06/02/2013 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Emily Maitlis.

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Tonight, failings at every level of the NHS in England. Hundreds of


patients died needlessly at Stafford Hospital, now accusations


of corporate self-interest being put above patient care. There were


incidents of callous treatment by ward staff. Patients who could not


eat or drink without help could not receive it. Medicines were


prescribeed but not given. Government is here to explain why


no-one has lost their job. There are 290 recommendations for change.


We ask our panel if they think the worst has passed. Also tonight, how


the self-employed are driving up the job market.


If I decide I want to work hard, I can work hard and earn a bit more.


If I don't want to work, I earn less.


Is the microchip going to solve the issue of stray dogs?


Also tonight, what is going on in out irspace, we shed light on dark


-- outer space, we shed light on dark matter, with some ball


bearings. It seems everyone today has said


sorry, and no-one has lost their job. The blunt words of the chief


campaigner, as the public inquiry into the hundreds of unnecessary


deaths at Stafford Hospital found failings every level of the NHS in


England. The testimonies from the patients and families are harrowing.


One man begging his life not to go as he was left to dive blood


poisoning alone. A young boy after a bike accident, failed to have his


ruptured spleen recognised. Patients so dehydrated they were


drinking from bedside flower vases.S the Trust halves accused of


self- interest, the Prime Minister apologised and promised


improvements in care. There are 290 recommendations in


the inquiry, what happens now? For the families who lost loved


ones, and whose persistent warnings were ignored, this morning brought


recognition. With the findings of the full public inquiry into their


experiences. Why the NHS took so long to react. What needs to change


to make sure nothing like this ever happens again. So the inquiry has


just reported its findings. A story, it says, of terrible and


unnecessary suffering for hundreds of people. Failed by a system that


ignored the warning signs and put corporate self-interest and cost


control ahead of patients and their safety. Robert Francis wants a


comprehensive change of culture across the NHS to put the patient


at the heart of everything. Something the families wanted, a


statutory duty of candour. What that means is that everyone must


tell the truth to patients, regardless of the consequences for


themselves. The inquiry chairman, Robert


Francis, said the last thing required is more radical


reorganisation. But produced nearly 300 detailed recommendations, that


he says, will put patients ahead of everything else. Every single


person, and organisation within the NHS, and not only those whose


actions are described in this report, needs to reflect, from


today, on what needs to be done differently in future. He said five


key things are now needed, fundamental standards on patient


care, with enforcement. The report talk about a new criminal offence


if these are breached. Openness and honesty throughout the system, with


legal standing. Support for compassionate nursing, including


training. Better leadership, focused on patients. Accurate,


relevant data to make sure standards of care are being met.


The Prime Minister apologised to the families involved, on behalf of


the Government and the country. He said too many doctors kept their


heads down, and regulators have difficult questions to answer.


The inquiry finds that the appalling suffering at the Mid-


Staffordshire Hospital was primarily caused by a serious


failure on behalf of the Trust Board, which failed to listen to


patients and staff, and failed to tackle what Robert Francis calls an


"insidious negative culture, involving a tolerance of poor


standards and a disengagment from managerial and leadership


responsibilities". David Cameron's just reacted to the report in


parliament, he said's going to respond to the 290 recommendations


next month. But for today, he's going to introduce penalties for


people who run hospitals, if they fail in their standard of care, not


just financially. He's going to implement surveys of friends and


families and publish those. He's going to bring in a new Ofsted-


style inspection regime, with a new Chief Inspector of hospitals.


The families welcome much of this, but some want accountability. Gerry


Robinson lost his 20-year-old -- Frank Robinson lost his 20-year-old


son John after a ruptured spleen, after being sent home from the


hospital with bruised ribs. He wants the chief executive of the


NHS in England to resign. Had Sir David Nicholson done his job at the


Stafford Hospital, who were Monday torg staff at the time of --


monitoring staff at the time of our son's death. How can he have a lot


to offer the NHS, he has a lot to answer for. Sir David was head of


two strategic health authorities from 2005-2006, now he has take up


a role to head up the NHS in England and Wales. He has already


apologised to the families over what happened. I understand the


upset that they feel over the treatment of their families in the


hospital. I apologise, and I apologise again for what happened.


