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You're watching Beyond 100 Days.
Italy's election produces only
radical options for the Eurozone's
Italian voters said no
to traditional parties
and yes to populist groups.
Where that leaves
the country isn't clear.
Both the main anti-establishment
leaders say they have won
the right to govern,
but actually it could take
weeks to sort this out.
Donald Trump claims the US
is getting ripped off by virtually
every country in the world,
as he begins to outline his
America First trade
Also on the programme:
A major security incident declared
in Salisbury in the UK,
after the poisoning of a Russian man
who once spied for Britain.
And Gary Oldman wins his
first Oscar for best actor
in Darkest Hour, with thanks
to his 99-year-old mother.
I say to my mother, thank you for
your love and support.
kettle on. I am bringing Oscar home.
Get in touch with us
using the hashtag #Beyond100Days.
Hello and welcome.
I'm Katty Kay in Washington.
Christian Fraser is in London.
It may take weeks of haggling
to sort out who will lead the next
Italian government and which
parties will be in it.
But one thing seems clear -
it will be difficult to form any
government without the insurgent
Five Star Movement.
The results show Five Star has
become the biggest party,
winning one in three
of the votes cast this weekend.
Their leader Luigi Di Maio says they
now have a resposibility to govern.
Meanwhile, the right-wing Lega
secured 17.4% of the vote.
More than Forza Italia,
the party of the former
Prime Minister, Silvio
Berlusconi, on 14%.
The ruling Democratic Party
suffered its poorest showing ever
in national elections with 18.7%,
continuing the Europe-wide collapse
of the traditional centre-left.
That is the poorest showing ever for
them in national elections.
And there's been a high-profile
resignation - late today,
the Democratic Party leader
Matteo Renzi resigned as leader
in view of his party's
poor election result.
that after this I will
leave my post of leader
to the Democratic Party,
and I've already
asked the chairman, Matteo Orfini,
to call a national assembly
to start the procedure.
This will happen at the end
of the stage of the new
parliament forming and
the new Government forming.
Let's cross to Rome and our
colleague Karin Giannone,
who has been covering
the election for us.
It has been a pivotal night for Five
Star but still a very divided
Yes, if you look at the map of the
results, it is really incredible to
see the absolute divide, and just
how strong the south of Italy has
voted for the Five Star Movement. It
seems that the South has voted along
economic lines while the North are
going for Lega and the centre-right,
thinking about immigration and Italy
being at the forefront of the
migrant crazes, 600,000 people are
riding on Italian shores of the last
few years. -- migrant crisis. There
are parts of the south of Italy
where youth unemployment is above
50%. Prospects for the young are
very poor and there is so much
disillusionment with Government and
with the North and the European
Union, and the traditional parties,
with posterity, with so many things
like the painfully slow growth after
Italy's double-dip recession, that
people in the South have really been
looking elsewhere. They have turned
to the Five Star Movement, promising
hope for the young people. It
promises a universal Basic income of
$800 per month and it says it will
help find young people away our
starting families. Add to that that
huge lack of trust you find in the
South in traditional politicians.
They see them as easily bought and
corruptible. They use the word
meaning thieves when they talk about
politicians, so the freshfaced Luigi
Di Maio, only 31 years old, from
near Naples, he offered hope and the
chance to give the traditional
parties a bloody nose. Another
interesting development over the
weekend, this is what people are
voting for in the north. They had a
visitor over the weekend in the form
of Donald Trump's former chief
strategist Steve Banning, paying a
visit. I am majority your divinity
pictures of him enjoying himself in
front of the fountain. He put his
support behind the successful leader
of the North. He shares the same
kind of politics, radical right-wing
populism, Donald Trump, when the
other one visited him during the
election campaign in 2016 said he
would like to see him one day become
Italian Prime Minister. That
prospect could actually now be a
strong possibility. Matteo Renzi
Lega is now the biggest party in the
coalition which has come first in
this Italian general election.
Amazing. Steve Bannon in Italy.
Giampiero Massolo is the President
of Fincantieri Spa,
the fourth-biggest ship-building
company in the world.
he has served in the Italian
government for intelligence
and foreign services.
He joins us now. Looking forward to
what kind of coalition could emerge
from this election result, what do
they Lega from the right and the
Five Star, and I think it's hard to
define where they come from, but
what other United on and what could
they agree on to form a Government
together's what other United and?
First of all, too early to call what
kind of coalition it would be they
could form because it is right into
the arms of the president of the
Republic according to the
constitutional systems, so too
early. But of course there are some
similarities between Lega and Five
Star, chiefly about immigration and
about the controls of law and order.
And about certain interventions of
the state in economy. But they are
not at all the same thing, actually.
I was hearing somebody speaking
before saying that we have here a
radical right or extreme right. But
this is not exactly as it is. We are
still in the frame of the
centre-right far as Lega is
concerned and stony framework of
constitutional system as far as the
Five Star Mov Movement is concerned.
