25/01/2012 Newsnight


25/01/2012

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Jeremy Paxman.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to 25/01/2012. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

Tonight we're in bigger economic trouble than was thought, there's a

0:00:010:00:04

good chance we are heading back into recession. The headlines are

0:00:040:00:11

grim, a contraction of the economy by 0.2%, and a much bigger fall in

0:00:110:00:13

manufacturing. We were told cut the state and the

0:00:130:00:16

private sector will do the rest. Is the Government in denial?

0:00:170:00:20

I will be asking the Chief Secretary to the Treasury if it

0:00:200:00:25

isn't time the Government abandoned Tory dogma about cutting things.

0:00:250:00:29

Six months to the opening of the Olympic Games, and an accusation

0:00:290:00:34

they have taken tainted money. One of the games' moral guardians son

0:00:340:00:36

the point of resignation, and is here to tell us why.

0:00:360:00:40

They are the people who make the Chinese economy function, but the

0:00:410:00:45

migrant workers are increasingly angry.

0:00:450:00:50

The pressure is getting up day by day.

0:00:500:01:00
0:01:000:01:00

So many riots and conflicts. Some day it is going to explode.

0:01:000:01:05

1234 And from the twin set to the leather skirt, has the Conservative

0:01:050:01:10

Party really become the home of feminism. We speak to Louise Mensch

0:01:100:01:19

and Laurie Penny. Disappointing but not unexpected

0:01:190:01:27

was the Government line on the latest figures on Britain's sickly

0:01:270:01:32

economic performance. Yet despite being predictable, this protracted

0:01:320:01:36

bout of anaemia, has nothing to do with Government policy, apparently.

0:01:360:01:40

It didn't wash with the opposition, who reached into the book of

0:01:400:01:48

parliamentary insults, and fished out, "self satisfied", "smug" and

0:01:480:01:53

complacent". Remember this, there were bright

0:01:530:02:00

lights, Carols and decorations as early as October. Beneath the glitz

0:02:000:02:10
0:02:100:02:10

Britain's economy was actually shrinking.

0:02:100:02:14

The evidence is now plain, in the fourth quarter of 2011, the economy

0:02:140:02:24
0:02:240:02:33

Now, George Osborne is the accused. He's accused of cutting too fast,

0:02:330:02:40

too far. Of making the recession worse. Of being in denial.

0:02:400:02:44

18 months ago George Osborne was a confident man, he told us, if he

0:02:440:02:49

cut public spending, growth should soar, he said the British economy

0:02:490:02:53

could export its way out of a crisis through manufacturing, and,

0:02:530:02:57

as employment switched from the public to the private sector, the

0:02:570:03:03

unemployment problem should go away. Today the confidence was less in

0:03:030:03:06

evidence. Britain has substantial economic problems and debts, built

0:03:060:03:10

up over the last ten years. We are dealing with those. But the truth

0:03:100:03:13

is, dealing with those problems is made more difficult by the

0:03:130:03:16

situation in the eurozone, and clearly what is happening at home

0:03:160:03:20

is also affected by what is happening abroad.

0:03:200:03:25

The IMF's in town tonight, calling quietly for some improvement. Mr

0:03:250:03:30

Osborne's critics, not so quietly. The problem is that you have to be

0:03:300:03:34

adaptable in the real world, economies move quickly, this is a

0:03:350:03:38

once in a hundred year event. So the economy is really struggling to

0:03:380:03:43

recover. It is now the longest lasting recession in 100 years, we

0:03:430:03:48

need to be adaptable. Osborne in the past, apparently, has been

0:03:480:03:51

quite adaptable, has been flexible, but now he as sticks there and

0:03:510:03:56

seems to be like a deer in the headlights. Doesn't know what to do

0:03:560:04:01

as the economy weakens, and simply is sticking with Plan A, come what

0:04:010:04:06

May. The case against George Osborne rests on this, how much of

0:04:060:04:10

the current stagnation is due to his policies on austerity and how

0:04:100:04:15

much due to the crisis in Europe. He said his policies would deliver

0:04:150:04:18

a steady and sustained economic recovery, with falling unemployment.

0:04:190:04:26

We have a shrinking economy and the highest unemployment in 18 years.

0:04:260:04:30

Mr Speaker, how bad do things have to get in our economy to shake him

0:04:300:04:35

out of his complacecy. As usual, he writes the question

0:04:350:04:41

before he listens to the answer. I didn't just say this is an issue of

0:04:410:04:46

the eurozone. It is an issue of debt and deficit, it is an issue of

0:04:460:04:49

squeezed household incomes, issues affecting many other economies.

0:04:490:04:53

employment figures increasingly tell a story of plan gone wrong.

0:04:530:04:57

They show a big pick-up in the number of jobs lost in the public

0:04:570:05:03

sector in the last nine months, and with more to come. For a while, in

0:05:030:05:07

2010, private sector job creation did outstrip losses in health,

0:05:070:05:11

education and the like, but the end of last year, it does look like

0:05:110:05:17

this dried up. Those were the defence brief for Mr Osborne say

0:05:170:05:21

the problem is strategic, and not primarily of his making. Very

0:05:210:05:26

little of any of the slowdown this year can be attributed to the

0:05:260:05:29

austerity programme. Most of it in the accounting sense can be

0:05:290:05:32

attributed to inflation being higher than expected and export

0:05:320:05:35

growth being weaker. The fundamental issue is that the

0:05:350:05:40

British economy sun able to grow very fast. If the economy isn't

0:05:410:05:44

actually contracting, then we get inflation going to 5% rapidly. That

0:05:440:05:49

has happened twice now in the past four years. George Osborne's

0:05:490:05:54

defence is simple, he had no choice, he had to cut, he had to raise

0:05:540:06:00

taxes. But the growth he expected by now has completely failed to

0:06:000:06:03

materialise. What his accusers are asking is this, what have you done

0:06:040:06:08

to promote it? The Government has not had a growth plan to this point.

