03/04/2014 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Kirsty Wark.

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sandstorm hitting the south-east of England to wake people up to the


fact that a pollution is a real and present danger in the UK. Newsnight


has found out there have been 60 similar incidents in the last five


years, none of them has received this level of media attention. We


ask the World Health Organisation how seriously we should be taking


this. Jimmy Carter, the 37th President of the United States tells


Newsnight how he would deal with intelligence whistle-blower, Edward


Snowden, if he were still in the White House. If he comes home and


tried and guilty and incarcerated and if I was President, a lot of if,


I would certainly consider giving him pardon. A remarkable story from


the Rwandan genocide. He said you can't kill these people, you can't


take them out at all. I refuse that. And he offered him arms and said if


you want to take them, you kill me. 20 years on we tell the incredible


story of the unsung UN peacekeeper who saved hundreds of lives. As the


Royal Shakespeare Company revive as trio of Jacobean play, unlike most


of the works of the barred gave women top billing, Fiona and show is


here to debate putting women in their place.


Good evening, the Saharan dust, which mixed with other pollutants


has been caution itchy eyes, noses and breathing difficulties in much


of the UK has raised alarm about increased levels of pollution. But


Newsnight's analysis suggests these levels are not at all unusual, just


we are normally unaware of them. None of this is new, of course, in


1903 when Monet set his easal next to the Thames, he said a London


without its fog would not be a beautiful city. 111 years later and


to the naked eye the picture is much clearer. But pollution readings over


the past week have alarmed scientists and medical doctors.


Today London and the south-east both hit the highest alert levels set by


the Government. The Prime Minister described the capital's atmosphere


as unpleasant. In the time that Monet painted that picture, most of


the pollution in London and most of the cities in the UK came from coal


burning, there was a period in the 1990s where we felt like we had


largely dealt with air pollution as an urban problem. We haven't, what


has happened since then is the amount of pollution from traffic and


industries has increased and as we are seeing this week pollution is


still a problem which affects many cities in Europe and the UK. How


often does this happen? The answer is far more often than maybe you


would think. This is the governments pollution map, London and east yang


are at the top level, meaning everyone with breathing difficulties


should avoid strenuous activities, warning was in place for four other


regions. Forget the media coverage and go back a week, similar


Government alerts at level ten were again in force, this time in the


East Midlands and Yorkshire and Humberside and only picked up by


handful of local papers. In fact, Newsnight has found that over the


past five years there have been 422 incidents of high air pollution at


level seven or above. With 61 incidents at the top level of ten,


very few were publicised If pollution is common why all the


media attention from politicians and media. In big towns it is almost


impossible to see at street level. Modern air pollution comes from


vehicle emission, microscopic and impossible to see with the naked


eye. In this case southerly winds have been blowing up from North


Africa, when it rains sand from The Sahara has been dumped on cars and


windows so we can see and feel it. It is easy to see the dust, it is


there. The types of pollution that we are measuring in the monitoring


networks and the types of pollution that have an affect on people's


health are microscopic particle, particles about the size of a virus.


So small that when you breathe them in they can get deep into the lining


of your lungs and make it through into the bloodstream. That is the


main difference between how pollution used to be in London and


the types of pollution we have now. But there may be a second simple


reason for all this media attention. On Tuesday responsibility for


forecasting pollution levels switched from the aDomic energy


agency to the Met Office. While That means those alerts suddenly started


to show up regularly on the weather forecasts. The effect of all this on


health is hard to measure, at least in the short-term. Today the Prime


Minister gave up his normal morning jog because of the pollution scare,


though he then appeared to play it down, calling it a natural


phenomenon. But the Government's own advisers on this estimate air


pollution is factor in at least 29,000 early deaths a year in the


UK. More than twice as many as passive smoking.


