19/09/2013 Newsnight


19/09/2013

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Emily Maitlis.


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Transcript


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A tonight the companies employing our teenagers for no wages. The new

:00:09.:00:16.

reality of the jobs market or state-sanctioned exploitation.

:00:16.:00:19.

Remember this? Tonight all will be revealed, it is called the Internet

:00:19.:00:22.

of things, and it is going to change your life. And...Hello

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Newsnight, I'm Usain Bolt, I'm a phenomenon and a legend.

:00:31.:00:43.

Hello good evening. We will have a look at the explosives new

:00:43.:00:49.

biography Kevin McBride. First this programme has learned that one of

:00:49.:00:54.

the best new repair firms for cars is using a Government scheme to

:00:55.:01:00.

recruit workers for free. Kwik Fit has offered young people work for

:01:00.:01:10.

nothing. The company gets £1600 for each rainy, they get nothing. --

:01:10.:01:15.

trainee. How do you see it? Cars are my passion, always has

:01:15.:01:21.

been, ever since I was a little boy. When it comes to cars the best way

:01:21.:01:26.

of learning is hands on, that is probably, my favourite way. For

:01:26.:01:30.

thousands of teenager, this is the very first step on a very long

:01:30.:01:37.

ladder. These apprentices are the lucky one, with youth unemployment

:01:37.:01:41.

still nudging in a million, it is harder than ever to get nearer that

:01:41.:01:48.

dream job. It is hard to get jobs, it is hard to like us to get into

:01:48.:01:52.

the apprenticeship we got in to, it was hard to get. For years the

:01:53.:01:56.

the apprenticeship we got in to, it traditional route for a car

:01:56.:02:00.

mechanic, chef or nursery nurse has been through an apprenticeship

:02:00.:02:04.

scheme, you study at college at the same time earning money in a proper

:02:04.:02:08.

job, if only at £2.65 an hour. There is, though, still a large

:02:08.:02:12.

group of young people who struggle to get this far. The answer, says

:02:12.:02:16.

the Government, is a new type of scheme, designed to help the most

:02:16.:02:22.

disadvantaged. Traineeships are meant to combine work experience

:02:22.:02:23.

disadvantaged. Traineeships are with classes in English and maths,

:02:23.:02:27.

plus general skills like CV writing, they run for up to five months, but

:02:27.:02:33.

they are exempt from minimum wage legislation. Over 100 firms have

:02:33.:02:36.

said they are interested in taking part, with a big push by the

:02:36.:02:40.

Government expected this autumn. One of the first high street brands

:02:40.:02:45.

to sign up to the scheme is the car repair firm Kwik Fit, it is already

:02:45.:02:50.

advertising traineeships on-line. They read very much like any normal

:02:50.:02:53.

job advert, the position is advertised for five months, the

:02:54.:02:58.

working week is up to 39 hours, Tuesday to Saturday. All this is

:02:58.:03:02.

completely voluntary, but also completely unpaid. Nick has been

:03:02.:03:09.

closely watching the further education sector for years, he

:03:09.:03:13.

first spotted the Kwik Fit advert this week and a number of others

:03:13.:03:17.

like it? Traineeships have been the opportunity to be a fantastic

:03:17.:03:20.

programme for young people to get into work and a full-time job. Here

:03:20.:03:23.

we are talking about young people unpaid working up to 900 or more

:03:23.:03:31.

hours, for a big employer with multimillion pound profits, they

:03:31.:03:35.

need to pay for the benefit of having employees. In this case they

:03:35.:03:39.

are not. Kwik Fit is already a big employer of apprentices, and denies

:03:39.:03:43.

this new scheme is anything like exploitation. There is no

:03:43.:03:46.

suggestion the firm is breaking the rules, but it is getting £1600 per

:03:46.:03:51.

trainee from the Government. In statement the company said:

:03:51.:04:10.

The Government has had its own problems with work experience. Last

:04:10.:04:16.

year there was sitdown protests, after it tried to introduce

:04:16.:04:19.

benefits sanctions for people who refused to sign up to the schemes.

:04:19.:04:23.

Ministers are though convinced that these kinds of programmes can be

:04:23.:04:29.

affective. Crucial -- Effective. Crucially work experience works, I

:04:29.:04:35.

want to tackle youth unemployment, all the experience shows that

:04:35.:04:38.

working, English and maths are the three crucial things for young

:04:38.:04:41.

people to get maths. That is why we have designed traineeships in this

:04:41.:04:47.

way, especially where they can lead into apprenticeships which help

:04:47.:04:50.

people get more skills in work in a job and help tackle youth

:04:50.:04:54.

unemployment. For some of today's teenagers it is a tough choice,

:04:54.:04:59.

work for free or don't work at all. When I went to my interview for the

:04:59.:05:05.

job I said I couldn't care less I was getting paid because cars I are

:05:05.:05:09.

all I want to do. You should expect to be paid, if you are putting

:05:09.:05:12.

yourself out you need to be rewarded with something.

:05:12.:05:17.

Tonight after questions from Newsnight Kwik Fit withdrew its job

:05:17.:05:20.

advertisment and replaced with a new version. It now says that

:05:21.:05:24.

although its work experience programme is expected to last five

:05:24.:05:28.

months, it may well finish sooner, it says there will now be a

:05:28.:05:32.

guaranteed job interview for every trainee at the end of the process.

:05:32.:05:39.

Is it a convenient way to get kids to work for nothing, or is it just

:05:39.:05:43.

the new reality in a jobs market that is tight. With me is Toby

:05:43.:05:47.

