Y Pla Gwyn


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Y Pla Gwyn

Rhaglen ddogfen o 2003 yn olrhain hanes tiwberciwlosis yng Nghymru. Documentary from 2003 tracing the history of tuberculosis in Wales and featuring some of those affected by th...


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-New York, icon of wealth

-and success...

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-..leads the way in all senses.

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-But amid the affluence,

-the city wages a daily battle...

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-..against one of mankind's

-oldest enemies.

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-This enemy flourishes

-among the poor and the homeless...

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-..not just in New York

-but all over the world.

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-It kills two million people

-each year.

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-There's a new victim every second.

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-Skin colour, belief, affluence or

-social position count for nothing.

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-This can attack everyone.

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-We in Wales were familiar

-with this enemy.

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-It's been the biggest killer

-in recent centuries.

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-It spread through the country

-causing grief and sorrow.

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-It's now back among us once again.

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-This enemy

-is known by several names.

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-Decay, phthisis, consumption,

-tuberculosis, TB.

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-But the pale faces

-of the victims...

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-..gave rise to the disease's most

-chilling name - the white plague.

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-TB has been with us for centuries.

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-The ancient Egyptians

-were familiar with it.

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-When a person died in Egypt...

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-..the body was buried

-in a particular way...

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-..to prevent the putrefaction

-and dismemberment of the corpse.

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-That's what happened

-to this little girl's corpse.

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-She died 2,300 years ago,

-at the age of eight.

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-X-rays of the body

-reveal a curve in the spine.

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-This often happens to people who

-suffer tuberculosis of the bones.

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-TB has left its mark

-on rural Wales, too.

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-Sanatoria and isolated hospitals...

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-..remain as memorials

-to thousands of sufferers...

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-..who fell victim

-to this cruel sickness.

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-It changed lives for ever.

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-Years ago, there was no treatment

-and people died.

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-It was known as decay,

-and everyone feared it.

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-People knew that sufferers

-very often did not get better...

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-..after catching this cruel disease.

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-Cruel, because sufferers

-grew thinner and thinner.

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-Consumption - people were consumed

-before your eyes.

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-Once you heard

-that someone had TB...

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-..you were, more or less,

-talking about their death.

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-They died almost inevitably.

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-It was as bad as cancer,

-maybe worse.

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-It was only at the end

-of the 19th century...

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-..that it was understood

-that TB was caused by bacteria.

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-Strict regulations were introduced

-to prevent bacteria from spreading.

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-Glamorganshire introduced a law...

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-..forbidding people

-from spitting in public.

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-Offenders were fined 2 on the spot.

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-But poverty was the biggest problem.

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-Parents and children

-often slept in the same room.

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-If the father caught the disease,

-his wife would catch it...

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-..and so would the children

-who shared the bedroom.

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-The whole family would succumb

-and die.

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-The effects of the disease

-were pitiful.

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-TB changed the lives of families.

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-Mam was expecting

-my little brother.

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-She went to the doctor and he said

-she was seriously ill with TB.

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-She had to go to a sanatorium

-in Tregaron.

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-My brother was born on May 15th...

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-..and Mam died in August.

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-My grandparents -

-my mother's father and mother...

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-..had to take me and my sister in.

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-They couldn't cope

-with the baby as well.

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-So an aunt looked after my brother.

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-The bacteria that cause TB

-are cunning.

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-They grow slowly inside body cells

-that fight infection...

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-..and settle

-in cavities in the lungs.

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-As the body fights the disease...

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-..a wall of dead cells

-forms around the bacteria.

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-This is what causes

-the white shadows on X-rays.

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-When TB affects the lungs,

-it can spread from person to person.

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-You might expect...

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-..that densely populated areas

-would have suffered most...

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-..when the disease was at its most

-prevalent early in the last century.

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-But more people suffered from TB

-in rural Wales.

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-We tend to think that the

-southern coalfield areas...

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-..were the poorest parts of Wales.

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-But these areas

-were quite prosperous.

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-That's why thousands of people

-flocked there.

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-Rural areas were very much poorer.

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-If you look at the statistics...

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-..TB deaths seem to double

-as you go further west.

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-They seem to imply

-that tuberculosis...

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-..was a disease of the windy,

-wet areas of western Britain.

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-The only treatment for TB

-was to get away from wind and rain.

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-The Germans came up

-with the idea of sanatoria.

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-These were hospitals offering

-fresh air and healthy diets.

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-They soon spread all over Europe.

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-Today, the old sanatorium in Davos,

-Switzerland, is a luxury hotel.

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-The rich and famous came here

-to recover from the white plague.

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-This is where Thomas Mann

-wrote 'The Magic Mountain'...

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-..about the mountain that cured TB.

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-Wales's first sanatorium -

-Plas Pendyffryn, Penmaenmawr...

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-..opened in 1900.

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-Soon, there began a campaign for a

-sanatorium in every Welsh county...

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-..led by a new movement, the WNMA.

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-The WNMA was one of the

-most significant movements...

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-..to spring up in Wales

-at the start of the 20th century.

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-It was a memorial association

-in tribute to King Edward VII.

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-Edward VII had visited a TB centre

-before he became king...

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-..and had asked if patients could

-be cured, why it wasn't happening.

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-When Edward died, David Davies,

-the MP for Montgomeryshire...

