09/09/2013 Inside Out Yorkshire and Lincolnshire


09/09/2013

The discarded plastic bottles that are threatening marine life. And celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Fylingdales listening station.


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Transcript


LineFromTo

In the evening and welcome to the Inside Out. Tonight we are in

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Scarborough. Tonight we investigate the plastic pill that is threatening

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wildlife here in scribe and ride along the East coastal. This fixed

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down into the chain and these ads leak out into the beach. Also

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tonight, the secret location where we go inside the 50th anniversary of

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this building. I always wanted to know what goes on in there.

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Armenia. —— football mania. The man capturing full ball from the fans

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point of view. —— football. The coast here in Scarborough is a

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playground but the litter and plastic waste that is left behind is

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causing a real problem for local wildlife. A marine expert has been

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travelling up and down the coast to find out more.

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The beautiful coastline of England, miles of sand and open sea. You just

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can't beat it. But this stretch of coast, like many others in Britain,

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has a problem and it's caused by us. I've been diving the world's oceans

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for more than 40 years and plastic waste is an increasing problem. Even

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the pristine looking lake near my home has become a dumping ground for

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rubbish of all shapes and sizes and plastic debris worries me the most.

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It's out there in the ecosystem, getting into the food chain and

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harming wildlife. And as top of the food chain predator myself, goodness

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knows what it might be doing to me. This is

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coast's most popular resorts, but the folk on the beach aren't here to

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dig sand castles but to find plastic waste. We have been doing these

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clean—ups for around 20 years and the main reason we do it is to

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collect data on the type of litter we are finding.

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So armed with a bag, gloves and a healthy desire to get stuck in,

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let's see what I can find. For me it's an alarming problem

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especially as nearly all of this rubbish is stuff we carelessly throw

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away. Even a little bit of plastic like that, it is only a small piece

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on this fairly clean beach but as soon as that gets into the sea and

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breaks down, the real problems begin. It becomes micro—plastic when

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it breaks down and that gets into the birds and into the fish and into

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us and it's a disaster. 70% of marine litter is plastic and the

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vast majority of debris comes from the land. It was the bottom of a

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traffic cone and you see these blue Edinburgh, loading off the road. ——

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blown everywhere. —— blown off the road. This is incredibly hazardous

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to the environment and when this is broken down it becomes an magnet

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itself more pollution. —— thermal pollution. It's a piece of hazardous

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waste. You say that. This is plastic rope and breaks down and into the

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food chain. These bits leach out and finally into the food chain. I am

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now the owner of a seven metre long piece of toxic waste. I hope this

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might enter our recycling bag. All in all, not a bad haul for an

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hour's work! Nine kilos of waste and that's just my contribution. But

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it's not just the big items of plastic that we need to be worried

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about. In its raw form plastic is moved around the globe as billions

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of tiny pellets that will be remoulded at a later date. And when

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these items find their way into our oceans, you can see how easy it is

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for a fish or bird to mistake them for a tasty snack. We are trying to

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see if toxins are getting into the fishes. We could then be eating

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these toxins. It's a big worry and we are investigating it at the

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moment. It is a sobering thought. You might wonder what we'd do

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without plastics, but we're not the only species to have developed a

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special relationship with this synthetic material. At Britain's

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biggest mainland gannet colony at Bempton near Bridlington,

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generations of birds have learnt to live with our waste, lining their

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nests with discarded plastic netting and ropes.

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don't mix well and to find out more I'm going to get closer to a sea

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bird than I've ever done before. These are fulmars, true ocean going

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sea birds of the waters around Britain. They're beautiful animals

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and close relatives of albatrosses. And here at the Dove Marine Science

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Lab near Newcastle, research is underway to see how much plastic

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waste they're consuming. They eat all sorts of rubbish from the ocean

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surface so almost every bird has some plastic in the summer. On

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average it will be about 0.3 grams. It might not look that serious in a

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small jar, but on a scale, if I scale it up to human, it would

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equate to this average content. If I have the equivalent of what an

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average one of these birds has I would have this. Yes.The problem

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with all of this is that it takes up room. Normally good food would

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occupy the space. Yes. Researchers have been collecting

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dead fulmars and carrying out autopsies and the results have been

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surprising. On the face of it these are healthy

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looking birds that have just met an unfortunate end. Initial checks show

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them to be adults, but they died, we're going to have to

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take a look inside their stomachs. It's not a pretty sight seeing

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what's these birds have eaten but it's the best way of gauging how

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much plastic is being consumed. These beautiful ends of feathers...

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It is a +. Now we have them open, we can see what has happened. The bird

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has died slowly. The research shows starvation is a

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common cause of death. What is all about? It is plastic.Look at that.

