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UGC NET Paper-2: Geography 2nd Dec 2019

Option 1 : Divide the population into homegeneous groups and select equally but randomly

**Definition: **Sampling is a technique where the **sampler selects some of the elements** with the intention of finding out a conclusion about the total population from which they are taken. It may be defined as the** selection of some part of an aggregate or totality** on the basis of which a judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. In other words, it is the process of **obtaining information about an entire population by examining only a part of it.**

**Sampling can be categorized into two,**

- Probability sampling
- Non-probability sampling

- In a stratified sample, researchers divide a population into
**homogeneous subpopulations called strata**(the plural of stratum) based on specific characteristics (e.g., race, gender, location, etc.). - Every member of the population should be in exactly one stratum.
- Each stratum is then sampled using another
**probability sampling method,**such as cluster or simple random sampling, allowing researchers to estimate statistical measures for each sub-population. - Researchers rely on stratified sampling when a population’s characteristics are diverse and they want to ensure that every character is properly represented in the sample.
**So the overall process is dividing the population into homogeneous groups and select equally but randomly.**

**Hence, option 1 is the correct answer.**