Great Balls of Fire Click - Short Edition


Great Balls of Fire

Click looks at fusion energy and a potential limitless source of clean power. Plus the San Francisco PD who are trying to stop people driving under the influence of cannabis.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to Great Balls of Fire. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

In around ten minutes it's time for Newswatch,

:00:00.:00:00.

Energy - as our demand for it grows, the world is faced with a challenge.

:00:00.:00:37.

When we burn coal, the energy that has been stored inside formally

:00:38.:00:45.

-- for millions of years is released, to power

:00:46.:00:55.

But so, of course, is all the bad stuff that is polluting

:00:56.:01:00.

Countries have met and agreed to reduce carbon emissions

:01:01.:01:03.

and invest in clean energy solutions.

:01:04.:01:05.

We are harnessing more solar and wind energy than ever,

:01:06.:01:08.

and last month the UK had its first day of electricity supply

:01:09.:01:11.

But green power is still a long way from taking over from fossil fuels.

:01:12.:01:16.

But what if there was a clean energy source that could release 10 million

:01:17.:01:20.

times more energy than fossil fuels, with an almost limitless supply

:01:21.:01:23.

which could keep the planet running for millions of years?

:01:24.:01:32.

Well, turns out, there is, and the answer lies in the stars.

:01:33.:01:38.

In the heart of the Sun, under intense pressure and heat,

:01:39.:01:41.

hydrogen atoms change from gas into superhot plasma,

:01:42.:01:46.

and, in this burning soup, they fuse together forming helium,

:01:47.:01:49.

and releasing immense amounts of energy.

:01:50.:01:56.

This is nuclear fusion and this is what scientists have been trying

:01:57.:02:00.

for more than 60 years to recreate down here on Earth.

:02:01.:02:04.

We have to do something similar to a star, which has gravity,

:02:05.:02:11.

and to do that we use magnetic fields.

:02:12.:02:14.

And we're talking about magnetic fields that create

:02:15.:02:16.

more pressure than the water pressure at the bottom

:02:17.:02:18.

So you've got this huge pressure trying to compress the plasma,

:02:19.:02:22.

and you've got to hold it in place for a very long time as well, to get

:02:23.:02:27.

If you can keep the superhot plasma in place for long enough,

:02:28.:02:39.

the energy released can keep everything hot, without the need

:02:40.:02:42.

The fusion then becomes self-sustaining, that's

:02:43.:02:46.

We are making progress, though, we have already achieved fusion,

:02:47.:02:58.

and some of the best fusion happens inside machines called tokamaks.

:02:59.:03:01.

Now this one is just outside Oxford, which turns out to be

:03:02.:03:10.

a bit of an epicentre for fusion technology.

:03:11.:03:16.

The world's largest tokamak is just 15 minutes up that way.

:03:17.:03:19.

There is a problem with these machines, and that is that you end

:03:20.:03:23.

up having to put much more energy into these things than you ever

:03:24.:03:26.

But the company here is taking a different route.

:03:27.:03:34.

This is the lab of Tokamak Energy, which is developing relatively small

:03:35.:03:39.

Smaller prototypes can be tested and improved much

:03:40.:03:43.

quicker and more cheaply, as the science is understood

:03:44.:03:48.

This approach means the team may be the first to work out how to produce

:03:49.:03:55.

Oh! My word!

:03:56.:04:04.

Inside here, we are generating plasma, which is gas

:04:05.:04:12.

with electricity flowing through it and we're going to fuse atoms

:04:13.:04:16.

together, join them together, to generate fusion energy.

:04:17.:04:20.

And this light show isn't even fusion.

:04:21.:04:30.

This is just a warm up which is hoped will happen

:04:31.:04:33.

And then what we're going to do is heated up to over

:04:34.:04:37.

10 million degrees, up towards 100 million degrees...

:04:38.:04:39.

We won't be able to keep our face this close

:04:40.:04:44.

We will have to be further away outside some sort

:04:45.:04:48.

But it will actually start to go transparent,

:04:49.:04:51.

as the plasma gets really hot, ten times the temperature

:04:52.:04:53.

of the Sun, 100 times the temperature of the sun.

:04:54.:04:56.

Once they have achieved the temperatures, they need to keep

:04:57.:04:59.

the plasma in place long enough for it to become self-sustaining

:05:00.:05:02.

and this is what the team hopes will create magnetic fields

:05:03.:05:05.

Instead of thick copper cables, a strip of super-thin superconductor

:05:06.:05:14.

All this sounds hopeful, but the joke is that nuclear fusion

:05:15.:05:20.

If successful, it will mean the end of our reliance on fossil fuels,

:05:21.:05:29.

but there's still a lot of science to do between now and then.

:05:30.:05:32.

It could be a fantastic source of energy, likely to be the most

:05:33.:05:36.

important source of energy in the 22nd century.

:05:37.:05:38.

The point is, we need it now, and so we want to make faster

:05:39.:05:43.

It is one of the biggest fund-raising events of the year.

:05:44.:06:06.

Nearly 40,000 people ran this year's London Marathon and wealth funds

:06:07.:06:09.

are still being counted, organisers are hopeful

:06:10.:06:11.

they will smash last year's record of ?59 million raised.

:06:12.:06:14.

Online fundraising platforms now play a big role

:06:15.:06:16.

in attracting more donations, pushing the charities' causes

:06:17.:06:18.

across to users whilst also enabling them to give money

:06:19.:06:21.