But of course there are relevant
norms from the selections. The
Democratic Party were very low and
the Five Star very high. The
centre-right, well... But they are
all within the system. There is no
major changes or foreign policy in
European policy. The framework is
OK, thank you very much for that
view from there.
If I may add one thing, that...
Sorry to interrupt, but we will cut
back chore because we want to take
you to Salisbury where the police
are holding a press conference. This
is about suspected poisoning of a
man who was convicted in Russia of
spying for Britain. Let's listen in.
Both are currently in a critical
condition in intensive care. Because
we are still at the early stages of
the investigation, we are unable to
ascertain whether or not a crime has
taken place. A major incident,
however, has been declared today,
and a multi-agency response has been
coordinated. Alongside our partner
agencies, we are conducting
extensive enquiries to determine
exactly what led to these two people
falling unconscious, and clarify
whether or not any criminal activity
has taken place. This has not been
declared as a counterterrorism
incident and we would urge people
not to speculate. However, I must
emphasise though we retain an open
mind and we continue to review this
position, we have access to a wide
range of specialist resources and
services are helping us to
understand what we are or are not
dealing with at this time. The focus
at this moment is in trying to
establish what has caused these
people to become critically ill and
we are working with partners to
prioritise and ensured they were
received the most appropriate
treatment timely. We'll continue to
appeal to any members of the public
who may have information in relation
to this incident and contact us via
the 101 system or if it is urgent by
999. We will reassure the public
that incidents like this are taken
extremely seriously and we currently
do not believe there is any risk to
the wider public. We would like to
take this opportunity to thank
members of the public who have
assisted us so far and respected the
cordons which remain in place in
Salisbury. Thank you very much.
Hello, I am the chief executive here
at Salisbury District Hospital. My
name is Cara Charles-Barks. In
conjunction with partners we have
declared a major incident in
response to the incident which took
place yesterday with two individuals
concerned. I can confirm they are
being treated here at Salisbury
District Hospital and
air-conditioned remains critical. In
terms of impact on the hospital we
have been advising people today to
continue to attend to the routine
operations and appointments and
continue to advise them to do so. We
will contact any patients if we
require them not to attend. Our
accident and emergency department
remains busy this evening and busy
as it has been today. Understandably
this is to do with the weather
conditions last week as well but we
have the walk-in centre on Avon
Avenue, Avon approach, and it will
remain open until 10pm. A&E is for
true emergencies and you should seek
normal advice via 101, or the
walk-in centre, rather than coming
Heard from what's your police about
the suspected poisoning of a man
convicted of spying for Britain. A
lot we do not know. And as I say,
there is a lot we do not know,
whether he has been poisoned or
whether he may have been poisoned
with something, but people's minds
come back to Litvinenko and
everything that happened there,
particularly with areas being sealed
This looked up when it was declared
a major incident and talk about an
unknown substance being involved,
but as soon as it became clear to us
at the BBC that a man was Sergei
Skripal, it instantly changed the
complexion of this. This is a former
Russian intelligence officer
convicted in Russia for spying for
MI6, court in 2010. In 2006,
Alexander Litvinenko, another former
Russian intelligence officer, was
poisoned in London, in a case by
radioactive substances and ended up
dying. Immediately, the residents
with case of Alexander Litvinenko.
He was a double agent?
No, Alexander Litvinenko was
addressing security officer who left
then came to the UK and worked in
the UK in opposition to Putin's
regime. Sergei Skripal is different
because he was more of the double
agent working for MI6 while being a
Russian intelligence officer. He was
in Russian eyes a traitor to their
intelligence service, supplying
secrets to MI6. He was convicted of
this and sentenced to 13 years but
only spent four years in prison
before he was swapped out in this
rather dramatic spy swap. He was
pardoned at that time when he was
swapped out and I think he has kept
a low profile and expectation on his
part would have been that he was
safe. We do not know at this moment
whether he was definitely poisoned
or who did it but certainly because
of this context, the suspicion will
certainly be that there could've
been a Russian in this.
There are links to New York, yes?
I would ask you about the woman
involved. What we know that her? We
have had his name mentioned in her
name not mentioned yet. I understand
she is much younger.
We don't know whether she is a
relative of some type to Sergei
Skripal and that is not clear yet.
But we also know she is critically
ill as well in hospital and was with
him, than it appears on a park bench
after members of the public saw them
unwell and by the time the police
got there they had lost
consciousness. But American link is
that the spy swap had most of the
people who were swapped in 2010
being Russian agents caught in
America by the FBI, including one,
Anna Chapman, who had been in London
and then New York. They were caught
by the FBI, accused of espionage and
the deal was they were swapped out
for for spies who was serving time
in Russian prison. One of those was
There has been conversation on
social media in the past hour as
this story was breaking, Gordon,
from people who were involved,
former US intelligence officer
saying, the Brits have been cautious
about their attitude to Russia so
far because Britain is basically
ground zero when it comes to these
kind of spy battles between the West
and Russia. Is that an accurate
Bigot is extraordinary...