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-..was asked to raise a memorial

-to him.

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-The Lord Lieutenants came together

-to plan a memorial.

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-But David Davies said that something

-to help people with tuberculosis...

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-..would be a more fitting tribute

-than a memorial.

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-David Davies, Llandinam,

-was famous throughout Wales.

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-He was the best person to lead

-this new national association.

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-At that time, few people could

-afford to contribute 150,000...

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-..to launch the campaign.

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-Not long afterwards, in July 1920...

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-..the WNMA invited

-King George V and Queen Mary...

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-..to open its first two sanatoria

-in Wales.

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-The north Wales sanatorium

-in Llangwyfan...

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-..and the other at Bronllys

-near Brecon in the south.

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-They would provide free treatment

-for TB sufferers.

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-Llangwyfan's 300 beds and the 400

-at Bronllys were soon filled.

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-The biggest sanatoria in the country

-couldn't control the white plague.

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-During the 1930s and '40s, sanatoria

-were packed with TB sufferers.

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-The only treatments available

-were rest and good food...

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-..but these were not to be had

-in many homes.

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-We hear of four or five people

-sharing a bedroom.

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-There was no heat and the food

-contained little nutrition.

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-Things like medical services

-were a lot worse in rural areas...

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-..than in industrial areas.

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-Put these together

-and you can see...

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-..why Wales was a black spot

-in the disease's history...

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-..particularly its rural areas.

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-In offering rest, good food

-and fresh air...

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-..sanatoria helped to strengthen

-people's bodies...

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-..to fight the bacteria.

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-No drugs were available.

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-Sufferers often didn't realise

-there was much wrong with them.

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-TB has symptoms similar to flu.

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-Some people didn't take much notice.

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-But there are other symptoms.

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-I didn't feel ill but I was tired.

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-I was terribly tired.

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-I also lost weight.

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-I'd been sweating so much...

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-..that they had to burn

-my mattress at home.

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-It had become so damp,

-it wasn't worth keeping.

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-Glenys Jones spent a year

-at Llangwyfan.

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-She hasn't been back there

-since 1950.

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-It's now a residential home.

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-Manager Bob Ellis

-took her around the buildings.

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-A lot has changed

-but the memories flowed back.

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-All of us got on well

-with each other.

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-I still write to two of the girls.

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-This is where I met my husband.

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-A friend and I went for a walk

-to a cemetery one Saturday.

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-We stopped to talk to two men.

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-We met them when we could

-and we'd write letters.

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-I remember him sending me

-a box of chocolates!

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-Patients at Bronllys, near Talgarth,

-have similar memories.

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-This was the domain

-of the famous Sister O'Shea.

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-Max Evans and Ryan Peregrine

-have been lifelong friends...

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-..after meeting here as TB patients

-in the '40s.

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-You could see Mynydd Troed

-from the window.

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-I saw this in all weathers

-and seasons.

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-They said I'd be here

-for no more than three months.

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-I went in and I saw people

-who'd been there for a year...

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-..or 18 months,

-and I started wondering.

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-I didn't think

-they'd told me everything.

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-People were dying in the next ward.

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-There was one man -

-I can show you a picture of him.

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-I'd played cards with him

-that evening.

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-He wanted one more game

-but I wanted to go to bed.

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-Next morning, I called over to him,

-"How are you, Emrys?"

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-No answer - he'd gone

-in the middle of the night.

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-In the 1930s and '40s...

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-..it's clear that Wales was one of

-the worst places in Europe for TB.

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-But some areas suffered worse

-than others.

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-The slate quarrying areas of Gwynedd

-weren't very well off.

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-Unlike the south,

-there was no cheap coal...

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-..so houses were colder and damper.

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-The area around Caernarfon

-was one of the main TB black spots.

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-This slate quarrying, rural area was

-among the worst in Europe for TB.

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-There were whole families with TB.

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-People lived in small houses

-and they shared bedrooms.

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-TB could spread easily.

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-The situation was so bad in Wales...

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-..that one report suggested a link

-between the number of TB cases...

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-..and Welsh people's

-narrow lifestyles!

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-Dr Chalk wrote a report on TB in

-Caernarfonshire in the early '30s.

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-He thought that Welshness

-and this disease went hand-in-hand.

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-Those areas where nearly

-all the people spoke Welsh...

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-..were, in his opinion,

-the worst areas.

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-But to jump to that conclusion

-is rather contrived.

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-Doctors were worried about TB of

-the lungs as it was so contagious.

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-People were afraid to go near TB

-sufferers in case they caught it.

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-Neighbours would become strangers...

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-..and friends

-would sometimes keep away.

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-No wonder some sufferers

-refused to face the facts...

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-..and talk about the disease.

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-It was crucial for people

-to receive the correct information.

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-In the middle of the last century...

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-..about 20 million people in Britain

-went to the cinema every week.

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-The cinema was the ideal place

-to teach people how to avoid TB.

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-Intensive research

-and powerful microscopes...

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-..have revealed the cause

-of tuberculosis.

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-The WNMA produced a film in Welsh

-and English called 'The Crusade'.

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-But more and more beds were needed

-for TB sufferers.

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-Craig y Nos, the former home

-of singer Adelina Patti...

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-..in the Swansea Valley, was bought

-and converted into a sanatorium...

