Rhaglen ddogfen o 2003 yn olrhain hanes tiwberciwlosis yng Nghymru. Documentary from 2003 tracing the history of tuberculosis in Wales and featuring some of those affected by th...
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-New York, icon of wealth
-..leads the way in all senses.
-But amid the affluence,
-the city wages a daily battle...
-..against one of mankind's
-This enemy flourishes
-among the poor and the homeless...
-..not just in New York
-but all over the world.
-It kills two million people
-There's a new victim every second.
-Skin colour, belief, affluence or
-social position count for nothing.
-This can attack everyone.
-We in Wales were familiar
-with this enemy.
-It's been the biggest killer
-in recent centuries.
-It spread through the country
-causing grief and sorrow.
-It's now back among us once again.
-is known by several names.
-Decay, phthisis, consumption,
-But the pale faces
-of the victims...
-..gave rise to the disease's most
-chilling name - the white plague.
-TB has been with us for centuries.
-The ancient Egyptians
-were familiar with it.
-When a person died in Egypt...
-..the body was buried
-in a particular way...
-..to prevent the putrefaction
-and dismemberment of the corpse.
-That's what happened
-to this little girl's corpse.
-She died 2,300 years ago,
-at the age of eight.
-X-rays of the body
-reveal a curve in the spine.
-This often happens to people who
-suffer tuberculosis of the bones.
-TB has left its mark
-on rural Wales, too.
-Sanatoria and isolated hospitals...
-..remain as memorials
-to thousands of sufferers...
-..who fell victim
-to this cruel sickness.
-It changed lives for ever.
-Years ago, there was no treatment
-and people died.
-It was known as decay,
-and everyone feared it.
-People knew that sufferers
-very often did not get better...
-..after catching this cruel disease.
-Cruel, because sufferers
-grew thinner and thinner.
-Consumption - people were consumed
-before your eyes.
-Once you heard
-that someone had TB...
-..you were, more or less,
-talking about their death.
-They died almost inevitably.
-It was as bad as cancer,
-It was only at the end
-of the 19th century...
-..that it was understood
-that TB was caused by bacteria.
-Strict regulations were introduced
-to prevent bacteria from spreading.
-Glamorganshire introduced a law...
-from spitting in public.
-Offenders were fined 2 on the spot.
-But poverty was the biggest problem.
-Parents and children
-often slept in the same room.
-If the father caught the disease,
-his wife would catch it...
-..and so would the children
-who shared the bedroom.
-The whole family would succumb
-The effects of the disease
-TB changed the lives of families.
-Mam was expecting
-my little brother.
-She went to the doctor and he said
-she was seriously ill with TB.
-She had to go to a sanatorium
-My brother was born on May 15th...
-..and Mam died in August.
-My grandparents -
-my mother's father and mother...
-..had to take me and my sister in.
-They couldn't cope
-with the baby as well.
-So an aunt looked after my brother.
-The bacteria that cause TB
-They grow slowly inside body cells
-that fight infection...
-in cavities in the lungs.
-As the body fights the disease...
-..a wall of dead cells
-forms around the bacteria.
-This is what causes
-the white shadows on X-rays.
-When TB affects the lungs,
-it can spread from person to person.
-You might expect...
-..that densely populated areas
-would have suffered most...
-..when the disease was at its most
-prevalent early in the last century.
-But more people suffered from TB
-in rural Wales.
-We tend to think that the
-southern coalfield areas...
-..were the poorest parts of Wales.
-But these areas
-were quite prosperous.
-That's why thousands of people
-Rural areas were very much poorer.
-If you look at the statistics...
-..TB deaths seem to double
-as you go further west.
-They seem to imply
-..was a disease of the windy,
-wet areas of western Britain.
-The only treatment for TB
-was to get away from wind and rain.
-The Germans came up
-with the idea of sanatoria.
-These were hospitals offering
-fresh air and healthy diets.
-They soon spread all over Europe.
-Today, the old sanatorium in Davos,
-Switzerland, is a luxury hotel.
-The rich and famous came here
-to recover from the white plague.
-This is where Thomas Mann
-wrote 'The Magic Mountain'...
-..about the mountain that cured TB.
-Wales's first sanatorium -
-Plas Pendyffryn, Penmaenmawr...
-..opened in 1900.
-Soon, there began a campaign for a
-sanatorium in every Welsh county...