Could this be an example of that?
We had Alexander Litvinenko who was
killed and I think probably on the
orders of by the mere Putin himself,
and there were other unexplained
deaths in the UK of Russians which
many people have believed to have
been suspicious. There is one
inquest due next month into someone
where there is this question about
whether he was poisoned or not, a
Russian businessman who had a lot of
information about tax affairs, and
had been in some cases under
suspicion for that. So I think
certainly there will be questions.
If a Russian link is proved and that
is what it turns out to have been,
about whether Britain has done
enough to deter such activity. Did
it do enough after the Alexander
Litvinenko case to deter the
activity? As I said, still too early
to know what because of the
poisoning is, but the questions are
already being asked.
Yes, plenty more to come on that
story, no doubt. And even now.
Those pictures we saw, the latest
pictures we have got in, of people
in the green suits, the hazardous
materials suits, those were the
people who... This is why we think
it may have been poisoning because
you don't wear those suits unless
there is a substance you yourself
don't want on your skin. Let's move
Wars have unintended consequences -
that's as true of trade wars
as military battles.
This week the European Commission
will discuss raising taxes
on American imports in retaliation
for President Trump's threat
to slap tariffs on foreign
steel and aluminium.
The EU trade commissioner
told the BBC that
Levi jeans and bourbon -
both products made in Trump
supporting states -
were on a draft list of goods that
could be hit.
In a tweet, President Trump appeared
to suggest that Canada and Mexico
could win exemptions
from his planned tariffs in exchange
for concessions of their own.
It's a point he reiterated in
the Oval Office, and, while saying
there wouldn't be a trade war,
he pressed why he made
People have to understand
our country, on trade,
has been ripped off by virtually
every country in the world,
whether it's friend or enemy.
Everybody, China, Russia and people
we think are wonderful,
the European Union, we can't do
business with them -
they have trade barriers that
are worse than tariffs.
And joining us now from Seattle
is Gary Locke, who served as US
Commerce Secretary under
President Obama and then
US Ambassador to China.
Thank you for joining us,
ambassador. A lot of people have
complained about China's trade
practices particularly when it comes
to steal and unfair trade practices,
but to what extent will America or
the current administration should
itself in the foot if it imposes
these tariffs on allies? The
European Union, mentioned there, the
Canadians as well...
Actually in a trade war nobody wins
and everyone loses. Both the workers
of the affected industries up and
down the economic spectrum, as well
as the consumers, who ultimately
will pay more for those goods and
services. This means they have less
money in their pockets for vacations
and medical care, and children's
college education. Nobody wins in a
President Trump seems to be trying
to protect the steel and aluminium
industries in the United States, old
industries, at the same time as we
had the spectacle of China moving
rapidly ahead in new industries. Is
there a disconnect between what the
president is trying to do and the
realities of the global economy is
The is trying to get back at China
it will not work because China now
in Port-au-Prince into the US not as
much aluminium and steel -- China
now imports into the US not as much
aluminium and steel as before. It
will raise the cost of production
for so many other industries and
goods in America that rely on these
imports from Europe and from Canada
and elsewhere. It will make the cost
of producing those things much more
expensive, which might lead to lower
sales and therefore cutbacks in
employment. The jobs that might be
gained to benefit the industries,
the metal industries in America,
could be outweighed by the job
losses in so many other sectors.
Ultimately the consumer as well. At
the same time, China is really
trying to focus on innovation and
the new industries of the future,
such as artificial intelligence and
Robotics, that is where America
needs to spend more time and energy.
Certainly we need to address some of
the inequalities and some bombs
without trade agreements or a lack
of trade agreements. -- we need to
address some of the inequalities and
problems with our trade agreements
or lack thereof. We must understand
that everybody loses in a trade war
and we must really focus on the
industries of the future.
On this side of the pond the
Europeans are trying to work out
whether this is policy or not. Of
course, a lot is policy by tweet. I
will show you what the commerce
secretary said yesterday. Listen to
Whatever his final decision is is
what will happen. What he has said,
if he says a bit different, it will
be something different.
You see the point. If he says
something different, it will be
something different. Is it policy or
We just never know what to expect
from this particular president. He
says one thing about restricting
guns and chastising members of
Congress and saying they are afraid
of the NRA and the next day he will
meet with the NRA and completely
backed down himself. I think this
statement or the policy on imposing
tariffs on steel and aluminium
caught many people off guard, and
the administration is not ready to
roll out the new policy. There was a
lot of debate within the White House
exactly what our policies should be
and what the details of the tariffs
might be, and as to who they would
apply to and in what amount, whether
there would be some exemptions. So
his announcement caught everybody
off-guard and he is also saying that
there will be no exemptions, no
exemptions. And many of our allies
who would be most affected will not
be exempted from these tariffs. So
we must wait and see where the
policy is ruled out.
OK, thank you very much, ambassador.
