0:16:050:16:09

-Some onions too.

0:16:130:16:15

-Lemon?

0:16:180:16:19

-Lemon?

-

-Yes.

0:16:190:16:20

-I'll put the lemon underneath...

0:16:210:16:24

-..so the taste comes through.

0:16:250:16:27

-I'll make a few incisions

-in the fish...

0:16:280:16:31

-..so the taste of the wine

-permeates the fish.

0:16:330:16:36

-Fish.

0:16:390:16:40

-Salmon and mackerel weren't

-eaten in the Middle Ages...

0:16:410:16:44

-..as they were thought

-to be too oily.

0:16:440:16:48

-I'd say that red wine

-would be best with this.

0:16:480:16:52

-White wine can be very acidic.

0:16:530:16:56

-Some garlic too.

0:16:560:16:57

-I keep the cloves in their skin,

-to retain the wonderful taste.

0:16:580:17:03

-Spices again, star anise...

0:17:050:17:07

-..a spice from China.

0:17:080:17:10

-Some fennel seeds.

0:17:110:17:13

-Some fennel seeds.

-

-Lovely.

0:17:130:17:14

-Pour the red wine over the fish.

0:17:180:17:20

-You poach it in the wine?

0:17:200:17:22

-You poach it in the wine?

-

-That's it.

0:17:220:17:23

-Just wine, so taste seeps

-from the bones into the wine.

0:17:230:17:27

-You'll get more juices in the wine.

0:17:270:17:28

-You'll get more juices in the wine.

-

-For how long will you poach it?

0:17:280:17:30

-A quarter of an hour, on the stove.

0:17:310:17:33

-Let it come to the boil, then move

-it to the side of the stove.

0:17:340:17:37

-Not in the oven?

0:17:380:17:38

-Not in the oven?

-

-No, on the stove.

0:17:380:17:39

-The steam will help cook the fish.

0:17:400:17:42

-Fish.

0:17:490:17:50

-Bream, fennel, lemon, whole garlic,

-red wine, fennel seeds...

0:17:510:17:55

-..star anise, bay leaves.

0:17:550:17:58

-Simmer for a quarter of an hour.

0:17:580:18:00

-My next stop is

-the Penrhyn Estate, Llandygai...

0:18:050:18:08

-..and two halls where patrons

-were praised by the poets.

0:18:090:18:13

-When the Princes and their guests

-sat down to a feast...

0:18:150:18:18

-..it would be in the court's hall.

0:18:190:18:21

-Here, in Cochwillan, near Bangor...

0:18:210:18:23

-..there's a marvellous example

-of a medieval hall.

0:18:230:18:27

-It's likely there was a building

-on this site in the 13th century.

0:18:290:18:33

-The present house

-was built circa 1450.

0:18:330:18:37

-The hall is now a living room.

0:18:390:18:41

-Medieval princes...

0:18:410:18:43

-..would have enjoyed their banquets

-in a room like this.

0:18:430:18:46

-The poets would praise their patrons

-for their welcome and generosity.

0:18:470:18:51

-Long ago, the patrons would

-give poets a horse as a gift...

0:18:530:18:58

-..a real Mercedes of a horse!

0:18:580:19:00

-It would be a horse

-of superior breeding.

0:19:010:19:05

-They might also receive

-a splendid cloak...

0:19:050:19:08

-..gloves

-and shoes with silver buckles.

0:19:090:19:13

-This is a good example

-of what you're saying.

0:19:140:19:18

-Ieuan Du'r Bilwg expressed

-his thanks for a red cloak.

0:19:180:19:22

-It's an excellent poem

-describing this red cloak.

0:19:220:19:26

-Meirion MacIntyre Huws remarked...

0:19:260:19:28

-..that he was similar

-to today's 18-year-old lad...

0:19:280:19:30

-..buying a new shirt from Next...

0:19:300:19:32

-..and admiring himself in the mirror

-before going out on Saturday night.

0:19:330:19:37

-"I'm as colourful as the western

-sky, a lion of a man."

0:19:370:19:41

-I like the comparison.

0:19:410:19:43

-"..colourful as the western sky" -

-sunset, a vivid red colour.

0:19:430:19:46

-What a fine way of starting

-a poem about this red cloak.

0:19:460:19:50

-A nobleman, William ap Gruffudd,

-lived in Cochwillan...

0:19:530:19:56

-..when a poem was written

-about the place in the 15th century.

0:19:560:20:00

-He was an ancestor

-of the Penrhyn dynasty.

0:20:000:20:04

-The family's coat of arms can still

-be seen above the front door.

0:20:040:20:08

-William fought with Henry VII

-at Bosworth Field.