-..led by a new movement, the WNMA.
-The WNMA was one of the
-most significant movements...
-..to spring up in Wales
-at the start of the 20th century.
-It was a memorial association
-in tribute to King Edward VII.
-Edward VII had visited a TB centre
-before he became king...
-..and had asked if patients could
-be cured, why it wasn't happening.
-When Edward died, David Davies,
-the MP for Montgomeryshire...
-..was asked to raise a memorial
-The Lord Lieutenants came together
-to plan a memorial.
-But David Davies said that something
-to help people with tuberculosis...
-..would be a more fitting tribute
-than a memorial.
-David Davies, Llandinam,
-was famous throughout Wales.
-He was the best person to lead
-this new national association.
-At that time, few people could
-afford to contribute 150,000...
-..to launch the campaign.
-Not long afterwards, in July 1920...
-..the WNMA invited
-King George V and Queen Mary...
-..to open its first two sanatoria
-The north Wales sanatorium
-..and the other at Bronllys
-near Brecon in the south.
-They would provide free treatment
-for TB sufferers.
-Llangwyfan's 300 beds and the 400
-at Bronllys were soon filled.
-The biggest sanatoria in the country
-couldn't control the white plague.
-During the 1930s and '40s, sanatoria
-were packed with TB sufferers.
-The only treatments available
-were rest and good food...
-..but these were not to be had
-in many homes.
-We hear of four or five people
-sharing a bedroom.
-There was no heat and the food
-contained little nutrition.
-Things like medical services
-were a lot worse in rural areas...
-..than in industrial areas.
-Put these together
-and you can see...
-..why Wales was a black spot
-in the disease's history...
-..particularly its rural areas.
-In offering rest, good food
-and fresh air...
-..sanatoria helped to strengthen
-..to fight the bacteria.
-No drugs were available.
-Sufferers often didn't realise
-there was much wrong with them.
-TB has symptoms similar to flu.
-Some people didn't take much notice.
-But there are other symptoms.
-I didn't feel ill but I was tired.
-I was terribly tired.
-I also lost weight.
-I'd been sweating so much...
-..that they had to burn
-my mattress at home.
-It had become so damp,
-it wasn't worth keeping.
-Glenys Jones spent a year
-She hasn't been back there
-It's now a residential home.
-Manager Bob Ellis
-took her around the buildings.
-A lot has changed
-but the memories flowed back.
-All of us got on well
-with each other.
-I still write to two of the girls.
-This is where I met my husband.
-A friend and I went for a walk
-to a cemetery one Saturday.
-We stopped to talk to two men.
-We met them when we could
-and we'd write letters.
-I remember him sending me
-a box of chocolates!
-Patients at Bronllys, near Talgarth,
-have similar memories.
-This was the domain
-of the famous Sister O'Shea.
-Max Evans and Ryan Peregrine
-have been lifelong friends...
-..after meeting here as TB patients
-in the '40s.
-You could see Mynydd Troed
-from the window.
-I saw this in all weathers
-They said I'd be here
-for no more than three months.
-I went in and I saw people
-who'd been there for a year...
-..or 18 months,
-and I started wondering.
-I didn't think
-they'd told me everything.
-People were dying in the next ward.
-There was one man -
-I can show you a picture of him.
-I'd played cards with him
-He wanted one more game
-but I wanted to go to bed.
-Next morning, I called over to him,
-"How are you, Emrys?"
-No answer - he'd gone
-in the middle of the night.
-In the 1930s and '40s...
-..it's clear that Wales was one of
-the worst places in Europe for TB.
-But some areas suffered worse
-The slate quarrying areas of Gwynedd
-weren't very well off.
-Unlike the south,
-there was no cheap coal...
-..so houses were colder and damper.
-The area around Caernarfon
-was one of the main TB black spots.
-This slate quarrying, rural area was
-among the worst in Europe for TB.
-There were whole families with TB.
-People lived in small houses
-and they shared bedrooms.
-TB could spread easily.
-The situation was so bad in Wales...
-..that one report suggested a link
-between the number of TB cases...
-..and Welsh people's
-Dr Chalk wrote a report on TB in
-Caernarfonshire in the early '30s.
-He thought that Welshness
-and this disease went hand-in-hand.
-Those areas where nearly
-all the people spoke Welsh...
