05/09/2011 GMT with George Alagiah


Zeinab Badawi presents international news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. Plus up-to-the-minute global business news.

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The battle for one of Colonel Gaddafi's last strongholds


continues, as negotiations between the two opposing sides seem to have


broken down. Forces of the transitional council


say they are in good spirits as they prepare to storm the desert


Hello, welcome. Also coming up, the famine is


spreading in Somalia. The United Nations warns that three-quarters


of a million people could start to death in the next few months.


Are you trying to accuse me of being...?


And, the Bollywood blockbuster they tried to ban. How a film about


India's caste system continues to court controversy.


It is lunchtime in London, early morning in Washington and 1:30pm in


Libya, where leaders of the NTC, the National Transitional Council,


or speaking in confident tones about the battle for Bani Walid.


The head of the NTC has told the BBC that two of Colonel Gaddafi's


sons have been blocking the surrender of the town. He says


negotiations are still continuing, but he gave a deadline of one week


for those negotiations to end. Bani Walid is 200 kilometres south-east


of Tripoli, one of the last pounds to be held by forces loyal to


Colonel Gaddafi. Its capture is a major test of the NTC's ability to


defeat the remaining supporters of Gearing up for the final push on


Bani Walid, these rebel fighters gathered their strength and


thoughts on the outskirts of one of the last strong chords of pro


Colonel Gaddafi forces. -- strongholds. Mood among the rebels


is buoyant. The time for talking to, both sides seem to agree, is over


for now. Negotiations have collapsed. The rebel leaders


believe they have the forces to take the town quickly. We are a


mixed people, coming from Benghazi, Tripoli, everywhere, from Libya.


According to the rebels, the negotiations never really got going.


If and when they go in, what will be resistance be like? As events


unfold, foreign governments are having to answer awkward questions.


China has acknowledged that Chinese arms manufacturers hold talks as


recently as July with representatives of Colonel


Gaddafi's government. There was a United Nations arms ban in base --


in place. TRANSLATION: The Colonel Gaddafi government said personnel


to China without the knowledge of the Chinese government. The Chinese


companies did not sign contracts, nor did they export military items


to Libya. Some of the Colonel Gaddafi government's dot secrets of


emerging, as well as the cosiness of its relationships with the West


before the rebellion. Documents suggest that Britain's end of --


MI6 co-operated with the CIA in delivering a suspected militants


into the hands of the Colonel Gaddafi forces, including the man


who is now the rebel leader in charge of security in Tripoli. As


the rebel fighters made their final preparations, among the continuing


uncertainties, the whereabouts of Colonel Gaddafi and his sons, still


Let's get the latest now. How far can you assess how the balance of


power might be shifting when it comes to Bani Walid? It really


looks as though the anti- Colonel Gaddafi forces, the rebels, are


bending over backwards to really avoid a full-on assault on Bani


Walid. They have waited several days already, they could have gone


in a few days ago, they have been negotiating with the tribal elders,


and with the Colonel Gaddafi loyalists, trying to get the


Colonel Gaddafi hardliners to surrender, to lay down their


weapons. They have demanded assurances about how they would be


treated if they surrendered. The negotiations appear to have broken


down last night, though some sort of negotiations are still continue


wind. Part of the problem has been that two of Colonel Gaddafi's sons


have been in the town, and they were pretty hard line, and they


have left. They were putting up resistance, encouraging hardliners


to continue the Resistance, and supplying them with weapons. We are


being held quite a long way from the town, 70 kilometres or so, at


the rebel checkpoint. Heading that way, Bani Walid. It is where some


of the rebel fighters set off a couple of hours ago, with some


heavy weaponry, they were shooting into the air euphorically, to


reinforce the troops that they have already got massed around the town.