Apologies are not enough, we need action and to make things happen.


asked Robert Francis to explain why he had decided individuals should


not be blamed. What we have here is a serious failure of a whole system,


because of an institutional culture, which put corporate self-interest


and financial control, ahead of patients and their safety. Everyone


in the NHS, whether they are mentioned in this report, or


whether they are not, should read it and reflect on the lessons to be


learned from it. Unless that happens, we may well see all this


happening again. We must have that happening. Finding a scapegoat, and


saying that's the solution, will fool people, but it won't change


what needs to be done. Some in the medical profession have


suggested that the Labour Government's focus on targets had


shifted attention away from patient care. But Alan Johnson, Health


Secretary from mid-2007 to mid-2009, said targets had brought vital


changes. Francis makes it very clear, in a very eloquent passage,


that there is a place for targets, properly formulated targets,


properly monitored. When we came into Government in 1997, you have


to remember one in every 25 patients on a cardiac waiting list


were dying before being operated on. People waited years for a simple


cataract operation. It was a terrible situation. The best the


previous Government could do is you won't wait any longer than 18


months. We set out, and this was killing people, long waiting lists


was bad clinical care. The introduction of targets to get them


down in this vast organisation with 1.3 million people working in it,


was thriel a contribute to patient care. It was high er -- higher than


expected mortality figures that was the early warning sign at the


Stafford Hospital, it took years to work out the problems there. The


NHS says it is looking at mortality statistics at five more trusts.


These are the five trusts. In response to our inquiries today


Colchester said its organisations are working together to understand


the root causes that contribute to unexpected deaths, and are not


complacent. East Laing Sir told us they take it very seriously and


welcome the -- east Lancashire told us they take it very seriously and


welcome the investigation. The families are awaiting the


Government's full response from Government.


The Health Minister, Norman Lamb, joined me here before we came on


air, I asked him how he answered always from campaigners for people


to lose their jobs over the scandal? First of all, I should pay


tribute to Julie Bailey and her colleagues. Without them this would


probably have never come to light. They are absolutely right, in a


sense, to say that people must be held to account when things go


wrong. But, the difficulty we have is, that the Francis report makes


very clear it was a system -- Francis Report, makes it very clear


it was a system failure. Everything was focused on, on targets and


finances, and people losing sight of the quality of care that is


actually what hospitals should be all about. Surely with hundreds of


people losing their lives within the NHS, is it so wrong to ask for


real accountability? Not at all. I absolutely agree with them. That


there must be accountability. I come back to this point. It was a


system failure. But there were individuals behind the system?


and the Francis Report did bear in mind and identified the board of


the hospital at that time of having the prime responsibility for that.


It is very easy to identify a scapegoat and say, get rid of that


person, and everything is OK. not about identifying a scapegoat,


it is about identifying the people who were responsible, and saying


they should not be in charge any more? I come back to the point that


Francis says that the prime responsibility was on the board.


You said in 2009, "as things stand, those clinicians that participated


in the care that is so heavily criticise, are presumably


continuing to work in the NHS. Should we not be concerned about


that?", are you no longer concerned about that? I'm absolutely


concerned about that. So they shouldn't be working in the NHS any


more? The Secretary of State has today written to both the GMC, and


the nursing and midwifery council, to ask them what they are doing to


improve their processes. Absolutely, clinicians who have failed, whose


performance has fallen below the standards that are acceptable, have


to be held to account. If there have been failings in the past, we


have to address those, and Francis makes this point very clearly in


his report, that in the future, people, both clinicians and also


managers, have to be held to account. Isn't it extraordinary


that you have put a recommendation in writing of being candid about


your mistakes. Isn't that an extraordinary thing to have to do


within the NHS? It is. Look, the whole culture has to change. There


is this sense that awful things have happened in Staffordshire


hospital, but also there have been failings elsewhere. There is a


sense of complacency which the Prime Minister talked about in his


statement today, and that absolutely has to change. We know


that there are another five NHS Trusts under investigation. If you


had relatives going into a hospital in Basildon, or in Colchester, or


in Blackpool, how would you feel about that, knowing that their


mortality rates were being investigated as we speak? Isn't it


right that where we identify that there may be concerns on that, that


we investigate it. What should they be doing? If you have a relative,


going into one of these hospitals, what would you be thinking?


