16/12/2011 GMT with George Alagiah


16/12/2011

Stephen Sackur presents international news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. Plus up-to-the-minute global business news.


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From meltdown to cold shutdown. Japan says the crippled Fukushima

:00:10.:00:15.

nuclear plant is now stable. The clean up could take decades and

:00:15.:00:19.

will cost a fortune. Will Japan ever regain its faith in nuclear

:00:19.:00:29.
:00:29.:00:36.

Welcome to GMT. I'm Stephen Sackur. Also in the programme: Bradley

:00:36.:00:39.

Manning, the US soldier accused of spilling a treasure trove of

:00:39.:00:45.

secrets to WikiLeaks, gets his first day in court. Christopher

:00:45.:00:47.

Hitchens, the contrarian whose writing delighted and enfuriated

:00:47.:00:57.
:00:57.:00:59.

many millions across the world, has It is 12:30pm here in London,

:00:59.:01:03.

4:30pm in the afternoon in Moscow and 9:30pm in the evening in Tokyo,

:01:03.:01:05.

where Japan's Prime Minister has told his nation the Fukushima

:01:05.:01:10.

nuclear plant is now stable. Nine months after the earthquake and

:01:10.:01:13.

tsunami which devastated the plant, Yoshihiko Noda says it is now in

:01:13.:01:19.

cold shutdown. That is a key milestone in efforts to bring the

:01:19.:01:22.

plant under control, but the nuclear disaster is likely to haunt

:01:22.:01:32.
:01:32.:01:33.

Japan for decades. Roland Buerk joins me live now from Tokyo.

:01:33.:01:39.

caught them be the key issue of 50 ft up the men and women who say

:01:39.:01:47.

Japan. -- the Fukushima 50. It seemed there was no hope. In recent

:01:47.:01:52.

months, thousands more have joined the fight. They have achieved their

:01:52.:01:59.

goal. The reactors are in a more stable phase. Ever since explosions

:02:00.:02:03.

shook the Booker Shearman plant nine months ago, his struggle has

:02:03.:02:13.
:02:13.:02:13.

been under way to bring it under control. -- figure she man. --

:02:13.:02:22.

Fukishima. It is in a state of colt shut down. Leaks of radiation have

:02:22.:02:29.

been substantially reduced. TRANSLATION: Since I took office, I

:02:29.:02:38.

have been saying for Japan to be reborn, the nuclear power plant had

:02:38.:02:44.

to be saved. It needed to be stabilised. Since 11th March, we

:02:44.:02:50.

have been working to get the reactors under control.

:02:50.:02:54.

disaster has shaken the confidence of the Japanese in nuclear power.

:02:54.:03:00.

It used to provide a third of its electricity. Almost all of the

:03:00.:03:05.

country's reactors up off-line, because of local safety fears. This

:03:05.:03:11.

is just one milestone on what will be a very long road to recovery.

:03:11.:03:17.

The exclusion zone around the power station remains in force. Tens of

:03:17.:03:21.

thousands of people used to live here - cleaning up the radiation

:03:21.:03:28.

will mean removing the top soil from the valleys and mountains. A

:03:28.:03:34.

flat on the 26th floor in Tokyo is where this man had been staying,

:03:34.:03:39.

since they fled their home near the plant. The view it is good but they

:03:39.:03:44.

cannot replace the garden they planned to spend their retirement

:03:44.:03:54.
:03:54.:03:56.

tending. We do not know where we belong. I cannot discard a way our

:03:56.:04:03.

own house and garden. They are waiting for us, I believe.

:04:03.:04:08.