I heard it this weekend from people
in the administration, even they
were taken by surprise by this
The Academy Awards held its 90th
ceremony last night,
with the event dominated by calls
for greater equality
in the film industry,
for minorities and for women.
The winner of best actress,
Frances McDormand, used her
acceptance speech to call on every
female nominee to stand up
as a showcase of the female
talent in Hollywood.
Fantasy romance The Shape of Water
took four awards, including
Best Film and Best Director
for the Mexican film-maker
Guillermo del Toro.
Gary Oldman won Best Actor
for his performance
as Winston Churchill
in Darkest Hour -
and another notable British win,
The Silent Child, starring
six-year-old deaf girl Maisie Sly -
won best live-action short.
We have talked about it on the
programme last week and we will talk
about it this week. Well done to
Congratulations to Maisie.
And joining us now from New York
is Larry Hackett, former
Editor of People Magazine.
It was a very long Oscars ceremony
this time around and did the best
I think so. It was long but what is
new? It is always long. It gets
longer every year. I think so. They
had a tricky time this year.
Obviously whatever the pictures or
the performances were it was all
overshadowed by the Harvey Weinstein
news and the Me Too movement. They
also had several award shows leading
up to this where they had people
wearing black at the Golden globes
and other events at the sag awards.
I think the issue would be how they
will treat this issue and how will
be compelling television having seen
them already, and by the way, the
films and performances. They managed
to do a decent job I think.
Interesting that a lot of the films
have not been the big blockbusters
the mass audience films of the year.
Is that increasingly the way the
Oscars are going, to niche films not
many people see?
It is an surprisingly, I was
surprised by this statistic as well,
that The Shape Of Water is the best
box office performing film in the
past five years since our goal which
made a lot of money. But after the
Miramax and Weinstein 's era, when
you had artistic in the best
picture, like The Artist, it has
been a trend for a long time.
Despite the fact that many people
had seen the shape of water, it was
a reversal of the trend. In the case
of Three Billboards Outside Ebbing,
Missouri, again, a movie not very
much seen, and Darkest Hour with
Gary Oldman, pictures which I think
were more popular.
Did I read right that The Shape Of
Water is the first science fiction
film to win the Best picture? Is
I can't say that the show but I
would not be surprised.
Science-fiction and comedy in
particular are not what the academy
like to recognise and they don't
seem Oscar worthy. As much as things
change, they stay the same. Even
small arthouse pictures, that wine
stain and Miramax had championed,
things like The King 'S Speech, very
dramatic things with a capital D and
that is what wins. Everything
released in the last year... This
particular year there was a movie
like Get Out which was arguably the
most inventive film of year but
released last category, and I would
defy you to find Oscar winner the
least before September of any given
year. That is not how the system
works. It might change because of
the demise of Weinstein and Miramax
and the kind of people who make
these movies but science-fiction and
comedy are not the kind of pictures
the academy likes to recognise and
never have been.
To talk to you and thank you very
much indeed for bringing us up to
speed with the Oscars. Did you watch
Yes, I managed to make about an hour
or so and it is long and even by our
standards, the middle of the night,
I am surprised you're calling The
Shape Of Water a science-fiction
movie because I thought there was a
You were not at the Oscars but at
the Grid iron on Saturday night.
Yes, the Washington equivalent is
not quite as glamorous, although it
was a white stripe fancy dinner with
the president not as glamorous as
How did he get on with the jokes?
Did he like them?
I thought he went well and went off
script after five minutes and went
into a campaign speech. The first
five minutes of his speech were
This is Beyond 100
Days from the BBC.
Coming up for viewers on the BBC
News Channel and BBC World News...
Eight has finally been delivered to
Syria's Eastern Ghouta. BBC was
there as the convoy began its
Passports, some are more valuable
than others with Visa free travel.
Could it be yours?
than others with Visa free travel.
Could it be yours?
More to come.
Good evening and obviously nowhere
near as cold as it was last week.
Milder conditions have spread to
most parts of the UK. Still called
across northern areas and
particularly in Scotland where we
have had more snow falling today.
Wintry looking seen here and
contrast that with something that
looked much more like spring, with
some sunshine today at Walton on
Thames in Surrey. We have lost the
beast from the east, the Colts
leathery and wind, and our error is
tending to come the South. Drawing
in milder air across most of the UK,
clearly seeing where it is still
cold. Low-pressure dominates our
weather at the moment and within
that area of low pressure this
weather system here, tracking its
way northwards, and that is
producing the rain. That rain is
still quite happy and it is moving
northwards into the colder air, so
we will get some snow over the tops
of the Pennines and Cumbrian fells,
but more especially later in the
night back into Scotland over the
hills. As it turns drier to the
south, with no wind, it will turn
misty but a lot of low cloud and
typical temperatures overnight
around to Celsius or three Celsius.
A risk of frost perhaps. In the
morning the wettest weather across
the northern half of the UK,
becoming confined more to Scotland.
A mix of rain, sleet and snow of
health should brighten up northern
England and Northern Ireland.