Absolutely, but let's also remember, my own family has had, in very


recent times, fantastic care from the NHS. We have the most


remarkable work force, in most cases, doing brilliant work. Where


the standards fall below what is acceptable, there must be


consequences to that. That is why we are focusing. This is the third


inquiry in Stafford, and what you cannot say with any certainty is it


is not still going on elsewhere? Absolutely. That is why we are


being very clear that there must be no complacency here. We have taken


steps straight away. We are bringing in an expert who has


already advised the Obama administration in the United States


of a "zero tolerance" for failure in the NHS. We have brought in Ann


Clwd to guide us on the complaints issue. She has been through an


awful experience with her husband. With what patients and loved ones


have experienced is how we start to change the culture in the NHS let's


maintain a sense of balance, there is great --. Let's maintain a sense


of balance, there is great things going on in the NHS, but we must


not tolerate where things go wrong and we must be prepared to take


decisive action and critically make sure there is accountability at the


board level, and for clinicians who fail to meet acceptable standards.


That was the minister a little earlier to --, to discuss further


is Gerry Robinson whoa is a trouble shooter, and made programmes


exploring how the NHS should be reformed. Heather Wood, who led the


2002 investigation into Mid- Staffordshire. Julie Bailey, who


you heard of earlier, whose mother, Bella, died in 2007, her complaints


led to the public inquiry. And the executive director of the


Royal College of Nursing, thank you very much for coming in. And Julie


Bailey, if we start with you, interesting to hear Norman Lamb


unable to reassure us that it's not still happening elsewhere? We know


it is still happening. My e-mail tonight, I have got over a hundred


e-mails from those very hospitals. Those hospitals haven't been


outliars this week, but for years. Did you know before they were put


on the list? Yes, that's what happens, I get complaints from


these hospitals, I can pinpoint them and take them down to wards


within these hospitals that this problem is in them. Nobody is


watching it. We have the CQC, we have the GMC, and we have the NMC,


all not fit for purpose. None of them are fit for purpose. People


are being harmed day in and day out. We know the NHS does some wonderful


things, but when it can't look after our very vulnerable and


elderly, what sort of society are we? These people are being harmed


day in and day out. Janet Davies, we know there is extraordinary work


going on, and a lot of people must be feeling very demoralised knowing


they have done incredibly good work within the NHS. When you hear Julie


saying she can pinpoint exact wards where this is going on. How can The


Royal College of Nursing not know about this? First of all, it is


never OK to have poor care like that. And I do know there is


hundreds of thousands of nurses tonight who are absolutely devaste


bid this report. Good nurses, who are really -- devastated by this


report. Good nurses, who are really dedicated to their work. But we all


feel it. What we are hearing from our members is a lot of factors


have been picked up in this report, and really good things picked up


are still happening. The culture is still the same in many


organisations. At the moment we are really focusing on the finance, and


what we are seeing, is despite reports such as this, which shows


the total lack of nursing staff in these wards and areas, was really


part of the problem. You talk about this failure to spot it. Your boss,


Peter Carter, went to visit Stafford Hospital in May 2008, in


the middle of all this, and said he was very impressed with the


standard of nursing care, and he has seldom within as impressed with


the quality of care as he witnessed at Stafford Hospital. What was he


doing? That highlights that difference. Because what Peter did,


he went to visit some of our members. Some of our nurses working


in Staffordshire, he went to a small part of the hospital. He


didn't do the inspection, such as the CQC might do. Why not? That


isn't our role. He went to meet members and nurses, what he did on


that visit is he talked to patient, and he talked to relatives in that


area, who said how good the care was. A three-hour visit, two or


three wards, and said, he spoke to patient, who could not have been


more fulsome in their praise for the standard of care. So, he either


went and talk today completely the wrong people, or else he believed


that a three-hour visit to two wards was the right way of finding


out what was going on? What he was able to reflect it what was


happening in those areas. He wasn't ever doing a whole inspection, he


was visiting members and nurses. We are not an inspectorate as such,


The Royal College of Nursing, that is why at that time he saw some


good practice. Going back to the staffing issues, what we are


finding is at the moment we are finding that particularly in some