-..were, in his opinion,
-the worst areas.
-But to jump to that conclusion
-is rather contrived.
-Doctors were worried about TB of
-the lungs as it was so contagious.
-People were afraid to go near TB
-sufferers in case they caught it.
-Neighbours would become strangers...
-would sometimes keep away.
-No wonder some sufferers
-refused to face the facts...
-..and talk about the disease.
-It was crucial for people
-to receive the correct information.
-In the middle of the last century...
-..about 20 million people in Britain
-went to the cinema every week.
-The cinema was the ideal place
-to teach people how to avoid TB.
-and powerful microscopes...
-..have revealed the cause
-The WNMA produced a film in Welsh
-and English called 'The Crusade'.
-But more and more beds were needed
-for TB sufferers.
-Craig y Nos, the former home
-of singer Adelina Patti...
-..in the Swansea Valley, was bought
-and converted into a sanatorium...
-..for women and children.
-The grim castle frightened
-12-year-old Mair Harris.
-A big car came to fetch me
-Mam and I sat in the back.
-we drove through Ammanford...
-..and over the mountain
-to Craig y Nos.
-We arrived at this castle.
-There was a high wall
-around the castle.
-The big gates were open.
-I told Mam
-I didn't want to stay there.
-We went through the gates
-and stopped in front of the castle.
-I stood there and heard the gates
-closing behind me.
-I felt I'd never
-get out of there again.
-I had to stay there
-for nearly two years.
-This is Mair's first visit
-in 53 years to the old sanatorium.
-Things have changed.
-The wards are still there
-but the castle's being renovated.
-It's going to be a hotel
-and call centre.
-Roy, Mair's husband, is visiting the
-old sanatorium for the first time.
-Mair is happy to show him around.
-This was the bathroom.
-I was a child, and I felt I was
-losing touch with home and family.
-I was on my own in a strange place.
-I didn't know anyone.
-It wasn't a nice experience.
-The first Saturday and Sunday
-of each month...
-..were the only days
-when people could visit.
-Two hours on Saturday
-and two hours on Sunday.
-We had to wait a whole month
-to see our visitors again.
-They came in an old Morris 8,
-whatever the weather.
-They even came when it was snowing.
-If they couldn't come, you wouldn't
-see them for two months.
-I did feel homesick sometimes.
-I felt I wanted to go home to see
-familiar places and old friends.
-But you got used to it and learned
-to live with it - you had to.
-I had no choice.
-I had to live with it.
-Many children lived with the effects
-of TB for years.
-Not all of them had infected lungs.
-TB can affect many different organs,
-including the bones.
-I started getting this pain
-in my lower back.
-Then I noticed that one leg
-was a bit shorter than the other.
-I had TB at the base of my spine.
-I was given a plaster bed
-in Glan Ely.
-A plaster cast was made of my body,
-in two halves - front and back.
-I'd lie on my back
-for three weeks...
-..then I'd be turned
-on to my belly for a week...
-..to give my kidneys
-a chance to work properly.
-I had to endure that for a year.
-The bacteria that cause TB
-in bones and other organs...
-..enter the body in food.
-TB of the lungs enters by breathing.
-But the bacteria are very similar.
-The disease is just as serious
-whichever part is infected.
-The germ was present in milk.
-It could also be found in meat
-but most often in milk.
-You drank infected milk and the
-germ would affect different parts...
-..the bones, the kidneys,
-It affected my lungs.
-But some people had it
-in the glands in their necks...
-..others had it in their backs.
-Two girls, Shirley and Joan, had to
-lie in plaster casts all the time.
-They were here for about five years,
-unable to move for long periods.
-Since the late 18th century...
-..scientists had known that the
-TB bacteria could live in milk.
-A law was passed in 1926 to allow
-vets to inspect dairy herds...
-..and to prevent the sale of milk
-from infected animals.
-Cattle showing signs of TB
-would be slaughtered...
-..and the farmer
-would receive compensation.
-The same scheme exists today.
-Recently, there's been
-an increase in TB...
-..among dairy cattle on Welsh farms.
-The situation is causing farmers
-and doctors a lot of concern.
-Pasteurising milk -
-heating it for while...
-..kills the bacteria.
-But people weren't keen
-..and many argued that it impaired
-the quality of the milk.
-During World War II, people used
-powdered milk instead of fresh milk.
