06/02/2013 Newsnight


06/02/2013

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Emily Maitlis.


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Tonight, failings at every level of the NHS in England. Hundreds of

:00:12.:00:16.

patients died needlessly at Stafford Hospital, now accusations

:00:16.:00:21.

of corporate self-interest being put above patient care. There were

:00:21.:00:25.

incidents of callous treatment by ward staff. Patients who could not

:00:25.:00:28.

eat or drink without help could not receive it. Medicines were

:00:29.:00:32.

prescribeed but not given. Government is here to explain why

:00:32.:00:36.

no-one has lost their job. There are 290 recommendations for change.

:00:36.:00:40.

We ask our panel if they think the worst has passed. Also tonight, how

:00:40.:00:43.

the self-employed are driving up the job market.

:00:43.:00:48.

If I decide I want to work hard, I can work hard and earn a bit more.

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If I don't want to work, I earn less.

:00:55.:00:58.

Is the microchip going to solve the issue of stray dogs?

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Also tonight, what is going on in out irspace, we shed light on dark

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-- outer space, we shed light on dark matter, with some ball

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bearings. It seems everyone today has said

:01:16.:01:21.

sorry, and no-one has lost their job. The blunt words of the chief

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campaigner, as the public inquiry into the hundreds of unnecessary

:01:25.:01:29.

deaths at Stafford Hospital found failings every level of the NHS in

:01:29.:01:33.

England. The testimonies from the patients and families are harrowing.

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One man begging his life not to go as he was left to dive blood

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poisoning alone. A young boy after a bike accident, failed to have his

:01:43.:01:46.

ruptured spleen recognised. Patients so dehydrated they were

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drinking from bedside flower vases.S the Trust halves accused of

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self- interest, the Prime Minister apologised and promised

:01:56.:01:59.

improvements in care. There are 290 recommendations in

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the inquiry, what happens now? For the families who lost loved

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ones, and whose persistent warnings were ignored, this morning brought

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recognition. With the findings of the full public inquiry into their

:02:14.:02:18.

experiences. Why the NHS took so long to react. What needs to change

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to make sure nothing like this ever happens again. So the inquiry has

:02:23.:02:28.

just reported its findings. A story, it says, of terrible and

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unnecessary suffering for hundreds of people. Failed by a system that

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ignored the warning signs and put corporate self-interest and cost

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control ahead of patients and their safety. Robert Francis wants a

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comprehensive change of culture across the NHS to put the patient

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at the heart of everything. Something the families wanted, a

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statutory duty of candour. What that means is that everyone must

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tell the truth to patients, regardless of the consequences for

:02:56.:02:59.

themselves. The inquiry chairman, Robert

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Francis, said the last thing required is more radical

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reorganisation. But produced nearly 300 detailed recommendations, that

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he says, will put patients ahead of everything else. Every single

:03:11.:03:15.

person, and organisation within the NHS, and not only those whose

:03:15.:03:19.

actions are described in this report, needs to reflect, from

:03:19.:03:23.

today, on what needs to be done differently in future. He said five

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key things are now needed, fundamental standards on patient

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care, with enforcement. The report talk about a new criminal offence

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if these are breached. Openness and honesty throughout the system, with

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legal standing. Support for compassionate nursing, including

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training. Better leadership, focused on patients. Accurate,

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relevant data to make sure standards of care are being met.

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The Prime Minister apologised to the families involved, on behalf of

:03:54.:03:58.

the Government and the country. He said too many doctors kept their

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heads down, and regulators have difficult questions to answer.

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The inquiry finds that the appalling suffering at the Mid-

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Staffordshire Hospital was primarily caused by a serious

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failure on behalf of the Trust Board, which failed to listen to

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patients and staff, and failed to tackle what Robert Francis calls an

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"insidious negative culture, involving a tolerance of poor

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standards and a disengagment from managerial and leadership

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responsibilities". David Cameron's just reacted to the report in

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parliament, he said's going to respond to the 290 recommendations

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next month. But for today, he's going to introduce penalties for

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people who run hospitals, if they fail in their standard of care, not

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just financially. He's going to implement surveys of friends and

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families and publish those. He's going to bring in a new Ofsted-

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style inspection regime, with a new Chief Inspector of hospitals.

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The families welcome much of this, but some want accountability. Gerry

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Robinson lost his 20-year-old -- Frank Robinson lost his 20-year-old

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son John after a ruptured spleen, after being sent home from the

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hospital with bruised ribs. He wants the chief executive of the

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NHS in England to resign. Had Sir David Nicholson done his job at the

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Stafford Hospital, who were Monday torg staff at the time of --

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monitoring staff at the time of our son's death. How can he have a lot

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to offer the NHS, he has a lot to answer for. Sir David was head of

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two strategic health authorities from 2005-2006, now he has take up

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a role to head up the NHS in England and Wales. He has already

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apologised to the families over what happened. I understand the

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upset that they feel over the treatment of their families in the

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hospital. I apologise, and I apologise again for what happened.

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Apologies are not enough, we need action and to make things happen.