Exposure to air pollution in the UK leads to an average shortening of


life for about six months. On high-pollution days those most at


risk are the elderly and those P with preexisting conditions. These


people are more likely to develop symptoms and leading to emergency


hospital admission or even death. The deaths that occur on


high-pollution days are thought to be people who will woo die within a


few weeks any way and the pollution is putting them over the edge. What


can pollutions and Government do this be this? Last month Paris


imposed emergency measures only allowing those with even or odd


number plates drive on alternate days in the city centre. The


Government had agreed to bring air pollution down to safe levels by


2015, they have said that won't happen until 2025, the delay means


the UK is facing legal action from the European Commission and a group


of environmental lawyers. I believe that we have a riot to breathe clean


air, I believe that -- a right to breathe clean air strikes and I


believe we shouldn't havor woey -- shouldn't have to worry about


children breathing clean air. It is a major problem and isn't being


taken seriously, I think we need to take legal action and force


Government to do something about it. Saharan sand will wash off soon


enough and the smog will left. It is the effect of regularly breaching


pollution controls in the long-term that could be the cost to the


environment and to our health. We asked to speak to someone from the


department for the environment and from the Department of Health, but


we were told no-one was available. So to discuss this I'm joined now by


an expert in air pollution from the World Health Organisation, and Roy


Harris a Professor of Environmental Health from the University of


Birmingham. First of all I suppose we should be thankful for the


Saharan sandstorm because it has alerted ordinary people to the


presence of quite often high levels of air pollution? I think you are


right. What it has done is to reinforce the high levels that we


would have been seeing any way because of the air coming over from


the near continent. But it is very obvious the way it is soiling the


cars and windows and so on. It has very much highlighted the issue,


which is very good news for us. 422 incidents in the last five years of


pollution levels between 7 and 10, 29,000 premature deaths what should


the Government do about it? Legislation operates at a number of


levels it is not purely in the hand of the UK Government. It is also the


European Union which has actually been very active in the past in


driving forward policies on air quality. The only answer in the long


run is to reduce emission, there are many ways of doing that. It is not


cheap do it and much has been achieved in the past. But if we want


to see air quality improve in future, reductions in emissions is


the only way to do it. You talk about the EU, and coming to you


doctor, at the moment let's deal with the UK first. The EU has


launched legal proceedings against the UK because it has failed to


reach the levels of chemicals requested. How bad is Britain's


record in this? The World Health Organisation has said in some norms


and standards, most of the European countries are following those


standards and they don't deviate much from that, except on


exceptional occasions. But it is true that we would like to see an


increase and improvement on the way we are dealing with air pollution in


the fact that we need to breathe clean air if we want to have a


better health. So we would like to see in the European countries, even


if they are among the best countries in the world, an increase and an


improvement in the situation. That will be resulting in a better health


for everyone. That is primarily by reducing C O2 emissions? We need to


do a kind of diagnosis. It will be depending very much on each city.


You need to do an assessment from where those sources of emissions are


coming. In most parts of the time the emissions are coming from


traffic, so taking decisions on a more sustainable public transport


system, energy efficiency for the buildings, and measure that is will


increase the possibility for cities to work and to bike -- citizens to


work and bike and have a better lifestyle, reducing the use of


private vehicles will be contributing to the reduction of the


emissions. As mentioned it is difficult but it is physical, it is


feasible and it is demonstrated as possible. There are many experiences


proving that. Clearly David Cameron took it seriously this morning, he


didn't go for his jog. But do we have to take measures like they have


done in par risks for example, in -- Paris, for example, in city centres


to limit traffic at any one time. Do we have to do radical things like


that? I don't think these kinds of panic measure, such as they took in


Paris are terribly effective. You need long-term action and more


widespread action. This pollution arises not only from emissions, very


locally, it is not only emissions in London that affect London, it is


emissions right over the European continent. For some pollutants even


further away than Europe. You need a bigger action than that. That is KWL


why I think the main driver should be an action at European level


because the commission has the power to take action on these things. It


made proposals in December of last year, forthure changes in air


quality policy, which quite frankly I regard as complacent. So would you


agree that more can be done at the European level, are you happy in


relation to what is happening for example in China that Europe overall


is performing reasonably well? I think it is quite clear that the


measures in Europe, but as well the cities can take certain measures, it


is difficult for the citizens for themselves. It is going beyond the


controls of individuals in many places, you can't decide the quality


of the air you breathe. But by raising awareness, the citizens can


put a lot of generating pressures on policy by measures of city, national


and international levels, that is extremely important. I would like to


remind that there was a report presented a couple of weeks ago, one


week ago saying that we have an estimate of seven million deaths


linked to air pollution globally, which makes air pollution one of the


most significant global risks for health. It is clear that most of


those deaths are occurring in low and middle income countries, but


still, we are very much concerned as citizens from all around the world.