JustGiving, one of the biggest players, raised just under

:06:22.:06:24.

This is a figure that charities may not have been able to raise

:06:25.:06:31.

without these sites, but these donations are also big business.

:06:32.:06:36.

JustGiving takes up to 5% commission, whilst others,

:06:37.:06:38.

They say the fees cover operational costs and innovations to ultimately

:06:39.:06:44.

But for charities, this commission is money that's not

:06:45.:06:53.

So the majority of our funding comes from individual fundraisers.

:06:54.:07:00.

For example, one of our runners is currently on ?1500,

:07:01.:07:03.

and the commission on that is going to be about ?100.

:07:04.:07:06.

And on the ground, that translates into care for ten kids that

:07:07.:07:10.

could have received a top to toe checkup,

:07:11.:07:18.

HIV testing and TB testing and be insured their

:07:19.:07:20.

Starfish is a small charity which helps vulnerable

:07:21.:07:24.

children in South Africa, who are affected by HIV and poverty,

:07:25.:07:28.

and a lot of its money goes into running a mobile health clinic.

:07:29.:07:32.

In the UK, the charity Big Kid helps vulnerable young people in south

:07:33.:07:36.

Both organisations have been experimenting with Kind Link,

:07:37.:07:43.

a site which promises to give charities although collected

:07:44.:07:45.

donations and will not make its money from commissions.

:07:46.:07:48.

I went to meet its founder, Iskren Kulev, who traded

:07:49.:07:53.

in corporate life and set up a home office, just

:07:54.:07:56.

KindLink didn't start as a company, KindLink started as an idea to be

:07:57.:08:02.

a social enterprise/charity that helps charities.

:08:03.:08:09.

For him, it's all about transparency.

:08:10.:08:11.

He wanted to create a platform where charities would post updates.

:08:12.:08:14.

The biggest problem with the charities is how

:08:15.:08:16.

they communicate with their donors and

:08:17.:08:20.

do the donors trust were the money is going?

:08:21.:08:28.

About 70% of donors say they would make more if they knew

:08:29.:08:31.

what was happening with their donation.

:08:32.:08:33.

They have also added a feature to show people how much money

:08:34.:08:36.

the charity has received and how much it has spent.

:08:37.:08:39.

How has your background in financial tech helped you to put this together

:08:40.:08:42.

and also maybe to work the system a bit, because it's all about making

:08:43.:08:46.

money, making money now not for businesses but for good causes.

:08:47.:08:50.

It's always a matter of negotiation, I would say.

:08:51.:08:52.

I will go firstly through volume is important, how you present

:08:53.:08:56.

When I know where they can make a compromise, I can try to come up

:08:57.:09:05.

with a deal which would work for both of us.

:09:06.:09:07.

See, this is a guy you want on your side, because he knows how

:09:08.:09:11.

And so far it's s proving successful, with more than 170

:09:12.:09:15.

How would you improve on what you are doing on the pitch?

:09:16.:09:19.

For Big Kid, it's able to spend more money on its programs,

:09:20.:09:23.

like this one, which trains young people to be football coaches.

:09:24.:09:26.

It has helped me, definitely, especially with school

:09:27.:09:28.

In school, I wasn't the good kid, if you understand.

:09:29.:09:36.

Well, instead of taking commission from donors,

:09:37.:09:41.

it plans to take the money from businesses.

:09:42.:09:43.

They have developed this platform for companies to build

:09:44.:09:46.

a profile for themselves showcasing the good causes they support

:09:47.:09:49.

The companies will be charged a monthly fee.

:09:50.:09:52.

I think it is quite fitting that KindLink have set themselves up

:09:53.:09:56.

just across the river from Canary Wharf, where

:09:57.:09:58.

the financial industry makes its billions.

:09:59.:10:00.

And I think it takes a certain kind of person to give

:10:01.:10:03.

all that up and come over here and work for charities.

:10:04.:10:06.

Hello, and welcome to the week in tech.

:10:07.:10:15.

It was the week that Microsoft released an urgent software update

:10:16.:10:18.

after discovering a flaw in the windows operating system.

:10:19.:10:23.

The bug could give hackers access, by simply sending an e-mail,

:10:24.:10:26.

A 16-year-old's tweet about chicken nuggets became

:10:27.:10:29.

A US plane arrived after being top secret.

:10:30.:10:49.

Having landed at the Kennedy space Centre, all that the Pentagon

:10:50.:10:52.

declared about the Air Force's robotic mini space shuttle

:10:53.:10:56.

is that it was performing risk reduction, experimentation

:10:57.:10:58.

and concept of operations development.

:10:59.:10:59.

And, finally, Hollywood quality animation comes to the masses.

:11:00.:11:02.

The Smartsuit Pro with camera free motion tracking system costs

:11:03.:11:10.

a fraction of the pro kit, but at $2,500 it could prove game

:11:11.:11:13.

changing for independent movie-makers and game designers.

:11:14.:11:23.

That's it for the short version of click this week. The full version is

:11:24.:11:31.

up on iPlayer for you to watch right now. Next week will be rather epic,

:11:32.:11:36.

so find time for that. Follow us on Twitter and Facebook corrupt the

:11:37.:11:41.

week if you would be so kind. Thanks for watching and see you soon!

:11:42.:11:43.

Click looks at fusion energy and a potential limitless source of clean power. Plus the team follows the San Francisco police department who are trying to stop drivers driving under the influence of cannabis.