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asked Robert Francis to explain why he had decided individuals should

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not be blamed. What we have here is a serious failure of a whole system,

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because of an institutional culture, which put corporate self-interest

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and financial control, ahead of patients and their safety. Everyone

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in the NHS, whether they are mentioned in this report, or

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whether they are not, should read it and reflect on the lessons to be

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learned from it. Unless that happens, we may well see all this

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happening again. We must have that happening. Finding a scapegoat, and

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saying that's the solution, will fool people, but it won't change

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what needs to be done. Some in the medical profession have

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suggested that the Labour Government's focus on targets had

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shifted attention away from patient care. But Alan Johnson, Health

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Secretary from mid-2007 to mid-2009, said targets had brought vital

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changes. Francis makes it very clear, in a very eloquent passage,

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that there is a place for targets, properly formulated targets,

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properly monitored. When we came into Government in 1997, you have

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to remember one in every 25 patients on a cardiac waiting list

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were dying before being operated on. People waited years for a simple

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cataract operation. It was a terrible situation. The best the

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previous Government could do is you won't wait any longer than 18

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months. We set out, and this was killing people, long waiting lists

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was bad clinical care. The introduction of targets to get them

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down in this vast organisation with 1.3 million people working in it,

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was thriel a contribute to patient care. It was high er -- higher than

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expected mortality figures that was the early warning sign at the

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Stafford Hospital, it took years to work out the problems there. The

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NHS says it is looking at mortality statistics at five more trusts.

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These are the five trusts. In response to our inquiries today

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Colchester said its organisations are working together to understand

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the root causes that contribute to unexpected deaths, and are not

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complacent. East Laing Sir told us they take it very seriously and

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welcome the -- east Lancashire told us they take it very seriously and

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welcome the investigation. The families are awaiting the

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Government's full response from Government.

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The Health Minister, Norman Lamb, joined me here before we came on

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air, I asked him how he answered always from campaigners for people

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to lose their jobs over the scandal? First of all, I should pay

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tribute to Julie Bailey and her colleagues. Without them this would

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probably have never come to light. They are absolutely right, in a

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sense, to say that people must be held to account when things go

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wrong. But, the difficulty we have is, that the Francis report makes

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very clear it was a system -- Francis Report, makes it very clear

:09:02.:09:06.

it was a system failure. Everything was focused on, on targets and

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finances, and people losing sight of the quality of care that is

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actually what hospitals should be all about. Surely with hundreds of

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people losing their lives within the NHS, is it so wrong to ask for

:09:19.:09:22.

real accountability? Not at all. I absolutely agree with them. That

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there must be accountability. I come back to this point. It was a

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system failure. But there were individuals behind the system?

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and the Francis Report did bear in mind and identified the board of

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the hospital at that time of having the prime responsibility for that.

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It is very easy to identify a scapegoat and say, get rid of that

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person, and everything is OK. not about identifying a scapegoat,

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it is about identifying the people who were responsible, and saying

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they should not be in charge any more? I come back to the point that

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Francis says that the prime responsibility was on the board.

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You said in 2009, "as things stand, those clinicians that participated

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in the care that is so heavily criticise, are presumably

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continuing to work in the NHS. Should we not be concerned about

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that?", are you no longer concerned about that? I'm absolutely

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concerned about that. So they shouldn't be working in the NHS any

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more? The Secretary of State has today written to both the GMC, and

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the nursing and midwifery council, to ask them what they are doing to

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improve their processes. Absolutely, clinicians who have failed, whose

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performance has fallen below the standards that are acceptable, have

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to be held to account. If there have been failings in the past, we

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have to address those, and Francis makes this point very clearly in

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his report, that in the future, people, both clinicians and also

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managers, have to be held to account. Isn't it extraordinary

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that you have put a recommendation in writing of being candid about

:10:59.:11:02.

your mistakes. Isn't that an extraordinary thing to have to do

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within the NHS? It is. Look, the whole culture has to change. There

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is this sense that awful things have happened in Staffordshire

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hospital, but also there have been failings elsewhere. There is a

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sense of complacency which the Prime Minister talked about in his

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statement today, and that absolutely has to change. We know

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that there are another five NHS Trusts under investigation. If you

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had relatives going into a hospital in Basildon, or in Colchester, or

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in Blackpool, how would you feel about that, knowing that their

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mortality rates were being investigated as we speak? Isn't it

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right that where we identify that there may be concerns on that, that

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we investigate it. What should they be doing? If you have a relative,

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going into one of these hospitals, what would you be thinking?

:11:55.:12:00.

Absolutely, but let's also remember, my own family has had, in very

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recent times, fantastic care from the NHS. We have the most

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remarkable work force, in most cases, doing brilliant work. Where

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the standards fall below what is acceptable, there must be

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consequences to that. That is why we are focusing. This is the third

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inquiry in Stafford, and what you cannot say with any certainty is it

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is not still going on elsewhere? Absolutely. That is why we are

:12:26.:12:32.

being very clear that there must be no complacency here. We have taken

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steps straight away. We are bringing in an expert who has

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already advised the Obama administration in the United States

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of a "zero tolerance" for failure in the NHS. We have brought in Ann

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Clwd to guide us on the complaints issue. She has been through an

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awful experience with her husband. With what patients and loved ones

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have experienced is how we start to change the culture in the NHS let's

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maintain a sense of balance, there is great --. Let's maintain a sense

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of balance, there is great things going on in the NHS, but we must

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not tolerate where things go wrong and we must be prepared to take

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decisive action and critically make sure there is accountability at the

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board level, and for clinicians who fail to meet acceptable standards.

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That was the minister a little earlier to --, to discuss further

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is Gerry Robinson whoa is a trouble shooter, and made programmes

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exploring how the NHS should be reformed. Heather Wood, who led the

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2002 investigation into Mid- Staffordshire. Julie Bailey, who

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you heard of earlier, whose mother, Bella, died in 2007, her complaints

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led to the public inquiry. And the executive director of the

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Royal College of Nursing, thank you very much for coming in. And Julie

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Bailey, if we start with you, interesting to hear Norman Lamb

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unable to reassure us that it's not still happening elsewhere? We know

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it is still happening. My e-mail tonight, I have got over a hundred

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e-mails from those very hospitals. Those hospitals haven't been

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outliars this week, but for years. Did you know before they were put

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on the list? Yes, that's what happens, I get complaints from

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these hospitals, I can pinpoint them and take them down to wards

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within these hospitals that this problem is in them. Nobody is

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watching it. We have the CQC, we have the GMC, and we have the NMC,

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all not fit for purpose. None of them are fit for purpose. People

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are being harmed day in and day out. We know the NHS does some wonderful

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things, but when it can't look after our very vulnerable and

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elderly, what sort of society are we? These people are being harmed

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day in and day out. Janet Davies, we know there is extraordinary work

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going on, and a lot of people must be feeling very demoralised knowing

:15:13.:15:18.

they have done incredibly good work within the NHS. When you hear Julie

:15:18.:15:21.

saying she can pinpoint exact wards where this is going on. How can The

:15:21.:15:24.