0:20:080:20:12

-William ap Gruffudd enjoyed

-many unusual delicacies....

0:20:160:20:20

-..in banquets here in Cochwillan.

0:20:200:20:22

-"The chef insists on the best meat

0:20:240:20:26

-"Venison and heron"

0:20:260:20:28

-This is how the poet

-described a meal he had here.

0:20:280:20:32

-We wouldn't dare eat heron today.

0:20:320:20:37

-But in the Middle Ages,

-birds that we consider exotic...

0:20:370:20:41

-..regularly graced the tables

-of the nobility...

0:20:410:20:44

-..for example, swans and peacocks.

0:20:440:20:46

-And who was the poet who enjoyed

-heron here in Cochwillan?

0:20:510:20:55

-The same glutton who enjoyed

-venison in Penamnen - Lewys Mon.

0:20:550:21:00

-He wrote for many

-leading Anglesey families...

0:21:010:21:05

-..such as Chwaen Wen,

-Bodeon and Bodychen.

0:21:050:21:09

-And on the mainland,

-he wrote for the Penrhyn family.

0:21:090:21:13

-He also described

-what they ate in Cochwillan.

0:21:140:21:17

-So he wrote for Anglesey families...

0:21:180:21:21

-..but also, like many poets, he

-wandered beyond his own locality...

0:21:210:21:25

-..and sang on the mainland.

0:21:250:21:27

-Cochwillan is part

-of the Penrhyn Castle Estate.

0:21:270:21:30

-Dafydd Llwyd Mathafarn praises

-the fine game he ate at Penrhyn...

0:21:310:21:34

-..when there was a medieval hall...

0:21:350:21:38

-..before the days of Lord Penrhyn.

0:21:380:21:40

-"Bittern, whose meat I enjoyed

0:21:410:21:43

-"And pheasant,

-according to the medicine book

0:21:430:21:45

-"Fine curlews

0:21:450:21:48

-"And plenty of hawks"

0:21:480:21:51

-"Bwn" is the bittern...

0:21:510:21:53

-..like the bird in the rhyme about

-selling apples in Chester Market!

0:21:540:21:58

-It's a very rare bird today.

0:21:590:22:01

-"Cwrliwns" is curlew.

0:22:010:22:04

-And "gweilch" are hawks.

0:22:060:22:08

-Dafydd Llwyd Mathafarn lived

-in this mansion near Machynlleth.

0:22:100:22:14

-He was a nobleman and a poet.

0:22:140:22:16

-Apparently, Henry Tudor stayed here

-on his way to Bosworth Field...

0:22:160:22:20

-..the same battle in which William

-ap Gruffudd, Cochwillan, fought.

0:22:200:22:24

-Lewys Mon wrote

-about the tasty heron he ate.

0:22:250:22:29

-But on the Penrhyn Estate, there

-were many more wild birds to eat.

0:22:290:22:33

-The bittern, heron, curlew -

-quite a challenge for any cook.

0:22:340:22:39

-We don't have bittern or curlew.

0:22:430:22:45

-But we have a goose here...

0:22:460:22:48

-..pigeon...

0:22:490:22:50

-..partridge.

0:22:500:22:52

-And over here,

-pheasant, wild duck...

0:22:520:22:56

-..and quail.

0:22:560:22:58

-What are you going

-to do with these wildfowl?

0:22:580:23:01

-Stuff them with dried fruit.

0:23:020:23:04

-Dates, apricots, raisins.

0:23:060:23:08

-We'll mix these

-with some breadcrumbs and thyme.

0:23:100:23:14

-Then stuff the game with it.

0:23:150:23:17

-You keep this quite dry?

0:23:180:23:19

-You keep this quite dry?

-

-Yes.

0:23:190:23:20

-The juices from the meat

-go into the fruit.

0:23:200:23:24

-Almost like chutney.

0:23:260:23:28

-Some fruit in each one.

0:23:300:23:32

-Apart from hunting

-wildfowl like pheasant...

0:23:350:23:38

-..the poor and gentry alike, kept

-pigeons to eat in the Middle Ages.

0:23:390:23:43

-Right, Paj, what are you doing now?

0:23:450:23:47

-Right, Paj, what are you doing now?

-

-I've got duck, pheasant and quail.

0:23:470:23:49

-I'm going to bone them.

0:23:500:23:53

-I'll turn this on its back first.

0:23:550:23:57

-I'll remove all the bone.

0:23:580:24:00

-I'll leave you to it then.

0:24:010:24:02

-I'll leave you to it then.

-

-Right.

0:24:020:24:03

-Leave the hard work to me!

0:24:030:24:05

-Paj's going to stuff

-three birds into one.