Decommission Inc the power station is the next step. The preferred

:04:08.:04:14.

option for Japan is to dismantle it piece by piece. There have been

:04:14.:04:19.

warnings that the process could take up to 40 years. The Japanese

:04:19.:04:25.

government is promising to reassess the exclusion zone. So much

:04:25.:04:29.

radiation has been released that some towns could remained

:04:29.:04:36.

uninhabitable for decades. The couple feel they have been lied to

:04:36.:04:41.

so often that it is hard to believe their reactors up in cold shut down

:04:41.:04:46.

now. They want to return home, whatever the risks. Let's take a

:04:46.:04:49.

look at some of the other stories making headlines around the world

:04:49.:04:57.

today. Tens of thousands of children have suffered sexual abuse

:04:57.:05:02.

in Dutch Catholic institutions since 1945. That is according to a

:05:02.:05:09.

report by an independent commission of inquiry. There are 800 alleged

:05:09.:05:13.

perpetrators. 100 are still alive. The Church should act immediately

:05:13.:05:18.

on these findings. What is important today is what the next

:05:18.:05:25.

steps will be after the bishops. They have postponed their actions

:05:25.:05:34.

for one and a half years. From now there is no excuse. What we expect

:05:34.:05:41.

is a recognition of all those crimes. We're talking about crimes

:05:41.:05:44.

against children. We will reconciliation and compensation for

:05:44.:05:51.

the suffering that was done to all the victims. The US Army Private,

:05:51.:05:53.

accused of supplying hundreds of thousands of secret documents to

:05:53.:05:55.

whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, is appearing for the first time

:05:55.:05:58.

before a military court. Bradley Manning was serving as an

:05:58.:06:00.

intelligence analyst in Iraq when he allegedly accessed military

:06:00.:06:10.
:06:10.:06:11.

files. Our correspondent joins me live from Washington. It seems a

:06:11.:06:18.

long time ago that Bradley Manning was taken into detention. How close

:06:18.:06:23.

are we to a full military court martial? This is what the hearing

:06:23.:06:29.

today will determine. Not in just one day but over the next few days.

:06:29.:06:35.

This is what is called an Article 32 hearing. It could take a few

:06:35.:06:39.

days until the judges decide whether he should be court-

:06:39.:06:45.

martialled. It appears as though he -- it is the likely outcome but we

:06:45.:06:49.

will have to see what happens when the hearing starts. It is taking

:06:49.:06:54.

place in Fort Meade in Merrie Ireland, which is a very secretive

:06:54.:07:03.

military base. -- Maryland. It is interesting that private manning

:07:03.:07:09.

should be appearing there. He has been held for a long time - 19 man

:07:09.:07:14.

since he was arrested in Iraq. He has pleaded not guilty to charges

:07:14.:07:20.

of aiding the enemy at transmitting national defence information.

:07:20.:07:24.

includes a very serious charge of aiding the enemy. What punishment

:07:25.:07:29.

does he face if, ultimately, the miniature court finds him guilty?

:07:29.:07:37.

He could face life in prison, which is quite a serious verdict. At this

:07:37.:07:42.

stage, there are still several other options that the judges could

:07:42.:07:46.

take. They could dismiss the charges. They could charge him for

:07:46.:07:52.

some of the lesser charges he is facing. There are about 20 of them.

:07:52.:07:57.

It is not just about what happens to private Bradley Manning. The US

:07:57.:08:02.

government is also trying to send a message to anyone else who may

:08:02.:08:09.

consider leaking any information. This is about the sentence that he

:08:09.:08:14.

could face but it is an attempt by the US government to send this

:08:14.:08:18.

message. There are a lot of those who said that what he did in the

:08:18.:08:23.

end did not cause that much damage. American diplomacy has more or less

:08:23.:08:29.

recovered. There was not that much information that was unknown in the

:08:29.:08:33.

other documents he leaked from Army records. What the Government is

:08:33.:08:39.

trying to do is send a message that this should not happen again.

:08:39.:08:45.

you very much for joining us. Russia has surprised the UN

:08:45.:08:48.

Security Council members by circulating a new resolution on the

:08:48.:08:51.

Syrian crisis. It urges all sides to abandon violence and use

:08:51.:08:53.

dialogue. It refers to the Syrian Government's disproportionate use

:08:53.:08:58.

of force. Western nations have expressed doubts about the draft

:08:58.:09:05.

but say they are willing to The crew of a Russian fishing

:09:05.:09:08.

vessel have been evacuated from their boat in Antarctica, after it

:09:08.:09:12.

struck ice in the Ross Sea. The Sparta issued a May Day call early

:09:12.:09:15.

on Friday morning, triggering an international alert. Rescuers from

:09:15.:09:18.

new Zealand are expected to take several days to reach the stricken

:09:19.:09:24.

boat. The self-styled international revolutionary known as Carlos the

:09:24.:09:27.