0:06:080:06:13

It is very surprising, a Tory Chancellor has actually ruled out

0:06:130:06:19

tax cuts to firms, supsidies for investment, supsidies for job

0:06:190:06:27

hiring, -- subsidies for job hiring, we need to get firms hiring again.

0:06:270:06:32

We have heard talk-up for countries that weren't. That has scared

0:06:320:06:37

business investment away. Those who support George Osborne say the

0:06:380:06:41

unfinished task lies in the public sector. If George Osborne wants the

0:06:410:06:47

comittee to grow faster, -- economy to grow faster, he has to

0:06:470:06:52

concentrate on the public sector, private sector methods, the pursuit

0:06:520:06:55

of profits, greater competition. That is the area the Government has

0:06:550:07:03

been slow toobgt on so far. fact re-- Too slow on so far.

0:07:030:07:07

fact is the Government has been too to react. The bond market, silent

0:07:070:07:15

until now, is the bond market, that has been a harsh sentencer recently.

0:07:150:07:18

I spoke to the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Danny Alexander

0:07:180:07:22

earlier. How much of this disappointing

0:07:220:07:26

performance is attributable to Government policy? Of course there

0:07:260:07:35

are a number of factors involved in this, and the OBR set them out very

0:07:350:07:41

clearly in their economic forecast in November. They included a number

0:07:410:07:45

of figures in the growth forecast. They included the crisis in the

0:07:450:07:54

eurozone and the deeper impact of the economic crisis of 2008/09 than

0:07:540:07:58

previously estimated. Also the higher oil, commodity and food

0:07:580:08:02

prices feeding into inflation. The question for us is do we have the

0:08:020:08:05

right mix of policy to deal with the circumstances we face. I think

0:08:050:08:10

we do. My question is how much of this disappointing performance was

0:08:100:08:16

attributable to Government policies. I take it from what you say,

0:08:160:08:22

Government policies have no effect at all? We in Government are not

0:08:220:08:27

involved in forecasting issues now. That is why we have the Office for

0:08:270:08:29

Budget Responsibility. They have set out the balance of reasons they

0:08:290:08:34

have. I think the policy of the Government to maintain fiscal

0:08:340:08:37

credibility is making a positive contribution to the UK economy over

0:08:370:08:44

the medium term. I hear you say nothing about taking any of the

0:08:440:08:47

responsibility for this dismal performance. Are you seriously

0:08:470:08:51

claiming that the rebalancing that we were told was going to happen is

0:08:510:08:58

happening? Well there are certainly signs of it. If you heard Mervyn

0:08:580:09:03

King's speech yesterday, which I know you reported last night, part

0:09:030:09:07

of his argument was that the rebalancing is going on underneath

0:09:070:09:11

these figures. Isn't the truth of the matter, Mr Alexander, that you

0:09:110:09:17

are collaborating in a doctrine of Conservative experiment which is

0:09:170:09:21

not working? I don't agree with that at all. I don't agree that

0:09:210:09:25

financial discipline is ideolgical. I think it is something that is the

0:09:250:09:29

key to good financial p management of the country. If you look at what

0:09:290:09:33

has happened in other countries, going back to 2010, when we came

0:09:330:09:37

into office, had faller budget deficits than we had, but not taken

0:09:370:09:41

the decisions to control their own public finances, they are in great

0:09:410:09:46

deal worse position as a result. You inherited a quartly growth rate

0:09:460:09:50

of 1.1%. You have failed -- quarterly growth rate of.1%, you

0:09:500:09:55

have failed to match it in a single quarter since? We inherited a

0:09:550:09:59

position where our credit rating was on negative watch. We are

0:09:590:10:03

talking about growth rates? The two are closely related. If we were in

0:10:030:10:07

a position where our credit rating was downgraded and there was not a

0:10:070:10:12

policy, which there wasn't when we came into office, to deal with the

0:10:120:10:15

financial problems. The impact directly on the economy would have

0:10:150:10:18

caused a much more severe problem than the undoubted difficulties as

0:10:180:10:22

a country we are facing at the moment.

0:10:220:10:25

So there is no possibility whatsoever of you abandoning this

0:10:250:10:29

experiment, it will carry on? will stick to our plans on the

0:10:290:10:32

fiscal position in the economy, absolutely, dealing with the

0:10:320:10:35

deficit, dealing with the debt problems. Regardless of the damage

0:10:350:10:40

it is doing? I don't accept your argument on that. But what I was

0:10:400:10:43

going to go on and say is there are many other things as a Government

0:10:430:10:47

we can do to support the economy to help build prosperity in the future.

0:10:470:10:51

You are wedded to further cuts, the last time we spoke I asked you

0:10:510:10:56

whether you were going into the next election, promising yet more

0:10:560:11:01

deeper cuts. Your reply was, I am afraid so. Would you like to

0:11:010:11:04

withdraw or rephrase that now? I wouldn't like to withdraw or

0:11:040:11:09

rephrase that now. As a coalition Government, we have set out in the

0:11:090:11:13

Autumn Statement, plans, numbers for further spending reductions in

0:11:130:11:17

future years, we will have to fill out what those mean in due course.