0:24:120:24:14

-It's a traditional recipe, but

-a modern version of this dish...

0:24:150:24:18

-..is very popular

-in the USA at Christmas.

0:24:180:24:22

-The Turducken is made

-with chicken in a duck, in a turkey.

0:24:220:24:25

-The birds are now boned.

0:24:370:24:39

-What's the next process?

0:24:390:24:41

-I'm going to keep

-the small bones on the duck.

0:24:410:24:46

-Is that pheasant?

0:24:470:24:48

-Is that pheasant?

-

-Yes.

0:24:480:24:49

-And quail.

0:24:500:24:51

-And just put it together.

0:24:520:24:54

-How long did it take you

-to learn to do this sort of thing?

0:24:550:24:59

-When I was training as a chef...

0:24:590:25:01

-..I worked at the butchery

-in the hotel where I was based.

0:25:020:25:06

-We had hundreds of fowl

-to prepare...

0:25:070:25:09

-..for great banquets,

-at Christmas, for example.

0:25:100:25:14

-We used to do this sort of thing.

0:25:140:25:16

-The term we used was 'galantine'...

0:25:160:25:19

-..where you bone everything...

0:25:200:25:22

-..then reform it

-into its original shape.

0:25:220:25:25

-When you slice it,

-you have three kinds of meat.

0:25:250:25:28

-I think it'll be tasty.

0:25:280:25:29

-I think it'll be tasty.

-

-Marvellous.

0:25:290:25:31

-Wild Poultry.

0:25:330:25:34

-Stuff the birds with dried fruit.

0:25:350:25:37

-Dates, apricots,

-raisins, breadcrumbs and thyme.

0:25:380:25:42

-The wildfowl are ready to go

-into the oven. In they go, Chef!

0:25:470:25:51

-Join us after the break...

0:25:510:25:53

-..to find what links curry

-and the Food of Princes.

0:25:530:25:56

-.

0:26:020:26:02

-888

0:26:060:26:08

-Welcome back.

0:26:150:26:16

-Our banquet is coming together now.

-A lot of the dishes are ready.

0:26:170:26:20

-Tudur has visited several places...

0:26:210:26:23

-..where very fine food

-was eaten in the Middle Ages.

0:26:230:26:27

-Oswestry Castle next, a journey

-that's much easier for me...

0:26:280:26:31

-..than for the poets

-hundreds of years ago, I'm sure.

0:26:320:26:35

-Cumin, cinnamon and cloves.

0:26:380:26:41

-Surely these weren't

-on the Princes' tables?

0:26:430:26:47

-Well, they were, as a poem to the

-Constable of Oswestry Castle shows.

0:26:470:26:51

-Spices were quite common

-in the Middle Ages.

0:26:510:26:55

-People thought they were

-mysterious and interesting...

0:26:550:26:58

-..because they came from far away.

0:26:580:27:00

-Cooks used them sparingly

-because they were very expensive...

0:27:000:27:03

-..especially black pepper,

-considered the king of spices.

0:27:040:27:07

-In one poem, Guto'r Glyn says...

0:27:080:27:10

-"..Ginger, ground on food

0:27:110:27:13

-"Good protection from colds

0:27:130:27:15

-"Cinnamon, cloves and cumin

0:27:150:27:17

-"Sugar and mace to warm the lips."

0:27:180:27:20

-The poem is about a banquet held

-on this site, Oswestry Castle.

0:27:230:27:28

-Unfortunately,

-not much remains here today.

0:27:280:27:32

-The poet, Guto'r Glyn,

-was considered one of the masters...

0:27:330:27:37

-..of 15th-century Praise Poetry,

-for his witty, natural poems.

0:27:370:27:41

-He's a very interesting poet,

-and a great traveller...

0:27:420:27:46

-..once again showing the links poets

-had, from Anglesey to Monmouth.

0:27:460:27:50

-They were more than just poets.

0:27:510:27:54

-They imparted much wider information

-about these families' links...

0:27:540:27:58

-..their lineage, who had

-married into which family...

0:27:580:28:01

-..and that family's lineage too.

0:28:020:28:04

-They carried a great deal

-of information, and shared it...

0:28:040:28:08

-..all over Wales,

-not just in one area.

0:28:080:28:11

-Guto'r Glyn worked in Clwyd,

-Gwynedd and south Wales.

0:28:110:28:15

-They travelled, publicizing this

-information, throughout Wales.

0:28:150:28:20

-Although Guto's Glyn wrote the poem

-in the late 15th century...

0:28:210:28:25

-..the original castle on this site

-was built in 1086.

0:28:250:28:29

-It was built by the Normans and

-is recorded in the Domesday Book.