Sunshine in the south-west and
extreme south-east, with one or two
showers. Through the middle it might
be cloudy and a range of temperature
is, three or four Celsius, central
and northern Scotland and wet
weather, ten or 12 Celsius in
southern part of England and Wales.
Low-pressure in charge as we had
into the middle part of the week.
Nothing much is moving at all,
really. That weather front bringing
showers and that one in the north
keeps the wetter weather going. More
towards the Highlands and Islands
and again there will be snow over
the hills. This across England and
Wales, a breeze picking up that will
help to break up the cloud a bit
more. The chance of a bit more
sunshine but there could be some
showers around, one or two Sharp
ones as well. Still lighter winds
across central and southern
Scotland, and rain in Northern
Ireland with average is no better
than seven Celsius. Disciplining
averages on Wednesday and sing on
Thursday but at least some sunshine
round and that wet weather clinging
to the far north-west of Scotland,
with showers coming into England and
Wales. That be heavy. -- those could
This is Beyond 100 Days, with me,
Katty Kay, in Washington.
Christian Fraser's in London.
Our top stories:
What next for Italy?
Matteo Renzi resigns as leader
of the governing Democratic Party
amid the political deadlock.
A major security incident declared
in Salisbury in the UK,
after the suspected
poisoning of a Russian man
who once spied for Britain.
Coming up in the next half hour -
Syrian government forces
continue their onslaught
against the rebel enclave
of Eastern Ghouta,
even as an aid convoy is allowed in.
Let us know your thoughts
by using #Beyond100Days.
An aid convoy has delivered
supplies to people
inside Syria's Eastern Ghouta -
for the first time since a major
bombardment by pro-government
forces began two weeks ago.
The United Nations said
it hoped the 46 lorries
would provide food
to around 27,000 people.
Shelling and artillery fire
have continued in the region,
despite a UN-backed ceasefire.
Our Middle East editor,
was with the convoy
as it set off
for Eastern Ghouta
and sent this report.
46 lorries moved through
some of the most dangerous territory
to get into Eastern Ghouta.
The Syrians refused to let them take
in some surgical and trauma kits,
but they carried food and medical
supplies for 27,500 people.
It was a start.
We need to be sending convoys
at least three times a week
to a besieged area such
as Eastern Ghouta,
where there are serious
shortages of medical equipment,
food and nutrition
for nearly 400,000 people
trapped on the inside.
The lorries moved through
the final Syrian army checkpoint
at the edge of Eastern Ghouta.
The fact this convoy has moved
shows Assad's confidence.
Syrian armed forces are pressing
into Eastern Ghouta that way,
of course, with their
And if they win, and at the moment
that's the way it appears to be,
President Assad will have scored
a significant victory,
because, for the first time
since the war started,
he will have secured his capital.
The enclave has been controlled
by Islamist militias since 2012.
Some militias are negotiating,
and there is talk of a deal -
but not yet.
The UN's call for a ceasefire
has been ignored.
Syria's president says the west is
lying about the humanitarian crisis.
The UN Secretary-General calls
Eastern Ghouta "hell on earth".
Casualties go to a network
of underground clinics.
A doctor working in one of them
didn't think the convoy
would change anything.
What can a small convoy help us?
What can it benefit us?
It's including some food
and some limited materials.
It doesn't have enough
for a few people for a few days.
It's a densely populated area
where there's no escape
from the grown-ups' war.
Jeremy Bowen, BBC News, Damascus.
Terrible pictures from Eastern
from around the world will be
gathering here in London
tomorrow to discuss,
among other things, the threat
posed by the Islamic State group.
Much of the focus at
the Counter Terror Congress will be
on policing, but it is in Syria
where the recent progress
against IS has been undermined.
Thousands of Kurdish fighters
that made up the backbone
of the Syrian Democratic Forces,
have diverted to the battle in Afrin
where Kurdish militia have been
facing attacks from Turkey.
The SDF is the most effective force
on the ground in Syria.
And the allies need the Kurds
to finish the fight.
Joining us now
is Jennifer Cafarella,
a senior intelligence planner at
the Institute for the Study of War.
Thanks very much for coming in, I
know you have been studying what is
happening in Syria. To what extent
has the coalition campaign against
Islamic State been halted because
the Kurds have effectively left the
fight to defend their brothers in
The offensive has been halted,
and for the kind of relocation of
forces that you indicated. This post
is a very real challenge not only to
the coalition's ability to finish
anti-Isis operations, which have not
concluded, but to hold the territory
taken from Isis thus far. There is a
real risk that Isis will exploit
thinning defensive lines in eastern
Syria in order to re-surge.
pressure can the White House put on
Turkey to make sure they go back
into the fight against Islamic
The key will be to
de-escalate the wider confrontation
between Turkey and Kurdish
insurgents inside of Turkey and the
wider region. Turkey regards the
American and coalition local
partner, the YPG, as a branch of the
wider PKK Kurdish insurgency, which
is of course fighting inside Turkey.
