09/09/2013 Inside Out Yorkshire and Lincolnshire


The discarded plastic bottles that are threatening marine life. And celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Fylingdales listening station.

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In the evening and welcome to the Inside Out. Tonight we are in


Scarborough. Tonight we investigate the plastic pill that is threatening


wildlife here in scribe and ride along the East coastal. This fixed


down into the chain and these ads leak out into the beach. Also


tonight, the secret location where we go inside the 50th anniversary of


this building. I always wanted to know what goes on in there.


Armenia. —— football mania. The man capturing full ball from the fans


point of view. —— football. The coast here in Scarborough is a


playground but the litter and plastic waste that is left behind is


causing a real problem for local wildlife. A marine expert has been


travelling up and down the coast to find out more.


The beautiful coastline of England, miles of sand and open sea. You just


can't beat it. But this stretch of coast, like many others in Britain,


has a problem and it's caused by us. I've been diving the world's oceans


for more than 40 years and plastic waste is an increasing problem. Even


the pristine looking lake near my home has become a dumping ground for


rubbish of all shapes and sizes and plastic debris worries me the most.


It's out there in the ecosystem, getting into the food chain and


harming wildlife. And as top of the food chain predator myself, goodness


knows what it might be doing to me. This is


coast's most popular resorts, but the folk on the beach aren't here to


dig sand castles but to find plastic waste. We have been doing these


clean—ups for around 20 years and the main reason we do it is to


collect data on the type of litter we are finding.


So armed with a bag, gloves and a healthy desire to get stuck in,


let's see what I can find. For me it's an alarming problem


especially as nearly all of this rubbish is stuff we carelessly throw


away. Even a little bit of plastic like that, it is only a small piece


on this fairly clean beach but as soon as that gets into the sea and


breaks down, the real problems begin. It becomes micro—plastic when


it breaks down and that gets into the birds and into the fish and into


us and it's a disaster. 70% of marine litter is plastic and the


vast majority of debris comes from the land. It was the bottom of a


traffic cone and you see these blue Edinburgh, loading off the road. ——


blown everywhere. —— blown off the road. This is incredibly hazardous


to the environment and when this is broken down it becomes an magnet


itself more pollution. —— thermal pollution. It's a piece of hazardous


waste. You say that. This is plastic rope and breaks down and into the


food chain. These bits leach out and finally into the food chain. I am


now the owner of a seven metre long piece of toxic waste. I hope this


might enter our recycling bag. All in all, not a bad haul for an


hour's work! Nine kilos of waste and that's just my contribution. But


it's not just the big items of plastic that we need to be worried


about. In its raw form plastic is moved around the globe as billions


of tiny pellets that will be remoulded at a later date. And when


these items find their way into our oceans, you can see how easy it is


for a fish or bird to mistake them for a tasty snack. We are trying to


see if toxins are getting into the fishes. We could then be eating


these toxins. It's a big worry and we are investigating it at the


moment. It is a sobering thought. You might wonder what we'd do


without plastics, but we're not the only species to have developed a


special relationship with this synthetic material. At Britain's


biggest mainland gannet colony at Bempton near Bridlington,


generations of birds have learnt to live with our waste, lining their


nests with discarded plastic netting and ropes.


don't mix well and to find out more I'm going to get closer to a sea


bird than I've ever done before. These are fulmars, true ocean going


sea birds of the waters around Britain. They're beautiful animals


and close relatives of albatrosses. And here at the Dove Marine Science


Lab near Newcastle, research is underway to see how much plastic


waste they're consuming. They eat all sorts of rubbish from the ocean


surface so almost every bird has some plastic in the summer. On


average it will be about 0.3 grams. It might not look that serious in a


small jar, but on a scale, if I scale it up to human, it would


equate to this average content. If I have the equivalent of what an


average one of these birds has I would have this. Yes.The problem


with all of this is that it takes up room. Normally good food would


occupy the space. Yes. Researchers have been collecting


dead fulmars and carrying out autopsies and the results have been


surprising. On the face of it these are healthy


looking birds that have just met an unfortunate end. Initial checks show


them to be adults, but they died, we're going to have to


take a look inside their stomachs. It's not a pretty sight seeing


what's these birds have eaten but it's the best way of gauging how


much plastic is being consumed. These beautiful ends of feathers...