Royal College of Nursing not know about this? First of all, it is

:15:24.:15:27.

never OK to have poor care like that. And I do know there is

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hundreds of thousands of nurses tonight who are absolutely devaste

:15:31.:15:36.

bid this report. Good nurses, who are really -- devastated by this

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report. Good nurses, who are really dedicated to their work. But we all

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feel it. What we are hearing from our members is a lot of factors

:15:46.:15:50.

have been picked up in this report, and really good things picked up

:15:50.:15:54.

are still happening. The culture is still the same in many

:15:54.:15:56.

organisations. At the moment we are really focusing on the finance, and

:15:56.:16:01.

what we are seeing, is despite reports such as this, which shows

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the total lack of nursing staff in these wards and areas, was really

:16:05.:16:11.

part of the problem. You talk about this failure to spot it. Your boss,

:16:11.:16:15.

Peter Carter, went to visit Stafford Hospital in May 2008, in

:16:15.:16:18.

the middle of all this, and said he was very impressed with the

:16:18.:16:21.

standard of nursing care, and he has seldom within as impressed with

:16:21.:16:26.

the quality of care as he witnessed at Stafford Hospital. What was he

:16:26.:16:28.

doing? That highlights that difference. Because what Peter did,

:16:28.:16:33.

he went to visit some of our members. Some of our nurses working

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in Staffordshire, he went to a small part of the hospital. He

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didn't do the inspection, such as the CQC might do. Why not? That

:16:40.:16:43.

isn't our role. He went to meet members and nurses, what he did on

:16:43.:16:47.

that visit is he talked to patient, and he talked to relatives in that

:16:47.:16:51.

area, who said how good the care was. A three-hour visit, two or

:16:51.:16:55.

three wards, and said, he spoke to patient, who could not have been

:16:55.:17:01.

more fulsome in their praise for the standard of care. So, he either

:17:01.:17:04.

went and talk today completely the wrong people, or else he believed

:17:04.:17:08.

that a three-hour visit to two wards was the right way of finding

:17:08.:17:12.

out what was going on? What he was able to reflect it what was

:17:12.:17:17.

happening in those areas. He wasn't ever doing a whole inspection, he

:17:17.:17:21.

was visiting members and nurses. We are not an inspectorate as such,

:17:21.:17:24.

The Royal College of Nursing, that is why at that time he saw some

:17:24.:17:27.

good practice. Going back to the staffing issues, what we are

:17:27.:17:30.

finding is at the moment we are finding that particularly in some

:17:30.:17:33.

of those trusts we have heard about, they are still cutting nursing

:17:33.:17:36.

standards. What do you make of this? I just want to say that I

:17:36.:17:42.

know at the time we were in the throws of the investigation, --

:17:42.:17:50.

throes of the investigation, and I find it troubling that the RCN made

:17:50.:17:53.

that comment when we were very aware of the nursing problems in

:17:53.:17:59.

the Trust. I think the difficulty, of course, is, if it is a scheduled

:17:59.:18:02.

visit, you will be shown the best. It is a bit like when royalty go

:18:02.:18:10.

round. That is why I think visits don't do it. They must know that?

:18:10.:18:16.

think it was unfortunate he was so fuldsome in his comments. On the

:18:16.:18:19.

basis of what I have heard today I have heard lots of good stories,

:18:19.:18:28.

but to come out so categorically was troubling. Especially as we

:18:28.:18:31.

were outside with banners asking for the unnecessary deaths to stop.

:18:31.:18:35.

When you hear the 290 recommendations, what feels like a

:18:35.:18:39.

clean slate, does this sound like you can go forward? No, I think

:18:39.:18:43.

when is the last time that anybody managed to install 290

:18:43.:18:46.

recommendations. I think what was said was very important. I think

:18:46.:18:50.

the last two things of the five points were really important. We

:18:50.:18:58.

need better leadership, we need better information. To me, it is

:18:58.:19:02.

depressing in a way, we do have an amazing work force, people who are

:19:02.:19:06.

really enthusiastic about it. Yet this thing happens again and again

:19:06.:19:10.

and again. There's only one place for this to go, we are not leading

:19:10.:19:14.

it in the way it needs to be led. The leadership is not up to the

:19:14.:19:18.

mark. People are not enthusiastic enough. We need to treat that as

:19:18.:19:21.

the central issue. But you are talking like a businessman now,

:19:21.:19:26.

this is bigger than that. It is too huge, isn't it, to be able to say

:19:26.:19:30.

fire the boss and get on with it? It is really not. You know,

:19:30.:19:35.

management is not just about the bottom line. There are private

:19:35.:19:38.

companies some private companies are well run, some badly run.

:19:38.:19:41.