Perkins, shadow Business Minister, and Lottie Dexter, who campaigns

:05:47.:05:51.

for jobs for young people. The One Million Campaign. You heard the

:05:51.:05:55.

young guy there say he couldn't care less if he got paid because

:05:55.:05:58.

this is what he wants to. Do I guess of any kind is better than no

:05:59.:06:04.

work? It is. But it is a pretty sad reflection on the state of our

:06:04.:06:06.

economy and the way that the Government are making us into a

:06:06.:06:09.

low-wage economy that people are now going to be working for five

:06:09.:06:13.

months on the bays that they will then, if they make the grade, be

:06:13.:06:18.

given an opportunity to go for an interview, in order to go on to an

:06:19.:06:23.

apprenticeship, to work for below minimum wage for two years. What it

:06:23.:06:24.

apprenticeship, to work for below really shows you is, yes it is a

:06:24.:06:31.

new reality for people in Cameron's Britain. You have made up that

:06:31.:06:34.

trajectory, they are working for five months for free, which many

:06:34.:06:39.

people would call training, apprenticeship? People would call

:06:39.:06:40.

it that. Apprenticeships are a low- apprenticeship? People would call

:06:40.:06:47.

income way of a company having a qi quid pro quo, where at the same

:06:47.:06:52.

time that you are developing you are developing your skills and you

:06:52.:06:56.

are working. Now we have a qualification period to get on to

:06:56.:07:00.

the apprenticeship. When I was 17 I was on £35 a week on a YTS, he

:07:00.:07:06.

never thought that many years later £35 was too much to pay young

:07:06.:07:10.

people. Are we selling young people down the plughole? We have far too

:07:10.:07:14.

many young people leaving school without the experience or skills

:07:14.:07:17.

needed to get an actual job, we have nearly one million young

:07:17.:07:22.

people unemployed, traineeships bridge what is very often a very

:07:22.:07:28.

scary and dicey journey from school into work. You would say to people

:07:28.:07:32.

go and do this, it doesn't matter if you have a five-day a week

:07:32.:07:38.

without being paid go and do it? I have run a lobby group for jobs for

:07:38.:07:43.

young people, we have spoken to a group before going on this

:07:43.:07:46.

programme, they say they would prefer to go working in a real

:07:46.:07:50.

garage with real mechanics and interacting with customers, than

:07:50.:07:56.

they would sitting behind a desk and being force fed by teachers, we

:07:56.:08:00.

shouldn't write these off. Are you saying that employers shouldn't put

:08:00.:08:04.

these out? You can't blame them if they have this opportunity. What is

:08:04.:08:08.

your message to Kwik Fit? My message is that we have got

:08:08.:08:11.

apprenticeships there, they are really valuable tool. A the lot of

:08:11.:08:18.

young people aren't ready for apprenticeships, that is why we

:08:18.:08:21.

need traineeships, because they have been failed by an education

:08:21.:08:26.

system that isn't working. The whole point of the apprenticeships

:08:26.:08:29.

is people came out of school and earned a low wage at the time the

:08:29.:08:33.

company were spending time with them and getting ready for a job

:08:33.:08:37.

market and they can't be paid for doing that. Pbgt aweren't tisships

:08:37.:08:41.

are great and perform very well, but they are not. Apprenticeships

:08:41.:08:47.

are great and perform well, there are a group of people unable to

:08:48.:08:51.

take them up and not ready, and that was because education failed

:08:51.:08:54.

under the Labour Government. Where you have a kid with one of these

:08:54.:08:58.

training schemes who wakes up with a hangover who thinks, you know

:08:58.:09:00.

training schemes who wakes up with what I'm not getting paid any way,

:09:00.:09:04.

I might not go this week or whatever, you don't get that sense

:09:04.:09:07.

of what you are actually working towards, do you? For a traineeship,

:09:07.:09:12.

that is the point, it instills work ethic, it builds an attitude,

:09:12.:09:15.

rather than going to school you are going in and interacting with

:09:15.:09:17.

colleagues, you are meeting your boss, you are taking on that

:09:17.:09:19.

responsibility. That is the point of a traineeship. It is to get the

:09:19.:09:24.

hardest to help, the most vulnerable young people who are the

:09:24.:09:27.

furthest away from the jobs market a link from school into a training

:09:27.:09:32.

scheme, into an apprenticeship, which are very important. It does

:09:32.:09:37.

seem odd, Labour has already taken us down this workfare path, what is

:09:37.:09:41.

your argument when this was started really under Tony Blair? This

:09:41.:09:44.

wasn't started under Tony Blair, we have a plan in terms of the long-

:09:44.:09:49.

term unemployed with the job sharing. You did the Primark

:09:50.:09:53.

schemes? We have the Future Jobs Fund which this Government

:09:53.:09:57.

abolished, they have abolished mandatory work experience, we heard

:09:57.:10:00.

the minister say that work experience is important. They have

:10:00.:10:03.

cut back on the careers service, they have further education, a key

:10:03.:10:06.

part in all of this, massive cuts. Let's go back to what you would do

:10:06.:10:11.

at this point. Would you actually go out please don't take the

:10:11.:10:16.

Government up on these schemes, do not offer these five-month schemes,

:10:16.:10:20.

what would you do? I'm not saying to employers that they shouldn't

:10:20.:10:24.

take it up. Why aren't you if you feel so strongly? The point is the

:10:24.:10:28.