-It lasted longer.
-This was a serious threat
-to the large milk companies.
-So they started pasteurising milk...
-..which killed bacteria,
-allowing fresh milk to last longer.
-Now it could compete
-with powdered milk in the shops.
-It was the fear of loss of business
-that led to milk pasteurisation...
-..not a desire to do away with TB.
-TB was still prevalent
-in the 1940s and '50s.
-Fresh air was the most efficient
-..and sanatoria were located
-to make the most of the weather.
-Ward doors and windows
-were kept open.
-Anyone who came into the ward
-to see us...
-..must have been freezing.
-Every window was open.
-Fresh air was an important part
-of the treatment.
-It was so cold.
-We had no hot water bottles,
-no heating, even.
-Some left their teeth
-to soak overnight...
-..and they'd be frozen
-the following morning!
-It was a hard winter.
-These doors led to a verandah.
-They were always open.
-The verandah ran
-from that corner to there.
-There were about ten beds
-on the verandah.
-It was lovely here in summer
-but not so nice in winter.
-We had waterproof sheeting
-over our beds.
-The snow would fall on the sheeting.
-We could scoop up snow...
-..and throw snowballs
-at the person in the next bed!
-It was very cold.
-I wore a cap, scarf, gloves,
-two or three hot water bottles...
-..and we hid under the blankets.
-That's what we did most days.
-Rest was another important element.
-But it was difficult
-for young people to stay in bed...
-..and not move,
-sometimes for weeks or months.
-There was nothing to do
-but lie in bed.
-Nothing to do but eat well.
-They were supposed to rest for an
-hour every morning and afternoon.
-No-one was allowed to walk around.
-They had to stay in bed
-and not move.
-No trolleys were allowed in.
-The nurses weren't allowed
-back and forth.
-Patients had to rest.
-What sticks in my mind
-is having to stay quietly in bed.
-I couldn't move or walk or run.
-That's what sticks in my mind.
-To stop patients
-from escaping from sanatoria...
-..staff had to find something
-to keep people occupied in bed.
-They had some activities...
-..like basket-making, painting,
-things like that.
-That helped pass the time.
-They had a snooker table.
-They played snooker and cards.
-Anything to pass the time.
-We'd have a session of Housey -
-we didn't call it Bingo then.
-Everyone would contribute
-..that's two and a half pence today
-- in the kitty.
-We played Housey
-and that helped pass the time.
-We had school for two hours
-every morning and afternoon.
-Then I'd read.
-And I built models -
-I did a lot of that.
-And jigsaws, of course.
-We played any game you can think of.
-We all had different games
-and we played those.
-We had a factory line going
-in the first eight beds.
-One cut out the lampshades,
-another made the frames, and so on.
-Another put the frills on.
-A shop in Llanelli sold them.
-We made a few shillings.
-We worked too hard, really!
-Doctors developed surgical
-treatments to help patients.
-was one of them.
-The lung was punctured
-with a needle to collapse it.
-Then air would be pumped
-into the chest...
-..to prevent the lung from working.
-This allowed the lung
-to heal much faster.
-A simple treatment,
-but it had to be repeated regularly.
-You had refills every week.
-You went and stood in a queue.
-Then you went into this room
-and lay down on the bed.
-The doctor would clean the needle
-over a flame...
-..and poke wire through the needle
-to clear it.
-Everyone got the same needle.
-There was a pressure gauge
-to one side.
-You could watch that.
-They did that every week.
-But some surgical treatments
-were more serious.
-nearly every treatment...
-..during his five years
-Thoracoplasty made the biggest
-impression on him and others.
-What they did was take out ribs
-from under the shoulder blade.
-They took four out the first time
-and three the second time.
-When you started getting better
-after the first operation...
-..you had to go
-and have it done again.
-It was an unpleasant operation.
-I went for the first operation.
-They opened you up
-from here to here...
-..and they cut out four ribs.
-I had to go back a fortnight later.
-They opened up the wound again
-and took our three more ribs.
-that the two upper lobes...
-..collapsed, as they called it.
-As the demand for more beds
-..a smart new sanatorium was built
-by the sea outside Cardiff.
-was originally planned...
-..to provide 300 beds for patients
-from Cardiff and south east Wales...
-..who needed long-term care.
-Before long, Sully became a centre
-of surgical expertise...