0:28:300:28:34

-It was burnt during

-Owain Glyndwr's Rebellion.

0:28:340:28:38

-It was a big castle in its day...

0:28:380:28:41

-..but gradually, stones were stolen

-to build houses in Oswestry.

0:28:410:28:46

-But in Guto'r Glyn's day...

0:28:460:28:48

-..spice-filled feasts

-packed the castle's halls.

0:28:490:28:52

-Thank you.

0:28:550:28:56

-And spices are still used

-in Oswestry to this day.

0:28:580:29:02

-Ooh!

0:29:080:29:09

-Er... water, please?!

0:29:100:29:12

-What spices are you using now, Chef?

0:29:140:29:17

-For the rabbit meat,

-we're going to use cinnamon...

0:29:170:29:21

-..cloves, a little juniper,

-garlic...

0:29:220:29:26

-..a little thyme, sage and parsley.

0:29:260:29:27

-..a little thyme, sage and parsley.

-

-Have you used saffron?

0:29:270:29:29

-Saffron used to be very expensive

-and it still is.

0:29:300:29:33

-Apart from gold, by weight, it's the

-most expensive stuff you can buy.

0:29:340:29:38

-Did you add saffron

-to the lamb dish?

0:29:380:29:40

-Yes, it's in the oven.

-It should be ready.

0:29:400:29:43

-It's been cooking

-for four hours now.

0:29:450:29:48

-I mixed saffron with suet...

0:29:480:29:51

-..garlic, ginger, clove.

0:29:530:29:55

-..garlic, ginger, clove.

-

-Marvellous.

0:29:550:29:56

-Oil, an egg yolk,

-cumin and turmeric.

0:29:580:30:02

-They're all curry spices.

0:30:020:30:05

-The taste coming through from

-the spices and saffron is fantastic.

0:30:050:30:10

-The meat is dropping off the bone.

0:30:100:30:12

-Mm!

0:30:130:30:14

-It's been cooked slowly.

0:30:140:30:16

-I made incisions in the meat, so all

-the marinade has been absorbed.

0:30:160:30:19

-The flavour of the spices

-penetrates the meat. Marvellous!

0:30:200:30:24

-Poor little rabbit.

0:30:300:30:31

-Cut that into small pieces.

0:30:320:30:34

-We'll roast them and cook them

-in red wine and cinnamon.

0:30:350:30:40

-One of the superstitions held

-by people in the Middle Ages...

0:30:410:30:45

-..was that cinnamon came from

-the nest of the legendary phoenix.

0:30:450:30:49

-Are you ready to cook these, Chef?

0:30:530:30:55

-Are you ready to cook these, Chef?

-

-Yes.

0:30:550:30:56

-Pass them to me.

0:30:560:30:58

-Pass them to me.

-

-Take another one.

0:30:580:30:59

-The meat's starting to brown now.

0:31:080:31:10

-No need to brown it too much,

-just until it turns white...

0:31:100:31:14

-..to get a bit

-of caramelization on the meat.

0:31:150:31:17

-Do you want any onions?

0:31:180:31:20

-These carrots need to be chopped up.

0:31:210:31:22

-These carrots need to be chopped up.

-

-OK.

0:31:220:31:23

-Chunks like this.

0:31:240:31:25

-Chunks like this.

-

-OK.

0:31:250:31:26

-Quite rustic.

0:31:260:31:27

-Some cloves.

0:31:340:31:35

-And cinnamon.

0:31:370:31:39

-What are you doing with the saffron?

0:31:430:31:45

-I'm just going to pound the saffron

-so the oil starts to come out of it.

0:31:460:31:51

-It helps draw out the saffron

-colour quickly and breaks it up.

0:31:520:31:56

-If you leave it in big segments,

-sometimes you get long strings.

0:31:560:32:00

-When you eat them,

-they stain your teeth.

0:32:000:32:05

-You see I've finely chopped

-the saffron.

0:32:050:32:09

-The oil is starting to seep out,

-it's becoming moist.

0:32:090:32:12

-Then it goes in with the rabbit.

0:32:130:32:15

-To add flavour to the wild rabbit.

0:32:190:32:21

-Another bottle of red wine.

0:32:220:32:24

-We use a lot of wine!

0:32:260:32:27

-We use a lot of wine!

-

-Wine with everything.

0:32:270:32:29

-Yes.

0:32:290:32:30

-Rabbit

0:32:370:32:38

-Rabbit, cut into chunks.

-Onions, carrots, garlic.

0:32:380:32:41

-Ginger, red wine, stock,

-mustard, thyme, sage, parsley.

0:32:420:32:45

-SPICES - cinnamon,

-cloves, saffron, juniper.