Government is creating a low- skilled, low-wage economy, because

:10:28.:10:31.

their entire strategy is around getting people to work either for

:10:31.:10:35.

free or nothing. They have a minimum wage, but at the same time

:10:35.:10:38.

they keep kinding ways to not do that. Traineeships are important,

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we need them. Thank you very much both of you.

:10:42.:10:45.

With two days to go to the Labour conference, an explosive new tone

:10:45.:10:50.

to add to your pile of new Labour memoirs, Damian McBride has written

:10:50.:10:58.

his account of his time in power, it is promising to be a tell-all,

:10:58.:11:03.

smears and all sorts only read about in fiction. It is serialised

:11:03.:11:08.

in the Mail exclusively from tomorrow. We have it hot off the

:11:08.:11:12.

press. What is in the book? It doesn't promise it is. These two

:11:12.:11:18.

pages in it have a series of assassinations, he admits himself

:11:18.:11:22.

he took down John Reid, Charles Clarke, Ivan, we have a few quotes.

:11:22.:11:30.

He talks about how he's this inversion of a priest, people come

:11:30.:11:36.

to him, tell him the sins of people they don't like in the hope that he

:11:36.:11:40.

publicises them more widely. He's very honest about what he did. It

:11:40.:11:44.

is one of the most honest and gruesome accounts of being a spin

:11:44.:11:47.

doctor that I do actually think one of the last implications could be

:11:47.:11:52.

that it does shock quite a few viewers/readers, it exposes how

:11:52.:11:55.

people do politics at the top of Westminster. In case we thought

:11:55.:11:59.

that politic was clean and lovely! Indeed, most people thought it was

:11:59.:12:03.

pretty hardcore. Except he details, goes through exactly how you hack

:12:03.:12:05.

into a Government account, exactly Despite the comfortable familiarity,

:12:05.:15:57.

they say there are problems that Despite the comfortable familiarity,

:15:58.:16:03.

come with this. The borough is now 17% white British. Loads of people

:16:03.:16:08.

living in our streets were English people, but over the years, 34-macro

:16:09.:16:19.

years, -- three or four years, I have been people coming in from

:16:19.:16:23.

other communities and settling down. The couple admit that it is

:16:23.:16:27.

largely Indian is that they spend their time with, rather than

:16:27.:16:29.

largely Indian is that they spend widening their social group. And it

:16:29.:16:33.

is this instinct that the mayor wants to counter. As this borough

:16:33.:16:38.

becomes increasingly diverse, the mayor has introduced a series of

:16:38.:16:42.

fairly bold measures aimed at holding on to some of the

:16:43.:16:47.

Britishness. In libraries, he has removed foreign language newspapers

:16:47.:16:51.

and withdrawn translation services. He will no longer fund a single

:16:51.:16:56.

community events. Sir Robin Wales has been the directly elected mayor

:16:56.:17:01.

since 2002. Before that, he was council leader here. We don't make

:17:02.:17:07.

people integrate we just encourage it. We can't make anybody do

:17:07.:17:11.

anything. People spent time with their own ethnic group and religion

:17:11.:17:16.

and that is great, and often they contribute to a community

:17:16.:17:18.

tremendously and do good things, but we say that if we are doing

:17:18.:17:22.

something we will support people coming together. I am strongly of

:17:22.:17:26.

the view that if you try to segregate people into different

:17:26.:17:29.

groups and keep them separate, that is not only bad for individuals but

:17:29.:17:36.

the community that you do it too. Apartheid was wrong in South Africa

:17:36.:17:40.

and it would be wrong here. Keeping people separate must be a bad thing.

:17:40.:17:51.

It was also the first local authority in England to introduce

:17:51.:17:58.

landlord regulations, and they have to release convictions and live up

:17:58.:18:02.

to British standards here. Counsel police officers are looking for a

:18:02.:18:06.

rogue landlords and an acceptable living conditions, things like whole

:18:06.:18:11.

families living in one room, which the mayor would consider unBritish.

:18:11.:18:15.

Also if they find suspected illegal immigrants on the raid, they will be

:18:15.:18:20.

handed over. The Mayor wants to know how many houses in his borough are

:18:20.:18:26.

like this one. The landlords that these tenants pay their rent to does

:18:26.:18:33.

not have a licence from the councils they will be subject to a fine.

:18:33.:18:40.

Altogether 15 people live in this three-bedroom house. Everybody is

:18:40.:18:42.

aware of the conditions and the law and they are being exploited, but

:18:42.:18:46.

still they have to take it the hard way because they have no other

:18:46.:18:54.

chance. Very few people object to cracking down on poor housing

:18:54.:18:57.

conditions, but the Mayor's overall agenda is divisive. Absolutely

:18:57.:19:02.

people should integrate but they should not be forced to assimilate.

:19:02.:19:05.

people should integrate but they I can understand if you are not

:19:05.:19:08.

using your translation services and I can understand if you are not

:19:08.:19:11.

at a time when local authorities have to save money and you realised

:19:11.:19:15.

some of the services are not value for money that you could remove

:19:15.:19:19.

them. But if you are removing them from vulnerable people that need

:19:19.:19:24.

them, for ideological reasons, then that starts to make you question

:19:24.:19:27.

what the values are of the people doing it. Newham recently rejected

:19:27.:19:39.

plans to build the biggest mosque in the borough. Critics argue this was

:19:39.:19:43.

another ideological decision. The mayor insists that it was simply not

:19:43.:19:48.

the right place for it. Some people find your policy is offensive. They

:19:48.:19:53.

say you are denying people's heritage and ignore it. Never,

:19:53.:19:57.

never. I think it is wonderful when people remember their heritage and

:19:57.:20:01.

where they come from and I celebrate that. But the council should not be

:20:01.:20:06.

paying for it. Do you think these policies could transfer to other

:20:06.:20:10.

parts of the UK, this tough approach? I don't accept that it is

:20:10.:20:14.

tougher. Most people would say it is a tough time, we have to save

:20:14.:20:32.

money, we are currently experimenting with a range of ways

:20:32.:20:37.

of providing cheaper, free English language. What we do is provide

:20:37.:20:41.

free English language teaching for anybody that wants to work.