0:11:170:11:20

Of course it will be for political parties in their manifestos to set

0:11:200:11:25

out whether they wish to make adjustments to those things.

0:11:250:11:30

whatever happens you are going to stick with this policy that you and

0:11:300:11:33

your friend George Osborne have cooked up? It is a policy that

0:11:330:11:37

across the coalition Government, we have worked on and developed and

0:11:380:11:41

are now delivering as a Government. I think that is the right thing for

0:11:420:11:49

the country. Given the degree of credibility, in terms of the bond

0:11:490:11:53

markets and the interest rates and the impact that has in the real

0:11:530:11:56

economy, very substantial. The idea some how stepping away from that

0:11:570:11:59

now, potentially causing interest rates to rise, would be completely

0:11:590:12:04

the wrong thing to do. For the avoidance of any possible doubt,

0:12:040:12:08

the Liberal Democrats are committed to these cuts which will happen

0:12:080:12:12

after the next election? We are committed to the spending plans

0:12:120:12:16

that we set out, we set out those spending plans in the Spending

0:12:160:12:19

Review, and then in the Autumn Statement. Clearly there will have

0:12:190:12:23

to be further work done in terms of what that means in detail. There

0:12:230:12:27

will then have to be further work, of course, for political parties to

0:12:270:12:33

put forward in their manifestos as to whether they want to make

0:12:330:12:36

changes to the manifestos. We are committed in Government, Liberal

0:12:360:12:39

Democrats and Conservatives, to the plans we set out in the Autumn

0:12:390:12:43

Statement, yes. As Chief Secretary to the Treasury, can you tell us

0:12:430:12:47

when the public debt will come below a trillion pounds? Not off

0:12:470:12:52

the top of my head, no. I can tell you that on the plans that we have

0:12:520:12:57

set out, as we will meet the goal we set, to have the level of public

0:12:580:13:04

debt falling as share of GDP by 2015. That is an important part of

0:13:040:13:07

our plan to restore the credibility of the public finances. A trillion

0:13:070:13:11

pounds is a lot of money. It is. You have no idea when we are going

0:13:110:13:18

to get below it? It is 64.5% of GDP. The debt is forecast on the OBR's

0:13:180:13:22

last forecast to peak in the high 70s of GDP and then start coming

0:13:220:13:27

down. Clearly when it comes back down to that level as a share of

0:13:270:13:31

GDP will depend on future policies and future spending reviews. I

0:13:310:13:35

certainly would agree with you, that getting our proportion of debt

0:13:350:13:39

down, over the medium term, will continue to have to be a priority

0:13:390:13:43

for future Governments, absolutely. You will be long retired, won't

0:13:430:13:47

you? Well, I have turned 40 this year, I hope you might give me a

0:13:470:13:52

wee bit of credit. Our economics editor, Paul Mason,

0:13:520:13:56

is still here. What's the prediction, it will get worse

0:13:560:13:59

before it gets better f it gets better? The danger is there is a

0:13:590:14:03

spiral. The last time we had a one quarter blip down, is it righted

0:14:030:14:07

itself. Tonight we are looking at one oil refinery and two steel

0:14:070:14:13

works, in danger of job losses, in administration, a whole shrew of

0:14:130:14:16

retail companies in retail administration over Christmas. The

0:14:160:14:19

way out of it, all sides of politics recognise that more could

0:14:190:14:23

be done on growth. But the problem s for the Government, if you add

0:14:230:14:30

the missing jigsaw piece to its current strategy, it is fiscally a

0:14:300:14:33

Conservative strategy, the missing -- conservative strategy, the

0:14:330:14:36

missing jigsaw piece is a big privatisation and marketisation of

0:14:360:14:42

the public services, and it is an assault on wage costs, on unit

0:14:420:14:46

labour costs on the economy. It is quite a Thatcherite thing. You saw

0:14:470:14:51

there Mr Alexander, from an essentially Keynsian party, Vincent

0:14:510:15:00

Cable a notable Keynsian, they have a different way. They -- They have

0:15:000:15:03

a speech tomorrow urging the Government to bring tax cuts. How

0:15:030:15:07

do you get to the growth bit is the Government's problem. The figures

0:15:070:15:11

on manufacturing were especially bad, are parts of the economy just

0:15:110:15:16

gone for good? Yes, we are beginning to realise how bad it is.

0:15:160:15:19

The economy just doesn't seem to be able to grow without creating

0:15:190:15:26

inflation, and chokes off economic growth. 20%, the official figure is

0:15:260:15:32

output is 4% lower than in 2008. On one calculation f you add that to

0:15:320:15:36

the decline in the value of sterling, then internationally you

0:15:360:15:42

could say the UK economy has shrunk by 20%. One of the problems is we

0:15:420:15:45

don't really know how to dig ourselves out of it, except by more

0:15:450:15:51

radical measures than the political system at the moment can deliver.

0:15:510:15:55

The London Olympic Games look about to be plunged into controversy.

0:15:550:16:01

Indian athletes are troubled by the organisers' decision to accept

0:16:010:16:04

sponsorship for part of the stadium from the Dow Chemical Company. The

0:16:040:16:11

deal is worth �7 million. But the critics say the company hasn't

0:16:110:16:16

behaved properly over compensation for the victims of the Bhopal

0:16:160:16:20

disaster. In a moment we will hear from an Olympic commissioner who is

0:16:200:16:27

on the point of resignation over this. First we report.

0:16:270:16:33

They call it a wrap, a kilometer- long plastic covering that will

0:16:330:16:37

adorn the Olympic stadium as a symbol of the world coming together.