Jackal has been convicted and sentenced to life in prison, by a

:09:27.:09:30.

French court. The Venezuelan national was found guilty of

:09:30.:09:33.

mounting four bomb attacks in France in the 1980s which killed 11

:09:33.:09:43.
:09:43.:09:52.

people. He is already serving a 2011 welfare ever be remembered as

:09:52.:09:58.

the Year of popular revolution in the Middle East. It started when

:09:58.:10:02.

Muhammad was easy set himself on fire. He had been banned from

:10:02.:10:06.

selling fruit to earn a living. That triggered a remarkable series

:10:06.:10:13.

of events that had begun -- become known as the Arab Spring. We have

:10:13.:10:18.

been looking back at a tumultuous year in the Arab world. It has been

:10:18.:10:24.

a year like no other in the Middle East. Some rulers have gone, others

:10:24.:10:29.

survived, others are still in turmoil. It started in Tunisia. A

:10:29.:10:34.

year ago, police stopped a young vendor from selling his fruit on

:10:34.:10:41.

the street. In protest, he set himself on fire - frustrated and

:10:41.:10:46.

furious at a corrupt and all- powerful regime. He died a week

:10:46.:10:50.

later and it touched a nerve. People came out and dared to

:10:50.:10:56.

denounce the Government. Abruptly, the President lost control and fled.

:10:56.:11:02.

His regime was suddenly over. The touch paper of revolution had been

:11:02.:11:09.

lit. When it spread to Cairo, people asked, could Egypt be next?

:11:09.:11:13.

They shared the frustrations of Tunisia. Power concentrated in the

:11:13.:11:20.

hands of an unelected -- unelected elite and rampant corruption.

:11:20.:11:27.

are tired. President Mubarak had a huge, all-pervasive security

:11:27.:11:33.

network. Word of the protests spread on Facebook and Twitter.

:11:33.:11:38.

Mubarak fled with his family. In Libya, revolt began in the east,

:11:39.:11:43.

the region long rebellious against the role of Colonel Gaddafi. He

:11:43.:11:48.

called the rebels rats and cockroaches and about to crush them.

:11:48.:11:53.

He and his family lived in a world divorced from reality. It looks

:11:53.:11:57.

like the stalemate and the Western pack and help from Arab states

:11:58.:12:03.

drove the troops of Gaddafi back. He was dragged out of a drainage

:12:03.:12:09.

pipe and shot by his own people. In Yemen, popular protest against the

:12:09.:12:13.

33-year-old ruler has been complicated by tribal rivalries.

:12:13.:12:19.

The President has agreed to step down. For now, his relatives are in

:12:19.:12:24.

powerful positions. Bahrain has seen the most serious violence in

:12:24.:12:34.
:12:34.:12:35.

the Gulf. There is so much tension in these Shi'ite villages. When

:12:35.:12:39.

there are security forces, often it ends in tear gas, have more wins

:12:39.:12:46.

and more animosity. Syria has suffered terribly. Countless people

:12:46.:12:52.

have been tortured. The president appears to be in denial. Note

:12:52.:12:59.

government in the world kills its people. It is led by a crazy person.

:12:59.:13:05.

I became president because of public support. The movement many

:13:05.:13:10.

called the Arab Awakening has yet to run its course. What started

:13:10.:13:14.

with the Tunisian throat seller is now unstoppable. The Arab world has

:13:14.:13:23.

had enough of dictatorship. Still to come: Surviving on odd jobs. We

:13:23.:13:28.

investigate the workforce in Indonesia where over half the

:13:28.:13:36.

population is employed in the informal economy. Let's stick with

:13:36.:13:41.

business - formal and informal. Let's start with more bad news for

:13:41.:13:48.

some of the world's biggest banks. You are not going to use the line,

:13:48.:13:55.