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-..for women and children.

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-The grim castle frightened

-12-year-old Mair Harris.

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-A big car came to fetch me

-from home.

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-Mam and I sat in the back.

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-I remember

-we drove through Ammanford...

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-..and over the mountain

-to Craig y Nos.

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-We arrived at this castle.

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-There was a high wall

-around the castle.

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-The big gates were open.

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-I told Mam

-I didn't want to stay there.

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-We went through the gates

-and stopped in front of the castle.

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-I stood there and heard the gates

-closing behind me.

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-I felt I'd never

-get out of there again.

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-I had to stay there

-for nearly two years.

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-This is Mair's first visit

-in 53 years to the old sanatorium.

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-Things have changed.

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-The wards are still there

-but the castle's being renovated.

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-It's going to be a hotel

-and call centre.

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-Roy, Mair's husband, is visiting the

-old sanatorium for the first time.

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-Mair is happy to show him around.

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-This was the bathroom.

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-I was a child, and I felt I was

-losing touch with home and family.

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-I was on my own in a strange place.

-I didn't know anyone.

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-It wasn't a nice experience.

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-The first Saturday and Sunday

-of each month...

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-..were the only days

-when people could visit.

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-Two hours on Saturday

-and two hours on Sunday.

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-We had to wait a whole month

-to see our visitors again.

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-They came in an old Morris 8,

-whatever the weather.

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-They even came when it was snowing.

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-If they couldn't come, you wouldn't

-see them for two months.

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-I did feel homesick sometimes.

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-I felt I wanted to go home to see

-familiar places and old friends.

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-But you got used to it and learned

-to live with it - you had to.

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-I had no choice.

-I had to live with it.

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-Many children lived with the effects

-of TB for years.

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-Not all of them had infected lungs.

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-TB can affect many different organs,

-including the bones.

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-I started getting this pain

-in my lower back.

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-Then I noticed that one leg

-was a bit shorter than the other.

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-I had TB at the base of my spine.

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-I was given a plaster bed

-in Glan Ely.

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-A plaster cast was made of my body,

-in two halves - front and back.

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-I'd lie on my back

-for three weeks...

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-..then I'd be turned

-on to my belly for a week...

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-..to give my kidneys

-a chance to work properly.

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-I had to endure that for a year.

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-The bacteria that cause TB

-in bones and other organs...

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-..enter the body in food.

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-TB of the lungs enters by breathing.

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-But the bacteria are very similar.

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-The disease is just as serious

-whichever part is infected.

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-The germ was present in milk.

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-It could also be found in meat

-but most often in milk.

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-You drank infected milk and the

-germ would affect different parts...

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-..the bones, the kidneys,

-the bowels.

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-It affected my lungs.

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-But some people had it

-in the glands in their necks...

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-..others had it in their backs.

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-Two girls, Shirley and Joan, had to

-lie in plaster casts all the time.

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-They were here for about five years,

-unable to move for long periods.

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-Since the late 18th century...

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-..scientists had known that the

-TB bacteria could live in milk.

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-A law was passed in 1926 to allow

-vets to inspect dairy herds...

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-..and to prevent the sale of milk

-from infected animals.

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-Cattle showing signs of TB

-would be slaughtered...

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-..and the farmer

-would receive compensation.

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-The same scheme exists today.

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-Recently, there's been

-an increase in TB...

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-..among dairy cattle on Welsh farms.

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-The situation is causing farmers

-and doctors a lot of concern.

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-Pasteurising milk -

-heating it for while...

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-..kills the bacteria.

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-But people weren't keen

-on pasteurisation...

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-..and many argued that it impaired

-the quality of the milk.

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-During World War II, people used

-powdered milk instead of fresh milk.

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-It lasted longer.

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-This was a serious threat

-to the large milk companies.

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-So they started pasteurising milk...

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-..which killed bacteria,

-allowing fresh milk to last longer.

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-Now it could compete

-with powdered milk in the shops.

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-It was the fear of loss of business

-that led to milk pasteurisation...

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-..not a desire to do away with TB.

0:22:050:22:08

-TB was still prevalent

-in the 1940s and '50s.

0:22:190:22:23

-Fresh air was the most efficient

-treatment...

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-..and sanatoria were located

-to make the most of the weather.

0:22:270:22:33

-Ward doors and windows

-were kept open.

0:22:330:22:36

-Anyone who came into the ward

-to see us...

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-..must have been freezing.

0:22:410:22:43

-Every window was open.

0:22:430:22:45

-Fresh air was an important part

-of the treatment.

0:22:450:22:49

-It was so cold.

0:22:490:22:51

-We had no hot water bottles,

-no heating, even.

0:22:510:22:55

-Some left their teeth

-to soak overnight...

0:22:560:23:00

-..and they'd be frozen

-the following morning!

0:23:010:23:04

-It was a hard winter.

0:23:040:23:07

-These doors led to a verandah.

0:23:090:23:12

-They were always open.

0:23:120:23:14

-The verandah ran

-from that corner to there.

0:23:150:23:18

-There were about ten beds

-on the verandah.

0:23:180:23:22

-It was lovely here in summer

-but not so nice in winter.

0:23:220:23:27

-We had waterproof sheeting

-over our beds.

0:23:270:23:30

-The snow would fall on the sheeting.