:20:41.:20:46.

Within the borough of Newham and right next door to the Olympic Park

:20:46.:20:50.

sits Stratford Market, most of the traders have been here for decades.

:20:50.:20:54.

I ask what they make of the integration agenda? When in Rome do

:20:54.:21:00.

what the Romans do. If you live in England and you have made this your

:21:00.:21:05.

home, then yes, you should learn to speak English. Wherever they live

:21:05.:21:09.

in their part of Newham, wherever it may be, there will be more poles

:21:09.:21:17.

-- Poles or Bangladeshis, and they revert back, whether they have

:21:17.:21:20.

taken the papers or translators away, it isn't going to change

:21:20.:21:23.

nothing. The minute you should the door, it is back to normal for them.

:21:23.:21:30.

Same as it is for us. Before Newham hosts another

:21:30.:21:34.

citizenship ceremony I met this man, who is about to get his British

:21:34.:21:40.

passport. He has been in the UK 18 years already and he says he can't

:21:40.:21:45.

wait. I want citizenship, I have lived a long time in England. Jo it

:21:45.:21:49.

is like a dream, I live in the UK but not citizen or British, my

:21:49.:21:55.

passport is Bangladeshi. To everyone the passport is a British

:21:55.:21:57.

citizen. Do you guys ever have to everyone the passport is a British

:21:57.:22:02.

use translators, have you used translators? Sometimes, some

:22:02.:22:07.

problems with the doctor, I'm not understanding and they are not

:22:07.:22:12.

talking to the doctor. For them it is not as simple as saying of

:22:12.:22:16.

learning the language, he didn't feel his English was good enough to

:22:16.:22:22.

explain why. TRANSLATION: I have tried a lot for 18 years, I have

:22:22.:22:26.

been to college and worked with English people, understanding is

:22:26.:22:30.

not a problem. It doesn't stay in my head, I'm older now, if I was

:22:30.:22:35.

younger it would have stayed. Back at East Ham Town Hall, two weeks

:22:35.:22:41.

after Mini and Shibu became British, it is Amiral's turn, he joins 15

:22:41.:22:51.

other people. Amiral Islam from Bangladesh please. Wife Jackia

:22:51.:22:56.

can't stop smiling. He proudly stands in front of the Union Jack

:22:56.:23:03.

he tells me is now his flag. Sir Robin's critics say he wants fewer

:23:03.:23:07.

new arrivals and more middle-class white people living in the borough.

:23:07.:23:11.

The question for the other new citizens in the room is whether

:23:11.:23:14.

they can fit into the mayor's vision for Newham. Congratulations

:23:14.:23:20.

you are free to go. You can hear the full documentary,

:23:20.:23:26.

Naturalising Newham by heading to the BBC Asian Network website. We

:23:26.:23:36.

have Sir Robin Wales and Claire Fox. What is wrong with the individual

:23:36.:23:40.

moves? I'm not here to be critical of the individual moves, want to

:23:40.:23:44.

take a step back. I get a bit nervous when we say, I think we

:23:44.:23:48.

probably agree on this, there is a problem with some of the

:23:48.:23:52.

multicultural policies of the past that were very devisive that made

:23:52.:23:57.

people identify with their cultural identity rather than a broader

:23:57.:24:00.

project. For me some of the things that have been put forward seem to

:24:00.:24:04.

be very technical, very narrow and I don't thing you are going to get

:24:04.:24:09.

people buying into a broader sense of western values and entightenedle

:24:09.:24:15.

values when saying you have to speak English. Is this to save

:24:15.:24:19.

money? No, we value the diversity, I have lived in Newham for 35 years,

:24:19.:24:24.

why would I live in a place that is the most diverse place in the world.

:24:24.:24:27.

When we are spending public money our task is to try to bring people

:24:27.:24:32.

together. For that we spend a lot on English language classes, this

:24:32.:24:36.

Government cut 40% of the funding for English language classes, we

:24:36.:24:40.

think that is wrong. We want people to speak English to get jobs and

:24:40.:24:43.

access the whole cultural offer that is here in London, the

:24:43.:24:46.

greatest capital city in the world, you can access some of that.

:24:46.:24:49.

Bringing people together is surely the task of a local Government. Why

:24:49.:24:54.

does that actually bring people together, why does taking away

:24:54.:24:56.

individual funding bring people together? No, there is lots of

:24:56.:25:00.

other things we do. This is a few small things. We don't cut all

:25:00.:25:03.

translation, if translation is needed for statutory services and

:25:03.:25:07.

support we do that, of course we do. Then what we do is have a series of

:25:07.:25:12.

events where people come together, last year and this year too we gave

:25:12.:25:17.

everyone £250 if they want to run something with neighbours, street

:25:17.:25:21.

parties, we had 1,000 last year with 180,000 people taking part.

:25:21.:25:25.