0:16:370:16:40

It is proving to be devisive, the wrap will be paid for a chemical

0:16:400:16:45

giant with corporate ties to the worst industrial disaster in modern

0:16:450:16:50

times. In 1984, poison news gas leaked from tank at the Union

0:16:500:16:53

Carbide plant in Bhopal, central India, killing around 4,000 people

0:16:530:16:59

in the immediate aftermath, and thousands later. In 1989, the

0:16:590:17:06

Indian Supreme Court ordered union cash bite to pay $470 million in a

0:17:060:17:12

final settlement for the catastrophy. In 1999 union car bite

0:17:120:17:21

was bought by -- Union Carbite was bought out by Dow Chemical Company.

0:17:210:17:26

Protests have continued, and sometimes violently, and Dow's

0:17:260:17:32

sponsorship of the Olympic wrap has brought criticism. You can't buy a

0:17:320:17:35

company and then say everything the company has done in the past has

0:17:350:17:40

nothing to do with you. We are talking about a clean up that is

0:17:400:17:42

absolutely the responsibility of Dow Chemical Company. We are

0:17:420:17:46

talking about hundreds of thousands of people living with the

0:17:460:17:51

consequences of water that is contaminated, that their children

0:17:510:17:57

are drinking. Dow, whose chemicals are also used in the Olympic's

0:17:570:18:07
0:18:070:18:16

The International Olympic Committee has a clean stadia policy. That

0:18:160:18:20

basically means within the confines of each event, there can be no

0:18:200:18:26

overt branding or sponsorship. That begs the question, why would the

0:18:260:18:31

chemical company, Dow, spend �7 million on a branding that no-one

0:18:310:18:35

can see. The experts say it is money well

0:18:350:18:39

spent in showing that it is an ethical company, not bound by its

0:18:390:18:43

connection to the Bhopal tragedy. The parallel perhaps to understand

0:18:430:18:48

the situation they are in is almost when the British Government, under

0:18:480:18:52

Tony Blair, apologised for things that happened in the Colonial past

0:18:520:18:56

that had nothing to do with him or his Government. But they need to

0:18:560:19:01

find some way to draw a line under the affair.

0:19:010:19:07

Then there is the potential damage to London 2012's own image. After

0:19:070:19:14

spending almost �10 billion on a seven-week sporting jam bourry,

0:19:140:19:18

Olympic big wigs and a myriad of backers, won't want sportsmanship

0:19:180:19:22

to be lts legacy the organisers of 2012 say they are satisfied that

0:19:220:19:26

Dow Chemical Company were neither the owners or operators at the time

0:19:260:19:33

of the chemical leek in 1984 in Bhopal, and any lingering issues

0:19:330:19:36

are not related to Dow Chemical Company, which are sponsoring the

0:19:360:19:41

wrap around the stadium. With six months to go before the wrap is

0:19:410:19:44

unfurled, the public may have a different view on whether it should

0:19:440:19:49

have been sponsored by someone else. We're joined now by Meredith

0:19:490:19:53

Alexander, a commissioner for sustainability for the London

0:19:530:19:58

Olympics. What possible harm can it do for Dow to sponsor the Olympics?

0:19:580:20:04

When I first started looking at the issue I was given information by

0:20:040:20:07

Amnesty International, that has convinced me that Dow Chemical

0:20:070:20:10

Company bears the responsibility for the death of 20,000 people in

0:20:100:20:20
0:20:200:20:22

the aftermath. 20,000 people, Dow Chemical Company, they didn't even

0:20:220:20:31

own union -- Union Carbide at the time. There was a full and final

0:20:310:20:34

settlement agreed by the highest court in the land? That is the

0:20:350:20:38

truth they like to present. There are on going court cases in India

0:20:380:20:41

and the United States. The Government in India itself has

0:20:410:20:46

asked to have the settlement undone. More importantly, the victims and

0:20:460:20:50

the families of the people who died have also demanded that justice be

0:20:500:20:54

done. The company, Dow Chemical Company, emphatically denies that

0:20:540:21:00

it has any liability, and that it has behaved entirely properly and

0:21:000:21:06

the thing is settled. If they were to give in to this pressure, what's

0:21:060:21:11

to say there wouldn't be another lot of claims in another ten years

0:21:110:21:15

or twenty years time? It is simple, when they bought the company, they

0:21:150:21:21

bought the liability. In Bhopal's case, it is a toxic legacy. What

0:21:210:21:26

needs to happen is there needs to be true justice. From the moment

0:21:260:21:30

that final settlement, called, started, the victims came out very

0:21:300:21:33

strongly to say they had not been involved and they had not been

0:21:330:21:37

consulted. If you look at the court documentation, it is very clearly

0:21:370:21:42

that the numbers of victims that were expected to be compensated

0:21:420:21:47

under that settlement, they are almost no relationship to the true

0:21:470:21:50

number of victims to the tragedy. How strongly do you feel about

0:21:500:21:55

this? Very strongly. What are you doing about it? I'm choosing to do

0:21:550:22:00

is, I'm member of the Commission for Sustainable London 2012. It is

0:22:000:22:04

a body that has been asked to look at the sustainability and ethics of

0:22:040:22:09

the 2012 games. By coming on here tonight talking to you about this,

0:22:090:22:13

I have taken the decision to resign from that commission to stand up

0:22:130:22:20

for my principles. You are resigning as of now, 10.58.