0:23:320:23:35

-We could scoop up snow...

0:23:350:23:37

-..and throw snowballs

-at the person in the next bed!

0:23:370:23:42

-It was very cold.

0:23:430:23:44

-I wore a cap, scarf, gloves,

-three cardigans...

0:23:450:23:48

-..bedsocks,

-two or three hot water bottles...

0:23:480:23:51

-..and we hid under the blankets.

0:23:510:23:54

-That's what we did most days.

0:23:540:23:57

-Rest was another important element.

0:23:590:24:02

-But it was difficult

-for young people to stay in bed...

0:24:020:24:07

-..and not move,

-sometimes for weeks or months.

0:24:070:24:10

-There was nothing to do

-but lie in bed.

0:24:100:24:14

-Nothing to do but eat well.

0:24:150:24:18

-They were supposed to rest for an

-hour every morning and afternoon.

0:24:180:24:23

-No-one was allowed to walk around.

0:24:230:24:26

-They had to stay in bed

-and not move.

0:24:260:24:30

-No trolleys were allowed in.

0:24:300:24:32

-The nurses weren't allowed

-back and forth.

0:24:330:24:36

-Patients had to rest.

0:24:360:24:38

-What sticks in my mind

-is having to stay quietly in bed.

0:24:380:24:43

-I couldn't move or walk or run.

0:24:430:24:46

-That's what sticks in my mind.

0:24:470:24:49

-To stop patients

-from escaping from sanatoria...

0:24:500:24:53

-..staff had to find something

-to keep people occupied in bed.

0:24:530:24:58

-They had some activities...

0:24:590:25:01

-..like basket-making, painting,

-things like that.

0:25:030:25:07

-That helped pass the time.

0:25:080:25:10

-They had a snooker table.

0:25:100:25:12

-They played snooker and cards.

0:25:120:25:14

-Anything to pass the time.

0:25:140:25:16

-We'd have a session of Housey -

-we didn't call it Bingo then.

0:25:180:25:23

-Everyone would contribute

-sixpence...

0:25:240:25:26

-..that's two and a half pence today

-- in the kitty.

0:25:260:25:31

-We played Housey

-and that helped pass the time.

0:25:310:25:35

-We had school for two hours

-every morning and afternoon.

0:25:350:25:40

-Then I'd read.

0:25:400:25:42

-And I built models -

-I did a lot of that.

0:25:420:25:47

-And jigsaws, of course.

0:25:470:25:49

-We played any game you can think of.

0:25:490:25:52

-We all had different games

-and we played those.

0:25:530:25:56

-We had a factory line going

-in the first eight beds.

0:25:570:26:01

-One cut out the lampshades,

-another made the frames, and so on.

0:26:020:26:06

-Another put the frills on.

0:26:070:26:09

-A shop in Llanelli sold them.

0:26:100:26:13

-We made a few shillings.

0:26:130:26:15

-We worked too hard, really!

0:26:160:26:19

-Doctors developed surgical

-treatments to help patients.

0:26:200:26:25

-Artificial pneumothorax

-was one of them.

0:26:250:26:28

-The lung was punctured

-with a needle to collapse it.

0:26:280:26:32

-Then air would be pumped

-into the chest...

0:26:320:26:36

-..to prevent the lung from working.

0:26:370:26:39

-This allowed the lung

-to heal much faster.

0:26:390:26:43

-A simple treatment,

-but it had to be repeated regularly.

0:26:430:26:47

-You had refills every week.

0:26:480:26:50

-You went and stood in a queue.

0:26:500:26:53

-Then you went into this room

-and lay down on the bed.

0:26:530:26:58

-The doctor would clean the needle

-over a flame...

0:26:580:27:02

-..and poke wire through the needle

-to clear it.

0:27:070:27:11

-Everyone got the same needle.

0:27:110:27:13

-There was a pressure gauge

-to one side.

0:27:180:27:21

-You could watch that.

0:27:210:27:23

-They did that every week.

0:27:230:27:25

-But some surgical treatments

-were more serious.

0:27:260:27:29

-Ryan experienced

-nearly every treatment...

0:27:290:27:33

-..during his five years

-in sanatoria.

0:27:340:27:36

-Thoracoplasty made the biggest

-impression on him and others.

0:27:370:27:40

-What they did was take out ribs

-from under the shoulder blade.

0:27:410:27:46

-They took four out the first time

-and three the second time.

0:27:470:27:52

-When you started getting better

-after the first operation...

0:27:530:27:56

-..you had to go

-and have it done again.

0:27:570:28:00

-It was an unpleasant operation.

0:28:040:28:06

-I went for the first operation.

0:28:070:28:09

-They opened you up

-from here to here...

0:28:090:28:13

-..and they cut out four ribs.

0:28:130:28:16

-I had to go back a fortnight later.

0:28:170:28:21

-They opened up the wound again

-and took our three more ribs.

0:28:210:28:26

-That meant

-that the two upper lobes...

0:28:260:28:29

-..collapsed, as they called it.

0:28:300:28:32

-As the demand for more beds

-increased...

0:28:370:28:40

-..a smart new sanatorium was built

-by the sea outside Cardiff.

0:28:400:28:45

-Sully Sanatorium

-was originally planned...

0:28:450:28:48

-..to provide 300 beds for patients

-from Cardiff and south east Wales...