It is a +. Now we have them open, we can see what has happened. The bird


has died slowly. The research shows starvation is a


common cause of death. What is all about? It is plastic.Look at that.


That looks like it could be a plastic loop. And the amazing thing


is if that was me it would be 100 times the size of this. We are


talking about something that big. It would have an enormous effect on my


health. Food should be going in but is this thing is leaching out, it's


releasing toxic chemicals and it would affect my health. It'd be easy


to think that there's not much that can be done to halt the rising tide


of plastic waste. Let's face it, there is an enormous amount of


plastic waste going into overseas but we can do something about


Like this project here in Newcastle. By collecting stuff in


the river, we stopped going out into the sea and it is much easier to


stop it at this stage. This project collects about 100 tonnes of debris


every year. At CEFAS, the government's marine


research centre in Lowestoft, our plastic waste problem is being taken


seriously. European directives in 2016 will mean we'll all have to do


more to stop plastics getting into the sea. It can take hundreds of


years for plastics to disappear, so do these items ever disappear?


Warrant the naked eye it might look as if they did not but fragments and


so many thousands of people are not visible to the naked eye, they are


still there. —— to the naked eye. Is a biodegradable? Some of it is


biodegradable and it looks as if some of it has gone but it has not.


The big question is whether we're sitting on a plastic waste


time—bomb. But there's one way to minimise the risk to wildlife and


ourselves and that's to do all we can to stop plastic getting in the


sea in the first place. Of course if you have any views on


that story or anything else we are covering, get in touch with us on


the usual ways. Coming up... Football mad. The man who loves to


food for —— to photograph the passion on the faces of the fans.


Just up the road from here there is a place which has had a model of


mystery attached to it. We used to convert the golf balls but it is


much more like the pyramids now! As it approaches its 50th anniversary


our correspondent has been given behind—the—scenes access at this


remarkable building. The North York moors are a remote


wilderness and 50 years ago they became the site of one of the most


important cogs in the defence mechanism of the Western World.


This is RAF Fylingdales and this is one of the most sophisticated and


powerful radars in the world. It's the successor to the iconic


golf balls which sat on Fylingdales Moor until the early '90s. For 50


years, Fylingdales primary mission has been to provide early warning to


the western superpowers of a potential nuclear missile attack.


But the story of RAF Fylingdales actually begins more than 50 years


ago. In October 1957, the Russians


launched the first satellite into space, Sputnik One. This event was


to be the starting pistol for the space race between Russia and the


USA. Sputnik is an earth satellite on a


Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile and at the same time the


Soviets engage in a series of megaton tests of huge H bombs. What


happens in 1957 catches the West by surprise and it looks like the


Soviets have leapt ahead. In advance the US and UK started planning the


deterrent series of three early warning systems. And so in 1961,


here on this remote moorland, Fylingdales iconic golf balls began


to take shape. They cost £45m to build, two thirds of which was paid


for by the USA. The base was controversial from the start.


Antinuclear protestors made regular appearances at the site. But the


protests had little effect and RAF Fylingdales became fully operational


on the 17th of September 1963. Completed in Yorkshire is this new


early warning system designed to give Europe security from nuclear


attack. Enid Winspear was a young secretary


there when John F Kennedy was assassinated.


You could feel this atmosphere. It was electric. The President of


America has been shot. W're on red alert. In those days one man


somewhere could press a button and that would be it. For the duration


of the Cold War, the reader pointed to the soviet union ready for


attack. But the Cold War ended


became less defined. In the 1990's, the golf balls came down and a new


radar was built which could watch in all directions.


For years Fylingdales forbidding appearance has made people think of


it as a secret base, but these days they're trying to be as open as they


can be about what they do. So, I'm looking forward to finding


out exactly what goes on in there. Security is high. It is level one.