We have measures that have proved to be effect yes . The former US


President, Jimmy Carter has told Newsnight that if he was still in


the White House he would consider pardoning Snowden. In a wide-ranging


interview, starting with a discussion about his new book, A


Call To Action, which decries the world's discrimination of violence


against women and girls, President Carter goes on to claim that US


influence in the world has been damaged in recent years by American


involvement in so many wars. He was the last US President to visit Iran


and was in the White House during the embassy hostage crisis in which


52 Americans were held for 444 days. First his book, I put it to him he


seemed very troubled by elements of organised religion that do great


damage to women. I'm deeply troubled, it is not just religion.


Quite often the secular world is the most guilty of persecuting women.


For instance in my country we pay women 23% less than we do men for


the same work. We have tremendous sexual assaults on our college


campuses and even our greatest universities, they have the same


thing that happens within the mill treatment and we have a -- military,


and we have a terrible degree of slave trade in America. The US State


Department is required by law to do this every year now, reported it


last year, 100,000 young girls were sold into sexual slavery in the


United States itself. In the book you look at different countries, and


you focus for a very short while on Saudi Arabia, and you talk about


Saudi Arabia's upping of oil production in the Iran-Iraq War


coming to America's aid. I wonder if you pull your punches in Saudi


Arabia, as you say 78% of female graduates are unemployed because of


religious and cultural opposition. That is dreadful figure that? It is,


at least under King Abdullah the women have been given a free chance


for higher education and college and even up to graduate level. When they


do finish college training they have a very difficult time within the


Saudi culture to actually get a productive job. And they are


obviously constrained still by the customs that a woman has to be


escorted by man on the street, can't drive an car or ride a bicycle. At


the moment the Iranians are trying to send a new ambassador to the UN


who was one of the hostage takers at the American Embassy in Tehran,


should America give him a visa or not? I hope so, I see no reason to


prevent this person of serving as the official representative of Iran.


You have to remember that those people who took my hostages back in


1979 were college student, they were young people, I don't think they


should be held culpable for that incident now 35 years later. On the


broader question of American foreign policy, President Obama has been


criticised for not taking a firmer stand on Crimea. Do you worry about


renewed Russian expansionism? Well I don't think there was any way to


prevent Putin from going in to Crimea, no matter what the European


Union did, no matter what the Americans did. That was still going


to happen. Because I have known this situation for 35 or 40 years and


there is no doubt that Russians all considered Crimea to be part of


Russia and about three-quarters of the Crimean people who speak Russian


wanted to be part of Russia. That was a foregone conclusion. I think


the Russian military advance has to be stopped there. I don't think we


can permit Russia to have military adventures in other parts of eastern


Ukraine. Is America in a way damaged by very different things, of


Afghanistan and Iraq, do you think it has reduced America's confidence


in itself and its confidence in pursuing an act of foreign policy of


prevention? I think it has been some what damaging. America is still the


most powerful nation in the world there is no doubt about that, our


military, economic power and cultural influence, all I think are


still the most powerful. We are the only superpower in the world. But I


think that our influence has been a damage to some degree by constantly


going into bilateral wars. I mentioned in my book that since the


Second World War, since the United Nations was founded, ostensibly to


put an to end this kind of thing that the United States has been


involved in about 30 countries, and armed conflict. I think that is one


of the things that has given our country bad reputation as far as


peace and human rights is concerned. One thing that you are, you have


been talking about recently is the fact that you use what is called


"snail mail", that you actually write everything down. I wonder the


whole US scandal over intelligence, do you think the intelligence


gathering in the United States is out of control? Yes I do. I think it


got out of control after 9/11. When I was in the White House I passed an


act called the FISA Act, that required before any single telephone


conversation was monitored, that a very balanced judge, panel of judges


had to approve it. That was completely eliminated after 9/11.