0:28:490:28:53

-..who needed long-term care.

0:28:540:28:56

-Before long, Sully became a centre

-of surgical expertise...

0:28:570:29:00

-..in the battle to treat TB.

0:29:010:29:03

-Every bed in Sully

-had a view of the sea.

0:29:030:29:08

-It was a beautiful place.

0:29:080:29:10

-All they used at Sully

-was the knife.

0:29:100:29:14

-The end product was the knife.

0:29:140:29:16

-Sully came to specialise

-in treating children with TB.

0:29:180:29:22

-It became evident that TB

-in organs other than the lungs...

0:29:230:29:28

-..was a lot more common

-among children than adults.

0:29:280:29:32

-But all the research, developments

-and new treatments...

0:29:340:29:38

-..failed to reduce the number

-of people suffering from TB.

0:29:380:29:42

-Some said the situation was worse

-in Wales than in England.

0:29:420:29:47

-An inquiry was called for.

0:29:470:29:49

-In Wales, county

-and district councils...

0:29:500:29:53

-..were responsible for housing

-standards, medical services...

0:29:530:29:57

-..and so on.

0:29:570:29:59

-The Memorial Association

-was responsible for treating TB.

0:29:590:30:03

-A 1938 report commissioned under the

-chairmanship of Clement Davies...

0:30:030:30:07

-..the MP for Montgomeryshire...

0:30:070:30:09

-..looked at why tuberculosis

-was still so common.

0:30:090:30:13

-It concluded that despite the

-sanatoria's praiseworthy efforts...

0:30:140:30:18

-..the original problem

-of inadequate housing remained...

0:30:180:30:22

-..especially in rural Wales

-and in quarrying areas.

0:30:220:30:26

-The food people ate

-was also inadequate.

0:30:260:30:29

-Also, public services

-in those areas were worse...

0:30:300:30:34

-..than in areas perceived

-as being less favourable...

0:30:340:30:38

-..such as Rhondda and Merthyr.

0:30:380:30:40

-Clement Davies visited some houses

-in Newborough, Anglesey...

0:30:400:30:44

-..and said, "They are worse than

-the native quarter of Shanghai."

0:30:440:30:49

-Even in the '40s, there weren't

-enough beds in the sanatoria.

0:30:530:30:58

-The number of new cases fell as

-living standards gradually improved.

0:30:580:31:03

-Despite this, there were thousands

-of new cases every year.

0:31:030:31:08

-There was a list of patients waiting

-for vacant beds at sanatoria.

0:31:080:31:13

-But there were hopes of more beds

-to alleviate the situation...

0:31:130:31:18

-..this time,

-on the outskirts of Swansea.

0:31:180:31:21

-Morriston Hospital

-was the first Welsh hospital...

0:31:220:31:25

-..to have wards set aside

-specifically for TB patients.

0:31:250:31:29

-Over the period of one week

-in 1942...

0:31:290:31:32

-..the hospital

-admitted 100 TB patients.

0:31:330:31:35

-It had specialist doctors, whose

-names patients never forgot...

0:31:350:31:40

-..such as Dr Danino.

0:31:400:31:42

-Dr Danino was known as Dr Dan.

0:31:430:31:46

-I remember him coming back

-from his holidays.

0:31:460:31:50

-He was wearing a suit, and he walked

-in to see one of the patients.

0:31:500:31:56

-He was concerned about him.

0:31:570:31:59

-He was a very kind man.

0:31:590:32:02

-A new surgeon came to Morriston.

0:32:030:32:06

-Mr Cyril Evans.

0:32:080:32:10

-They said he did five operations

-every day.

0:32:100:32:13

-One of the wards at Morriston

-is now named after him.

0:32:170:32:22

-The next development in TB's history

-was revolutionary.

0:32:230:32:28

-Mobile X-ray units were established.

0:32:280:32:31

-They travelled around and could

-examine 100 people per hour.

0:32:310:32:36

-At last, the disease

-could be detected...

0:32:360:32:39

-..before it became established

-in the body.

0:32:390:32:42

-The mobile X-ray units also proved

-critical for Lord David Davies.

0:32:420:32:48

-David Davies established

-these mobile X-rays, too.

0:32:480:32:52

-You just stood in front

-of a screen.

0:32:520:32:56

-With luck, a postcard would arrive

-a few days later...

0:32:560:33:00

-..saying "OK today."

0:33:010:33:02

-If the X-ray

-wasn't absolutely clear...

0:33:030:33:06

-..they asked you to come back.

0:33:060:33:09

-People knew well enough

-what that meant.

0:33:090:33:12

-On the day

-the scheme was launched...

0:33:130:33:16

-..in front of Sully Hospital,

-Cardiff...

0:33:160:33:19

-..David Davies was the first

-to stand in front of the screen.

0:33:190:33:25

-It was discovered

-he was seriously ill...

0:33:250:33:28

-..and he was dead within six months.

0:33:280:33:31

-Such a shame.

0:33:320:33:34

-The mobile X-ray units

-visited schools and workplaces...

0:33:350:33:39

-..and discovered many sufferers

-who showed no symptoms of TB.

0:33:390:33:45

-The mass X-rays arrived

-in big caravans.

0:33:460:33:49

-Everyone in the school

-had to have an X-ray.

0:33:500:33:54

-Then a week later...