It is pretty much surrounded, and there is a hope that anti- Colonel


Gaddafi people in Bani Walid will rise up and take out or expel the


last of the Colonel Gaddafi loyalists. Do we know how well


armed the pro Colonel Gaddafi forces are still in Bani Walid?


do not think there are that many of them or that they are that well


armed, though the Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi did armed them with about


80 high-velocity rifles before he left. The worry is that they are


spread out amongst the civilian population, and there could be real


bloodshed if and when the rebels to What about Colonel Gaddafi? His


whereabouts are still not known, though he is believed to be in


Libya. Eric Maddocks was credited with masterminding the capture of


Saddam Hussein, and he has described his experiences in Iraq


in a book. What it would you give anybody who is keen to find Colonel


Gaddafi? -- what advice? Do you think he is still in Libya? The key


to finding it Saddam Hussein was identify and his social networks,


through building the link diagrams, and through his networks, he was


running an insurgency in the area, and he had to survive, so he needed


food, shelter, he needed to be harboured. From that, he used a two


specific individuals. One of the keys to capturing him was that we


have to find his social networks through these two hoppers, his


bodyguards, and not necessarily through his past regime. Saddam


Hussein was found in Dr Crick, which is where his tried originally


hailed from, in a remote farmhouse. Looking at the parallels with


Colonel Gaddafi, what would you say? As the Department of Defense


representative, I cannot speculate on the location of Colonel Gaddafi.


For Saddam Hussein, he hit amongst the people that needed in the most.


-- he hid. There is speculation he travel too severe, he was in


Baghdad, he could hide amongst millions of people, but he was in a


small town, of 20,000 people, that needed him the most. But the


difference is that there were foreign bids on the ground in Iraq,


highly experienced, specially trained forces, trying to track


down Saddam Hussein, and that is not the case in Libya. Is there the


experience to find Colonel Gaddafi? The key to success for finding


Saddam Hussein is that you do have experienced Special forces that can


go in, because you are doing a manhunt. If you're not careful, you


will create a lot of corrupt or damage. As you hunt for one man,


you will create a massive insurgency. The team that I was


within Iraq, we spent four months tracking down Saddam Hussein, we


did not fire a single bullet, and that leaves a minimal foot print,


which does not stir up the population. Often, you can get


information from people who are not even aware they are giving you


information. Is that right? That is exactly right, one of the keys to


finding Saddam Hussein, he was the most wanted man in the world, the


most powerful military in the world was looking for him, you would


assume he would go into hiding and he would be roughing it, but he


needed to eat one type of fish every day. Once we identified that


sort of profile, we then found a fish pond that had been created


since the war that had begun, we started tracking the fishermen, and


from doing that, it led us on to eventually capturing Saddam Hussein.


It is the small brittle profiles of their high-value target that can


Egypt's former president is back in court in Cairo. Four police


officers of the first witnesses due to be questioned in the trial.


Hosni Mubarak has been charged with ordering the killing of hundreds of


demonstrators during protests against the government. He could


face the death penalty if he is Police struggled to contain a sea


of protest outside the courtroom as the trial of the deposed President


was about to resume. The authorities were trying to prevent


a repetition of the scuffles that erupted when Hosni Mubarak's trial


opened a month ago. It seemed like a losing battle. Just about


everyone here, it appeared, had some grievance. This woman claimed


that there were people from the secret services, cronies and slaves


of America. Passions were a strong on the other side of the political


divide. Hosni Mubarak is a criminal, this man claims, repeating it to


emphasise his seat. -- his view. This man was angry because he said


he was not being allowed to go inside the court to watch the


proceedings, even though he had authority from the Interior


Ministry. The ailing 83-year-old was brought to justice -- to court


in an ambulance, on a stretcher. Last month, the Egyptians could see


live television coverage of him in a cage in the court. The judge has


now banned such coverage, because he felt it added to the charged


atmosphere. Hosni Mubarak denies ordering the killing of the


protesters. Today the court was to hear from police officers who were


working in the operations room at the time. Outside, this woman says


there was no way the former President could have killed the


martyrs, as was being alleged. Otherwise, she said, he would have


killed all of the Egyptian people. What was the point of only killing


800? So soon after the removal of a leader who held sway over his


country for so long, the scenes at the court in Cairo are a reminder


of the emotions unleashed by Hosni Still to come, two students from


two different backgrounds, and a question dividing India. This


positive discrimination still have a place in modern society?


-- does positive discrimination? I have been joined by Our Business


Correspondent. What news do you bring? American banks in trouble?