of those trusts we have heard about, they are still cutting nursing


standards. What do you make of this? I just want to say that I


know at the time we were in the throws of the investigation, --


throes of the investigation, and I find it troubling that the RCN made


that comment when we were very aware of the nursing problems in


the Trust. I think the difficulty, of course, is, if it is a scheduled


visit, you will be shown the best. It is a bit like when royalty go


round. That is why I think visits don't do it. They must know that?


think it was unfortunate he was so fuldsome in his comments. On the


basis of what I have heard today I have heard lots of good stories,


but to come out so categorically was troubling. Especially as we


were outside with banners asking for the unnecessary deaths to stop.


When you hear the 290 recommendations, what feels like a


clean slate, does this sound like you can go forward? No, I think


when is the last time that anybody managed to install 290


recommendations. I think what was said was very important. I think


the last two things of the five points were really important. We


need better leadership, we need better information. To me, it is


depressing in a way, we do have an amazing work force, people who are


really enthusiastic about it. Yet this thing happens again and again


and again. There's only one place for this to go, we are not leading


it in the way it needs to be led. The leadership is not up to the


mark. People are not enthusiastic enough. We need to treat that as


the central issue. But you are talking like a businessman now,


this is bigger than that. It is too huge, isn't it, to be able to say


fire the boss and get on with it? It is really not. You know,


management is not just about the bottom line. There are private


companies some private companies are well run, some badly run.


Management is about enthusing people to do what you want to


happen. That, in this organisation, I can get people excited about


making baked beans. This is something which is vital, it is at


the heart of everything that matters to us, and we don't have a


work force that is enthusiastic, that is excited, we are managing it


appallingly badly. How do you do this, a lot of the people are very


overworked, very underpaid, we know that. What I would like to say is,


this is a report that is extremely comprehensive, so it seems churlish


of me to say it. But I do think there is unfinished business.


Because I think there is an issue of accountability you know, in his


own report, Robert Francis says, an organisation's culture stems from


the quality of the leadership. Or the nature of its leadership.


are you talking about now? talking about the people at the


very top of the Department of Health. The system does not exist


in isolation. I'm sorry, you made that point earlier. The system is


led, reinforced, and maintained by key people. Are you talking about


David Nicholson, or the former Government, the Labour Government?


I'm talking particularly about David Nicholson, and the cadre of


similar people at the Department of Health. Robert Francis said no


evidence of bullying. I would take issue with that. Apart from the


fact that the Department of Health are hardly going to come forward


with trolleyloads of evidence. But if you look at the survey that the


HSJ published in November, only a couple of months ago, of 81 chief


executives, their headline was a "a culture of fear". Two fifths of


those chief executives said they didn't dare speak out. Where does


that culture come from. Do you think chief executives are scared


by their staff? Is it about targets? If you think, targets in


the round were a good thing. They achieved an awful lot within the


health service. Some were wrong, some measurements were wrong and


made people behave in a minor way wrongly in the round they achieved


an amazing thing. If anyone thigs politicians will solve this problem


for us, that the Department of Health will -- thinks that


politicians will solve this problem and the Department of Health will


solve the problem they have got it wrong. This is about the NHS and


having a leadership within the NHS that operates in a normal


management way. You wouldn't allow a burger chain to operate like this.


Do you have confidence in your leadership, we have analysed some


of the findings of Peter Carter's visit, can you say to members,


don't worry, this guy, still in charge of the RNC is still there?


We have really reflected since the first report, and the sort of work


the RCN has been doing is how to support members better who are


blowing the whistle. We have put in a special line, we are beefing in


what we do with stew wards, to support them. You are a watchdog


and a defender? We are not really a watchdog. What we are is a


membership organisation, who represent the nurses' voice, both


in a professional way, and as a trade union. What we have done is


picked up on some of those factors w what is preventing nurses from


doing a good job what are they telling us. There is a number of


things. The first one is having the right resources and the right staff.