0:32:450:32:49

-Simmer for two hours.

0:32:490:32:51

-I'll leave it to boil and reduce

-for twenty minutes...

0:32:550:32:58

-..to take the acidity

-out of the wine.

0:32:590:33:02

-I'll pour fresh broth over this,

-and leave it to cook slowly...

0:33:030:33:06

-..until the meat comes off the bone.

0:33:070:33:09

-I'll finish off the sauce

-with a little mustard.

0:33:090:33:12

-After eating a bellyful

-of Oswestry curry...

0:33:130:33:17

-..it's time for a cuppa

-in the next location, near Corwen.

0:33:170:33:21

-Rhug Farm, near Corwen...

0:33:220:33:24

-..is one of Wales's

-premier organic food centres.

0:33:250:33:28

-We know that food was very important

-on this site in the 16th century.

0:33:280:33:33

-Poet Raff ap Robert praised

-the feast he had at Rhug Castle...

0:33:330:33:37

-..held, for some reason,

-on a Thursday evening.

0:33:380:33:42

-"Powdered sugar on dishes

0:33:440:33:46

-"Boar meat and stunning stew

-on Thursday evening."

0:33:470:33:50

-That was how Raff ap Robert

-praised the hospitality at Rhug.

0:33:500:33:54

-He described the custom

-of adding sugar to every dish...

0:33:540:33:58

-..including "sew" - stew.

0:33:580:34:00

-Apparently, Raff was very fond

-of writing "smutty" poems...

0:34:010:34:05

-..as well as poems

-praising his patrons.

0:34:050:34:08

-A few very fine poets wrote

-bawdy poetry occasionally.

0:34:080:34:13

-It's as good as the Praise Poetry...

0:34:140:34:16

-..in its own way,

-in its portrayed images and style.

0:34:170:34:21

-But in a very religious age...

0:34:210:34:24

-..it was considered blasphemous.

0:34:250:34:27

-Especially when you consider

-how these poems were recorded.

0:34:270:34:31

-They were probably written down...

0:34:310:34:33

-..by men of the cloth

-in monasteries or abbeys.

0:34:340:34:38

-400 years

-before Raff ap Robert's day...

0:34:390:34:42

-..Prince Gruffudd ap Cynan was

-betrayed by one of his own men...

0:34:420:34:46

-..at Rhug Castle.

0:34:460:34:48

-Meirion Goch successfully lured

-Gruffudd ap Cynan here to Rhug...

0:34:500:34:54

-..where the Normans

-were laying in wait for him.

0:34:540:34:57

-Gruffudd lost the battle

-and was imprisoned for 18 years...

0:34:580:35:02

-..in Chester Castle.

0:35:020:35:03

-But he escaped, and after

-fighting in many parts of Wales...

0:35:030:35:07

-..he was recognized

-as the Prince of Wales.

0:35:080:35:10

-The motte and bailey castle

-that used to be here...

0:35:110:35:13

-..has long disappeared.

0:35:130:35:15

-More recently, the castle's

-ruins were used as cold storage...

0:35:160:35:20

-..for the mansion's kitchens.

0:35:200:35:22

-This is how the mansion looks today.

0:35:230:35:25

-Robert Salbury was the lord

-and patron who lived here...

0:35:250:35:29

-..in the 16th century.

0:35:290:35:31

-He was Rhug's

-most well-known patron...

0:35:320:35:34

-..although poets wrote for his

-father, Pyrs, and his son, Sion too.

0:35:340:35:38

-Unfortunately, not many

-of the poems have survived.

0:35:380:35:42

-Today, we have to use a lot

-of imagination to depict the past.

0:35:520:35:57

-But walking into this church

-is just like stepping back...

0:35:580:36:02

-..to Raff ap Robert's day.

0:36:020:36:04

-This is Llangar Church,

-built in the 13th century...

0:36:080:36:12

-..a mile across the valley

-from Rhug.

0:36:120:36:15

-The murals are 600 years old...

0:36:180:36:20

-..and depict Biblical scenes.

0:36:210:36:23

-A record from Raff ap Robert's day

-says that there was...

0:36:230:36:27

-..five pounds, seven shillings and

-eight pence in the church's coffers.

0:36:270:36:31

-After being reminded of

-his mortality by this picture...

0:36:330:36:36

-..maybe Raff ap Robert came here...

0:36:370:36:41

-..to give thanks

-for being so well fed.

0:36:410:36:44

-Who knows?

0:36:450:36:46

-This is the dessert

-with fruit and sugar.

0:36:500:36:53

-It's strange to think they had sugar

-in the Middle Ages, but they did.

0:36:530:36:56

-Yes, sugar first came

-from Mediterranean islands.