Management is about enthusing people to do what you want to

:19:41.:19:46.

happen. That, in this organisation, I can get people excited about

:19:46.:19:50.

making baked beans. This is something which is vital, it is at

:19:50.:19:53.

the heart of everything that matters to us, and we don't have a

:19:53.:20:00.

work force that is enthusiastic, that is excited, we are managing it

:20:00.:20:03.

appallingly badly. How do you do this, a lot of the people are very

:20:03.:20:08.

overworked, very underpaid, we know that. What I would like to say is,

:20:08.:20:13.

this is a report that is extremely comprehensive, so it seems churlish

:20:13.:20:17.

of me to say it. But I do think there is unfinished business.

:20:17.:20:23.

Because I think there is an issue of accountability you know, in his

:20:23.:20:27.

own report, Robert Francis says, an organisation's culture stems from

:20:27.:20:30.

the quality of the leadership. Or the nature of its leadership.

:20:30.:20:35.

are you talking about now? talking about the people at the

:20:35.:20:38.

very top of the Department of Health. The system does not exist

:20:38.:20:44.

in isolation. I'm sorry, you made that point earlier. The system is

:20:44.:20:48.

led, reinforced, and maintained by key people. Are you talking about

:20:48.:20:52.

David Nicholson, or the former Government, the Labour Government?

:20:52.:20:57.

I'm talking particularly about David Nicholson, and the cadre of

:20:57.:21:01.

similar people at the Department of Health. Robert Francis said no

:21:01.:21:05.

evidence of bullying. I would take issue with that. Apart from the

:21:05.:21:09.

fact that the Department of Health are hardly going to come forward

:21:09.:21:13.

with trolleyloads of evidence. But if you look at the survey that the

:21:13.:21:18.

HSJ published in November, only a couple of months ago, of 81 chief

:21:18.:21:25.

executives, their headline was a "a culture of fear". Two fifths of

:21:25.:21:28.

those chief executives said they didn't dare speak out. Where does

:21:28.:21:32.

that culture come from. Do you think chief executives are scared

:21:32.:21:36.

by their staff? Is it about targets? If you think, targets in

:21:36.:21:43.

the round were a good thing. They achieved an awful lot within the

:21:43.:21:47.

health service. Some were wrong, some measurements were wrong and

:21:47.:21:50.

made people behave in a minor way wrongly in the round they achieved

:21:50.:21:55.

an amazing thing. If anyone thigs politicians will solve this problem

:21:55.:21:58.

for us, that the Department of Health will -- thinks that

:21:58.:22:01.

politicians will solve this problem and the Department of Health will

:22:01.:22:05.

solve the problem they have got it wrong. This is about the NHS and

:22:05.:22:09.

having a leadership within the NHS that operates in a normal

:22:09.:22:12.

management way. You wouldn't allow a burger chain to operate like this.

:22:13.:22:16.

Do you have confidence in your leadership, we have analysed some

:22:16.:22:20.

of the findings of Peter Carter's visit, can you say to members,

:22:20.:22:25.

don't worry, this guy, still in charge of the RNC is still there?

:22:25.:22:29.

We have really reflected since the first report, and the sort of work

:22:29.:22:33.

the RCN has been doing is how to support members better who are

:22:33.:22:36.

blowing the whistle. We have put in a special line, we are beefing in

:22:36.:22:41.

what we do with stew wards, to support them. You are a watchdog

:22:41.:22:45.

and a defender? We are not really a watchdog. What we are is a

:22:45.:22:50.

membership organisation, who represent the nurses' voice, both

:22:50.:22:54.

in a professional way, and as a trade union. What we have done is

:22:54.:22:58.

picked up on some of those factors w what is preventing nurses from

:22:58.:23:01.

doing a good job what are they telling us. There is a number of

:23:01.:23:04.

things. The first one is having the right resources and the right staff.

:23:04.:23:08.

The other is something you have been picking up, is having the

:23:08.:23:12.

authority, as a clinician, to have that loadership. The quality of the

:23:12.:23:18.

ward sister, not just one of the number, not one of three staff on

:23:18.:23:20.

the ward, supervisory, supervising their staff w the authority to

:23:20.:23:24.

change things when it is not right. Does this give you confidence now.

:23:24.:23:28.

It sounds like you will have to carry on campaigning for quite a

:23:28.:23:33.

lot longer? Not at all. It doesn't give me confidence. I'm contacted

:23:33.:23:37.

every day by nurses too frightened to speak out. They have to put up

:23:37.:23:40.

with it, unfortunately. They are working in terrible conditions

:23:40.:23:44.

under certain circumstances. They will not whistle blow? That is

:23:44.:23:50.

right, they have to get won it. Whistleblowers are tortured in the

:23:50.:23:54.

NHS. Our studies say the same thing. One of the things we need to do is

:23:54.:23:57.

how do we support and speak for those nurses when they don't feel

:23:57.:24:01.

able to do it themselves. What about this idea of candour. This is

:24:01.:24:06.

very interesting. To talk about statutory candour? I worry about

:24:06.:24:10.

statutory. But there are bodies, The Royal College of Nursing, The

:24:10.:24:14.

Royal College of Whatever, they are people who are involved in the

:24:14.:24:18.

training and standards et. Centrally, you have to have an --

:24:18.:24:21.

et cetera. Centrally you have to have an ethos where people can

:24:21.:24:24.

stand up and say this isn't right. That doesn't exist now within the

:24:24.:24:28.

NHS. Until it does, this is always possible that this kind of thing

:24:28.:24:33.

will happen again, always. Unless you have that ethos, this will not

:24:33.:24:38.

correct theself. We are talking about hundreds of deaths here. What

:24:38.:24:42.

does this mean in terms of the potential criminal prosecutions?

:24:42.:24:46.