-..in the battle to treat TB.
-Every bed in Sully
-had a view of the sea.
-It was a beautiful place.
-All they used at Sully
-was the knife.
-The end product was the knife.
-Sully came to specialise
-in treating children with TB.
-It became evident that TB
-in organs other than the lungs...
-..was a lot more common
-among children than adults.
-But all the research, developments
-and new treatments...
-..failed to reduce the number
-of people suffering from TB.
-Some said the situation was worse
-in Wales than in England.
-An inquiry was called for.
-In Wales, county
-and district councils...
-..were responsible for housing
-standards, medical services...
-..and so on.
-The Memorial Association
-was responsible for treating TB.
-A 1938 report commissioned under the
-chairmanship of Clement Davies...
-..the MP for Montgomeryshire...
-..looked at why tuberculosis
-was still so common.
-It concluded that despite the
-sanatoria's praiseworthy efforts...
-..the original problem
-of inadequate housing remained...
-..especially in rural Wales
-and in quarrying areas.
-The food people ate
-was also inadequate.
-Also, public services
-in those areas were worse...
-..than in areas perceived
-as being less favourable...
-..such as Rhondda and Merthyr.
-Clement Davies visited some houses
-in Newborough, Anglesey...
-..and said, "They are worse than
-the native quarter of Shanghai."
-Even in the '40s, there weren't
-enough beds in the sanatoria.
-The number of new cases fell as
-living standards gradually improved.
-Despite this, there were thousands
-of new cases every year.
-There was a list of patients waiting
-for vacant beds at sanatoria.
-But there were hopes of more beds
-to alleviate the situation...
-on the outskirts of Swansea.
-was the first Welsh hospital...
-..to have wards set aside
-specifically for TB patients.
-Over the period of one week
-admitted 100 TB patients.
-It had specialist doctors, whose
-names patients never forgot...
-..such as Dr Danino.
-Dr Danino was known as Dr Dan.
-I remember him coming back
-from his holidays.
-He was wearing a suit, and he walked
-in to see one of the patients.
-He was concerned about him.
-He was a very kind man.
-A new surgeon came to Morriston.
-Mr Cyril Evans.
-They said he did five operations
-One of the wards at Morriston
-is now named after him.
-The next development in TB's history
-Mobile X-ray units were established.
-They travelled around and could
-examine 100 people per hour.
-At last, the disease
-could be detected...
-..before it became established
-in the body.
-The mobile X-ray units also proved
-critical for Lord David Davies.
-David Davies established
-these mobile X-rays, too.
-You just stood in front
-of a screen.
-With luck, a postcard would arrive
-a few days later...
-..saying "OK today."
-If the X-ray
-wasn't absolutely clear...
-..they asked you to come back.
-People knew well enough
-what that meant.
-On the day
-the scheme was launched...
-..in front of Sully Hospital,
-..David Davies was the first
-to stand in front of the screen.
-It was discovered
-he was seriously ill...
-..and he was dead within six months.
-Such a shame.
-The mobile X-ray units
-visited schools and workplaces...
-..and discovered many sufferers
-who showed no symptoms of TB.
-The mass X-rays arrived
-in big caravans.
-Everyone in the school
-had to have an X-ray.
-Then a week later...
-..I had a letter saying
-I had to go to Llandudno Hospital...
-..to see Dr Glyn Jones.
-He told Mam I had tuberculosis.
-It was a killer.
-But before long, TB
-came up against a new enemy.
-By the mid 1900s,
-Wales had so many TB sufferers...
-..that some of them had to go abroad
-The Davos sanatoria in Switzerland
-were still the favourites.
-My brother, Ken,
-came out of the army...
-..and he was sent to a sanatorium
-in Davos, Switzerland.
-They had spare beds there
-so that's where he was sent.
-He had bed rest and fresh air.
-Switzerland was supposed to be
-a healthier place than Wales...
-..but I don't believe that.
-But there was a new development
-on the horizon.
-For the first time ever, doctors saw
-patients recovering completely...
-..thanks to something
-rather stronger than fresh air.
-Doctors and scientists worldwide...
-..had for many years been searching
-for a drug to treat TB.
-Many had seemed promising
-but had failed to deliver.
-In the late '40s,
-stunning news arrived from America.
-I remember the doctor
-walking into the ward...
-..and saying, "Well, lads,
-I've got good news for you.