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That looks like it could be a plastic loop. And the amazing thing

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is if that was me it would be 100 times the size of this. We are

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talking about something that big. It would have an enormous effect on my

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health. Food should be going in but is this thing is leaching out, it's

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releasing toxic chemicals and it would affect my health. It'd be easy

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to think that there's not much that can be done to halt the rising tide

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of plastic waste. Let's face it, there is an enormous amount of

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plastic waste going into overseas but we can do something about

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Like this project here in Newcastle. By collecting stuff in

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the river, we stopped going out into the sea and it is much easier to

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stop it at this stage. This project collects about 100 tonnes of debris

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every year. At CEFAS, the government's marine

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research centre in Lowestoft, our plastic waste problem is being taken

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seriously. European directives in 2016 will mean we'll all have to do

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more to stop plastics getting into the sea. It can take hundreds of

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years for plastics to disappear, so do these items ever disappear?

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Warrant the naked eye it might look as if they did not but fragments and

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so many thousands of people are not visible to the naked eye, they are

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still there. —— to the naked eye. Is a biodegradable? Some of it is

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biodegradable and it looks as if some of it has gone but it has not.

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The big question is whether we're sitting on a plastic waste

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time—bomb. But there's one way to minimise the risk to wildlife and

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ourselves and that's to do all we can to stop plastic getting in the

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sea in the first place. Of course if you have any views on

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that story or anything else we are covering, get in touch with us on

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the usual ways. Coming up... Football mad. The man who loves to

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food for —— to photograph the passion on the faces of the fans.

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Just up the road from here there is a place which has had a model of

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mystery attached to it. We used to convert the golf balls but it is

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much more like the pyramids now! As it approaches its 50th anniversary

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our correspondent has been given behind—the—scenes access at this

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remarkable building. The North York moors are a remote

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wilderness and 50 years ago they became the site of one of the most

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important cogs in the defence mechanism of the Western World.

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This is RAF Fylingdales and this is one of the most sophisticated and

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powerful radars in the world. It's the successor to the iconic

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golf balls which sat on Fylingdales Moor until the early '90s. For 50

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years, Fylingdales primary mission has been to provide early warning to

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the western superpowers of a potential nuclear missile attack.

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But the story of RAF Fylingdales actually begins more than 50 years

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ago. In October 1957, the Russians

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launched the first satellite into space, Sputnik One. This event was

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to be the starting pistol for the space race between Russia and the

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USA. Sputnik is an earth satellite on a

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Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile and at the same time the

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Soviets engage in a series of megaton tests of huge H bombs. What

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happens in 1957 catches the West by surprise and it looks like the

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Soviets have leapt ahead. In advance the US and UK started planning the

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deterrent series of three early warning systems. And so in 1961,

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here on this remote moorland, Fylingdales iconic golf balls began

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to take shape. They cost £45m to build, two thirds of which was paid

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for by the USA. The base was controversial from the start.

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Antinuclear protestors made regular appearances at the site. But the

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protests had little effect and RAF Fylingdales became fully operational

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on the 17th of September 1963. Completed in Yorkshire is this new

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early warning system designed to give Europe security from nuclear

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attack. Enid Winspear was a young secretary

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there when John F Kennedy was assassinated.

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You could feel this atmosphere. It was electric. The President of

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America has been shot. W're on red alert. In those days one man

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somewhere could press a button and that would be it. For the duration

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of the Cold War, the reader pointed to the soviet union ready for

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attack. But the Cold War ended

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became less defined. In the 1990's, the golf balls came down and a new

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radar was built which could watch in all directions.

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For years Fylingdales forbidding appearance has made people think of

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it as a secret base, but these days they're trying to be as open as they

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can be about what they do. So, I'm looking forward to finding

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out exactly what goes on in there. Security is high. It is level one.

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The same as the nuclear submarine base at Faslane in Scotland. I'm met

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by Squadron leader Steve England, the man in charge of operations

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here. The radar's 40 metres high with a total of 9000 antennae,

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producing a radar beam of enormous intensity. It's quite a view. It's

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fantastic. If we could see the radar beam now, it's almost instantaneous,

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shoots out to a distance of 3,000 nautical miles, 360 degrees around

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the radar. The reach is important because the further out we can see,

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the better the early warning we would get of a missile event. For

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our space missions, we can see a great number of the objects that are

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in low Earth orbit. But it's what they're doing inside the radar

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that's fascinating. This might look like a normal office to you, but any

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moment this could happen... SHOUTING.

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This is a vital training session, drilling the crew on how to react to

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the radar detecting a missile attack. What just happened? We were

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following what appears to be the launch of a missile through the air.