Fitch has an itch! It has downgraded six of our major global

:13:55.:14:03.

banks. But Keyes in the UK, Deutsch Bank in Germany, -- Barclays. They

:14:03.:14:07.

are saying there has not been a sudden deterioration of the books

:14:07.:14:11.

but more about the sensitive exposure to the market - basically

:14:11.:14:16.

to the eurozone and its huge debt. We know that banks are starting to

:14:16.:14:21.

dry up the lending they usually do between each other. They have been

:14:21.:14:25.

relying on central banks around the world. If banks stop having access

:14:25.:14:34.

to many, could we see another Banks have to bring up their

:14:34.:14:38.

capital levels, and there is no way of lending more and doing that. The

:14:38.:14:43.

key thing is, where is that lending going to continue? If it continues

:14:43.:14:46.

in the small to medium-sized businesses, then maybe we will see

:14:46.:14:49.

the economy move forward. If it stops in that particular segment it

:14:49.:14:54.

is going to get a lot worse before it gets better. Last week, the

:14:54.:14:58.

European Central Bank lent out for 2 billion euros to European banks

:14:58.:15:02.

in one week, that is not sustainable! I happen to know you

:15:02.:15:06.

are not the biggest computer gaming fan, but even you must be excited

:15:06.:15:15.

about what has happened to this company. They make online games,

:15:15.:15:19.

games you can only play on Facebook, and they are going public today on

:15:19.:15:24.

Wall Street, expecting age huge debut. They sold 100 million shares

:15:24.:15:30.

at 10 bucks each. He is the interesting thing, they have 2

:15:30.:15:33.

million users a month, but they only make revenue from a 3% of

:15:33.:15:38.

those. The question I put to an expert is how do they make their

:15:38.:15:44.

money? It is the new metric, you get not for three, access to most

:15:44.:15:49.

of it, with a bit of adverts, or you can upgrade people and convince

:15:49.:15:54.

them to buy extra items for the Games, to be able to play quicker.

:15:54.:15:57.

That appeals to quite a lot of people that don't necessarily want

:15:57.:16:03.

to sit there the entire time, they want to go in, play, get excited,

:16:03.:16:08.

and they are happy to pay for that. It also gives investors a chance to

:16:08.:16:13.

pay -- jump on the back of the growth of Facebook. Let's have a

:16:13.:16:23.
:16:23.:16:27.

Thank you. We do want to hear what you think, so do get in touch with

:16:27.:16:33.

us here at G and T. Go to the website, or you can watch

:16:33.:16:43.
:16:43.:16:49.

This is GMT, from BBC World news. The headlines: Japan says the

:16:49.:16:52.

crippled Fukushima nuclear plant is under control, but it could take

:16:52.:16:58.

decades to clean up. Bradley Manning, the US soldier

:16:58.:17:00.

accused of spilling secrets to WikiLeaks, gets his first day in

:17:01.:17:08.

court. Indonesia is home to the world's

:17:08.:17:11.

biggest -- a 4th biggest population of young people, but many of them

:17:11.:17:15.

end up surviving on or jobs to make a living. It is estimated that more

:17:15.:17:19.

than half the working operation in the country is employed in the

:17:19.:17:25.

informal sector, which is how focus in the latest of our series on the

:17:25.:17:30.

young and jobless. Our Indonesia correspondent reports from the city

:17:30.:17:37.

of Makassar in South Sulawesi. This port is bustling with

:17:37.:17:41.

fishermen selling their goods at dawn. This city has historically

:17:41.:17:45.

been one of the centres of Trade and Commerce in Indonesia, but for

:17:45.:17:50.

the use here, it is getting harder and harder to find work. -- for the

:17:50.:17:54.

youth. This part has one of the highest used unemployment rate in

:17:54.:17:58.

the country. Many of the young people who end up doing odd jobs or

:17:58.:18:03.

fishing to make ends meet. Experts say the fact that so many of

:18:03.:18:06.