0:36:570:37:01

-They'd grow it, then the sugar would

-be solidified into large lumps.

0:37:010:37:05

-Sugar was grated over food.

0:37:050:37:08

-The sugar was very fine,

-rather than lumpy.

0:37:090:37:13

-They served puddings

-and sweet dishes at the same time...

0:37:130:37:17

-..as the savoury dishes,

-all in one big meal.

0:37:170:37:20

-People could alternate

-between savoury and sweet dishes.

0:37:210:37:25

-Exactly.

0:37:250:37:26

-What's the stuffing for the apples?

0:37:270:37:29

-A kind of mincemeat...

0:37:290:37:31

-..a little suet, dried apricot,

-currants, dates and raisins.

0:37:310:37:37

-Mix them with a little honey,

-cinnamon and mixed spice.

0:37:370:37:41

-They'd probably use apples

-like these, Braeburn...

0:37:420:37:46

-..which is a traditional apple,

-or a cooking apple, like Cox.

0:37:460:37:50

-Once we've stuffed them,

-we'll drizzle honey over them.

0:37:510:37:55

-Then bake them?

0:37:550:37:56

-Yes, it'll take 20-30 minutes

-in a fairly slow oven.

0:37:570:38:02

-A little honey, not too much,

-or the honey will just burn.

0:38:030:38:08

-Very different from today, sugar was

-thought to be very beneficial...

0:38:130:38:17

-..in the Middle Ages, included in

-medicine for all kinds of illnesses.

0:38:170:38:21

-Join us after the break...

0:38:220:38:24

-..to see what our guests thought

-of our mediaeval banquet.

0:38:250:38:28

-.

0:38:300:38:31

-888

0:38:350:38:37

-The cooking's over, at last.

0:38:420:38:44

-Soon, I'll be welcoming back

-our guests.

0:38:440:38:47

-This time, they'll enjoy a feast

-fit for a medieval prince.

0:38:470:38:51

-The last time we saw them...

0:38:510:38:53

-..they were enjoying themselves

-in Ruthin Castle.

0:38:530:38:56

-Yes, our guests enjoyed the food

-in Ruthin Castle.

0:38:590:39:04

-It'll be interesting to see

-their response to Paj's feast.

0:39:040:39:08

-Tudur's on his way too...

0:39:090:39:11

-..after travelling, like one of

-the Poets of the Nobility, long ago.

0:39:110:39:15

-Tudur began

-in Dolwyddelan and Penamnen...

0:39:160:39:19

-..where Lewys Mon

-had a fine meal of venison...

0:39:190:39:22

-..with his patron,

-Maredudd ap Ieuan ap Robert.

0:39:220:39:25

-Next, Valle Crucis Abbey,

-near Llangollen...

0:39:270:39:29

-..where fish are kept to this day...

0:39:290:39:31

-..like the bream that Tudur Aled

-ate there with the monks.

0:39:310:39:35

-Next, Penrhyn Castle

-and Cochwillan Hall...

0:39:360:39:39

-..where Lewys Mon

-and Dafydd Llwyd Mathafarn...

0:39:390:39:42

-..ate all sorts of wildfowl.

0:39:430:39:45

-Tonight, pheasant,

-pigeon and duck will be served.

0:39:450:39:49

-In Oswestry Castle,

-spices were on the menu...

0:39:490:39:53

-..when Guto'r Glyn was there.

0:39:530:39:54

-They're included in the rabbit dish

-that Paj has prepared.

0:39:550:39:58

-Then, to Rhug, near Corwen,

-where Raff ap Robert...

0:39:580:40:02

-..enjoyed the mansion's sugar

-in the 16th century.

0:40:020:40:06

-There's plenty of sugar and honey

-in Paj's apple recipe too.

0:40:060:40:10

-CHATTER

0:40:140:40:16

-Paj, was creating this feast

-a challenge for you?

0:40:190:40:21

-Yes. There was a lot of preparation.

0:40:220:40:24

-But I've really enjoyed it

-and found a lot of new ideas.

0:40:240:40:28

-Will your customers enjoy

-medieval dishes in the future?

0:40:280:40:32

-I think they'll get

-to taste a few delicacies...

0:40:320:40:36

-..presented in a more

-modern style, perhaps.

0:40:360:40:39

-There's one empty seat.

-Where's our traveller, Tudur Owen?

0:40:390:40:43

-Here I am!

0:40:460:40:48

-CHEERS

0:40:480:40:50

-CHEERS

-

-And I've found a friend!

0:40:500:40:52

-What do you think of this?

0:40:530:40:55

-Don't mention Anglesey pigs.