0:22:200:22:25

afraid so, yes. What effect will that have? It allows me to stand up

0:22:250:22:35
0:22:350:22:36

for my principles. I feel the body I'm part of has to look at the

0:22:360:22:40

claims. It will bring attention to the victims' side of the story. In

0:22:400:22:43

so many cases you hear from the company, they have an army of PR

0:22:430:22:47

people to put their side of the story forward. The victims, the

0:22:470:22:50

people who have really experienced this tragedy, and the families of

0:22:500:22:53

the people who died in this tragedy, they are not the ones people listen

0:22:530:22:57

to. There are how many of you commissioners? About a dozen of us.

0:22:570:23:01

And are any others going to resign? I know people are very concerned

0:23:010:23:05

about this issue. What they will chose to do, I couldn't tell you.

0:23:050:23:09

For me personally, it was an incredibly difficult decision to

0:23:090:23:12

take. It doesn't sound terribly difficult? It was, I have to say I

0:23:120:23:16

think the commission has done some amazing work. It is really doing

0:23:160:23:19

everything it can on most issues to make the games sustainable. I just

0:23:190:23:28

think it got it wrong this time. Unfortunately this is an iconic

0:23:280:23:32

case. This is one of the worst abuses of human rights in my

0:23:320:23:34

generation. I couldn't sit by and let it stand as it was.

0:23:340:23:38

Thank you very much. In a few minutes we will discuss

0:23:380:23:42

whether you can be a feminist and a Tory with the MP Louise Mensch and

0:23:420:23:46

with Laurie Penny. First we have the third of our films marking the

0:23:460:23:50

start of the Chinese new year. The grey cloud hanging over Europe is a

0:23:500:23:55

very long way from China, of course, except in so far as the economic

0:23:550:23:58

crisis means there is less demand for the things China makes. The

0:23:580:24:02

economy there is kept afloat by a massive cheap work force who

0:24:020:24:09

migrate from the countryside to the city in search of better pay and a

0:24:090:24:15

better life. These migrant workers work and live under a system that

0:24:150:24:21

is against them. We have travelled to a city where social tensions are

0:24:210:24:31
0:24:310:24:47

China's wealth is not built on oil or gold, it is built on cheap

0:24:470:24:52

labour. Workers who are denied the same rights as the city dwellers

0:24:520:24:57

they live alongside. But this other China is now coming out of the

0:24:570:25:05

shadows. This is a story about the frustration about a class long

0:25:050:25:11

considered separate and invisible to the rest of China. About rising

0:25:110:25:14

tension between local and migrant workers, which threatens the

0:25:140:25:21

stability of Chinese society itself. The pressure is getting up day by

0:25:210:25:31
0:25:310:25:34

day. So many riots and conflicts. Some days it is going to explode.

0:25:340:25:43

This is the province of Guangzhou in southern China. Progressive and

0:25:430:25:47

capitalist, population, 100 million, two-thirds locals, one third

0:25:470:25:54

migrants. Tension is rising.

0:25:540:25:57

TRANSLATION: We have a very tiny share of the wealth, our lives have

0:25:580:26:01

not improved that much. Wages are low, inflation is high. Migrant

0:26:010:26:08

workers are scraping a living, we're only just getting by. There

0:26:080:26:12

has been a wave of strikes and protests here. A clandsetine

0:26:120:26:18

meeting at the back of a restaurant. These workers forced an 11-day

0:26:180:26:21

shutdown over conditions at a local watch factory. TRANSLATION:

0:26:210:26:25

hours are long, the work is hard, there is a lot of pressure on us,

0:26:250:26:29

there is no outlook for our unhappiness. People have felt

0:26:290:26:39
0:26:390:26:42

oppressed for a long time. The pressure is building up.

0:26:420:26:47

Entertainment at the factory gates. Managers believe dancing will keep

0:26:470:26:50

the workers happy. There are thousands of protests every year

0:26:500:26:54

from the migrant workers and the pressure doesn't end when the shift

0:26:540:26:58

is over. These migrants face the risk of meeting protection squads,

0:26:580:27:02

hired by locals to keep order. They live under the shadow of violence

0:27:020:27:11

In this advice centre I met a doorman who used to sell fruit at a

0:27:110:27:16

market. He told me what happened when a fellow stall holder refused

0:27:160:27:19

to pay protection money. TRANSLATION: Suddenly four locals

0:27:190:27:24

showed up on motorbikes, they had been drinking. They attacked him

0:27:240:27:27

and beat him with sticks, it lasted for two hours, eventhough the

0:27:270:27:32

police station was just around the corner. When the police finally did

0:27:320:27:37

come he was all swollen, his face was purple and green. Migrant

0:27:380:27:45

workers are vulnerable because they don't have what is known as a huko.