The other is something you have been picking up, is having the


authority, as a clinician, to have that loadership. The quality of the


ward sister, not just one of the number, not one of three staff on


the ward, supervisory, supervising their staff w the authority to


change things when it is not right. Does this give you confidence now.


It sounds like you will have to carry on campaigning for quite a


lot longer? Not at all. It doesn't give me confidence. I'm contacted


every day by nurses too frightened to speak out. They have to put up


with it, unfortunately. They are working in terrible conditions


under certain circumstances. They will not whistle blow? That is


right, they have to get won it. Whistleblowers are tortured in the


NHS. Our studies say the same thing. One of the things we need to do is


how do we support and speak for those nurses when they don't feel


able to do it themselves. What about this idea of candour. This is


very interesting. To talk about statutory candour? I worry about


statutory. But there are bodies, The Royal College of Nursing, The


Royal College of Whatever, they are people who are involved in the


training and standards et. Centrally, you have to have an --


et cetera. Centrally you have to have an ethos where people can


stand up and say this isn't right. That doesn't exist now within the


NHS. Until it does, this is always possible that this kind of thing


will happen again, always. Unless you have that ethos, this will not


correct theself. We are talking about hundreds of deaths here. What


does this mean in terms of the potential criminal prosecutions?


What I would say, is if these hundreds of deaths had happened in


a train accident, and we had found that things were rotten, as it were,


pardon the pun, from one end of the line to the other, do you think the


chief executive would still be in place. Why is this different? I do


not accept that the system existed in isolation. The tone of the


organisation was set from the top, if you have chief executives of


Trusts, they are not exactly shrinking violets. Saying they


exist in a culture of fear, there is only one place that culture of


fear comes from. Yet, the NHS is held in such high esteem, the


moment you actually try to revamp it, or shut down one hospital to


help another, we are all up in arms. We all have that sense? I know we


do. That is why you need strong leadership, some decisions are


difficult to take, some hospitals shouldn't be there. This is a


difficult things to organise, it requires brilliant management and


fantastic enthusiasm, but it can be done. Its not imable. It also


requires that honesty we are Impossible. It also requires


honesty we are talking about, and involving patients and staff and we


all work together and we have the same end in sight. And involve


people in the decisions makes more sense. Julie? I would like to add


we will be campaigning for accountability for the hundreds of


deaths at *Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, we are going nowhere, we


want accountability. We are looking for the resignation of Sir Peter,


sorry, David Nicholson and Peter Carter, and anybody else involved


in the cover up, that is what it was at the hospital, a cover up,


and never to work in public office again.


Still to come: Bringing dog owners to heel, with


plans to microchip every canine in England. And, what's the matter?


Dark matter, what is it, and where Throughout the long and often dark


recession, one thing has puzzled economists, how on earth, when


growth is non-existent and we are on the verge of a triple-dip, the


jobs market continues to improve. Today a new set of figures may


begin to make some sense of T they know in the past four years, nearly


ten% more people, rather, are -- 10% more people are self-employed.


They include taxy drivers, construction workers, and T-shirt


printers, the vast majority are over 50.


A school for the wannabe mobile entrepeneur. If you want to be a


cab driver in London, this is where your journey starts. It is rather


more than a quick lap around the block. To pass the "knowledge", and


memorise all of the capital's countless streets takes at least


two-and-a-half years. 70% of those who sign up never quite make it. So


it's not easy, but it is definitely popular. This school is putting on


four-times as many introductory sessions now than it did a year ago.


In the last four years, the number of people working for themselves


has gone up by more than a third of a million, with 60% of that rise


happening in the last two years. By contrast, the number of people


working for someone else fell by almost half a million, between 2008


and 2012. Taxi driving is my first time being


self-employed. The most popular business for those


switching to being self-employed is driving a taxi. Peter Alan trained


to be a cabbie four years ago. absolutely love being my own boss.