And I think the intelligence committees of the House and Senate


in the United States Congress, have passed legislation which other


members of Congress were not permitted because it was top secret.


I think the NSA went further than the legislation permitted. In your


view, what about Edward Snowden, should he be allowed to come home


without fear of being locked up for the rest of his life? Well, I'm not


advising him what to do, but if he comes home, it is obvious that


Edward Snowden has violated laws and he will have to be put on trial, if


he comes home and is tried and found guilty, if he was incarcerated and I


was President, a lot of "ifs" then I would certainly consider giving him


a pardon! But it would be based on the fact that the punishment, in my


own personal opinion, exceeded the harm that he did to our country.


Thank you very much indeed. It was the political scandal that put some


MPs in jail, but today the cabinet minister, Maria Miller got the


fulsome support of the Prime Minister, despite the fact she was


censured by the Standards Committee for hindering an inquiry into her


expenses claims. She was forced into a humiliating apology on the floor


of the House and has to repay overpaid accommodation expenses.


What happened to tough David Cameron on cleaning up expenses. What


exactly did she do? She is one of four women in the cabinet. That is


politically significant, she was accused of claiming ?90,000 worth of


tax-payers' money for a house where she lived with her parents. Now,


what the commission has decided in all their wisdom is that arrangement


in principle was OK, but she did overcharge a little bit and an


administrativer Yorks they called t as a result she's having to pay back


nearly ?6,000. Humiliating she became the first serving cabinet


minister to have to say sorry from the benches of the House of Commons.


After an investigation of nearly a year-and-a-half, it came down to


this 32-second apology. With permission With permission I wish to


make a personal statement after today's report. It resulted in an


allegation made by a member, the committee has dismissed the


allegation. The committee has recommended that I apologise to the


House for my attitude to the commissioner's inquiries, and I of


course unreservedly apologise. I fully accept the recommendations of


the committee, and thank them for bringing this matter to an end. Not


exactly contrite, and not just the fact that she gave such a short


apology, you might think she was in disGRASHGS but look at this, behind


her, not just your normal backbenchers, or Government whip,


but the cabinet minister Jeremy Hunt who moved from the front bench to


the backbench to give her visible support, and Sir George Young a very


senior Conservative indeed. That tells us that the tof the


Conservative Party is tonight fully behind her.