0:27:450:27:50

Huko is your residency permit in China, it guarantees legal rights

0:27:500:27:54

as well as access to schools, hospitals and welfare. But only in

0:27:540:28:03

your home town or village. It was designed under Chairman Mao, to

0:28:030:28:07

stop people from moving. But in the last few decades hundreds of

0:28:070:28:12

millions of people have moved to find work. And now they live in

0:28:120:28:22
0:28:220:28:26

limbo. This is what not having a local huko means. Education is

0:28:260:28:33

largely free to locals, but migrants must pay. Almost a year's

0:28:330:28:37

salary to put your child through Primary School. A third of these

0:28:370:28:47
0:28:470:28:48

children are from migrant families, this child's parents are migrants,

0:28:480:28:54

the school has waved his fees because his -- waived his fees

0:28:540:28:58

because his family faces other problems. He's a very good student,

0:28:580:29:04

every morning he reads English at home for one hour. What happened to

0:29:050:29:11

his mother? His mother got sick, and every month she would go back

0:29:110:29:18

to the hospital to see the doctor, and they should pay a lot of money

0:29:180:29:28
0:29:280:29:30

to see the doctor. So their life is very difficult. His parents earn

0:29:300:29:36

�60 a week. Just enough to get by on until his mother found a lump in

0:29:360:29:41

her breast. Doctors told her she had cancer. But she needed a

0:29:410:29:46

mastectomy, but without a local huko she would have to pay for it

0:29:460:29:54

herself. The family has gone deep into debt. TRANSLATION: I have been

0:29:540:30:00

crying since the moment I found out. I lost a breast. I no longer feel

0:30:000:30:10
0:30:100:30:16

like a woman. Our fate is a bitter one. TRANSLATION: -- Factories are

0:30:160:30:20

supposed to provide medical care for those without a huko, her's

0:30:200:30:25

made a contribution, and then docked her wages and tried to sack

0:30:250:30:29

her. TRANSLATION: The factory tried to make me resign, I said I can't

0:30:290:30:34

afford to leave, I have contributed to the insurance, and now I'm ill

0:30:340:30:39

and need the money they want me to go. Caught between the gaps in

0:30:390:30:44

China's system, turned away because she's not an official residence.

0:30:440:30:50

Just because you are a non-huko holder and I don't see a medical

0:30:500:30:53

insurance report, I'm sorry you have to go to another hospital.

0:30:530:30:56

Seriously sick people are turned away from hospital because they

0:30:560:31:06
0:31:060:31:08

don't have this permit? Yes. This woman runs a workers' health line,

0:31:080:31:17

every day the staff hear hundreds of calls. Migrants are increasingly

0:31:170:31:22

vocal about the discrimination they face. Resentment is growing. It is

0:31:220:31:27

getting more serious. According to the records there are so many roidz

0:31:270:31:33

and conflicts, and even strike -- riots and conflicts and strikes. As

0:31:330:31:37

they are migrants they are not accepted as a local huko holder.

0:31:370:31:47
0:31:470:31:48

This is what can happen when anger explodes, the town of Zunchung in

0:31:480:31:53

June. It began with a rumour that a pregnant woman had been assaulted

0:31:530:31:57

by local protection squads, it descended into a riot. The chaos

0:31:570:32:02

lasted for three days, cars flipped over, buildings torched. Government

0:32:020:32:08

offices ransacked. Disharmony and instability, the

0:32:080:32:18
0:32:180:32:20

thing which China's leaders fear most. For many years it didn't

0:32:200:32:23

matter that millions of migrants didn't have proper access to

0:32:240:32:27

hospitals and schools. Because everyone was on the make. But the

0:32:270:32:32

long boom is over, life in China's getting harder, food prices are

0:32:320:32:36

rising, job opportunities are shrinking, and public services are

0:32:360:32:41

under intense pressure. Suddenly, a large population of restive

0:32:410:32:48

unregistered migrants looks like a problem for China's leadership.

0:32:480:32:53

There is new talk of equality. The communist party admits the problem

0:32:530:32:59

is serious. It wants to be seen as responding to migrants' concerns.

0:32:590:33:02

TRANSLATION: Migrant workers live and work in this city, we must

0:33:020:33:06

provide them with basic rights and benefits. If they can't educate

0:33:060:33:09

their children or find decent housing they will be dissatisfied

0:33:090:33:15

with the Government. If we don't reform huko, we could see more

0:33:150:33:20

instability. The Government's language is changing. Migrants can

0:33:200:33:24

now apply for the same rights as city residents under a points-based

0:33:240:33:34
0:33:340:33:35

system, based on education and skills. There is a need it keep

0:33:350:33:38

garment factories like this open and keep the workers coming here.

0:33:380:33:43

So far few permits have been issued. Last year 3,000 permits from a

0:33:430:33:48

population of millions. A drop in the ocean.

0:33:480:33:53

If you recognise the problem, why don't you just do away with this

0:33:530:33:56

distinction, why don't you treat all the residents of the city the

0:33:560:34:05

same now? TRANSLATION: We can't abolish huko overright, our policy

0:34:050:34:09

does, however, create a clear path for migrant workers to obtain the

0:34:090:34:14

same benefits and services as local residents. But there is a huge cost

0:34:140:34:18

associated with that. That is why we are introducing the points

0:34:180:34:26

system gradually. The Government fears unrest, but it is equally

0:34:260:34:32

scared of the huge cost of absorbing migrants, of public

0:34:320:34:36

services swamped, of city dwellers in revolt. But this new generation

0:34:360:34:41

of workers may not wait much longer. Internet cafes are where many young

0:34:410:34:45

Chinese migrant workers spend their one day off a week. Aspirational,

0:34:450:34:50

aware, on-line. This generation of Chinese migrant workers matters,

0:34:500:34:53

because they are so very different from their parents. They live their

0:34:530:34:59

lives on-line. They are part of a much bigger world. Compared to the

0:34:590:35:04

last two generations, there they have a more open-minded mind set,

0:35:050:35:14

also they have a better channel to express themselves. That leads to a

0:35:140:35:19

consequence that the tension is getting more and more serious. The

0:35:190:35:29
0:35:290:35:36

Government knows that. The huko system was designed for a very

0:35:360:35:40

different China, to stop rural poor overwhelming the cities.