What I would say, is if these hundreds of deaths had happened in

:24:46.:24:51.

a train accident, and we had found that things were rotten, as it were,

:24:51.:24:54.

pardon the pun, from one end of the line to the other, do you think the

:24:54.:24:59.

chief executive would still be in place. Why is this different? I do

:24:59.:25:05.

not accept that the system existed in isolation. The tone of the

:25:05.:25:10.

organisation was set from the top, if you have chief executives of

:25:10.:25:14.

Trusts, they are not exactly shrinking violets. Saying they

:25:14.:25:18.

exist in a culture of fear, there is only one place that culture of

:25:18.:25:23.

fear comes from. Yet, the NHS is held in such high esteem, the

:25:23.:25:27.

moment you actually try to revamp it, or shut down one hospital to

:25:27.:25:31.

help another, we are all up in arms. We all have that sense? I know we

:25:31.:25:34.

do. That is why you need strong leadership, some decisions are

:25:34.:25:37.

difficult to take, some hospitals shouldn't be there. This is a

:25:38.:25:41.

difficult things to organise, it requires brilliant management and

:25:41.:25:46.

fantastic enthusiasm, but it can be done. Its not imable. It also

:25:46.:25:50.

requires that honesty we are Impossible. It also requires

:25:50.:25:56.

honesty we are talking about, and involving patients and staff and we

:25:56.:26:00.

all work together and we have the same end in sight. And involve

:26:00.:26:04.

people in the decisions makes more sense. Julie? I would like to add

:26:04.:26:08.

we will be campaigning for accountability for the hundreds of

:26:08.:26:11.

deaths at *Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, we are going nowhere, we

:26:11.:26:18.

want accountability. We are looking for the resignation of Sir Peter,

:26:18.:26:21.

sorry, David Nicholson and Peter Carter, and anybody else involved

:26:21.:26:25.

in the cover up, that is what it was at the hospital, a cover up,

:26:25.:26:30.

and never to work in public office again.

:26:30.:26:36.

Still to come: Bringing dog owners to heel, with

:26:36.:26:39.

plans to microchip every canine in England. And, what's the matter?

:26:39.:26:49.
:26:49.:26:53.

Dark matter, what is it, and where Throughout the long and often dark

:26:53.:26:56.

recession, one thing has puzzled economists, how on earth, when

:26:56.:26:59.

growth is non-existent and we are on the verge of a triple-dip, the

:26:59.:27:03.

jobs market continues to improve. Today a new set of figures may

:27:03.:27:08.

begin to make some sense of T they know in the past four years, nearly

:27:08.:27:14.

ten% more people, rather, are -- 10% more people are self-employed.

:27:14.:27:19.

They include taxy drivers, construction workers, and T-shirt

:27:19.:27:25.

printers, the vast majority are over 50.

:27:25.:27:29.

A school for the wannabe mobile entrepeneur. If you want to be a

:27:29.:27:33.

cab driver in London, this is where your journey starts. It is rather

:27:33.:27:39.

more than a quick lap around the block. To pass the "knowledge", and

:27:39.:27:43.

memorise all of the capital's countless streets takes at least

:27:43.:27:47.

two-and-a-half years. 70% of those who sign up never quite make it. So

:27:47.:27:52.

it's not easy, but it is definitely popular. This school is putting on

:27:52.:27:56.

four-times as many introductory sessions now than it did a year ago.

:27:56.:27:59.

In the last four years, the number of people working for themselves

:27:59.:28:03.

has gone up by more than a third of a million, with 60% of that rise

:28:03.:28:08.

happening in the last two years. By contrast, the number of people

:28:08.:28:13.

working for someone else fell by almost half a million, between 2008

:28:13.:28:19.

and 2012. Taxi driving is my first time being

:28:19.:28:21.

self-employed. The most popular business for those

:28:22.:28:26.

switching to being self-employed is driving a taxi. Peter Alan trained

:28:26.:28:31.

to be a cabbie four years ago. absolutely love being my own boss.

:28:31.:28:35.

I would find it very difficult now to go and work for an employer

:28:35.:28:39.

again. You know, it is my choice, if I decide I want to work hard, I

:28:39.:28:45.

can work hard, I can earn a bit more. If I don't want to work. I

:28:45.:28:49.

earn less. If I'm going on holiday I will earn a bit more before I go

:28:49.:28:54.

away, because obviously if I don't work and I'm away on holiday, I

:28:54.:28:59.

don't get paid. Those with a spot of entrepeneural zeal have run out

:28:59.:29:03.

of better ideas and are not just leaping behind the wheel of a cab,

:29:03.:29:07.

farming and building trade is popular. Much of the rise in self-

:29:07.:29:12.

employment is due to people in their 50s or older setting up

:29:12.:29:14.

businesses. On average, those working for themselves work longer

:29:14.:29:19.

hours than the rest of us. Did today's figures help explain the

:29:19.:29:22.

puzzle that has economists scratching their heads at the

:29:22.:29:25.

moment. Economic growth has been stagnant for some time, yet

:29:25.:29:29.

employment has been remarkably resilient. Are the self-employed

:29:29.:29:35.

picking up the slack? It would be great if the increase in self-

:29:35.:29:41.

employment meant that we were having more entrepeneurship in this

:29:41.:29:46.

country. But that is very doubtful. What we have seen is the number of

:29:46.:29:51.

people who are self-employed going up at the same time as the number

:29:51.:29:56.

of people who are traditional employees has been coming down.

:29:56.:30:00.

That suggests that what we are seeing is people who are turning to

:30:00.:30:04.

running their own business as a last resort, because no-one else

:30:04.:30:10.

will employ them. I think we should applaud their tenacity, grit and

:30:10.:30:15.

determination. That is good news. If you delve beneath the surface,

:30:15.:30:19.

these aren't your young high-tech whizzkids, they are predominant low

:30:19.:30:24.

older people, working long hours, and doing it -- predominantly older

:30:24.:30:29.

people, working long hours, and doing it in professions like cab

:30:29.:30:37.

drivers, cap pentry and construction. For 26-year-old Jared

:30:37.:30:42.