Did she sort of get off? The independent commissioner,


fascinatingly, the independent, overseen by a member of MPs said she


should have paid back ?40,000. What is also striking is the tone of her


letters to the commissioner, where she really, really dragged her feet


at every step of the way. And that is actually what landed her in


trouble. One MP said to me it was the bullying way that she tried to


get out of it that actually led to her having to say sorry. It is


extraordinary because at the height of the expenses scandal, when people


were guilty, I have to say, lots of people went to jail? They did, and


believe it or not it is five years since that all blew up in the first


place. What is interesting is that many MPs I have spoken to today have


said the rules are ING Chad, we have all moved on and nobody thinks that


she was fiddling things on purpose, she made mistakes. The public might


feel rather differently. Tonight a couple of the front pages. The Times


here, "fury grows as expenses row minister clings to job" and "MPs


compeer to save Miller". One of the problems was MPs were judging


themselves, that is part of what is happening in this case. This weekend


it will be exactly 20 years since the start of the genocide in Rwanda


when ethnic Hutus started to wipe out minority ethnic Tutsis and


moderate Hutus too. 00,000 people were killed in three short months


and thousand of women raped. Few of the perpetrators have ever been


brought to justice t amongst the horror were acts of goodness too. An


unarmed United Nations peacekeeper from Senegal personally saved


hundreds of lives. The BBC's international development


correspondent covered the genocide back in 1994. Now, with the passing


of time, Mark returned to Rwanda to explore his story, a story which has


never been told in full before. Mark's film contains some extremely


disturbing images. Automatic fire could be heard from


invite the city. In the midst of the horror of the genocide an


extraordinary man saved hundreds of lives. Cap Dane Diane was an unarmed


observer from the African state of Senegal. In 1994 there was a small


peacekeeping force in Rwanda. When violence engulfed the country the


force was totally overwhelmed, but the captain was not. Going well


beyond his official mandate he set out to rescue as many people as he


could. One of the first people to be targeted by the Government-sponsored


killers was the Prime Minister. She and her husband were murdered in


their residence. But they had managed to hide their children, who


were also in the sights of the killers in a neighbouring house,


where forreners lived. The daughter of the assassinated Prime Minister


has never spoken about these traumatic events before. Or about


the role the captain had in saving her life 20 years ago.


There was some debate about UN official about what to do with the


children. The UN mandate was to observe. It wasn't clear what it was


supposed to do when it came to saving Rwandans. But on humanitarian


ground the captain decided to act any way. He bundled the children


into his car, hid them under a tarpaulin and drove them to the


safety of the hotel. The commander of the UN peacekeeping


force in Rwanda in 1994 was Canadian general Romeo Dallaire. There is no


way to describe how gutsy he was, it was the Victoria Cross type of


action. Millions of people were displaced as the conflict escalate.


Most Rwandans and other Africans were left to their fate. This


horrified captain Mbaye was spurred on. There was no grand plan left,


the UN in fact three weeks into the genocide was still arguing whether


or not I was allowed to protect anybody. And so they are debating it


meanwhile we are in the field and guys like Mbaye are saving bodies


left right and centre, pulling them out and trying to get them to the


airport. It was a core of people who had a sense of humanity that went


well beyond their orders. The militia tried time after time to


break into the hotel where Marie Christine and hundreds of others


were hiding. Survivors say Captain Mbaye, who was stationed there, was


the key man in a thin blue line of UN peacekeepers who kept the militia


out. This doctor was among those hiding at the hotel. As the battle


for central Kigali raged and the militias were hammering at the door,


Captain Mbaye ordered a convoy of lorries to take some of them to


safety. But the militia attacked the convoy on this hill. They tried to


pull us out. They climbed on top of the lorry to pull you out? To pull


us out. What was the captain doing at that time? He said you can't pull


these people, you can't kill these people, you can't take them out at


all. I refuse that. And he offered these arms, if you want to take them


you first kill me. To find out more about what made this extraordinary


army captain tick, I drafted to his home country of Senegal to meet his


family. In the living room a citation of bravery from the state


department in Washington. It said Captain Mbaye personally saved as


many as 600 lives. Do you remember anything else about


that last conversation that you had? Captain Mbaye's luck ran out on May


31st 1994. There had been talk on the walkie talkies of a military


observer having been killed near the Kigali nightclub, and Captain Mbaye


had stopped at that checkpoint, it was quite clear that a mortar bomb


or rocket had landed just behind the driver's position, because there was


shrapnel that had gone through the passenger door and we know that some


of that shrapnel hit Captain Mbaye's head. There was blood on the seat


and that had gathered in the foot well as well. And that's how he


died. So one man saved hundreds of lives


in Rwanda. But the genocide claimed 800,000, there is no moral


equivalence. But we now know that one man with extraordinary courage


did simply what he thought was right. Desdemona, Opheila, Titania,


even the impossible shre wait, it is hard to think of any of them


triumphing in Shakespeare's plays, some of his less well known cop temp


radios wrote plays featuring bold female characters. Now the RSA is


attempting to make good the deficit and putting on three of them under


the titles of The Roaring Girl. Here is a clip of the play, spliced with


the views of the director, Joe Davies. I described it to someone


the other day as a Jacobean pussy ride, you get the sense of the


energy of the piece! She quip, s, she smokes she sings, and a force of


nature the moment she steps on the stage. Joining me are my guests.