Until or unless the US is able to
broker a deal with respect to that
wider conflict, I expect that we
will actually not be able to
de-escalated tactically between
Turkey and the local partner inside
Syria. These issues cannot be fully
Donald Trump said last
week that ice is ground has largely
been recaptured, 100%, he said, but
they are on the run. How many are on
the run, and where might they be
Sure, so of course assessing
the actual fighting strength of Isis
has always been one of the most
difficult things to do, certainly
from unclassified information. We
know that Isis remnants in Iraq and
Syria are still fighting. They are
conducting low-level assassinations,
suicide bombings in both countries,
and in Syria they actually have been
taking some terrain from pro-regime
forces so definitely still a threat
there, despite the fact that most of
the major urban centres have been
retaken. Globally, we are also
witnessing Isis resurgence. What
happened is that so many of the
foreign fighter flows that had been
going to Iraq and Syria have
redirected, and we have resurgent
Isis presents across-the-board -
from Libya to Somalia, Yemen, and
increasingly indication that foreign
fighters are flowing into Southeast
Asia, places like the Philippines.
When it comes back to the Kurds, why
are they so crucial to the fight?
Why can't they be replaced by Syrian
Arab fighters, for instance?
Kurds have been much more combat
capable, in part because they have
stricter discipline and a more
efficient command structure that
makes them a much more reliable
partner in the near-term than the
Arab forces that have not been
meaningfully mobilised. That is
until the US started providing
support, so the Kerdasa be more
battle hardened and more effective
-- the Kurds are more
battle hardened. It is fascinating,
the extent to which Washington
cannot just pick up the phone to
Ankara and say, listen, we need
those Kurdish fighters or we will
see a resurgence, as in the past, of
extremist groups like Islamic State
in the region, and they don't have
the pressure over Erdogan to do
It is fascinating, because it
has happened before, in 2001, when
they were fighting Al-Qaeda in
Afghanistan, they had them cornered
and let them escape, and we know
what happened next. Tomorrow in
London, you have got about 300 of
the world's most eminent security
experts gathering to swap, you know,
ways to defeat terrorists in Europe
and around the world, and we will
hear from some of the best
counterterrorism experts on the
planet, but they can only do so
much, and if what they are looking
to is the people on the battlefield
to round these people up there they
don't have to deal with them once
they come back to Europe. It will be
interesting to watch what they say
tomorrow, we will cover that. One of
Vladimir Putin's first moves and
coming to power 18 years ago was to
bring TV channels under state
control. Since then, Russia has been
accused of taking the information
war abroad, using Charlton and it
relates public opinion on social
-- trolls. Our Moscow
correspondent Sarah Rainsford
This was Viktor's life
for over 20 years.
Here in Siberia, he created
a popular independent TV channel,
but three years ago,
TV2 was taken off air.
Officially, it was a license
dispute, but Viktor
is sure it was political.
The channel annoyed
everyone in power locally.
The team saw that as their job.
But reining in the free
press was one
of Vladimir Putin's first
moves as president.
Far from Moscow, TV2 was
one of the last survivors.
It's obvious we were no
threat here in Tomsk.
But the authorities
are constantly afraid.
Afraid of revolution or losing
control, they want to control
everything, but that's impossible.
And they don't trust anyone.
Now Russia's information war
has moved onto the internet,
so we travel to one
of the key battle grounds.
From St Petersburg,
the Kremlin's been accused
of using the internet
to manipulative opinion
not just at home but abroad.
This place has become notorious
as Russia's troll factory.
It's mostly empty now, up for rent,
but a criminal indictment
in the United States claims staff
here were deployed as an online army
to sow discord and influence
voters in America.
Ludmila shows me the blog
of one of the fake characters
she helped to create.
She leaked information
from inside the troll factory
that exposed how it worked.
Her focus was Russian language
and she tells me the trolls
operated in shifts,
ordered to produce up to 80 posts
on social media every single day.
It's a huge machine.
I'd see thousands of posts
appearing under every news story
right before my eyes.
If a troll spoke about America
or Ukraine, it had to be negative.
If it was Putin or Russia's
military, it was positive.
Bloggers got written instructions
what to present
and the conclusions
that people should draw.
And it seems the trolls
are still operating.
We've been told that the troll
factory has moved here to this
premises, so I'm just going to see
if any of these people in
the smoking shelter opposite
actually work there
and what they can tell me.
This man tells me
he's seen them here
and he doesn't like what they do.
Inside, we met a representative
of one firm named in
the US indictment, but he wouldn't
comment on camera about its work.
Back in Siberia,
Viktor and his wife show me
how easily the traditional
media have been tamed.
When there were mass protests
against closing TV2,
ignored them completely.
Information is being controlled now,
even weaponised, and
under Vladimir Putin, this couple
see no chance of that changing.
Sarah Rainsford, BBC News, Tomsk.
News from around the world now.
The German Chancellor,
Angela Merkel, says it's important
for the newly agreed coalition
to get to work quickly.