0:33:540:33:56

-..I had a letter saying

-I had to go to Llandudno Hospital...

0:33:560:34:01

-..to see Dr Glyn Jones.

0:34:010:34:03

-He told Mam I had tuberculosis.

0:34:040:34:06

-It was a killer.

0:34:070:34:09

-But before long, TB

-came up against a new enemy.

0:34:100:34:14

-By the mid 1900s,

-Wales had so many TB sufferers...

0:34:220:34:26

-..that some of them had to go abroad

-for treatment.

0:34:260:34:30

-The Davos sanatoria in Switzerland

-were still the favourites.

0:34:310:34:34

-My brother, Ken,

-came out of the army...

0:34:350:34:38

-..and he was sent to a sanatorium

-in Davos, Switzerland.

0:34:380:34:43

-They had spare beds there

-so that's where he was sent.

0:34:440:34:49

-He had bed rest and fresh air.

0:34:500:34:52

-Switzerland was supposed to be

-a healthier place than Wales...

0:34:530:34:57

-..but I don't believe that.

0:34:570:34:59

-But there was a new development

-on the horizon.

0:35:000:35:03

-For the first time ever, doctors saw

-patients recovering completely...

0:35:040:35:08

-..thanks to something

-rather stronger than fresh air.

0:35:080:35:12

-Doctors and scientists worldwide...

0:35:130:35:16

-..had for many years been searching

-for a drug to treat TB.

0:35:160:35:21

-Many had seemed promising

-but had failed to deliver.

0:35:210:35:25

-In the late '40s,

-stunning news arrived from America.

0:35:250:35:29

-I remember the doctor

-walking into the ward...

0:35:300:35:34

-..and saying, "Well, lads,

-I've got good news for you.

0:35:340:35:38

-"They've discovered

-the cure for TB."

0:35:390:35:42

-Miraculous, revolutionary, amazing -

-thus was streptomycin described.

0:35:420:35:48

-It was the first effective drug

-in the battle against TB.

0:35:490:35:54

-Suddenly, patients

-who would have died...

0:35:540:35:57

-..were leaving the sanatoria

-completely cured.

0:35:570:36:00

-Doctors organised clinical trials

-for streptomycin.

0:36:000:36:04

-But this antibiotic worked so well,

-the trials were called off...

0:36:040:36:09

-..so that everyone who needed it

-could receive it.

0:36:090:36:13

-They tried it out on us.

0:36:140:36:16

-They experimented on us.

0:36:170:36:18

-As it happened, it worked well.

0:36:190:36:21

-I took it every day for over a year.

0:36:220:36:26

-I was lucky to be there

-when streptomycin came out.

0:36:260:36:30

-I don't think I'd have survived

-without it.

0:36:310:36:34

-A child came in, from somewhere

-in the Carmarthen area.

0:36:350:36:39

-His parents were with him.

0:36:400:36:42

-He was unconscious.

0:36:420:36:44

-He evidently had TB meningitis.

0:36:440:36:46

-Meningitis is bad enough

-in any form.

0:36:470:36:50

-But there was no recovery

-from TB meningitis at that time.

0:36:510:36:55

-There was a lot of talk

-about streptomycin back then.

0:36:560:37:00

-It wasn't available everywhere.

0:37:010:37:02

-Anyway, streptomycin was sent

-by train from London.

0:37:030:37:06

-He received an injection

-quite late that night.

0:37:070:37:11

-I went to see him

-early the next morning.

0:37:120:37:16

-He hadn't moved at all.

0:37:160:37:18

-He had another injection

-that morning and in the evening.

0:37:180:37:23

-There was an amazing difference

-the following morning.

0:37:230:37:26

-The boy was talking

-and looking around.

0:37:270:37:30

-One hand was paralysed.

-Apart from that, he was fine.

0:37:300:37:34

-The father and mother

-and the doctors were delighted.

0:37:340:37:38

-Streptomycin led the way....

0:37:390:37:40

-..and soon,

-other drugs became available.

0:37:410:37:44

-They may have killed TB...

0:37:440:37:46

-..but they weren't all popular

-with patients.

0:37:460:37:49

-It was called PAS. It was nasty.

0:37:510:37:54

-It wasn't at all nice to take.

0:37:550:37:58

-The dreaded PAS, as they called it.

0:37:590:38:02

-It was a terrible thing to take.

0:38:030:38:06

-You took it in liquid form.

0:38:060:38:08

-It was nasty to take.

0:38:100:38:12

-I remember some of the boys...

0:38:130:38:15

-..when they brought this round

-on a tray...

0:38:160:38:20

-..some of the boys vomited

-just at the sight of it.

0:38:210:38:26

-But thanks to the new drugs...

0:38:280:38:31

-..people who had been bedridden

-for months...

0:38:310:38:34

-..could walk around

-and enjoy life once more.

0:38:340:38:37

-Doctors had to assess

-how well people were doing.

0:38:380:38:41

-Grades were introduced.

0:38:420:38:43

-B1 meant bed.

0:38:440:38:46

-They washed you

-and did everything for you.

0:38:460:38:49

-Everything that needed doing

-was done in bed.

0:38:500:38:53

-B2s were allowed to walk

-to the toilet.

0:38:530:38:57

-You could wash once a day

-in the bathroom...