0:40:570:40:59

-LAUGHTER

0:41:000:41:02

-Welcome! Did you enjoy your journey?

0:41:040:41:06

-Yes. I've seen some amazing sights

-and visited the places...

0:41:060:41:09

-..where these feasts were held.

0:41:090:41:11

-But there's no-one there now,

-so I'm looking forward to company...

0:41:120:41:16

-..and more importantly, the food!

0:41:160:41:18

-Look at these!

0:41:190:41:20

-What sweetens the rabbit?

0:41:250:41:27

-It's been cooked

-with honey and mustard...

0:41:280:41:31

-..and in fresh duck fat.

0:41:320:41:35

-It's a very Christmassy flavour.

0:41:350:41:37

-Yes, with the cloves.

0:41:370:41:39

-Marvellous! It's a nice way to eat.

0:41:450:41:48

-Marvellous! It's a nice way to eat.

-

-And wine too.

0:41:480:41:49

-All in one, like Morris Evans' oil.

0:41:560:41:58

-Take the whole bottle.

0:41:580:42:00

-Were the rabbits in their skins?

0:42:010:42:03

-Were the rabbits in their skins?

-

-No, they were already prepared.

0:42:030:42:05

-They were whole,

-with the liver, heart, the innards.

0:42:050:42:09

-And the heads and tails.

0:42:100:42:11

-We thought we'd have meat.

0:42:250:42:27

-But even you didn't think there'd

-be this much. Are you satisfied?

0:42:280:42:32

-Yes, I'm very glad, of course.

0:42:320:42:34

-I didn't think there'd be

-as much as this.

0:42:340:42:38

-That's the first time

-I've had a whole pig like this.

0:42:390:42:43

-I've only had rabbit once before.

0:42:430:42:46

-It's fantastic.

-I think I'll try the goose next.

0:42:460:42:50

-The lamb's very nice too.

0:42:510:42:53

-Nia, their diet was much more

-seasonal than ours, I suppose.

0:42:530:42:58

-We get foods from all over the

-world. How would that affect them?

0:42:590:43:03

-They made the most

-of what was available...

0:43:030:43:06

-..and ate fewer vegetables, maybe.

0:43:060:43:08

-The main ingredient of the meal

-was all the meat.

0:43:090:43:13

-So compared to our diet today, it's

-very similar to the Atkins Diet.

0:43:140:43:18

-As we see, the emphasis is on meat.

0:43:190:43:21

-There's very little carbohydrate.

0:43:210:43:24

-Another interesting fact...

0:43:240:43:25

-..is that only rich people could

-afford salt, it was so expensive.

0:43:260:43:29

-The saying "above the salt"

-is based on that fact.

0:43:290:43:34

-As Patrick said,

-even poor people used spices.

0:43:350:43:39

-Carol, one thing I've noticed...

0:43:450:43:47

-..is that all I was taught

-about table manners...

0:43:480:43:51

-..was irrelevant in the Middle Ages.

0:43:510:43:53

-You just grab everything

-with your hands!

0:43:540:43:57

-You can forget that.

0:43:580:43:59

-When the children see this...

0:44:000:44:02

-..I'm sure they'll say it's awful

-that Mrs Jones used her hands...

0:44:030:44:07

-..after preaching to us

-about using cutlery...

0:44:070:44:11

-..and about table manners.

0:44:120:44:15

-It'll be very hard next week...

0:44:150:44:17

-..to explain to the children

-it was only for the programme!

0:44:180:44:23

-Nice, isn't it?

0:44:250:44:27

-Gerwyn, you're a Cookery student.

0:44:300:44:32

-Have you learned anything

-from what we've seen?

0:44:320:44:35

-Yes. When I watched them

-cooking in the kitchen...

0:44:350:44:39

-..it was fascinating,

-the way they marinated everything.

0:44:390:44:43

-D'you think you'd have enjoyed

-working in a medieval kitchen?

0:44:430:44:45

-It's been absolutely fab.

-Patrick's been so nice.

0:44:460:44:49

-Everything's been brilliant.

0:44:500:44:51

-Mincemeat, suet, dried fruit, dates.

0:44:520:44:55

-Elin, you're used

-to catering for large numbers.

0:44:570:45:01

-Did you enjoy seeing all

-the dishes arrive at the same time?

0:45:010:45:05

-There's so much

-variety of dishes here.

0:45:050:45:09

-It's interesting to listen

-the opinions of the people here...

0:45:100:45:14

-..a food critic,

-a wine lover, a butcher...

0:45:140:45:18

-..and hear what they

-think about this period.

0:45:180:45:22

-Guto, we discussed the wines

-people would drink in those days.

0:45:250:45:29

-A lot of these dishes

-have been prepared in wine.