She promised to maintain prosperity
at home and said the new government
would work towards a strong Europe,
along with France.
The new coalition will be comprised
of Mrs Merkel's CDU party
and the Social Democrats.
China has announced
it's raising its military budget
to 1.11 trillion yuan
or $175 billion dollars
for the coming year.
The figure, an 8% increase on
last year, was announced
as the annual meeting of parliament
got under way in Beijing.
It comes as delegates are expected
to vote on a proposal
to remove the two-term limit
for the presidency later this week.
Slovakia's President has called
for a radical government reshuffle
or new elections to rebuild
public trust after the murder
of a journalist and his fiancee.
Andrej Kiska said the murder
of Jan Kuciak had created
"enormous mistrust" in the state
and that the government
of Prime Minister Robert Fico had
done nothing to reassure the people.
British cyclist Bradley Wiggins
and Team Sky have strongly rejected
claims that they used drugs
to enhance performance -
rather than just
for medical reasons.
A report by British MPs has
concluded that the rules were not
broken, but that they were in effect
abused, to help Sir Bradley become
the first British rider
to win the Tour de France in 2012.
Back now to the trade war
which is brewing
after President Trump announced
he would be introducing
stiff tariffs on imports
of steel and aluminium.
It's not just the usual
critics but members of Mr Trump's
own party who are speaking
out against the decision.
Here was Republican Senator
Lindsey Graham yesterday.
China is winning, and we are losing
with this tariff regime. We are
letting China off the hook,
punishing the American consumer and
our allies. Go after China, not the
rest of the world.
We are joined by
BBC's North America correspondent
Nick Bryant, is this the thing that
will divide the Republican Party
finally from Donald Trump? They have
stuck with him so far.
There was a
lot of talk earlier in the about how
the Republican Party had become the
Trump party in the aftermath of the
tax cuts that were passed before
Christmas, but there is a definite
difference, a definite divergences
between the Republican Party
establishment, for a long time now
has been free trade, determine and
leak free trade. If you look at the
origins of Nafta, the trade
agreement that Donald Trump eights,
you find it in Ronald Reagan's
campaign for the presidency. George
HW Bush pushed Nafta as well, put
into effect by Bill Clinton, but it
was a Republican idea, and you are
getting pushed back from not only to
be like Lindsey Graham, a golf
partner of the president, but people
like the house speaker, Paul Ryan.
His office today was circulating an
article to journalists pointing out
the damage that tariffs could do to
the American economy.
interesting thing, Nick, is that the
Republicans were saying, we will be
able to use trade and the strong
performance in the market and the
good job figures, and the tax
reform, we will be able to use all
of that when we go to the midterms
later in the year, and that will
overcome some of the low approval
ratings that the president has. But
if you start to undermine the
economy, doesn't that take away
something that has been a real USP
for them at the ballot box?
exactly right, and that is one of
the concerns being voiced by senior
senators like Orrin Hatch, for
instance, of Utah, a staunch Trump
ally who says this is a tax on the
American people which will lead to
increased prices at supermarkets.
And who will be damaged by that? The
American economy and us in the
mid-term elections. The Europeans
have been very careful about what
they will target in retaliation.
Jean-Claude Juncker of the European
Commission saying, Levi jeans,
Harley-Davidson motorbikes, and
also, what was the other one?
Bourbon, I thought you would
remember that, Nick!
- got bourbon!
Clearly drinking too much of it
the whole point, why is it
important? It is made in Kentucky,
the home of Mitch McConnell, the
Senate Majority Leader.
Harley-Davidson are built in
Wisconsin, the home of Paul Ryan,
and that is a key battle ground
state, one of the rust belt states
that Donald Trump won.
Harley-Davidsons are also
manufactured in Pennsylvania, and
battle ground state. The Europeans
also digesting them and suggest in
game may go after orange juice,
Florida, and other key battle
ground. -- the Europeans also
suggesting they may go after orange
Not stupid, those European
trade negotiators! Christian, I
spoke to some of the over the
weekend from the White House is
said, basically, all the chaos you
have read about in the papers over
this tariff announcement, it is true
and also. This has caused a lot of
friction and the White House.
works, that is the whole point.
How valuable is your passport? We
will be ranking the highest, that is
still to come.
The Prime Minister is urging
developers to up their game
and build more homes in England.
She said penalising developers
who delay building on their land
should help to deal
with the shortage of properties.
Labour described the
measures as feeble.
Here's our home
editor, Mark Easton.
The Prime Minister donned the hi-vis
today, determined to show
she's tackling what she describes
as a housing crisis.
But Theresa May's
not the first senior Tory
to get her shoes muddy
on a building site.
Today, the PM had the big builders
and developers in her sights,
blaming some of them for putting
profit before their patriotic duty
to restore the dream
of home ownership.
The bonuses paid to the heads
of some of our biggest developers
are based not on the number
of homes they build,
but on their profits or share price.
I expect developers
to do their duty.