Banks around the world, they are very nervous at the moment. They


are preparing to defend themselves. Late on Friday night, American


authorities filed a lawsuit against 17 banks around the world, claiming


that the banks must lead lenders about the quality of the mortgages


they were selling during the housing bubble in 2008, and earlier.


The American authorities are representing the two big mortgage


giants who went bust. They had to get bailed out to the tune of $150


billion. We have got the Bank of America, Goldman Sachs, RBS,


Barclays, but the question, who was responsible for approving and then


purchasing these products? These companies were responsible


for purchasing that these ought lemons, these so-called mortgage


products, but they then increased the market value of them and pushed


them to the upside and make them more appealing to themselves. When


they went bust, they were left holding a lot of these overvalued


Ure, people are getting nervous there about that second bail out?


Absolutely. $109 billion. That was agreed this year but Finland is


causing hiccups. They are demanding collateral for Greece. They are


going we will give you some money but you have to put up something


against it. The bigger problem you have Austria, Luxembourg, the


Netherlands, Slovenia, all asking for the same. They say we want some


collateral as well, and all of this could be fatal for Greece.


Greece has to post collateral I think it makes it more likely that


Greece will default, so it is almost as if it triggers a self-


fulfilling prophesy, because the money it would have available to


pay down, to pay down debt will be in this special purpose vehicle.


know the Finnish Finance Minister is meeting the euro President to


discuss this and Finance Ministers from the eurozone meeting tomorrow,


just to try and get through this next saga. A quick look at the


markets. On the markets. Take a look. They are down there. Very


worried about the lack of US jobs. No jobs created in August in the US


and problems in China. That is it for now. Thank you. All you need to


know on the main stories on the business today. Do remember, if you


want to get in touch with us, best You are watching GMT from BBC World


news. The headlines. The battle for one of Colonel Gaddafi's last


strongholds may have already started, as talks between the two


opposing sides appear to have broken down. And violent scuffles


outside court in Cairo as Hosni Mubarak arrives for his trial. Now,


more on our top story, Libya. It has Americaned that representatives


of Colonel Gaddafi visited the Chinese capital Beijing in July,


trying to buy arms. This information is coming from the


Chinese foreign ministry who were quick to add no contracts were


signed and no weapons were shipped to them. Let us get more from our


Beijing correspondent. This is going to be a fairly serious


development, what are the Chinese saying? Well, it is. It is a very


serious development. What we now know from the Chinese Government


themselves, is that right in the sort of dying weeks of the Gaddafi


regime, China was hosting representatives here from the


Gaddafi Government, although the Chinese Government says it has no


knowledge of them, but those, it has admit m -- admitted that


Gaddafi representatives came here seeking weapons and they had


meetings with three Chinese state controlled arms manufacturers. This


admission has been forced out of China, because the end of last week,


documents were unearthed in Tripoli, which indicated that these, these


talks had taken place, they were unearthed by a newspaper from


Canada which said that $200 million worth of arms deals were discussed,


including rocket launchers. Missile, possibly ground-to-air missiles and


the three Chinese companies offered to sell their entire stockpiles.


What is significant about this is that a UN arms embargo was in place


at the time which China signed up to. China is now saying those


meetings did take place, those representatives were here but the


Chinese Government says it knew nothing about them. No deals were


signed. No arms were exported and it has added today, that it views


this seriously and will follow this up. That may not be enough for the


new officials in the new regime, incoming regime in Libya. Thank you


very much for that. Now, the United Nations has said that famine has


spread into one more region of Somalia. A total of three-quarters


of a million people are at risk of death in the next four months if


there is no add watt response. The UN says the numbers dying in


Somalia's region has passed the threshold to be defined as a famine,


and it warns the situation will only get worse in the coming months.