I would find it very difficult now to go and work for an employer


again. You know, it is my choice, if I decide I want to work hard, I


can work hard, I can earn a bit more. If I don't want to work. I


earn less. If I'm going on holiday I will earn a bit more before I go


away, because obviously if I don't work and I'm away on holiday, I


don't get paid. Those with a spot of entrepeneural zeal have run out


of better ideas and are not just leaping behind the wheel of a cab,


farming and building trade is popular. Much of the rise in self-


employment is due to people in their 50s or older setting up


businesses. On average, those working for themselves work longer


hours than the rest of us. Did today's figures help explain the


puzzle that has economists scratching their heads at the


moment. Economic growth has been stagnant for some time, yet


employment has been remarkably resilient. Are the self-employed


picking up the slack? It would be great if the increase in self-


employment meant that we were having more entrepeneurship in this


country. But that is very doubtful. What we have seen is the number of


people who are self-employed going up at the same time as the number


of people who are traditional employees has been coming down.


That suggests that what we are seeing is people who are turning to


running their own business as a last resort, because no-one else


will employ them. I think we should applaud their tenacity, grit and


determination. That is good news. If you delve beneath the surface,


these aren't your young high-tech whizzkids, they are predominant low


older people, working long hours, and doing it -- predominantly older


people, working long hours, and doing it in professions like cab


drivers, cap pentry and construction. For 26-year-old Jared


King, setting up in business and making illuminated T-shirts was an


he is kai. Firstly from homelessness and crime, with so


many of his friends in prison. It also offered him a better deal than


any other job. When I was looking at the time there was nothing I got


drawn to. The positions I got only were a certain number of hours. I


thought if I want to have the lifestyle I want and set up an


example for others in the area, I needed to go the route of setting


up my own business. Back in the cabbie class, the hard slog of


entrepeneurship is about to get moving. Scooters are a taxi


driver's best friends, a quick way of committing all the streets to


memory. The question is whether this class of entre pent nurses is


a short-term solution to where the economy is, or a route to long-term


change. Joining me now is Fraser Nelson,


and Erika Watson, an entrepeneur who trains others to be


entrepeneural. Fraser, does this explain the


enigma of rising employment in a recession? It is part of it. The


single business reason is wages are going down which means we are


getting paid less, which more people are in jobs although not


particularly well-paying one. There is a shift towards part-time work.


But also self-employment is a major factor. It is not just the over 50s,


a third of the rise was from the over-65s. People we are used to


patient troising, the grey market, saying they are a burden on the


working people, they are -- patronising the grey market saying


they are a burden on working people. There is a reenergiseing on the


working lives and attitudes of people of pension age, and make


themselves consultants and doing great work. If we are talking about


a resourcefulness, we are always hearing about the productivity of


the Far East, a yet it is happening here in a very different way?


partly a cause for celebration, of course it is, you see on the video


there, there are people who are really thriving, very positive and


making of their life and in control of what they do. There are two


sides to this. I think if you have the infrastructure in place to


really support those people, to make the best of this opportunity,


it is a massive cause for celebration. The fact is, this is a


massive labour market shift. There is a needs for skills support for


those groups. There is a need for a solid safety net. If you are


shifting the way that we deal with risk in the economy and in society,


you need to change the way that you deal with safety nets too, to


enable transition. But they are going up. That's the blunt fact,


there are more people who prefer to work on their own? Some people


prefer, some people don't have an option, that is the reality.


can argue that people who work on their own aren't as productive as


employee, this explains why the economic output isn't going up as


much as the jobs figures, that is one of the economists' many


theories for this. These changes were happening before the recession.