-the cure for TB."
-Miraculous, revolutionary, amazing -
-thus was streptomycin described.
-It was the first effective drug
-in the battle against TB.
-who would have died...
-..were leaving the sanatoria
-Doctors organised clinical trials
-But this antibiotic worked so well,
-the trials were called off...
-..so that everyone who needed it
-could receive it.
-They tried it out on us.
-They experimented on us.
-As it happened, it worked well.
-I took it every day for over a year.
-I was lucky to be there
-when streptomycin came out.
-I don't think I'd have survived
-A child came in, from somewhere
-in the Carmarthen area.
-His parents were with him.
-He was unconscious.
-He evidently had TB meningitis.
-Meningitis is bad enough
-in any form.
-But there was no recovery
-from TB meningitis at that time.
-There was a lot of talk
-about streptomycin back then.
-It wasn't available everywhere.
-Anyway, streptomycin was sent
-by train from London.
-He received an injection
-quite late that night.
-I went to see him
-early the next morning.
-He hadn't moved at all.
-He had another injection
-that morning and in the evening.
-There was an amazing difference
-the following morning.
-The boy was talking
-and looking around.
-One hand was paralysed.
-Apart from that, he was fine.
-The father and mother
-and the doctors were delighted.
-Streptomycin led the way....
-other drugs became available.
-They may have killed TB...
-..but they weren't all popular
-It was called PAS. It was nasty.
-It wasn't at all nice to take.
-The dreaded PAS, as they called it.
-It was a terrible thing to take.
-You took it in liquid form.
-It was nasty to take.
-I remember some of the boys...
-..when they brought this round
-on a tray...
-..some of the boys vomited
-just at the sight of it.
-But thanks to the new drugs...
-..people who had been bedridden
-..could walk around
-and enjoy life once more.
-Doctors had to assess
-how well people were doing.
-Grades were introduced.
-B1 meant bed.
-They washed you
-and did everything for you.
-Everything that needed doing
-was done in bed.
-B2s were allowed to walk
-to the toilet.
-You could wash once a day
-in the bathroom...
-..otherwise you stayed in bed.
-B3s were allowed to walk around...
-..and do what they wanted
-when they wanted.
-For an hour a day at first,
-then two hours...
-..then three hours, then four hours,
-when you could get dressed.
-You got up and you walked about
-half a mile morning and afternoon.
-That was after I spent
-a year in bed.
-Then I was allowed to do
-to digging the garden.
-We worked quite hard.
-We ate the produce
-that was grown there.
-In one of the grades...
-..you went out to the garden
-where the flowers grew...
-..to do the weeding.
-The superintendent, Jock Watson,
-was a very dour Scotsman.
-He said the same thing to everyone.
-"Take a small tool
-and go up to the nurses' home...
-..and do some work in a bed!"
-At last, people were getting better,
-and nothing could hold them back.
-They could be mischievous, when
-allowed out of bed for eight hours.
-They wore their own clothes
-instead of pyjamas...
-..and they could walk freely
-around the ward.
-If it was visiting time
-and someone didn't have a visitor...
-..it wasn't unknown
-for them to slip out.
-There was one man, Idwal,
-who was B1.
-B1s weren't supposed
-to leave their beds.
-He'd discovered we were going out...
-..and he was coming with us.
-I remember telling him,
-"Idwal, use your head!"
-He was much older than me.
-I was 20 and he was in his 40s.
-He wanted to go for a pint.
-"Where will you find clothes?"
-But he borrowed some clothes
-and he came with us.
-One of the nurses knew
-we were off to the Masons.
-We had to be back
-before the shift changed.
-So off we went.
-Idwal refused to come back.
-He wasn't going back to that hole,
-he was staying until stop-tap!
-And that's what we all did.
-We had a few -
-a bit too much, perhaps.
-When we got back the ward was shut.
-People were walking around.
-I think Duncan Davies, D D Davies,
-was the doctor.
-He and the matron,
-were out looking for us!
-On Saturday nights,
-because I was the youngest....
-..I had to go to Caernarfon
-to fetch chips.
-I'd jump the fence
-and run like a fool.
-The porter phoned the order ahead.
-The chips cost half a crown
-for eight of us.
-I'd run back with the carrier bag.
-But one night, there was a car
-outside the chip shop.
-It was a very nice car.