The same as the nuclear submarine base at Faslane in Scotland. I'm met


by Squadron leader Steve England, the man in charge of operations


here. The radar's 40 metres high with a total of 9000 antennae,


producing a radar beam of enormous intensity. It's quite a view. It's


fantastic. If we could see the radar beam now, it's almost instantaneous,


shoots out to a distance of 3,000 nautical miles, 360 degrees around


the radar. The reach is important because the further out we can see,


the better the early warning we would get of a missile event. For


our space missions, we can see a great number of the objects that are


in low Earth orbit. But it's what they're doing inside the radar


that's fascinating. This might look like a normal office to you, but any


moment this could happen... SHOUTING.


This is a vital training session, drilling the crew on how to react to


the radar detecting a missile attack. What just happened? We were


following what appears to be the launch of a missile through the air.


The computer will predict where it's likely to impact. How does the radar


passes through this base of missile coverage, we can follow its track as


it's travelling through the air. They have just 60 seconds to verify


that it is a real attack. Once it is confirmed, the information is


escalated to the top of the US and UK command chains and from then on,


it is out of Fylingdales' hands. In the last decade, the radar has been


upgraded to improve the accuracy of its missile tracking so that the USA


can develop its programme of interceptor missiles. This has led


to opposition by antinuclear groups. Lindis Percy is a seasoned peace


campaigner. US missile defence is an offensive system, couched in


defence. It's creating a lot of international tension. The UK being


involved with it means that we are not in control. It's this special


relationship whereby we do what the Americans want. Station commander


Rayna Owen is keen to emphasise that Fylingdales is a British run base.


The US originally provided us with the radar and they provide me with


upgrades, the UK does the rest and contrary to popular opinion, I only


have one US liaison officer who is here to do what it says on the tin,


he liaises back to the US chain of command. Some believe that


supporting American missile defence could put the UK at risk. Missile


warning and our role in missile defence is part of what keeps the


world free from attack, so I do not have any issues with that.


Fortunately, there are very few real missile launches. Most of the time,


they are keeping track of the thousands of man—made objects which


are orbiting the Earth. Steve England shows me to the Fylingdales'


nerve centre. This is an above ground bunker and the entrace to the


space operations room. We have got a record of everything back to


Sputnik. Sputnik was actually object number two in our catalogue and


we're up to about object number 35,000 now. Why is it so important


that you know where everything is? Well, the biggest concern that, with


our reliance on space for just about everything we do in the modern


world, is that we don't want objects to collide into satellites that are


doing essential tasks such as mobile phone or communications or radio.


And one particularly dramatic space event added to Fylingdales'


workload. China is facing international criticism after using


a ballistic missile to destroy a satellite.


As well as underlining China's growing arms capabilities, it had a


catastrophic effect in space. The issue for the space using community


was that that satellite destruction caused over 2,000 pieces of debris,


most of which is still orbiting around today and that will be around


for quite a few years. Which is why manned spacecraft like the


International speciation relies on Fylingdales for its safety. —— space


station. For half a century, the role of Fylingdales has evolved to


serve the needs of a changing world. Since the end of the Cold War, the


threat of a missile attack could come from anywhere and the number of


objects in space is increasing daily. But the existence of this


military base continues to split opinion. Fylingdales will become


more and more important over the next 50 years. This is not the end


of the story, it is not a Cold War story, it is a global uncertainty


story. We should be looking much more for alternatives to violence,


building relationships with other states because it is such a worrying


world. Fylingdales offers so much to national defence and security. The


future of Fylingdales is secured. Space is getting busier and there


will be a requirement for this site for many years to come.


Now to some people, football is more than a game, it is a religion. It


has definitely taken over the life of photographer Stuart Roy Clarke


who has devoted 25 years to documenting the changing face of the


game. But not on the pitch, in the stands. Watching the highs and lows


of the fans. It is the most romantic thing I can


think of. I think going to football matches is up there with anything


else. Tonight, Wigan Athletic are fighting for Premiership survival


and Stuart Roy Clarke has, along for the roller—coaster ride.


stadium, even round the neighbourhood, several times. I like


to be the first there. I'd like to get all the tops of


their heads in the sunset. Hopefully when they're scoring a goal.