0:38:580:39:01

-..otherwise you stayed in bed.

0:39:020:39:04

-B3s were allowed to walk around...

0:39:040:39:07

-..and do what they wanted

-when they wanted.

0:39:070:39:10

-For an hour a day at first,

-then two hours...

0:39:130:39:17

-..then three hours, then four hours,

-when you could get dressed.

0:39:170:39:21

-You got up and you walked about

-half a mile morning and afternoon.

0:39:220:39:27

-That was after I spent

-a year in bed.

0:39:290:39:32

-Then I was allowed to do

-some weeding...

0:39:320:39:36

-..progressing

-to digging the garden.

0:39:360:39:38

-We worked quite hard.

0:39:380:39:40

-We ate the produce

-that was grown there.

0:39:400:39:44

-In one of the grades...

0:39:440:39:46

-..you went out to the garden

-where the flowers grew...

0:39:480:39:53

-..to do the weeding.

0:39:530:39:55

-The superintendent, Jock Watson,

-was a very dour Scotsman.

0:39:570:40:01

-He said the same thing to everyone.

0:40:010:40:04

-"Take a small tool

-and go up to the nurses' home...

0:40:050:40:09

-..and do some work in a bed!"

0:40:120:40:15

-At last, people were getting better,

-and nothing could hold them back.

0:40:160:40:22

-They could be mischievous, when

-allowed out of bed for eight hours.

0:40:220:40:27

-They wore their own clothes

-instead of pyjamas...

0:40:270:40:30

-..and they could walk freely

-around the ward.

0:40:310:40:34

-If it was visiting time

-and someone didn't have a visitor...

0:40:350:40:40

-..it wasn't unknown

-for them to slip out.

0:40:410:40:45

-There was one man, Idwal,

-who was B1.

0:40:450:40:49

-B1s weren't supposed

-to leave their beds.

0:40:490:40:52

-He'd discovered we were going out...

0:40:520:40:55

-..and he was coming with us.

0:40:550:40:58

-I remember telling him,

-"Idwal, use your head!"

0:41:000:41:03

-He was much older than me.

0:41:030:41:06

-I was 20 and he was in his 40s.

0:41:060:41:10

-He wanted to go for a pint.

0:41:100:41:13

-"Where will you find clothes?"

0:41:130:41:15

-But he borrowed some clothes

-and he came with us.

0:41:150:41:19

-One of the nurses knew

-we were off to the Masons.

0:41:190:41:24

-We had to be back

-before the shift changed.

0:41:240:41:28

-So off we went.

0:41:310:41:33

-Idwal refused to come back.

0:41:330:41:35

-He wasn't going back to that hole,

-he was staying until stop-tap!

0:41:350:41:41

-And that's what we all did.

0:41:410:41:44

-We had a few -

-a bit too much, perhaps.

0:41:440:41:48

-When we got back the ward was shut.

0:41:510:41:54

-People were walking around.

0:41:560:41:58

-I think Duncan Davies, D D Davies,

-was the doctor.

0:41:580:42:02

-He and the matron,

-Catherine Evans...

0:42:020:42:05

-..and everyone

-were out looking for us!

0:42:050:42:08

-On Saturday nights,

-because I was the youngest....

0:42:080:42:12

-..I had to go to Caernarfon

-to fetch chips.

0:42:120:42:16

-I'd jump the fence

-and run like a fool.

0:42:160:42:20

-The porter phoned the order ahead.

0:42:200:42:23

-The chips cost half a crown

-for eight of us.

0:42:230:42:27

-I'd run back with the carrier bag.

0:42:270:42:30

-But one night, there was a car

-outside the chip shop.

0:42:310:42:35

-It was a very nice car.

0:42:360:42:38

-An old lady in the car said,

-"Hello, lad.

0:42:380:42:42

-"What are you doing

-with so much chips?"

0:42:420:42:46

-The man in the shop said,

-"He's from Bryn Seiont."

0:42:460:42:50

-"Oh, would you like a lift?"

0:42:500:42:53

-I got into the car -

-it had leather seats.

0:42:530:42:57

-Two men sat in the front.

0:42:570:43:00

-They asked questions,

-and like a fool I answered.

0:43:000:43:04

-We stopped at Pont Seiont.

0:43:040:43:06

-I got out and went over the fence.

0:43:060:43:10

-The car went the other way.

0:43:100:43:13

-About 15 minutes later,

-who walked in but the two men.

0:43:130:43:18

-They were doctors!

0:43:180:43:20

-Dear me! Sister Kate was called.

0:43:200:43:23

-There was a big inquiry.

0:43:230:43:25

-They wanted to send me home.

0:43:260:43:28

-There was big trouble,

-but it was fun!

0:43:280:43:32

-Another important development

-in the early '50s...

0:43:320:43:36

-..was the BCG vaccination.

0:43:360:43:38

-In 1950, research was carried out

-in Britain on 56,000 children.

0:43:390:43:44

-The results demonstrated

-that the vaccination prevented TB.

0:43:450:43:49

-The process of vaccinating children

-annually began in 1953.

0:43:500:43:54

-The same vaccination

-is still being used today.

0:43:560:43:59

-The first thing the local doctor did

-after the children were born...

0:44:000:44:04

-..was give them a BCG.

0:44:050:44:07

-He vaccinated them against TB.