That is getting to meet other people. The problem if you stay in

:25:25.:25:29.

a community is that we know that people who work have broader

:25:29.:25:33.

networks and it gives them better opportunities to access jobs, our

:25:33.:25:37.

job is to support that with public funds. While recognising the value

:25:37.:25:42.

of culture. Let as try to take a step back then, for me one of the

:25:42.:25:45.

problems is there is a danger, certainly the way the media has

:25:45.:25:50.

picked it up more broadly, not necessarily tonight. Is the

:25:50.:25:54.

accusatory finger is pointed at immigrants as though they are the

:25:54.:25:58.

problem, won't they integrate in, that is the way it is pick up. They

:25:58.:26:03.

have to learn English. For me the greater crisis I think you

:26:03.:26:07.

underestimate the crisis, the biggest problem for me is I don't

:26:07.:26:12.

think in Britain we don't know what people should integrate to. We

:26:12.:26:16.

define ourselves about what people aren't doing. We have to be honest

:26:16.:26:19.

about the whole values system of what Britain stands for, of why

:26:19.:26:27.

when you move into this country you buy in to. But there is the flag

:26:27.:26:33.

and all of that? We have a few symbols. In America people would

:26:33.:26:35.

move, they didn't always learn how to speak English, by the way, what

:26:35.:26:39.

they identified with, millions of people of the American dream. Where

:26:39.:26:43.

is the British dream today. There is none, so we point our finger at

:26:43.:26:47.

them. We are not trying to say, that we look for tolerance and

:26:47.:26:51.

respect. I'm a British Scot, we had somebody earlier today saying they

:26:51.:26:55.

are English, of course we have given backgrounds, what --

:26:55.:26:58.

backgrounds, when you ask communities they want jobs,

:26:58.:27:01.

education for kids, safe streets. Every community wants the same

:27:01.:27:05.

thing. That is what we want to provide while encouraging people to

:27:05.:27:09.

meet other people that live beside them. Why has Newham gone from 33%

:27:09.:27:17.

white British to 16.7%, is this a response to the marginalised white

:27:17.:27:20.

British?. It is London, people moving into London, the East End is

:27:20.:27:24.

always where people come. Interestingly we are seeing changes.

:27:24.:27:27.

The Olympic largely held in our borough, we are beginning to see

:27:27.:27:30.

changes you no one of our problems is we will have people moving in

:27:30.:27:40.

and gentrifying we want to make sure that they can make a life. We

:27:40.:27:45.

have to recognise there has been incredible damage done by

:27:45.:27:49.

multiculturalism as a policy. I'm an open borders policy. You should

:27:49.:27:54.

welcome this? There are parts of it, I'm not here to attack this, we are

:27:54.:27:58.

having a broader discussion in a way. My problem is with

:27:58.:28:02.

multiculturalism is that it has been devisive, it has said to

:28:02.:28:09.

people don't come in here and be a human being but be ethnic. I agree

:28:09.:28:13.

on that level, the danger is we end up blaming immigrants for the

:28:14.:28:17.

problems of what was a British policy. I think that is damaging

:28:17.:28:20.

and you have to be careful of that Robin. Thank you very much. The new

:28:20.:28:27.

Iranian President has said his country is not trying to make a

:28:27.:28:33.

nuclear bomb and never was. Speaking to US television,

:28:33.:28:36.

President Rouhani said he had the full authority, sufficient

:28:36.:28:39.

political latitude to resolve a stand-off with the west. There

:28:39.:28:43.

seems to be this buzz about the interview tonight and the message

:28:43.:28:46.

it conveys? There is a buzz, absolutely, the wider context,

:28:46.:28:50.

political prisoners released yesterday. Some suggestions that

:28:50.:28:54.

Iran might be about to liberalise restrictions on social media. The

:28:54.:28:57.

President going to the UN General Assembly next week in New York. It

:28:57.:29:00.

has been announced that President Holder of France will meet him

:29:00.:29:06.

there. Also -- President Hollande of France will meet him there. And

:29:06.:29:12.

remarks from the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei suggesting

:29:12.:29:14.

this could be a time for leniency, and renouncing a claim that they

:29:15.:29:22.

want WMDs, this is what he said. TRANSLATION: We do not believe in

:29:22.:29:25.

nuclear weapons because of our beliefs, not for the sake of the US

:29:26.:29:29.

or other countries. When we say that no country should possess

:29:29.:29:35.

nuclear weapons, we ourselves are not definitely trying to possess

:29:35.:29:41.

them. Is there a sense that Rouhani is

:29:41.:29:45.

different? Well the problem is, for those who are sceptical the sense

:29:45.:29:54.

of deja vu. Between 1997 and 2005, that pd was a liberal figure, he

:29:54.:30:00.

was liberal on the nuclear issue and the democratisation issue, it

:30:00.:30:02.

was liberal on the nuclear issue was seen at that time he was

:30:02.:30:06.

gradually underlined by more hardline figures crucially the aia

:30:06.:30:16.

Tola, and the ground was -- Ayatolla Khomenie, and he was

:30:16.:30:20.

replaced by the last President. The new man has the backing of

:30:20.:30:24.

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and he said that last night on NBC news.

:30:24.:30:31.