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The computer will predict where it's likely to impact. How does the radar

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passes through this base of missile coverage, we can follow its track as

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it's travelling through the air. They have just 60 seconds to verify

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that it is a real attack. Once it is confirmed, the information is

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escalated to the top of the US and UK command chains and from then on,

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it is out of Fylingdales' hands. In the last decade, the radar has been

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upgraded to improve the accuracy of its missile tracking so that the USA

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can develop its programme of interceptor missiles. This has led

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to opposition by antinuclear groups. Lindis Percy is a seasoned peace

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campaigner. US missile defence is an offensive system, couched in

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defence. It's creating a lot of international tension. The UK being

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involved with it means that we are not in control. It's this special

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relationship whereby we do what the Americans want. Station commander

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Rayna Owen is keen to emphasise that Fylingdales is a British run base.

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The US originally provided us with the radar and they provide me with

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upgrades, the UK does the rest and contrary to popular opinion, I only

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have one US liaison officer who is here to do what it says on the tin,

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he liaises back to the US chain of command. Some believe that

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supporting American missile defence could put the UK at risk. Missile

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warning and our role in missile defence is part of what keeps the

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world free from attack, so I do not have any issues with that.

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Fortunately, there are very few real missile launches. Most of the time,

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they are keeping track of the thousands of man—made objects which

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are orbiting the Earth. Steve England shows me to the Fylingdales'

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nerve centre. This is an above ground bunker and the entrace to the

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space operations room. We have got a record of everything back to

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Sputnik. Sputnik was actually object number two in our catalogue and

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we're up to about object number 35,000 now. Why is it so important

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that you know where everything is? Well, the biggest concern that, with

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our reliance on space for just about everything we do in the modern

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world, is that we don't want objects to collide into satellites that are

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doing essential tasks such as mobile phone or communications or radio.

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And one particularly dramatic space event added to Fylingdales'

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workload. China is facing international criticism after using

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a ballistic missile to destroy a satellite.

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As well as underlining China's growing arms capabilities, it had a

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catastrophic effect in space. The issue for the space using community

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was that that satellite destruction caused over 2,000 pieces of debris,

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most of which is still orbiting around today and that will be around

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for quite a few years. Which is why manned spacecraft like the

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International speciation relies on Fylingdales for its safety. —— space

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station. For half a century, the role of Fylingdales has evolved to

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serve the needs of a changing world. Since the end of the Cold War, the

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threat of a missile attack could come from anywhere and the number of

:19:15.:19:20.

objects in space is increasing daily. But the existence of this

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military base continues to split opinion. Fylingdales will become

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more and more important over the next 50 years. This is not the end

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of the story, it is not a Cold War story, it is a global uncertainty

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story. We should be looking much more for alternatives to violence,

:19:44.:19:46.

building relationships with other states because it is such a worrying

:19:46.:19:55.

world. Fylingdales offers so much to national defence and security. The

:19:55.:20:03.

future of Fylingdales is secured. Space is getting busier and there

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will be a requirement for this site for many years to come.

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Now to some people, football is more than a game, it is a religion. It

:20:13.:20:17.

has definitely taken over the life of photographer Stuart Roy Clarke

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who has devoted 25 years to documenting the changing face of the

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game. But not on the pitch, in the stands. Watching the highs and lows

:20:25.:20:28.

of the fans. It is the most romantic thing I can

:20:28.:20:51.

think of. I think going to football matches is up there with anything

:20:51.:20:54.

else. Tonight, Wigan Athletic are fighting for Premiership survival

:20:54.:20:57.

and Stuart Roy Clarke has, along for the roller—coaster ride.

:20:57.:21:06.

stadium, even round the neighbourhood, several times. I like

:21:06.:21:06.

to be the first there. I'd like to get all the tops of

:21:06.:21:20.

their heads in the sunset. Hopefully when they're scoring a goal.

:21:21.:21:35.

The club has been in the relegation fight before. Everyone is jumpy.

:21:35.:21:43.

Ideal material for Stuart. There's a guy here who's going through all

:21:43.:21:46.

sorts of emotions and tortures. His wife's sat next to him. A whole

:21:46.:21:49.

series of expressions.. All of the other photographers at

:21:49.:22:22.

the game are shooting the other way. I'd like to see Stuart here. Come

:22:22.:22:27.

and sit here with this big lens. You get a sore bum after sitting down

:22:27.:22:33.

this long. Must be some interesting characters up there. You have got to

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be able to see the pictures and Stuart sees the pictures, he sees

:22:45.:22:49.

the characters, the personalities. Usually he does the whole package in

:22:49.:22:54.

one frame. My dad gave me a succession of

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cameras, Polaroid ones. It came out the front, magically, so you could

:23:00.:23:04.

show it to people. In that sense, photography is magic. Stuart started

:23:04.:23:10.

from an early age, as a lad on the subs bench. Because I was on the

:23:10.:23:16.

bench, I had a chance to look at the back of the manager, what is he up

:23:16.:23:19.

to, there's some parents over there. They don't come very often. I love

:23:19.:23:24.

the actual playing of the game. But all of that is of equal interest.