0:35:400:35:47

For years it prevented chaos. Now it could be fuelling disorder. But

0:35:470:35:57
0:35:570:35:58

the migrants are here to stay. There was once a slogan on an

0:35:580:36:02

Australian door that went viral in the days before anything could go

0:36:020:36:06

viral, "a woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle". In the years

0:36:060:36:10

since its invention, feminism, we are told, has become an integral

0:36:100:36:16

part of our politics, a belief that gender equality is indispensable to

0:36:160:36:21

electability, since half the population don't carry the Y

0:36:210:36:24

chromosome, the left and the Labour Party have made a point of

0:36:240:36:32

associating left politics with feminism. Can you be a feminist and

0:36:320:36:36

a cfrb? I'm a strong Conservative myself

0:36:360:36:41

and always have been. Time was you knew a Tory woman when

0:36:410:36:46

you saw one. Buttoned up, respectable, knowing her place.

0:36:460:36:50

Even the woman who became the party's first female leader played

0:36:500:36:55

the game. There is still a little bit sticking up, you can see it in

0:36:550:36:58

the reflection. But once she had stormed Downing Street, there was

0:36:580:37:02

something else on display, the mouth of Marilyn Monroe, said the

0:37:020:37:09

President of France, and the eyes of Calig ula, a steely

0:37:090:37:18

determination, draped in a twinset. The lady's not for turning.

0:37:180:37:24

Robert Widders had to quit politics before she could -- Anne wid comb

0:37:240:37:31

had to quit politics -- Widdicombe had to quit politics before showing

0:37:310:37:35

her feminist side. Some other stories play by different rules,

0:37:350:37:40

this is the MP for Corby, Louise Mensch. Her latest announcement is

0:37:400:37:43

that Conservative women have brought feminism out of the ghetto.

0:37:430:37:46

Oh yes. Louise Mensch is here now, along

0:37:460:37:51

with Laurie Penny, from the left- leaning New Statesman magazine. Do

0:37:510:37:55

you think you can be a feminist and right-wing? Of course you can be a

0:37:550:37:59

feminist and right-wing. There is a long history of reactionry right-

0:37:590:38:03

wing politicians using feminism, blowing the horn of feminism to

0:38:030:38:10

support their plilgts. Folks some of the early Suffragettes co-ofpted

0:38:100:38:15

by the fascist movement. -- co- opted by the fascist movement. I'm

0:38:150:38:20

not calling you a fascist, but it doesn't mean facisim was good for

0:38:200:38:25

women. There are lots of different types of feminism, but some of them

0:38:250:38:31

are wrong. That is an interesting way to put it. It is right to talk

0:38:310:38:36

about the Suffragettes, we didn't see Mrs Pankhurst in that. The

0:38:360:38:40

Conservatives first gave the vote to women, the Conservatives Women's

0:38:400:38:44

Organisation was the first political organisation for women in

0:38:440:38:48

the world. Just to forestall the letters, it was the first female MP

0:38:480:38:52

who took her seat was a Conservative. Accuracy is very

0:38:520:38:58

important, indeed Nancy Astor and David Cameron named his daughter

0:38:580:39:03

after her. I have great respect for Laurie is a key voice for the left,

0:39:030:39:07

aged only 25, I don't think there is a wrong kind of feminism, there

0:39:070:39:10

are different types of feminism. I always believe in politics you want

0:39:100:39:14

to get to the same goal and the left and right have different

0:39:140:39:17

methods of getting there. This article that sparked this thought,

0:39:170:39:22

that you wrote for the Guardian. You used this phrase about taking

0:39:220:39:28

feminism out of the ghetto. What do you mean? That was a sub-heading. I

0:39:280:39:31

said there is a ghetto of the impact equalties assessment, by

0:39:310:39:35

which I meant, of course, that Tory feminism looks at women as a

0:39:350:39:39

holistic thing, you don't just look at called women's issues. You say

0:39:390:39:43

raising the personal allowance takes 1.1 million out of tax all

0:39:430:39:46

together, most of those are women. You are looking at policies that

0:39:460:39:50

affect women as a whole, you don't just look at issues that the press

0:39:500:39:53

would like to label as called women's issues. Women's politics is

0:39:530:40:00

bigger than that. And Tory feminism I believe is an holistic feminism

0:40:000:40:04

and Laurie Penny might have a different view. You can talk about

0:40:040:40:07

holistic feminism all you like, Louise, but when you have policies

0:40:070:40:14

that will put more women out of work than at any time since records

0:40:140:40:19

began. And threatening a woman's right to choose, I can't see a

0:40:190:40:23

feminism that is useful for women. It maybe feminism, but not one that

0:40:240:40:27

will positively affect women's lives. Feminism isn't just about

0:40:270:40:31

winning women's votes, which is what most politicians use and

0:40:310:40:35

brandish the term around really want, feminism is about improving

0:40:350:40:38

women's lives. There is nothing inherently wrong in want to go win

0:40:380:40:41

votes, that is how you win elections and that is how you get

0:40:410:40:47

things done in politics. It is not an accesssory you put on and win

0:40:470:40:52

votes and make people pay attention to you. Winning votes is important,

0:40:520:40:57

every politician is pitching to get support. To take a lead with women

0:40:570:41:00

even in incredibly important times, it shows the policies have a wider

0:41:000:41:04

appeal to women, and women must feel, by wider definition, these

0:41:040:41:07

policies are directly beneficial to their lives. I think it is

0:41:080:41:11

important that feminists of the right and left come together to

0:41:110:41:14

challenge things and make common cause. Something I would like to

0:41:140:41:18

put you on the spot about is the lack of women on the Today

0:41:180:41:24

programme. I have nothing to d with the programme? You represent the

0:41:240:41:28

BBC. I am a hired hand? We were talking in the dressing room, and

0:41:280:41:33

the Guardian has a plan to challenge the BBC on their lack of

0:41:330:41:37

female representation. We have nothing but women on tonight,

0:41:370:41:43

except from Danny Alexander, the beleaguered man. I think there is

0:41:430:41:47

case to answer for the BBC. back to the point? That the woman

0:41:480:41:52

should know her place. We are talking about representation.