TRANSLATION: In its nuclear programme this Government enters

:30:31.:30:35.

with full power and has complete authority. I have given the nuclear

:30:35.:30:39.

negotiations portfolio to the Foreign Ministry. The problem won't

:30:39.:30:42.

be from our side. We have sufficient political latitude to

:30:42.:30:46.

solve this problem. This is being seen as a more serious attempt to

:30:46.:30:50.

negotiate. It has been taken seriously? It is being taken

:30:50.:30:53.

seriously. The big question is will President Obama also meet him next

:30:53.:30:57.

week in New York, there is a definite diplomatic opportunity

:30:57.:31:01.

here. A sense that this new apparent willingness to deal should

:31:01.:31:06.

be properly tested and that sanctions, economic sanctions, may

:31:06.:31:09.

have given the Iranians a seriousness about this that was

:31:09.:31:14.

lacking, that was not there under the President years ago, this time

:31:15.:31:18.

they really want to do something to lessen the economic impact of

:31:18.:31:21.

sanctions and they are prepared to deal on the nuclear question.

:31:21.:31:25.

Those of you who stayed up long enough to see a shot of an empty

:31:25.:31:29.

chair last night and went to bed none the wiser, let's just say this

:31:29.:31:32.

one is for you. Imagine a world where the Internet connected not

:31:32.:31:36.

just people but objects, where a tiny computer of found in

:31:36.:31:40.

everything, from cars to fridge, md sins, even cattle. The potential

:31:40.:31:45.

for gleaning information becomes phenomenal. It is call the interin

:31:45.:31:49.

the of things. Who cares what it is called, it will -- internet of

:31:49.:31:53.

things, who cares what it is called it will change lives forever.

:31:53.:32:02.

The Internet has changed our world so profoundly it is hard to argue

:32:02.:32:05.

with the idea that we are now living through an age as

:32:05.:32:09.

transformative as extraordinary as the agricultural or Industrial

:32:09.:32:14.

Revolution. Our revolution, computer revolution

:32:14.:32:18.

has barely got started. Up to now we have had an internet largely

:32:18.:32:23.

made up of people. It is people who post photographs or write e-mails

:32:23.:32:26.

or do any of the other things we all do with our computer, but the

:32:27.:32:30.

number of things on the Internet is going to be vast low bigger than

:32:30.:32:35.

the number of people. When the things take over well our lives

:32:35.:32:38.

will change completely. Today we are somewhere in the region of 10-

:32:38.:32:43.

15 billion things connected to the interin the. They all range from

:32:43.:32:48.

the traditional things such -- the Internet, they all range from

:32:48.:32:51.

traditional things such as smartphones and laptops, they will

:32:51.:32:56.

move to things we aren't familiar with being connected. Cattle for

:32:56.:32:59.

one example, checking the well being of them out in the field,

:32:59.:33:04.

through to trees that monitor the environment around them. Right away

:33:04.:33:09.

through to connected cars. We estimate the number of things

:33:09.:33:13.

connected to the Internet will grow to 50 billion devices by the year

:33:13.:33:18.

2020. What is driving this is a tiny cheap sensor, and computers

:33:19.:33:23.

linked via the Internet to vast cloud servers, the uses are pretty

:33:23.:33:28.

limitless. Imagine your front door is on-line and someone turns up

:33:28.:33:32.

unexpectedly from out of town, no problem, you can let them in.

:33:32.:33:37.

Imagine a pot plant that tweets you to tell you it needs watering.

:33:37.:33:41.

Imagine a coffee maker connect today the Internet that brews up

:33:41.:33:45.

the perfect cup of coffee because it has sensed you walked out.

:33:46.:33:51.

Sensors that know when you go out so turning the heating down and

:33:51.:33:56.

lights out. One thing as simple as the asthma inhaler, very valuable

:33:56.:34:01.

to the person using it, essentially a dumb device. Now the opportunity

:34:01.:34:06.

to connect that to the Internet starts to bring together some

:34:06.:34:09.

really interesting data set, and information about its use. This it

:34:09.:34:12.

is a at the advice that is connected to the Internet, it has

:34:12.:34:19.

GPS -- it is a device that is qebgted to the Internet, it is GPS,

:34:19.:34:23.

and it allows people to understand why where and how they are using it.

:34:23.:34:27.

It produces interesting data and information around how it is being

:34:27.:34:30.

used. Potentially pointing to some environmental conditions in a

:34:30.:34:34.

particular area. So how easy is it to put a thing on

:34:34.:34:38.

the Internet of things. First we are going to need a thing, so how

:34:38.:34:43.

about the Newsnight presenter's chair, I'm going to need to borrow

:34:43.:34:54.

it for a few hours. I found a company near London's

:34:54.:34:57.

silicone round about that says it can put up a chair on the Internet.

:34:58.:35:08.

Hi Chad, how are you doing? How are you. We want our chair on the

:35:08.:35:12.

Internet. OK, I think we can help you out with that. How would we go

:35:12.:35:16.

about it, what do we need to do to our chair, it is a very nice chair,

:35:16.:35:21.

but at the end of the day it is a chair. What do we do? Let's see,

:35:21.:35:25.

the first thing we need is a pressure sensor, I think. So we

:35:25.:35:30.

have got a pressure pad here, basically it allows you to detect

:35:30.:35:35.

are you on it or are you not? A bit like a whoop pee cushion, the

:35:35.:35:44.

presenters are used to that. We are able to take it to this sensor and

:35:44.:35:50.

application board. This sensor says someone is on me or not. We have a

:35:50.:35:57.

USP port to put power in to, we have a spot for the little board.

:35:57.:36:00.