-An old lady in the car said,
-"What are you doing
-with so much chips?"
-The man in the shop said,
-"He's from Bryn Seiont."
-"Oh, would you like a lift?"
-I got into the car -
-it had leather seats.
-Two men sat in the front.
-They asked questions,
-and like a fool I answered.
-We stopped at Pont Seiont.
-I got out and went over the fence.
-The car went the other way.
-About 15 minutes later,
-who walked in but the two men.
-They were doctors!
-Dear me! Sister Kate was called.
-There was a big inquiry.
-They wanted to send me home.
-There was big trouble,
-but it was fun!
-Another important development
-in the early '50s...
-..was the BCG vaccination.
-In 1950, research was carried out
-in Britain on 56,000 children.
-The results demonstrated
-that the vaccination prevented TB.
-The process of vaccinating children
-annually began in 1953.
-The same vaccination
-is still being used today.
-The first thing the local doctor did
-after the children were born...
-..was give them a BCG.
-He vaccinated them against TB.
-They got the BCG
-before any other vaccination...
-..when they were three months old.
-The three boys
-had to have it straight away.
-The situation changed completely.
-In 1913, there were 120,000 cases
-of TB in Wales and England.
-By the early '60s,
-the number was down to 40,000.
-More people were now dying
-from lung cancer than from TB.
-The new drugs, streptomycin, PAS
-and isoniazid, were miraculous.
-They saved more and more lives
-In 1969, the mobile X-ray units
-..because their cost
-could no longer be justified.
-Doctors said TB
-had been conquered...
-..and was about
-to disappear completely.
-Others believed all
-infectious diseases would disappear.
-But TB had a twist in its tail.
-that some bacteria...
-..developed immunity to antibiotics.
-They didn't die.
-This happened because some people
-stopped taking their tablets...
-..when they started feeling better.
-They failed to complete
-their course of medication.
-By the '80s, for the first time
-in years, TB was on the increase.
-The West produced tons of tablets
-to combat TB.
-But a huge reservoir of the bacteria
-existed in Third World countries.
-They couldn't afford
-the new tablets.
-Cases of TB are increasing
-in poor areas.
-In addition, the TB bacteria...
-with the HIV virus.
-people's immune system...
-..making it easy for diseases like
-TB to infect and kill sufferers.
-TB kills a high proportion
-of those who are HIV positive.
-As HIV spreads,
-TB follows closely in its wake.
-In the past, Western people didn't
-have to worry about the Third World.
-Those countries and their problems
-were thousands of miles away.
-But today, the situation
-is very different.
-Eight children at this Newport
-school have contracted tuberculosis.
-Hundreds more are tested.
-The disease became very prominent
-..on our own doorstep
-here in Wales.
-The world is small nowadays.
-More people travel the world
-for all sorts of reasons...
-..and this makes it easier for
-diseases, including TB, to spread.
-The recent rise has occurred
-because, especially in the '90s...
-entered the country....
-..particularly from parts of Africa.
-A lot of cases are among refugees
-who have come into this country...
-..from parts of the world
-where TB is still very common.
-There's a certain amount
-It differs between different parts
-of the country.
-But an effort is made to find these
-people when they arrive here.
-People are screened
-using a skin test...
-also have a chest X-ray.
-TB is more prevalent today
-in some areas of London...
-..than in some
-Third World countries.
-Worse still, a percentage of these
-cases don't respond to antibiotics.
-At best, three different tablets
-must be taken together...
-..to beat the disease.
-Nurses visit homes to make sure that
-sufferers take all their tablets...
-..to lessen the possibility
-of problems occurring.
-And the world is getting smaller.
-A TB bacterium could be in Madras
-today and in Machynlleth tomorrow.
-Every day, 86,000 people
-become infected with TB.
-Every day, 5,000 people die.
-TB has been with us
-for thousands of years...
-..but we've only managed
-to control it for 50 years.
-This year, more people will die
-of TB than ever before.
-This cunning bacteria
-evolves a lot quicker than we do.
-At the start of a new millennium...
-..we have to fight
-against the white plague yet again.
-S4C subtitles by TROSOL Cyf.
Rhaglen ddogfen o 2003 yn olrhain hanes tiwberciwlosis yng Nghymru. Documentary from 2003 tracing the history of tuberculosis in Wales and featuring some of those affected by the illness.