Fiona. First of all, you know Shakespeare's plays intimately, do


you think it was his way of doing it, or was the stories that he was


telling that was it? To make the women... Secondary? : He doesn't


always make them secondary, some of them are very central. Rosalind is


very central, they are secondary in the universe, the world they are


unifying usually ends in marriage. Where as the man's world is some how


broader and more philosophical. You do feel that the women are just


heading towards marriage. That is probably the limitation of it. Did


Shakespeare had any limitations put on him, or were they


self-limitations. There was the limitation of the fact that the


female parts were played by male actors, essentially the theatrical


profession was like a guild or trade. So the apprentice, the young


men, teenage boys played the female parts. So inevitably the likelihood


is the dramatist will of give the most grown-up parts to the lead


actors and secondary parts to the younger actors. Not in the Jacobean


plays? Two are Jacobean and a little later. The one I'm most interested


in is Elizabethan, that is the earlier play and has the biggest


part of the Elizabethan era but played by a boy actor. It doesn't


end in marriage likes the Shakespeare ones, it begins in


marriage, she has an fair and she and her lover kill the husband. On


the basis of what the plays show about the male character, there is a


lot of anteriority about the men in Shakespeare, women don't get that? I


don't know if that is true. They mention some wonderful things about


themselves, you mentioned about the annoying shrew, when it is said


"good morrow Kate I hear that is your name", and she says, "they call


me Katherine", her protection of her own name is her desire to be taken


seriously. He was sympathetic in that way to them. He puts them


through some strange things, Viola getting thrown up on a shore and the


forests foreanother. They are bigger than they started out as. Do you


think they have a universality. The whole idea about Shakespeare is it


is the universality that we can relate to now? My frustration is


ultimately not with them, because Jonathan is right because the


company composition and the way in which only male characters played


female characters had a limitation. Just if their world ends in marriage


and nowadays many women's lives begin with marriage and maybe


another marriage the plays are not reflect, they are not a mirror up to


nature to our experience of our entire lives. It is interesting that


he has to have the Romeo Juliet and ant though and Cleopatra, he


could have had a wonderful play with Cleopatra centre stage without


Anthony. Cleopatra is an interesting cautious I have a feeling in the


earlier part of Shakespeare's career when Queen Elizabeth is on the


throne, and there is a court censor censoring the makes he would have


been wary of having a powerful female ruler on stage for fear of


offending Elizabeth. Once she is dead he can put the stronger women,


Cleopatra and Lady Macbeth, and now it is King James on the thrown and


can he explore women in tour -- on the throne and he can explore women


in power. You played Richard II back in the 199 #0S, what was it like


playing a male part? It was difficult, I missed that I hadn't a


male history in my childhood in the playing of it, but it is in such


high poetry that Richard II is hardly a man, he is a God-boy, I


could do that I felt. I could play into the sense of an overblown sense


of self and slowly he become as human being. In that way it was


fantastic pleasure to reach down into someone whose relationship was


to infinity rather than marriage. What about different ways of playing


Sheikhs peer, -- Shakespeare, we have had all-female shakes ferrics


and do -- Shakespeare, and do we have to keep doing it differently? I


think we do. I think Shakespeare is always fascinated by cross-dressing,


and in The Roaring Girl, it is a woman who cross dresses and so many


of the best plays of that time are breaking down the traditional gender


roles. It is really a time when the public theatre is taking off as a


space where questions about traditional hierarchies, whether


begined e respect for the young and -- gender, or respect for young and


old are being questioneded. Your mind expands in the playing of them.