The club has been in the relegation fight before. Everyone is jumpy.


Ideal material for Stuart. There's a guy here who's going through all


sorts of emotions and tortures. His wife's sat next to him. A whole


series of expressions.. All of the other photographers at


the game are shooting the other way. I'd like to see Stuart here. Come


and sit here with this big lens. You get a sore bum after sitting down


this long. Must be some interesting characters up there. You have got to


be able to see the pictures and Stuart sees the pictures, he sees


the characters, the personalities. Usually he does the whole package in


one frame. My dad gave me a succession of


cameras, Polaroid ones. It came out the front, magically, so you could


show it to people. In that sense, photography is magic. Stuart started


from an early age, as a lad on the subs bench. Because I was on the


bench, I had a chance to look at the back of the manager, what is he up


to, there's some parents over there. They don't come very often. I love


the actual playing of the game. But all of that is of equal interest.


Stuart is back in of one of his favourite hunting grounds — Roker in


Sunderland where the old football ground was and where it all kicked


off for him. Over there, that broken glass, I was standing there and I


could see this flood of light. I had not really thought of photographing


it as a subject. And then I started thinking, do you know what...? But


that gave me the idea in a way. Stuart had found his subject. The


homes of football. And it was perfrect timing. The game was


changing fast. After the Hillsborough disaster stadiums were


modernised and the creation of the Premier League pumped millions into


football. I'm not just somebody who's a nostalgist. I love the new


stadiums. Not as much as I loved the old ones, but I like lots of things.


I like progress, I like change. As long as we do not lose what has gone


before. It is my job to catch it before it goes. This last 20 years


has been fascinating, and I've been a privileged position. I've got a


duty to hand over what I've seen. What he has recorded is a social


history through the eyes of fans. I always thought the ground was the


most constant, actually it is not, it is the fans. The baton is handed


from one set of fans to the next, be they friends, strangers, or the next


generation. Wonderful. Stewart is at Bradford


City and the fans are dreaming of promotion. We're off to the Kop, the


mighty Kop. The drama in the last 20 minutes of the game.


The fans went home disappointed, but it was a different picture in the


second leg when Bradford's dream season ended in promotion. Much of


Stuart's work is housed here at the national football museum in


Manchester. The planning began for his next exhibition earlier this


year. I've got a lot of stuff up my sleeve. I'm going to put 30 or 40


pictures out here in the atrium. They will be the first thing people


see and it's really exciting. This one could well feature at the


Museum, celebrating the amateur game. Decorator by day, Adam is


turning out for the other Sunderland team tonight in the Northern League.


I enjoy these games as much as the big ones. The big ones do have the


glamour. I love taking pictures at this level and then putting them


next to Manchester United. They are of equal importance. It has always


been one of the joys. Back in Wigan, the relegation fight


is into the last round. The girl jumping up and down.


Despite giving it everything, they lose. I am affected at the end of


it. I go home thinking about it. It means so much to people. It is not a


bereavement, there are worse things in life, but for now, they will be


pretty glum. But, for me, a lot of great photographs of people going


through all the emotions. Despite all the money in the game and its


not necessarily filtering down, I just find it an unbelievable


spectacle. I don't think I can tear myself away from it. I'll see you


next season. Look forward to it. That is all from us tonight. Join us


next week. We will be spending time at a busy accident and emergency


department and asking if GPs hold the key to helping chronically ill


patients lead healthier lives and stay out of hospital.


Toby Foster investigates the stories that matter in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. This week, we go to the East Coast to find out why the plastic bottles we throw away are threatening marine life. Also Nicola Rees goes behind the scenes at Fylingdales listening station in its 50th anniversary year and we meet the photographer who travels around the country's football grounds taking photographs of fans.

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