King, setting up in business and making illuminated T-shirts was an

:30:42.:30:47.

he is kai. Firstly from homelessness and crime, with so

:30:47.:30:53.

many of his friends in prison. It also offered him a better deal than

:30:53.:30:58.

any other job. When I was looking at the time there was nothing I got

:30:58.:31:08.
:31:08.:31:08.

drawn to. The positions I got only were a certain number of hours. I

:31:08.:31:13.

thought if I want to have the lifestyle I want and set up an

:31:13.:31:16.

example for others in the area, I needed to go the route of setting

:31:17.:31:22.

up my own business. Back in the cabbie class, the hard slog of

:31:23.:31:27.

entrepeneurship is about to get moving. Scooters are a taxi

:31:27.:31:31.

driver's best friends, a quick way of committing all the streets to

:31:31.:31:40.

memory. The question is whether this class of entre pent nurses is

:31:40.:31:43.

a short-term solution to where the economy is, or a route to long-term

:31:43.:31:47.

change. Joining me now is Fraser Nelson,

:31:47.:31:53.

and Erika Watson, an entrepeneur who trains others to be

:31:53.:31:58.

entrepeneural. Fraser, does this explain the

:31:59.:32:04.

enigma of rising employment in a recession? It is part of it. The

:32:04.:32:08.

single business reason is wages are going down which means we are

:32:08.:32:12.

getting paid less, which more people are in jobs although not

:32:12.:32:15.

particularly well-paying one. There is a shift towards part-time work.

:32:15.:32:19.

But also self-employment is a major factor. It is not just the over 50s,

:32:19.:32:25.

a third of the rise was from the over-65s. People we are used to

:32:25.:32:30.

patient troising, the grey market, saying they are a burden on the

:32:30.:32:34.

working people, they are -- patronising the grey market saying

:32:34.:32:39.

they are a burden on working people. There is a reenergiseing on the

:32:39.:32:44.

working lives and attitudes of people of pension age, and make

:32:44.:32:48.

themselves consultants and doing great work. If we are talking about

:32:48.:32:51.

a resourcefulness, we are always hearing about the productivity of

:32:51.:32:57.

the Far East, a yet it is happening here in a very different way?

:32:57.:33:00.

partly a cause for celebration, of course it is, you see on the video

:33:00.:33:05.

there, there are people who are really thriving, very positive and

:33:05.:33:08.

making of their life and in control of what they do. There are two

:33:08.:33:13.

sides to this. I think if you have the infrastructure in place to

:33:13.:33:17.

really support those people, to make the best of this opportunity,

:33:17.:33:22.

it is a massive cause for celebration. The fact is, this is a

:33:22.:33:25.

massive labour market shift. There is a needs for skills support for

:33:25.:33:29.

those groups. There is a need for a solid safety net. If you are

:33:29.:33:32.

shifting the way that we deal with risk in the economy and in society,

:33:32.:33:36.

you need to change the way that you deal with safety nets too, to

:33:36.:33:42.

enable transition. But they are going up. That's the blunt fact,

:33:42.:33:47.

there are more people who prefer to work on their own? Some people

:33:47.:33:51.

prefer, some people don't have an option, that is the reality.

:33:51.:33:55.

can argue that people who work on their own aren't as productive as

:33:55.:33:59.

employee, this explains why the economic output isn't going up as

:33:59.:34:03.

much as the jobs figures, that is one of the economists' many

:34:03.:34:06.

theories for this. These changes were happening before the recession.

:34:06.:34:09.

For the last ten years self- employment has been going up. The

:34:10.:34:14.

nature of work has changed. People now can choose, to an extent that

:34:14.:34:18.

they have never done before. This is an interesting thing, is it

:34:18.:34:23.

choice or is it the desperation, really. Is it people saying,

:34:23.:34:27.

culturally I know I will be working longer, I want to be more in charge

:34:27.:34:31.

of what I do. Or is it people who literally can't find work and have

:34:31.:34:35.

to make do? There is a mixture of both. Lots of people will be

:34:35.:34:39.

working part-time or self-employed w who are desperate to get back for

:34:39.:34:41.

the security that a company employment brings. But really this

:34:41.:34:47.

was happening back, the shift we have just seen is last seen in ten

:34:47.:34:50.

years, with a huge increase in self-employment, that was in the

:34:51.:34:53.

middle of the boom years. I think Britain is changing the way it

:34:53.:34:58.

likes to work. Can I just say, the last time we have seen this kind,

:34:58.:35:02.

well we haven't seen anything as extreme as this, the uplift is

:35:02.:35:07.

massive, particularly for women, where there has been a 20% increase

:35:07.:35:13.

in self-employment during this period. Why is that? Initially it

:35:13.:35:16.

was because of the disproportionate numbers of women who were having

:35:16.:35:19.

redundancies. There is a huge cultural issue here. You were

:35:19.:35:22.

having people coming are from the public sector to the sharpest end

:35:22.:35:26.

of the private sector. You are having women coming into a sector

:35:26.:35:31.

where before only 27% of the self- employed were women previously, and

:35:31.:35:36.

we know that women really appreciate value and benefit from

:35:36.:35:39.

skills support when they make that kind of transition. And you know

:35:39.:35:43.

what, the last time we had these changes, we had a skills strategy

:35:43.:35:46.

for them, now we are over to laissez faire, people are left to

:35:46.:35:50.

do it on their own. This wasn't exactly the Government's plan, when

:35:50.:35:53.

they talked about cutting back on public sector and letting the

:35:53.:35:56.

private sector take over. They didn't literally mean sending

:35:56.:35:59.

people out on their own without any help? They are not sending anybody

:35:59.:36:03.

out. These people are making their own luck and fortune. When the

:36:03.:36:06.