Neighbouring countries Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti have been


affected by the severe lack of rain. Some 12 million people across the


region are said to badly need food aid. Our east Africa correspondent


is in Nairobi where the UN have been speaking, and Will, in what


way does the UN say this situation is getting worse? Well, it is


really painting a picture of generally southern Somalia, slowly


moving towards famine. We now have six regions in Somalia, where the


conditions the UN says are that of famine, and this region is the


latest. We are talking about a threshold that the UN puts in place,


this is a certain number of people dying, per 10,000. The malnutrition


rates going up and also just a severe lack of food available. And


this area, the region, is one of the bread baskets of Somalia, but


the recent harvest was so poor, officials say it was the worst


harvest in the last 17 years, so the situation, the UN saying, is


basically going to get worse. It is not a surprise, you might remember


back in June, July, they said there is a rye I -- crisis coming and it


will take several months until we get to the peak. But the UN is


saying well into next year, the humanitarian response will have to


be continuing, obviously the key question is how the get the food


into those areas where Al-Shabab is in control. Some aid agencys are


getting in there, but the big one, the UN World Food Programme is not,


and not enough people are getting the food in southern Somalia.


going to ask you more about that political instability, making it


harder for humanitarian assistance, I mean, does the UN have to go


through complicated negotiations to get it through? Is some getting


through? Well, the UN calls it discussions rather than


negotiations. They say it is happening at a low level. We know


that the World Food Programme is still officially banned by Al-


Shabab, but there are smaller organises, that have, for year,


been accessing areas controlled by Al-Shabab. They have built up


relationships. There seems to be a degree of trust, that movement of


the food is continuing, but as I say, it is not on the scale that is


needed, and if the World Food Programme were able to deliver food,


some people think that, you know, the heart of the crisis could be


torn out in a matter of days, if they were given that access,


because they have such a large operation, and the capability of


putting a lot of food in place. At the same time some organisations


are looking longer terms because the rains are due in a few weeks


time, and while that will bring some good news for the farmers,


there is also the fear of disease increasing with that rain. Thank


you for giving us an update on what the UN is saying about famine in


Somalia. Now the other major developments making the headline.


Now, many Governments round the world have long used positive


discrimination as a way of helping disadvantaged groups in their


society. And it can take many forms. It often has a degree of


controversy about it. In India, a recently released fip has caused


something of a stir because it deals with the issue of caste


reservations in the education With an all star cast headed by a


screen veteran it has been making headlines since its release because


of its subject matter. The film looks at India's century old caste


system. A social hierarchy which places people into different class


categories based on family back ground. It deals with the sensitive


issue of affirmtive action for lower castes. Are you trying to


accuse me of being a casteist? states tried to ban the film but


its director believes it is an issue that needs to be discussed.


49.5% of all higher education seats and Government jobs, are reserved


for certain class and caste of society. Which has created a lot of


turmoil, and you know new kind of pain, I mean the pain of the


society which has been sub Jew Kate gate -- subjugated and oppressed.


Affirmative action has been taken but that has created so much pain


in the rest of society. This system of quotas is known as reservation


in Hindi. It was row deuced to ensure everyone in India has access


to the same opportunities. These two are studying the same course


but even though she scored higher she struggled to get a place


because she is from a higher caste: I scored 81 in my exam. I think is


a pretty good score to get in college. I couldn't get in because


of the reservation. I mean, the people, I mean the students who


scored lower than me, the grade marks were really low, and they got


into and walked in the college, just because they were minorities.


He has benefit fromed from the quota, he says he has had it harder


because of his family's history and that is why he believes


reservations are needed. There is still not equal opportunities to


come up and explore the world, so there is a need of us being


reservation for us so we can come up and explore the opportunities.


This is one of the many statues of the doctor which can be found


across the country. He was the architect of India's constitution,


and helped introduce quotas or reservations, that was more than 60


years ago, so how relevant are they to today's India? Leading


commentator says the reservation system is likely to remain in India


for many years to come Reservations changed India dramatically, because


in a short space of time, what it has done is giving the lore -- low


e caste the opportunities. It is still relevant, because we still an


unequal society. Although caste isn't observed as much as it was


hundreds of years ago it is still part of Indian society. Supporters


say it provide a level playing field. Others say it is creating


inequalities of its own. And that report brings us to the end of this


International news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story with Zeinab Badawi.

Featuring exclusive reports from BBC World News correspondents based around the world, plus up-to-the-minute global business news.

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