Indonesia's youth population end up in the informal sector is one of

:18:06.:18:10.

the main reasons this country's economy could fail to reach its

:18:10.:18:16.

full potential. This 22-year-old is one of the lucky ones. She is now

:18:16.:18:22.

the proud owner of this mobile- phone repair shop. She got help - a

:18:22.:18:25.

freedom of the technical training course paid for by the

:18:25.:18:28.

International Labour Organisation. But there is no security net

:18:28.:18:32.

working in the informal sector. She wants to turn her business into

:18:32.:18:39.

illegitimate one. TRANSLATION: If I can, I want to register my business

:18:39.:18:43.

so it becomes a legal entity. That way, I can get a bank loan easily,

:18:43.:18:48.

but I don't know how to do that. Most in donations never even have

:18:48.:18:53.

the chance to think that big. -- most Indonesians. This 21-year-old

:18:53.:18:57.

had big dreams, like so many of his peers, when he first got to Jakarta

:18:57.:19:00.

five years ago. But he didn't have the right qualifications, so

:19:00.:19:05.

couldn't get a job. Now he sells magazines at traffic junctions to

:19:05.:19:11.

make ends meet. TRANSLATION: I wanted to do work that fits my

:19:11.:19:16.

skills, not like this. I want to get a real job, but I only have an

:19:16.:19:20.

elementary school education, so it is impossible to stop this is an

:19:20.:19:25.

exceptionally young country. the full potential of Indonesia's

:19:25.:19:30.

youth isn't being recognised. The challenge for Indonesia is to tap

:19:30.:19:33.

this bought -- a huge source of talent to ensure that young people

:19:33.:19:41.

here get a -- shot at making it in life.

:19:41.:19:45.

For more insight into the global informal economy, we can speak to

:19:45.:19:48.

Robert Neuwirth, altar of Stealth of Nations - the Global Rise of the

:19:48.:19:56.

Informal Economy, first of all, could you give us the epic scale of

:19:56.:20:01.

the informal economy across the world? Well, it is huge. The

:20:01.:20:05.

statistics are that more than one half of the working people in the

:20:05.:20:11.

world work of the box and in the informal economy. -- Off the Box.

:20:11.:20:17.

This is legal product been dealt with in an unregistered way. In

:20:17.:20:22.

total, that amounts to 10 trillion dollars of economic activity, so if

:20:22.:20:26.

the informal economy was organised as a nation state, it would be his

:20:26.:20:32.

second largest in the world. But of course it is not. Should we regard

:20:32.:20:36.

the size of the informal economy as a fundamental negative for the

:20:36.:20:41.

world? The people in it are not paying tax, their work is not being

:20:41.:20:45.

regulated, conditions can be appalling, is this a negative?

:20:45.:20:49.

would flip it around and say that it is a negative on the way that

:20:49.:20:53.

the formal economy works, that half the workers of the world are shut

:20:53.:20:57.

out from it. We need to look at this sector of the economic

:20:57.:21:01.

activity of the world as tarnishing its growth potential, and looking

:21:01.:21:06.

at how we can make it a positive for the world. You have spent a

:21:06.:21:11.

couple of years living in different parts of the world, a study in the

:21:11.:21:15.

informal economy up close. Is it your conclusion that people within

:21:15.:21:23.

the shadow economy would like to move into the official economy?

:21:23.:21:27.

Only if it makes sense. It is a question of profit margins. If it

:21:27.:21:32.

makes sense to become a registered Corporation, Shaw, but if not, and

:21:33.:21:37.

they can expand their business without getting registered, then

:21:37.:21:41.

people are content to what we call the shadows. But it is not a

:21:41.:21:45.

shadowy realm, they are doing business openly on the streets, so

:21:45.:21:49.

we're not talking about some clandestine opening -- underground.

:21:49.:21:53.