Government does do a shift away from the public sector, nobody

:36:06.:36:09.

knows for sure what direction the economy will take. It is a vote of

:36:09.:36:13.

confidence, it is a vote of faith, really, in the British people. If

:36:13.:36:16.

you make it easier to set up companies, you hope people will do,

:36:16.:36:20.

and do you know what, they are. I just say, a vote of confidence,

:36:20.:36:25.

at the moment we have 33,000 invested through the Regional

:36:25.:36:30.

Growth Fund, and employees in large firms. The amounts invested in

:36:30.:36:35.

these new small businesses, last time I looked was less than �400.

:36:35.:36:38.

The Government isn't the source of economic growth. Regional

:36:38.:36:41.

development fund is not very effective. If the new jobs have

:36:42.:36:45.

been self-employed people, 85%, what support are they getting to

:36:45.:36:48.

make sure that they are the employers and the success stories

:36:48.:36:52.

in the future. They could be. I would like to see them be. We will

:36:52.:36:56.

return to this one and see if the trend stays with us. Thank you very

:36:56.:36:58.

much indeed. Last year nearly 7,000 stray dogs

:36:59.:37:03.

were put down, many of them ones that might have been reunited with

:37:03.:37:08.

their owners, if they had been found and identified. The mandatory

:37:08.:37:12.

microchipping of dogs in England will be brought into effect in

:37:12.:37:16.

three years time. Will it solve the problem and cut down the tax-

:37:16.:37:26.
:37:26.:37:26.

payers' money spent on strays. # Dogs of the world unitele --

:37:26.:37:31.

unite. Meet Seal, she's a little lost dog. Not so little. Nobody

:37:31.:37:37.

knows anything more about her. Even her name was dreamt up here at

:37:37.:37:41.

Battersea Dogs Home, where staff think she looks a little bit like a

:37:41.:37:45.

seal. There is one way to find out more. A scanner reads a microchip

:37:45.:37:51.

buried in Seal's neck. It doesn't come up with anything as satisfying

:37:51.:37:56.

as her name. But it should help her find her real home. You might ask

:37:56.:38:00.

yourself, how would a chip have found itself into the dog in the

:38:00.:38:04.

first place. That is the size of the chip, little more than the size

:38:04.:38:08.

of the grain of rice. This is the implanter we use to put it in. This

:38:08.:38:12.

is a little bit bigger than you would want in a vaccination. It is

:38:12.:38:18.

bigger than I would want. For the dog it is no more painful.

:38:18.:38:20.

Getting back home again could be harder for some of Seal's

:38:21.:38:30.
:38:31.:38:32.

neighbours. Amber is aged 3-5, a bull mastiff, she wasn't chipped

:38:32.:38:37.

when she was handed in four months ago. Amber was found covered in

:38:37.:38:41.

blood, with wound to her head. Staff at Battersea think she was

:38:41.:38:45.

used as a fighting dog. They haven't been able to trace her

:38:45.:38:51.

owner. This is Rufus, he's aged 6- 12 month, he's a mongrel cross,

:38:51.:38:56.

found last week. He wasn't microchip. And here is Captain

:38:57.:39:01.

Socks, aged 2-3 years old, a Staffordshire bull terrier, a scan

:39:01.:39:06.

showed he did have a microchip. But the owner said the dog was now with

:39:06.:39:10.

new people, the chip was out of date. Isn't it likely that the dogs

:39:10.:39:14.

we would most like to see chipped, won't be. Their owners won't do it.

:39:15.:39:18.

I think most people will get their dogs chipped, because they will see

:39:18.:39:22.

the benefit of doing it. But it does rely very much on enforcement.

:39:22.:39:26.

It relies on dog wardens, on the police, on vets actually helping

:39:26.:39:31.

all of us to make this a much safer place for people to walk in public

:39:31.:39:34.

spaces where there are animals, and also to know that responsible, or

:39:34.:39:42.

even irresponsible owners are held to account should dogs go straying.

:39:42.:39:48.

It is thought 58% of the UK's eight million dogs have already been

:39:48.:39:55.

microchipped, a survey by the Dogs Trust suggested nearly 119,000

:39:55.:39:58.

strays were taken in by local authorities last year. Nearly half

:39:58.:40:05.

of them were reunited with their owner, almost 7,000 had to be put

:40:05.:40:10.

to sleep. Dawn hasn't seen her dog, angel, since December, she has

:40:10.:40:13.

remortgaged her house to put up a reward to find her. Everybody

:40:13.:40:17.

thinks it was a big decision, it wasn't. My aim is for my dog to

:40:17.:40:23.

come home to me. Remortgaging my house is something I can do to be

:40:23.:40:27.

able to finance that. It's not an hard decision to do. She's a member

:40:27.:40:37.
:40:37.:40:38.

of my family, I want her back home. You are probably wondering what

:40:38.:40:42.

they are doing about this in the rest of the UK. Well a Scottish

:40:43.:40:46.

Parliament has yet to pass legislation on dog chipping, but

:40:46.:40:50.

Wales is expected to follow England, and the scheme is already well

:40:50.:40:56.

established in Northern Ireland. 95% of the dogs we pick up straying

:40:56.:41:00.

are returned directly to their owner within a matter of hours.

:41:00.:41:05.