0:41:520:41:56

Absolutely, the point of feminism is that there is no gender

0:41:560:42:01

discrimination, but there is one issue in particular, on which there

0:42:010:42:05

clearly is a female perspective, that is the question of

0:42:050:42:09

reproductive rights, abortion, the right to choose, the right to life.

0:42:090:42:13

Can you be a feminist and believe in the right to life? I think it is

0:42:130:42:17

probably where we differ. I don't think you can be a feminist and

0:42:170:42:21

oppose a woman's right to choose safe, legal abortion, what you are

0:42:210:42:25

effectively saying, if you attack a woman's right to choose is that you

0:42:250:42:28

are prepared to force a woman to undergo pregnancy against her will.

0:42:280:42:32

That is the bottom line, it is the bottom line of quite a lot of

0:42:320:42:37

feminism. I would put it to Louise if she really believes in women's

0:42:370:42:42

rights f she really believes that women are important as human beings

0:42:420:42:46

in a holistic feminism, surely you will oppose this Government's, and

0:42:460:42:49

members of the party in Government's efforts to attack

0:42:490:42:53

women's rights to choose. Will you oppose that when it next comes on

0:42:530:42:57

the bill. There is no take on the women's rights to choose in America.

0:42:570:43:01

Unlike in America where it is a litmus test for politics, we have

0:43:010:43:06

the free vote system in this country and well defended. You have

0:43:060:43:10

taken a position on abortion counselling? Yes, my position is it

0:43:100:43:15

ought to be widened. I have not in any sense tried to restrict

0:43:150:43:18

abortion providers to provide counselling, I respect the work

0:43:180:43:24

they do serving women. I have good faith and full credit if they wish

0:43:240:43:27

to continue providing counselling they could. I want the service

0:43:270:43:31

widening so women have access to counselling from a wide variety of

0:43:310:43:36

providers. I don't wish to limit any of the work abortion

0:43:360:43:41

counsellors does. I recognise as a good pragmatist and a Tory that

0:43:410:43:44

this is a pro-choice country. There is no concerted attack on the right

0:43:440:43:48

to choose. Most Tories I know are pro-choice, the vast majority of

0:43:480:43:52

women in the Conservative Party are pro-choice, the Conservative

0:43:520:44:01

Women's Association is pro-choice. Nadine Dorrie isn't? She would

0:44:010:44:06

describe herself as pro-choice in parts, but I don't share her views.

0:44:070:44:10

The upcoming debates will be an take on the legal time limit on

0:44:100:44:13

abortion, which is another way of restricting women's access to

0:44:130:44:18

abortion services, I would ask again, will you be opposing those

0:44:180:44:23

measures in parliament. If there was debate on the time limit I will

0:44:230:44:27

vote as the Prime Minister did, for a modest reduction in the limit

0:44:270:44:31

which many men and women of all parties will vote for. I want to

0:44:310:44:34

ask you one thing, in this article you refer to David Cameron as the

0:44:340:44:37

most feminist leader the Conservative Party has ever had?

0:44:370:44:42

doubt at all. More than Mrs Thatcher? More than Mrs Thatcher.

0:44:420:44:45

I'm sitting here because he did something about the lack of women's

0:44:450:44:49

representation, as there is on the BBC, where are the older news

0:44:490:44:52

readers, you don't like to hear it but it is true. You say what you

0:44:520:44:59

like, direct it to the right people. This is the BBC. Tomorrow morning

0:44:590:45:09
0:45:090:45:19

One. Brightest ballet stars in Britain has suddenly quit the Royal

0:45:190:45:24

Ballet. His motives seem a bit of a mystery, he's clearly a brilliant

0:45:240:45:34
0:45:340:46:13

A cooler feel to our weather tomorrow. It will be a wet start

0:46:130:46:17

across eastern counties of England. That rain soon scoots away, the

0:46:170:46:22

skies will brighten. Sunshine but also showers. With the colder air

0:46:220:46:26

those showers will have a wintry flavour. Snow over the Pennines,

0:46:260:46:31

low levels of northern England, a little snow can't be ruled out.

0:46:310:46:35

Hail across the East Midlands, for many a fine afternoon with sunshine

0:46:350:46:38

coming through. Sunny spells and showers across South-West England,

0:46:380:46:41

again up over the moors, there could be a little bit of snow, the

0:46:410:46:45

same for Wales over the hills and mountains, some snow is possible at

0:46:460:46:50

low levels. We are more likely to encounter hail and showers. For

0:46:500:46:55

Northern Ireland wintry showers in the morning. It could also be icey.

0:46:550:46:59

Ice is also a risk across Scotland first thing in the morning. It

0:46:590:47:02

could be some snow showers through the Glasgow area particularly in

0:47:020:47:05

the middle part of the day. That is something to keep an eye on. Friday

0:47:050:47:10

promise as mix of sunshine and showers, subtle differences, not as

0:47:100:47:14

many showers in Scotland. A better chance of sunshine here. A wet day

0:47:140:47:19

in Manchester. For the south, Friday promises sun and wintry

0:47:190:47:21

showers, temperatures back to normal.

0:47:210:47:27

Download Subtitles

SRT

ASS