0:45:290:45:33

-Have you enjoyed them?

0:45:330:45:35

-Have you enjoyed them?

-

-I have indeed.

0:45:350:45:36

-Apart from this poor fellow, it

-reminds me of the twins back home.

0:45:360:45:40

-LAUGHTER

0:45:400:45:41

-No, the food's excellent.

0:45:420:45:44

-I've been accused of being

-a carnivore who ignores the greens.

0:45:440:45:48

-I'd have been at home

-in the Middle Ages.

0:45:490:45:52

-I'd definitely say...

0:45:530:45:54

-..without a doubt, a meal like this

-encourages you to drink more wine.

0:45:550:45:59

-You need something

-to wash down all the meat!

0:45:590:46:02

-I doubt if a bottle like this

-would be enough for a prince.

0:46:020:46:06

-They'd have big jugs of wine,

-I hope.

0:46:070:46:11

-I noticed that Paj prepared

-almost everything with red wine.

0:46:110:46:15

-Did they have white wine

-in those days?

0:46:150:46:17

-Yes, indeed. This wine

-is from St Emilion in Bordeaux.

0:46:180:46:22

-It's unlikely that wine...

0:46:220:46:25

-..from Bordeaux at that time

-would have been red.

0:46:250:46:28

-It would have been slightly darker

-than rose...

0:46:280:46:30

-..but certainly not almost purple,

-like this one.

0:46:310:46:35

-There would have been white wine.

0:46:350:46:36

-But because it was

-transported to Wales...

0:46:370:46:40

-..it'd probably have been

-red wine from France.

0:46:400:46:43

-But there's definite evidence,

-at Carmarthen's Archives Office...

0:46:430:46:46

-..that in 1374, a ship arrived in

-Carmarthen with wine from Bordeaux.

0:46:460:46:50

-So I should think that they drank

-wine from Bordeaux...

0:46:510:46:54

-..maybe a little lighter in colour.

0:46:550:46:57

-But this is still very good!

0:46:570:46:58

-But this is still very good!

-

-LAUGHTER

0:46:580:47:00

-John, we've sampled

-the food of Princes.

0:47:060:47:09

-Is there any dish

-you've been surprised to see?

0:47:090:47:13

-What's surprised me most

-is that it's such a huge feast.

0:47:130:47:16

-All these dishes at the same

-time, and so much variety.

0:47:160:47:20

-Meats of all kinds, things like

-wild duck, pheasant, goose...

0:47:200:47:24

-..and the suckling pig.

0:47:240:47:26

-I can't say I was happy to see

-the piglet arrive at the table!

0:47:260:47:30

-I don't think the pig

-was too happy either.

0:47:310:47:34

-I had rather a prejudice

-against medieval food.

0:47:350:47:39

-Some people are mad about

-medieval instruments and music.

0:47:390:47:45

-I think modern instruments are much

-better and so is modern food!

0:47:450:47:49

-But after tonight, I must say...

0:47:490:47:51

-..I'd like to see a few

-of the dishes on a modern menu.

0:47:520:47:54

-There are so many spices here,

-it reminds me of Moroccan food.

0:47:540:47:58

-That was the challenge for me,

-to find the right balance...

0:47:590:48:02

-..how much of everything to use.

0:48:020:48:05

-It was very difficult

-to know how much to add.

0:48:050:48:08

-I'm happy with most of the dishes.

0:48:090:48:12

-Gwyneth Glyn, you have a notebook.

0:48:180:48:20

-Has this delicious food inspired

-you to compose this evening?

0:48:210:48:24

-It's covered in grease!

-But I've had a great time.

0:48:250:48:29

-What better way of celebrating

-the feast than with a poem?

0:48:290:48:32

-"The dishes aren't doughy

0:48:330:48:35

-"But pure, like our hill's streams

0:48:350:48:37

-"Tender, tasty meats

0:48:380:48:40

-"And wine worthy of praise

0:48:400:48:42

-"Bread, softer than white wool

0:48:420:48:45

-"The piglet, the fine rabbit

0:48:460:48:49

-"And pheasant, this fine feast

-would satisfy a saint."

0:48:490:48:53

-Thank you.

0:48:540:48:55

-As the guests applaud the poem...

0:48:560:48:58

-..Tudur and I'll help them finish

-off the food and bid you farewell.

0:48:580:49:01

-S4/C subtitles by GWEAD

0:49:190:49:21

Cawn ein tywys o wledd 'Ganol Oesol' yng Nghastell Rhuthun i fwyty Le Gallois yng Nghaerdydd. A journey from a mock medieval banquet in Ruthin Castle to the Le Gallois restaurant in Cardiff.