We are talking about honest entrepreneurship. The question is,

:21:53.:21:57.

how can we encourage them to grow their businesses in ways that help

:21:57.:22:04.

the nation's? There is no doubt that criminal enterprises also does

:22:04.:22:08.

eat away inside this informal sector. You talk about a 10

:22:08.:22:12.

trillion dollar industry, what proportion of that is involved with

:22:12.:22:17.

criminal or underground activity? In reality, none of it. The

:22:17.:22:25.

statistics I am using scream out actual criminality, drug dealing,

:22:25.:22:31.

arms dealing, so those criminal networks are not included -- screen

:22:31.:22:36.

out. They would be another former quadrillion, perhaps. But there are

:22:36.:22:41.

legal people are the mass of this, so to talk about criminality is a

:22:41.:22:46.

canard. A what proportion of the people in this industry, roughly,

:22:46.:22:50.

are working in conditions that we, in the official economy, would

:22:50.:22:54.

regard as completely unacceptable? That is a very difficult

:22:54.:22:58.

calculation to make. I don't really know, but I can tell you that in

:22:58.:23:02.

the developing world, many of the formal but it is also don't have

:23:02.:23:05.

the social security predictions, unemployment protection, but we

:23:05.:23:11.

take for granted here. So it is hard to argue that people are being

:23:11.:23:15.

exploited in the informal economy, when the formal economy exploits

:23:15.:23:20.

people as well. Thank you are joining us.

:23:20.:23:23.

The controversial British-born author and journalist Christopher

:23:23.:23:27.

Hitchens has died at the age of 62 after a long and public battle with

:23:27.:23:31.

cancer. He began his career in Britain as a left-wing journalist,

:23:31.:23:35.

but later moved to New York and angered many of his former allies

:23:35.:23:40.

by supporting the US invasion of Iraq.

:23:40.:23:43.

Christopher Hitchens was a provocative bigger, describing

:23:43.:23:48.

himself as an essayist and contrarian. An author of 17 box, he

:23:48.:23:57.

was an atheist and alcoholic. -- 17 blogs. Diagnosed with cancer last

:23:57.:24:02.

year, he spoke to Newsnight about his declining health. I am afraid

:24:02.:24:08.

of a sordid death, afraid that I would die in an ugly or squalid way.

:24:08.:24:13.

Cancer can be very pitiless in that. I feel a sense of waste about it,

:24:13.:24:21.

because I am not ready. I feel a sense of betrayal to my family.

:24:21.:24:25.

began his career in Britain, moving to New York in the 1980s. His death

:24:25.:24:29.

was announced by Vanity Fair, where he worked as a contributing editor.

:24:29.:24:39.
:24:39.:24:47.

One of those who did know him was the deputy prime minister, Nick

:24:47.:24:51.

Clegg, who worked for him as an intern. He said Christopher

:24:51.:24:54.

Hitchens was infuriating and brilliant, and that he will be

:24:54.:24:57.

massively missed by everyone who values strong opinions and great

:24:57.:25:04.

writing. We can speak now to the director of

:25:04.:25:08.

a documentary about Christopher Hitchens. He is joining us from

:25:08.:25:13.

Calcutta. You were a friend, collaborator, just tell me, what is

:25:13.:25:21.

your overriding memory of Christopher Hitchens? Generosity.

:25:21.:25:25.

Generosity and largeness, unfortunately, in many ways! A lust

:25:25.:25:31.

for life. His was a life well and truly lived. Well lived, in the

:25:31.:25:37.

sense that his experience was extremely wide and deep. Truly

:25:37.:25:41.

lived in the sense that he didn't suffer fools gladly, he didn't po

:25:41.:25:51.
:25:51.:25:51.

party lines, he thought for himself. Fiercely independent thinking was

:25:51.:25:55.

all important to him. I called him a contrarian earlier in the

:25:55.:25:59.

programme, did he actively relish generating a huge amount of

:25:59.:26:07.

argument and heat? Yes, I think he did. And there was a very poor

:26:07.:26:15.

formative aspect to him. -- perform. I considered setting up a debate

:26:16.:26:19.

between him and George Galloway in the Albert Hall, which would have

:26:19.:26:23.

been done. He did court that to an extent, but he was always sincere

:26:23.:26:30.

in his positions. I think very rare are the occasions when he inflated

:26:30.:26:37.

Stephen Sackur presents international news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. Plus up-to-the-minute global business news.

Featuring exclusive reports from BBC World News correspondents based around the world, plus up-to-the-minute global business news.


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