What is on this little thing here is actually the processor, it is a

:36:01.:36:06.

whole Wi-Fi connection defies. So the normal Wi-Fi you connect your

:36:06.:36:08.

whole Wi-Fi connection defies. So phone or computer in to, this will

:36:08.:36:12.

allow you to connect into it as well. That, the size of a postage

:36:12.:36:16.

stamp is a computer? Exactly. A computer capable of connecting to

:36:16.:36:21.

the Internet? Absolutely. That just slots in there. So we tie this in,

:36:21.:36:28.

boom, it is connected in, as soon as it is done it is connected to

:36:28.:36:33.

Wi-Fi and the interin the. Chad Jones is CEO of a company that

:36:33.:36:38.

helps product designers get stuff on-line. When it is finished our

:36:38.:36:43.

presenters chair will be able to tell when somebody stand up or sit

:36:43.:36:49.

down and tell the world via Twitter. By the Internet connecting the

:36:49.:36:53.

chair it seems mundane, sit down, stand up, it tells you sat down and

:36:53.:36:58.

stood up for how long. If you start thinking about that from a

:36:58.:37:01.

healthcare perspective, what if we put that inside a granny's bed,

:37:01.:37:05.

inside her home. Imagine if we can look into that home and see is she

:37:05.:37:09.

in bed, when is she in bed, how long is she in bed for, if she's

:37:09.:37:13.

not in bed where is she and what's she doing. If she's 2.00 and out of

:37:13.:37:18.

bed for an hour-and-a-half there might be a problem. You need to

:37:18.:37:21.

understand that. One of the constraints to the spread of the

:37:21.:37:25.

internet of things is power. Batteries need either charging or

:37:25.:37:30.

changing. But, research from the University of washing has proved

:37:30.:37:34.

the feasiblilty of a technology called ambient back scater. That is

:37:34.:37:39.

drawing the tiny amounts of power needed to run devices from

:37:39.:37:42.

surrounding radio, TV or Wi-Fi significantle thats. It means that

:37:42.:37:46.

you could bury these sensor into wall, into into clothe, in short,

:37:47.:37:54.

into anything. It seems there is no way of avoiding this technology,

:37:54.:37:59.

our homes will be joining the Internet of things whether we like

:37:59.:38:04.

it or not. Smart energy metres are rolled out from 2015, these have

:38:04.:38:08.

the ability to provide the most extraordinary data of our energy

:38:08.:38:13.

use, right down toe theed models of devices we are using. -- right down

:38:13.:38:18.

to the model of devices we are using? Privacy is a big issue, do

:38:18.:38:22.

you know what your telephone or smart metre is transmitting back. A

:38:22.:38:26.

great point of realised in Germany, where the company behind the smart

:38:26.:38:29.

metre were able to determine, not only what devices were being run in

:38:29.:38:33.

the consumers home, but also what films they were watching. What

:38:33.:38:39.

films they were watching on their television? Absolutely. In man

:38:39.:38:44.

cases consumers are blind to it, they look at the -- in many cases

:38:44.:38:48.

consumers are blind to it, they don't look at the features of being

:38:48.:38:51.

connected to the Internet. The Government says they would have to

:38:51.:38:55.

consent to giving up smart metre data, but they wouldn't be

:38:55.:38:57.

consulted before the police or Intelligence Services got their

:38:57.:39:01.

hands on it. Indeed the former director of the CIA says this kind

:39:01.:39:05.

of data will revolutionise the trade craft of spying. In the

:39:05.:39:09.

future, it seems, your dishwasher will be working for the CIA. The

:39:09.:39:17.

opportunities for terrorists and criminals will clearly expand. In

:39:17.:39:25.

the 2009 American drama, Homeland, the US Vice President is

:39:25.:39:31.

assassinated when his internet connected pacemaker is hacked. It

:39:31.:39:33.

assassinated when his internet seems fiction is becoming reality.

:39:33.:39:37.

In 2011 the New Zealand security expert and hacker, Barnaby Jack

:39:37.:39:44.

showed how an insulin pump could be hacked and deliver a fatal dose. He

:39:44.:39:52.

was due to appear at a Conference Talking about how a pacemaker could

:39:52.:39:57.

be hacked when he mysteriously dyed. Medical manufacturers have been

:39:57.:40:00.

told to beef up their security. Other areas are vulnerable too. The

:40:00.:40:04.

suspicion is that internet- connected prison doors in Florida

:40:04.:40:08.

were opened by an outside hacker. And on a more mundane level, we

:40:08.:40:12.

have seen an internet connected baby monitor hacked as well. We

:40:12.:40:16.

have this consuspect called the attack sur as if, in terms of what

:40:16.:40:22.

are the number of system -- attack surface, in terms of what are the

:40:22.:40:26.

number of systems you can attack. With more data the attack surface

:40:27.:40:31.

is getting bigger and wider. For the cybercriminal out there, it

:40:31.:40:35.

really does potentially become a field day. The Internet of things

:40:35.:40:39.

is already here and will evently dwarf the Internet of people. We

:40:39.:40:43.

will all need to think about security and privacy, but one

:40:43.:40:46.

option we don't have is stopping all of this. Some believe we are

:40:46.:40:50.

option we don't have is stopping now entering a new phase in the

:40:50.:40:54.

evolution of our planet, when the Internet take its place as another

:40:54.:40:59.

life form. Sleep well. Thanks for that. Here is the chair.

:40:59.:41:04.

The Internet-connected chair, question. We have it patched into a

:41:04.:41:10.