For the last ten years self- employment has been going up. The


nature of work has changed. People now can choose, to an extent that


they have never done before. This is an interesting thing, is it


choice or is it the desperation, really. Is it people saying,


culturally I know I will be working longer, I want to be more in charge


of what I do. Or is it people who literally can't find work and have


to make do? There is a mixture of both. Lots of people will be


working part-time or self-employed w who are desperate to get back for


the security that a company employment brings. But really this


was happening back, the shift we have just seen is last seen in ten


years, with a huge increase in self-employment, that was in the


middle of the boom years. I think Britain is changing the way it


likes to work. Can I just say, the last time we have seen this kind,


well we haven't seen anything as extreme as this, the uplift is


massive, particularly for women, where there has been a 20% increase


in self-employment during this period. Why is that? Initially it


was because of the disproportionate numbers of women who were having


redundancies. There is a huge cultural issue here. You were


having people coming are from the public sector to the sharpest end


of the private sector. You are having women coming into a sector


where before only 27% of the self- employed were women previously, and


we know that women really appreciate value and benefit from


skills support when they make that kind of transition. And you know


what, the last time we had these changes, we had a skills strategy


for them, now we are over to laissez faire, people are left to


do it on their own. This wasn't exactly the Government's plan, when


they talked about cutting back on public sector and letting the


private sector take over. They didn't literally mean sending


people out on their own without any help? They are not sending anybody


out. These people are making their own luck and fortune. When the


Government does do a shift away from the public sector, nobody


knows for sure what direction the economy will take. It is a vote of


confidence, it is a vote of faith, really, in the British people. If


you make it easier to set up companies, you hope people will do,


and do you know what, they are. I just say, a vote of confidence,


at the moment we have 33,000 invested through the Regional


Growth Fund, and employees in large firms. The amounts invested in


these new small businesses, last time I looked was less than �400.


The Government isn't the source of economic growth. Regional


development fund is not very effective. If the new jobs have


been self-employed people, 85%, what support are they getting to


make sure that they are the employers and the success stories


in the future. They could be. I would like to see them be. We will


return to this one and see if the trend stays with us. Thank you very


much indeed. Last year nearly 7,000 stray dogs


were put down, many of them ones that might have been reunited with


their owners, if they had been found and identified. The mandatory


microchipping of dogs in England will be brought into effect in


three years time. Will it solve the problem and cut down the tax-


payers' money spent on strays. # Dogs of the world unitele --


unite. Meet Seal, she's a little lost dog. Not so little. Nobody


knows anything more about her. Even her name was dreamt up here at


Battersea Dogs Home, where staff think she looks a little bit like a


seal. There is one way to find out more. A scanner reads a microchip


buried in Seal's neck. It doesn't come up with anything as satisfying


as her name. But it should help her find her real home. You might ask


yourself, how would a chip have found itself into the dog in the


first place. That is the size of the chip, little more than the size


of the grain of rice. This is the implanter we use to put it in. This


is a little bit bigger than you would want in a vaccination. It is


bigger than I would want. For the dog it is no more painful.


Getting back home again could be harder for some of Seal's


neighbours. Amber is aged 3-5, a bull mastiff, she wasn't chipped


when she was handed in four months ago. Amber was found covered in


blood, with wound to her head. Staff at Battersea think she was


used as a fighting dog. They haven't been able to trace her


owner. This is Rufus, he's aged 6- 12 month, he's a mongrel cross,


found last week. He wasn't microchip. And here is Captain


Socks, aged 2-3 years old, a Staffordshire bull terrier, a scan


showed he did have a microchip. But the owner said the dog was now with


new people, the chip was out of date. Isn't it likely that the dogs


we would most like to see chipped, won't be. Their owners won't do it.


I think most people will get their dogs chipped, because they will see


the benefit of doing it. But it does rely very much on enforcement.


It relies on dog wardens, on the police, on vets actually helping


all of us to make this a much safer place for people to walk in public


spaces where there are animals, and also to know that responsible, or


even irresponsible owners are held to account should dogs go straying.


It is thought 58% of the UK's eight million dogs have already been


microchipped, a survey by the Dogs Trust suggested nearly 119,000


strays were taken in by local authorities last year. Nearly half


of them were reunited with their owner, almost 7,000 had to be put


to sleep. Dawn hasn't seen her dog, angel, since December, she has


remortgaged her house to put up a reward to find her. Everybody


thinks it was a big decision, it wasn't. My aim is for my dog to


come home to me. Remortgaging my house is something I can do to be


able to finance that. It's not an hard decision to do. She's a member


of my family, I want her back home. You are probably wondering what


they are doing about this in the rest of the UK. Well a Scottish


Parliament has yet to pass legislation on dog chipping, but


Wales is expected to follow England, and the scheme is already well


established in Northern Ireland. 95% of the dogs we pick up straying


are returned directly to their owner within a matter of hours.