0:44:070:44:09

-They got the BCG

-before any other vaccination...

0:44:090:44:13

-..when they were three months old.

0:44:130:44:15

-The three boys

-had to have it straight away.

0:44:160:44:19

-The situation changed completely.

0:44:200:44:22

-In 1913, there were 120,000 cases

-of TB in Wales and England.

0:44:220:44:27

-By the early '60s,

-the number was down to 40,000.

0:44:290:44:33

-More people were now dying

-from lung cancer than from TB.

0:44:340:44:38

-The new drugs, streptomycin, PAS

-and isoniazid, were miraculous.

0:44:400:44:44

-They saved more and more lives

-every day.

0:44:440:44:48

-In 1969, the mobile X-ray units

-were discontinued...

0:44:500:44:54

-..because their cost

-could no longer be justified.

0:44:540:44:57

-Doctors said TB

-had been conquered...

0:44:570:45:00

-..and was about

-to disappear completely.

0:45:010:45:03

-Others believed all

-infectious diseases would disappear.

0:45:040:45:08

-But TB had a twist in its tail.

0:45:080:45:11

-Scientists noticed

-that some bacteria...

0:45:120:45:14

-..developed immunity to antibiotics.

0:45:150:45:16

-They didn't die.

0:45:170:45:18

-This happened because some people

-stopped taking their tablets...

0:45:200:45:24

-..when they started feeling better.

0:45:240:45:27

-They failed to complete

-their course of medication.

0:45:270:45:30

-By the '80s, for the first time

-in years, TB was on the increase.

0:45:300:45:36

-The West produced tons of tablets

-to combat TB.

0:45:370:45:42

-But a huge reservoir of the bacteria

-existed in Third World countries.

0:45:420:45:47

-They couldn't afford

-the new tablets.

0:45:480:45:50

-Cases of TB are increasing

-in poor areas.

0:45:510:45:54

-In addition, the TB bacteria...

0:45:540:45:57

-..coexists successfully

-with the HIV virus.

0:45:570:46:00

-HIV attacks

-people's immune system...

0:46:020:46:04

-..making it easy for diseases like

-TB to infect and kill sufferers.

0:46:050:46:10

-TB kills a high proportion

-of those who are HIV positive.

0:46:100:46:15

-As HIV spreads,

-TB follows closely in its wake.

0:46:150:46:19

-In the past, Western people didn't

-have to worry about the Third World.

0:46:230:46:29

-Those countries and their problems

-were thousands of miles away.

0:46:290:46:33

-But today, the situation

-is very different.

0:46:340:46:37

-Eight children at this Newport

-school have contracted tuberculosis.

0:46:410:46:45

-Hundreds more are tested.

0:46:450:46:47

-The disease became very prominent

-again recently...

0:46:480:46:51

-..on our own doorstep

-here in Wales.

0:46:510:46:54

-The world is small nowadays.

0:46:560:46:59

-More people travel the world

-for all sorts of reasons...

0:46:590:47:03

-..and this makes it easier for

-diseases, including TB, to spread.

0:47:030:47:08

-The recent rise has occurred

-because, especially in the '90s...

0:47:080:47:13

-..many people

-entered the country....

0:47:140:47:17

-..particularly from parts of Africa.

0:47:170:47:20

-A lot of cases are among refugees

-who have come into this country...

0:47:200:47:25

-..from parts of the world

-where TB is still very common.

0:47:260:47:31

-There's a certain amount

-of screening.

0:47:310:47:33

-It differs between different parts

-of the country.

0:47:340:47:37

-But an effort is made to find these

-people when they arrive here.

0:47:370:47:43

-People are screened

-using a skin test...

0:47:430:47:46

-..and adults

-also have a chest X-ray.

0:47:460:47:50

-TB is more prevalent today

-in some areas of London...

0:47:520:47:57

-..than in some

-Third World countries.

0:47:570:48:00

-Worse still, a percentage of these

-cases don't respond to antibiotics.

0:48:000:48:05

-At best, three different tablets

-must be taken together...

0:48:050:48:09

-..to beat the disease.

0:48:100:48:11

-Nurses visit homes to make sure that

-sufferers take all their tablets...

0:48:120:48:17

-..to lessen the possibility

-of problems occurring.

0:48:170:48:21

-And the world is getting smaller.

0:48:220:48:25

-A TB bacterium could be in Madras

-today and in Machynlleth tomorrow.

0:48:250:48:30

-Every day, 86,000 people

-become infected with TB.

0:48:310:48:34

-Every day, 5,000 people die.

0:48:340:48:36

-TB has been with us

-for thousands of years...

0:48:380:48:42

-..but we've only managed

-to control it for 50 years.

0:48:420:48:46

-This year, more people will die

-of TB than ever before.

0:48:460:48:51

-This cunning bacteria

-evolves a lot quicker than we do.

0:48:520:48:56

-At the start of a new millennium...

0:48:570:49:00

-..we have to fight

-against the white plague yet again.

0:49:000:49:04

-S4C subtitles by TROSOL Cyf.

0:49:270:49:30
0:49:310:49:32

Rhaglen ddogfen o 2003 yn olrhain hanes tiwberciwlosis yng Nghymru. Documentary from 2003 tracing the history of tuberculosis in Wales and featuring some of those affected by the illness.