Twitter feed, Newsnight chair, if you want to have a seat we will see

:41:10.:41:13.

if this thing work, we have the Twitter feed on the tablet and if I

:41:14.:41:19.

refresh is it. Yes it says the Newsnight presenter has sat down at

:41:19.:41:27.

23:14:05 in the Internet chair. If you stand up we will refresh it

:41:27.:41:31.

again. There it is. The Newsnight presenter has stood up after

:41:31.:41:37.

sitting for ten seconds in the Internet-connected chair. It

:41:37.:41:40.

doesn't direct message does it? Not that I'm aware. Fascinating it is,

:41:40.:41:44.

more widely? This in itself doesn't have that many uses, you could

:41:45.:41:50.

perhaps have a game of musical chairs with hundreds of

:41:50.:41:52.

participants in lots of different countries, asupering you don't want

:41:53.:41:57.

to do that. We are talk -- assuming you don't want to do that. We are

:41:57.:42:03.

talking about connecting with our environment, tiny little sensors

:42:03.:42:07.

you could put them on pets and cow, it could revolutionise elderly care,

:42:07.:42:11.

as explained in the film. It could allow people to stay in homes for a

:42:11.:42:15.

lot longer. It will put far more data out there. One of the excite

:42:15.:42:19.

things is being able to cross reference lots of different data

:42:19.:42:26.

set and draw non-intuitive comparisons between those. Pretty

:42:26.:42:31.

invasive? That kind of data will be common place about lots of

:42:31.:42:36.

different aspect of our lives. What temperature our therplgs statistic

:42:36.:42:41.

is, whether we have -- thermostat is, whether we have left the house.

:42:41.:42:45.

If we want to take our privacy seriously we have to guard all that.

:42:45.:42:49.

Away from sedentary matters, the fastest man in the world took an

:42:49.:42:53.

awfully long time to arrive. He says he doesn't do anything quickly,

:42:53.:42:57.

except run. I was given four-and-a- half minutes to talk to him, long

:42:57.:43:04.

enough for the sprinter to have run the 100ms 28 times. We packed a lot

:43:04.:43:07.

in, including flash photography. You are a man of God, what do you

:43:07.:43:12.

think in the ten seconds before the race starts? For me it is focusing,

:43:12.:43:16.

ten seconds my start is all about taking deep breath, relaxing and

:43:16.:43:20.

trying to clear my mind as much as possible. You have to listen to

:43:20.:43:23.

that gun. If you don't you will be left in the blocks like I am a lot

:43:23.:43:28.

of times. Sow the start is the worst bit? It is the worst bit of

:43:28.:43:31.

my race. I work on it every day, sometimes you hit it, sometimes you

:43:31.:43:37.

don't. A number of athletes from the Jamaican team have tested

:43:37.:43:40.

positive for banned substance, is that a particular problem there, or

:43:40.:43:45.

is the list too long? For me I'm an individual, I have to be vigilent

:43:45.:43:49.

and be very careful in what put in my body, and focus on what I can do.

:43:49.:43:54.

I can't talk about other athletes, they are also individuals, I have

:43:54.:43:59.

to do what I have to do. Would it help Jamaica and the team if there

:43:59.:44:04.

was more regular testing from the authorities there? I always work on

:44:04.:44:09.

testing, and say if they want to test me every day come and do it.

:44:09.:44:14.

Every athlete will be OK if they test for regularly. Do you think

:44:14.:44:21.

test testing positive is a life- time ban? That is not my area. Your

:44:21.:44:25.

gut feeling? As an athlete there are rules in everything you do, in

:44:25.:44:29.

life, in every different sport, for me that is the whole point, if you

:44:29.:44:33.

have rules, I don't make them I abide by them. He He takes the gold

:44:33.:44:44.

medal again. When you finally start to consider retirement, and it is a

:44:44.:44:48.

long way off. Would it be football? Yeah, something I want to try, when

:44:48.:44:53.

I sit and watch football I always say I can do this, you never know,

:44:53.:44:59.

I want it try when I retire to see if it would be possible. We will

:44:59.:45:04.

see what happens, I'm a big Manchester United fan and hopefully

:45:04.:45:10.

I can get a spot on. Have they approached you? When Alex Ferguson

:45:10.:45:14.

was in charge he said I could come and train whenever I want. I never

:45:14.:45:18.

got the opportunity. When I meet David Moyes hopefully I will get

:45:18.:45:22.

opportunity to train with them. You could imagine yourself playing for

:45:22.:45:25.

Manchester United? Definite low. You skroib yourself as a Definitely.

:45:25.:45:29.

You describe yourself as a at the You skroib yourself as a Definitely.

:45:29.:45:33.

no mam number and a legend. I look at your confidence and I think and

:45:33.:45:44.

there must be some area of your life where the confidence is not

:45:44.:45:48.

there. What puts you in a cold sweat? Nobody, I'm so laid back

:45:48.:45:51.

about everything really. I'm very sweat? Nobody, I'm so laid back

:45:51.:45:55.

competitive, I'm always confident in whatever I do, one thing you

:45:55.:45:59.

learn, if you go into anything doubting yourself it doesn't make

:45:59.:46:02.

sense, you do it. There is nothing you do slowly or without

:46:02.:46:06.

competitiveness? I do everything slow, except running.

:46:06.:46:23.

The Newsnight chair has now almost 500 follower, before we go, we hail

:46:23.:46:30.

the visionary Hiroshima Yamochi who died today. You have not heard of

:46:30.:46:34.

him but you have probably played him and your children still do. We

:46:34.:46:39.

leave but the seven ages of Mario.

:46:39.:46:40.

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