:23:24.:23:32.

Stuart is back in of one of his favourite hunting grounds — Roker in

:23:32.:23:34.

Sunderland where the old football ground was and where it all kicked

:23:34.:23:43.

off for him. Over there, that broken glass, I was standing there and I

:23:43.:23:52.

could see this flood of light. I had not really thought of photographing

:23:52.:23:55.

it as a subject. And then I started thinking, do you know what...? But

:23:56.:24:06.

that gave me the idea in a way. Stuart had found his subject. The

:24:06.:24:09.

homes of football. And it was perfrect timing. The game was

:24:09.:24:13.

changing fast. After the Hillsborough disaster stadiums were

:24:13.:24:15.

modernised and the creation of the Premier League pumped millions into

:24:15.:24:22.

football. I'm not just somebody who's a nostalgist. I love the new

:24:22.:24:29.

stadiums. Not as much as I loved the old ones, but I like lots of things.

:24:29.:24:36.

I like progress, I like change. As long as we do not lose what has gone

:24:36.:24:40.

before. It is my job to catch it before it goes. This last 20 years

:24:40.:24:44.

has been fascinating, and I've been a privileged position. I've got a

:24:44.:24:50.

duty to hand over what I've seen. What he has recorded is a social

:24:50.:24:57.

history through the eyes of fans. I always thought the ground was the

:24:57.:25:00.

most constant, actually it is not, it is the fans. The baton is handed

:25:00.:25:08.

from one set of fans to the next, be they friends, strangers, or the next

:25:08.:25:09.

generation. Wonderful. Stewart is at Bradford

:25:09.:25:41.

City and the fans are dreaming of promotion. We're off to the Kop, the

:25:42.:25:52.

mighty Kop. The drama in the last 20 minutes of the game.

:25:52.:26:05.

The fans went home disappointed, but it was a different picture in the

:26:05.:26:09.

second leg when Bradford's dream season ended in promotion. Much of

:26:09.:26:17.

Stuart's work is housed here at the national football museum in

:26:17.:26:22.

Manchester. The planning began for his next exhibition earlier this

:26:22.:26:27.

year. I've got a lot of stuff up my sleeve. I'm going to put 30 or 40

:26:27.:26:33.

pictures out here in the atrium. They will be the first thing people

:26:33.:26:35.

see and it's really exciting. This one could well feature at the

:26:35.:26:53.

Museum, celebrating the amateur game. Decorator by day, Adam is

:26:53.:26:57.

turning out for the other Sunderland team tonight in the Northern League.

:26:57.:27:06.

I enjoy these games as much as the big ones. The big ones do have the

:27:06.:27:11.

glamour. I love taking pictures at this level and then putting them

:27:11.:27:17.

next to Manchester United. They are of equal importance. It has always

:27:17.:27:21.

been one of the joys. Back in Wigan, the relegation fight

:27:21.:27:39.

is into the last round. The girl jumping up and down.

:27:39.:27:48.

Despite giving it everything, they lose. I am affected at the end of

:27:48.:27:55.

it. I go home thinking about it. It means so much to people. It is not a

:27:55.:27:59.

bereavement, there are worse things in life, but for now, they will be

:27:59.:28:04.

pretty glum. But, for me, a lot of great photographs of people going

:28:05.:28:11.

through all the emotions. Despite all the money in the game and its

:28:11.:28:14.

not necessarily filtering down, I just find it an unbelievable

:28:14.:28:24.

spectacle. I don't think I can tear myself away from it. I'll see you

:28:24.:28:36.

next season. Look forward to it. That is all from us tonight. Join us

:28:36.:28:45.

next week. We will be spending time at a busy accident and emergency

:28:45.:28:48.

department and asking if GPs hold the key to helping chronically ill

:28:48.:28:52.

patients lead healthier lives and stay out of hospital.

:28:52.:28:57.

Toby Foster investigates the stories that matter in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. This week, we go to the East Coast to find out why the plastic bottles we throw away are threatening marine life. Also Nicola Rees goes behind the scenes at Fylingdales listening station in its 50th anniversary year and we meet the photographer who travels around the country's football grounds taking photographs of fans.


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