Rosalind speaks in verse when she is tied up, when she gets to the forest


it is prose, Beatrice is witty because she speaks in prose. There


is literally a text that becomes like a musical notation, that makes


the form itself expand. First the upmarket supermarket Waitrose hired


Kate Middleton's sister to write for its monthly magazine, it's probably


delighted that David Cameron became its unofficial cheer leader,


offering his supermarket sociology that there is something about


Waitrose customer, they are talkative and engaged people. Now


one of the supermarket's most famous customer, he was called stuck up by


Labour and a world away from most families who have to shop around for


best prices. We went to do our own supermarket sweep. When you own


something you care a little more. This is an advert for a leading high


street grocer, I can only identify as Waitrose. And here is another


plug for Waitrose. Or at least their shoppers. I have got an interesting


supermarket piece of sociology for you, which is there is something


about Waitrose customers is they are the most talkative. I find if I shop


in Waitrose it takes me twice as long, because everybody wants to


stop you and have a chat. Where as other supermarkets I can dart around


quickly. That is something about your customers, they are talkative


and engaged people. You might be tempted to say "bog off" to that, as


in buy one get one free that is what gets me to the supermarket. Let's


see what a shopping watcher makes of the PM's remarks. Statistically he's


correct in that Waitrose shoppers are a class above everyone else, as


in the proportion of their shoppers who come from the AB socioeconomic


group, you and I might call middle council tax they have a far greater


number than any other supermarket. I don't think he. I don't think he


said they were nicer people, he said they were more edge gauged and


talkative -- engaged and talkative? Some people have interpreted it as


shorthand for a cut above. I'm not saying they are better people but


they are more middle-class than Morrisons or Asda shoppers. More


than half of all supermarket shoppers belong to the top


socioeconomic groups, Morrisons' figures correspond closely to the


average. At Waitrose stores more than three quarters of customers are


from a professional background. But at Iceland roughly the same


percentage are from the lower socioeconomic bands. No you haven't


flipped over to National Geographic. What do we have here, this looks


like something from a gym or a sauna rather than a supermarket? This is


Morrisons very purposefully trying to appeal to the middle-classes


with, it looks great, it is very theatrical, but this is going for


the foodies, with the mist. I'm assured it service a purpose but I


think it is mostly to look nice. Doesn't it keep everything fresh?


Well. So would a chiller cabinet. This is interesting because


Morrisons comes from, it is Bradford roots, it was a discount, value


retailer, started by the Morrisons family, and it wants to appeal to a


different type of people. How do you do it? Simply visually by making


things look like they have come straight out a very upmarket Delhi.


Deli. Some people it think it is what the hell? We offer a diversity


of produce that people expect to BIECHLT we are a supermarket that


represent people from all walks of life. You will see customers poor,


rich, people from different ethnic communities and we are proud to


serve them. Somebody compared the self-service store with a lending


library. Once we all got used to the shock of


the supermarket, pleasant or otherwise, it seemed as though there


was a store to suit every pocket. Or rather class. In the classic British


way. But new arrivals have helped to change that, say some. The biggest


change we have seen over the last five years a very rapid growth of


both Aldi and Lidl, and also Waitrose, which is putting pressure


on what really is the middle ground on the larger group of supermarkets.


And as those outlets have got bigger they have tended to move closer to


the average. So Aldi and Lidl tend to have social demographics that are


getting close to the national average, and the old stigma perhaps


of carrying a shopping basket from there is rapidly disappearing. Would


we find shoppers in Morrisons to live up to the PM's expectations of


in-store banter? Is there anything to I what Mr Cameron says that in


Waitrose you meet talkative people? Do you in here, I never use Waitrose


I wouldn't know about it. Would you describe yourself as a Morrisons


woman? No, I could be in Harrods one day and here the next. So was Mr


Cameron well advised to big up his experiences at the supermarket or


was it case of unexpected item in bragging area! We should also let


you know that you can watch a longer version of our Rwanda film as part


of the Our World strand this weekend on BBC News channel. Now one of the


great lost treasures of British film has been improbably recovered from a


Dutch archive. It is the silent movie Love Life and Laughter


starring Betty Balfour and it has been on theritish Film Institute's


most-wanted list for years. We have asked pianist Chris Rowe to play


along to one of the scenes, the heroine in the bar is singing along


to a tune well known from the 1920s, some of you may recognise it.


This should be the last day of high pollution levels a change in wind


direction tomorrow round to the south west will push that pollution


out over the North Sea. Pleasant sunny spells breaking through across


many parts of England, Wales and Northern Ireland, eventually central


and southern Scotland. Sea mist may affect the east coast of Northern


Ireland, but 14 degrees in land. The wind direction won't change across


the east coast of Scotland, here staying pretty dull, cold and


miserable, the north-east of England, offshore winds means a rise


in temperature, but the south westly winds the key to pushing our


pollution away across the rest of England and Wales. Still pretty mild