Only last night 10.25, I picked a stray dog up, within five minutes

:41:05.:41:11.

it was back with its owner, all as a result of microchipping. If

:41:11.:41:15.

compulsory microchipping reduce the theft of dogs and their unnecessary

:41:15.:41:18.

destruction n some case, then many pet lovers would probably say it

:41:19.:41:28.
:41:29.:41:32.

was a fair low, and not rough! Before the end of the programme we

:41:32.:41:36.

will have tomorrow's front pages. First we want to talk about 80% of

:41:36.:41:39.

the universe about which we know very little. We have about three

:41:39.:41:44.

minutes in which to do it. Deep under an Italian mountain in a

:41:44.:41:48.

subterranean laboratory, scientists have begun work to shed light on

:41:48.:41:52.

Darkside. One person who has an idea -- dark matter, one person who

:41:52.:41:58.

has more idea is the quantum cyst tis, Michael Brooks. This is a

:41:58.:42:02.

Newsnight -- physicist, Michael Brooks. This is a Newsnight

:42:02.:42:06.

exclusive, looking like Blue Peter at the moment. If you imagine these

:42:06.:42:09.

ball bearings are clusters of galaxies and moving around in ways

:42:09.:42:13.

you expect. Suddenly you can introduce a different kind of force

:42:13.:42:16.

and they clump together and don't move how you think they should move.

:42:16.:42:22.

That is what we are seeing in outer space. We are seeing that galaxies

:42:22.:42:26.

and galaxy clusters are pulled by something, it is not a magnetic

:42:26.:42:30.

force, it seems gravitational. matter is the force? This is why we

:42:30.:42:35.

believe that 24% of the universe is made of dark matter. Because we see

:42:35.:42:41.

things moving strangely out in outer space. How convinced are they

:42:41.:42:47.

that is what it is? That sound total low rational, it is a sort of

:42:47.:42:52.

magnetic -- totally rational, it is a magnetic force? It is a

:42:52.:42:56.

gravitational force. This is something that has mass and exerts

:42:56.:43:05.

gravity on the space and makes things clump together. Scientists

:43:05.:43:09.

are convinced it is out there, we knew it was out there in 1933, and

:43:09.:43:14.

spent ages of time looking for it and haven't been able to find it.

:43:14.:43:16.

We go deep under the ground to isolate the experiments from

:43:16.:43:21.

everything else. It is like trying to hear the sound of a pin drop

:43:21.:43:25.

standing in Piccadilly Circus, it is ridiculous lie difficult. You

:43:26.:43:30.

isolate yourself from cosmic rays and all sorts of distraction, and

:43:30.:43:32.

hope dark matter will hit your equipment and set off a spark of

:43:32.:43:36.

light and then you have seen it. It is a very difficult thing to do and

:43:36.:43:39.

we are struggling to find any. is one of the awkward questions a

:43:39.:43:43.

lay person asks, would it make a difference to how we live or to how

:43:43.:43:48.

we see the universe? For a start, it would tell us what 24% of the

:43:48.:43:52.

youfrs is. Which is answering a big question about what the universe is

:43:52.:43:56.

made of. When we know what these particles are, we have no clue what

:43:56.:44:01.

they are like or what they do, we know they don't reflect light or

:44:01.:44:05.

radiate anything. We can only detect them vie ca their gravity F

:44:05.:44:10.

we knew -- via their gravity f we knew something more about them,

:44:10.:44:14.

they might be useful in the future. It is filling in the holes and the

:44:14.:44:18.

lack of knowledge? It is one of the fundamental questions bothering

:44:18.:44:22.

scientists for 80 years. Are you involved in this at all? I'm not.

:44:22.:44:25.

In some ways I'm glad, working in the deep underground laboratories,

:44:25.:44:29.

some scientists are working in mines that are a mile under the

:44:29.:44:34.

earth surface. It is quite hard work, I think. Is it like the God

:44:34.:44:39.

particle search? It is similar, in that actually we may see it at the

:44:39.:44:48.

NHC, the large had dron collider in CERN, they are hoping to do the

:44:48.:44:52.

same with dark matter. It may be the detector in Italy finds it or

:44:52.:44:57.

in the large hadron collider, we don't know. You may have to come

:44:57.:45:03.

back with the magnets if we hear of the talk of life underground. Let's

:45:03.:45:13.
:45:13.:45:13.

Apology for the loss of subtitles for 41 seconds

:45:13.:45:54.

That's all for tonight, from all of That's all for tonight, from all of

:45:54.:46:04.
:46:04.:46:29.

The coldest night of the week so far, a widespread frost, a covering

:46:29.:46:33.

of snow in part of Norfolk and Suffolk. Elsewhere largely dry,

:46:33.:46:36.

sunshine around. Temperatures at or below freezing across northern

:46:36.:46:40.

England and the Midlands. Still a few of these sleet and snow showers

:46:40.:46:44.

clicking the north of Suffolk. They will ease away. The important thing

:46:44.:46:48.

is the wind is not as strong as it has been today. We look to the west,

:46:48.:46:51.

still breezy in places, plenty of destroy weather around here. There

:46:51.:46:55.

will be high cloud increasing ahe had had of a weather system coming

:46:55.:47:00.

in from the lant -- ahead of the weather system coming in from the

:47:00.:47:03.

Atlantic. In the North West Midland icey patches. For Northern Ireland

:47:03.:47:08.

the cloud is thickening, as you can see rain not too far away.

:47:08.:47:11.

Increasing cloud in western and northern Scotland, still wintery

:47:11.:47:15.

showers and icey patches here to contend W on through the rest of

:47:15.:47:18.

the day, the cloud will increase. Many of us, down the eastern side,

:47:18.:47:23.

get away with a dry day. To the west we will see the weathercy them

:47:23.:47:27.

coming through with the rain, and despite theed lead -- weather

:47:27.:47:34.

system coming through with the rain. This weather system with some

:47:34.:47:38.

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