Among possible planning reforms
is the idea that developers
with a reputation for not building
homes fast enough
might be denied planning
permission by councils.
Not only do house-builders
make returns to their shareholders,
we are also cross-subsidising almost
half of the affordable housing
in this country every single year.
home ownership is central
to their vision for housing.
The Prime Minister today said
she met young voters at the last
election angry to get on the ladder.
But 24-year-old Tessa says focusing
on ownership is missing the point.
I don't even think about affording
something like that,
because the price is so high anyway,
so I don't know
how I would get the deposit together
in order to buy one,
even if it was available.
Some Conservatives want the Treasury
to relax borrowing rules so councils
and housing associations
can build many more
genuinely affordable homes.
Others see the priority
as protecting England's
precious green landscape.
It is a surprise perhaps
the Prime Minister didn't think
it wise to wear a hard hat today.
Mark Easton, BBC News.
You're watching Beyond 100 Days.
What kind of trade deals
might the UK strike,
free of the restrictions
of European Union?
Of course, a lot of depends on where
the Brexit negotiations end up.
But it's good to know that
potential future trading partners
outside the EU are eyeing up the UK
and ready to do business.
Australia is one such country.
The High Commissioner to the UK
says Australia would never
cede its sovereignty over trade
to another group of countries.
And he believes that Britain should
take heart from Australia's example.
They have already secured
trade deals with China
and the United States.
The High Commissioner,
joined us a short time ago.
I asked him what the impact might be
of the UK staying in a customs
Well, I'm not sure what
people mean by a as distinct from
the, that is probably just a
political difference without a big
difference of substance, but if the
UK was in the customs union,
remained in the customs union, and
obviously would not be able to
negotiate trade arrangements with
other countries, so all of our focus
would be on negotiations with the
European Union. I mean, we would put
our efforts just into Brussels, we
wouldn't bother with London, because
London would have contract and out
its trade policy to the EU, that
would be the consequence.
moment, Australia represents, let's
face it, a small portion of
Britain's total trading
relationship, something like around
2% - are you suggesting that after
Brexit that number will increase
significantly in a way that could
help the British economy perhaps
replace some of the trade deals with
British trade has been
diverted away from countries like
Australia, so I suspect, on leaving
the European Union, Britain's trade
patterns would change a little as it
negotiated not just a
patterns would change a little as it
negotiated not just a free-trade
agreement with the EU
so it could
negotiated not just a free-trade
agreement with the EU
so it could go
from 2% up to something like 7%?
am not going to predict at all, it
is not the diktat of a politician or
diplomat to say what the trade would
be, but it was once 7%, it is now
about 2%. I am not sure, 1-2%, and
obviously there is potential to grow
that very substantially.
that Australia would never contract
out its trade policy, the
regulations under of its internal
economy. -- the regulation and
management of its internal economy.
You already have deals with China
and the US, even though the European
Union doesn't. But how do you
balance the interests of those two
massive partners when they diverged?
It is not a problem at all. We
export into, say, China, we have to
meet Chinese standards. When we
export to the United States, we meet
American standards. Whether we have
agreements with them or not. If the
United Kingdom is outside of the
customs union, it can do that. If it
is inside, it will have no say at
all over the agreements that are
negotiated on its behalf by the
European Union. I mean, that is not
a matter for us, that is just what
To finish, are you
optimistic about the chances of a
trade deal with the EU, knowing what
you know about these negotiations?
It is difficult to negotiate with
the EU, but I'm optimistic that we
will get a trade agreement with the
EU, and we have begun that process
in any case. From our point of view,
we would be happy to negotiate a
bilateral agreement with the UK if
the UK genuinely leaves the European
Union. If you remain in the customs
union and the single market, you are
basically remaining in the European
Union but without any say in the
decision-making processes. It is up
to you if you want to do that. We
would never do that.
Commissioner, thank you very much.
Ask many people what their most
prized positions are
- wife, children, home perhaps -
certainly one of mine,
besides my family of
course is my passport.
In fact, I have two.
course is my passport.
It's an essential tool of our trade
and when you travel so much,
you come to realise just how
valuable these maroon,
navy or green books are.
And some are more valuable
when it comes to visa-free travel,
according to a new global ranking.
Japanese and Singaporean
offer the greatest travel freedom.
If you hold one of these passports,
you're now able to travel to 180
countries without a visa.
The latest is Uzbekistan.
It's interesting, Katty,
because last month Uzbekistan lifted
visa requirements for Japanese
and Singaporean nationals,
which puts them ahead of Germany.
Before the shift it was number one,
now it's number two.
And they tied for third -
Denmark, Finland, France, Italy,
Sweden, Spain and South Korea with
visa-free travel to 178 countries.
At the other end of the end
of the scale,
Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan.
I suppose it is not surprising.
Which nationalities have you got?
They are both British!
I have a
British passport, and I'm applying
for a Swiss passport, I was hoping
that would be on the list. How many
Japanese people go to Uzbekistan on
Not easy to get a Japanese
My son was born