Only last night 10.25, I picked a stray dog up, within five minutes


it was back with its owner, all as a result of microchipping. If


compulsory microchipping reduce the theft of dogs and their unnecessary


destruction n some case, then many pet lovers would probably say it


was a fair low, and not rough! Before the end of the programme we


will have tomorrow's front pages. First we want to talk about 80% of


the universe about which we know very little. We have about three


minutes in which to do it. Deep under an Italian mountain in a


subterranean laboratory, scientists have begun work to shed light on


Darkside. One person who has an idea -- dark matter, one person who


has more idea is the quantum cyst tis, Michael Brooks. This is a


Newsnight -- physicist, Michael Brooks. This is a Newsnight


exclusive, looking like Blue Peter at the moment. If you imagine these


ball bearings are clusters of galaxies and moving around in ways


you expect. Suddenly you can introduce a different kind of force


and they clump together and don't move how you think they should move.


That is what we are seeing in outer space. We are seeing that galaxies


and galaxy clusters are pulled by something, it is not a magnetic


force, it seems gravitational. matter is the force? This is why we


believe that 24% of the universe is made of dark matter. Because we see


things moving strangely out in outer space. How convinced are they


that is what it is? That sound total low rational, it is a sort of


magnetic -- totally rational, it is a magnetic force? It is a


gravitational force. This is something that has mass and exerts


gravity on the space and makes things clump together. Scientists


are convinced it is out there, we knew it was out there in 1933, and


spent ages of time looking for it and haven't been able to find it.


We go deep under the ground to isolate the experiments from


everything else. It is like trying to hear the sound of a pin drop


standing in Piccadilly Circus, it is ridiculous lie difficult. You


isolate yourself from cosmic rays and all sorts of distraction, and


hope dark matter will hit your equipment and set off a spark of


light and then you have seen it. It is a very difficult thing to do and


we are struggling to find any. is one of the awkward questions a


lay person asks, would it make a difference to how we live or to how


we see the universe? For a start, it would tell us what 24% of the


youfrs is. Which is answering a big question about what the universe is


made of. When we know what these particles are, we have no clue what


they are like or what they do, we know they don't reflect light or


radiate anything. We can only detect them vie ca their gravity F


we knew -- via their gravity f we knew something more about them,


they might be useful in the future. It is filling in the holes and the


lack of knowledge? It is one of the fundamental questions bothering


scientists for 80 years. Are you involved in this at all? I'm not.


In some ways I'm glad, working in the deep underground laboratories,


some scientists are working in mines that are a mile under the


earth surface. It is quite hard work, I think. Is it like the God


particle search? It is similar, in that actually we may see it at the


NHC, the large had dron collider in CERN, they are hoping to do the


same with dark matter. It may be the detector in Italy finds it or


in the large hadron collider, we don't know. You may have to come


back with the magnets if we hear of the talk of life underground. Let's


Apology for the loss of subtitles for 41 seconds


That's all for tonight, from all of That's all for tonight, from all of


The coldest night of the week so far, a widespread frost, a covering


of snow in part of Norfolk and Suffolk. Elsewhere largely dry,


sunshine around. Temperatures at or below freezing across northern


England and the Midlands. Still a few of these sleet and snow showers


clicking the north of Suffolk. They will ease away. The important thing


is the wind is not as strong as it has been today. We look to the west,


still breezy in places, plenty of destroy weather around here. There


will be high cloud increasing ahe had had of a weather system coming


in from the lant -- ahead of the weather system coming in from the


Atlantic. In the North West Midland icey patches. For Northern Ireland


the cloud is thickening, as you can see rain not too far away.


Increasing cloud in western and northern Scotland, still wintery


showers and icey patches here to contend W on through the rest of


the day, the cloud will increase. Many of us, down the eastern side,


get away with a dry day. To the west we will see the weathercy them


coming through with the rain, and despite theed lead -- weather


system coming through with the rain. This weather system with some


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