07/04/2014 Newsnight


News stories with Jeremy Paxman. Including new Russian revolts in Ukraine, Maria Miller, 20 years since Rwanda, the death of Peaches Geldof, and will scientists find dark matter?

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warns Russia to back off eastern Ukraine or else. Or else what? With


pro-Russian protestors unbowed, is the west's main weapon now bluster?


Do Tory MPs want the Culture Secretary Miller to disappear? Well


that's matter for her and the Prime Minister. I will make an


observation, if I was in her position facing a difficult set of


circumstances and a local election I wouldn't expect my colleagues to go


around. We remember the Rwandan genocide? I covered my years, my


family, my uncles family, I remember seeing all of them... It is said to


be everywhere but we can't see it, are we about to find Dark Matter?


Increasingly frantic appeals from people who say they are an oppressed


minority. There is another way of looking at the crisis in Ukraine,


Vladimir Putin sees the recent change of Government to be a coup


carried out by Neo-Nazis. Could he order something similar to the


seizing of Crimea in the rest of the country. A White House spokesman


warned him to back off if he was planning anything like that overt or


covert. We take stock. In the east Ukrainian city protesters have


seized Government buildings and today announced the setting up of


their own Republic. Russian TV made it their lead, while the interim


Government in Kiev reeled from this fresh crisis. Somebody wants to make


sure the new Government don't control all the country.


It wasn't just there, here a security building was seized and in


other cities there were clashes. If this apparent co-ordination was not


suspicious enough, pro-Moscow activists in each city are talking


about holding a referendum in the second week of May. Yesterday the


second wave of the Russian federation's special operation


against Ukraine started. The goal is to destablise the situation in the


country, topple Ukrainian authorities, disrupt the elections


and tear our country apart. Can troops close to Ukraine's borders


the situation could now escalate very rapidly indeed. If it all seems


like an exact replay of Crimea, it isn't quite. Crimean Government


buildings were taken over by special for example where as those who


started occupying buildings in eastern Ukraine yesterday are a more


ran Dom selection of local toughs and activists, and it seems apparent


that they don't want to unite with Russia, rather they want a new deal


vis a vis Ukraine. I don't think if people demand freedom, democracy,


the rights to vote, I don't think it is a bad thing. If Brussels will be


taught they should respect the rights of the Ukrainian people.


Nevertheless what was taken I think could be very good.


The Russian goal is to create a new power structure in the Ukraine, in


which the eastern provinces get federal powers and that allows them


to stop any move for example closer to the EU by Ukraine as a whole. The


reason though that this is going to become so dangerous is that many


think the type of referendum now being proposed by the activists in


the east can't take place. Unless there are Russian troops on the


ground. So Ukraine's Government must now


respond to this knowing much of the police in the east sides could be


with Russian activists and there could be a large scale invasion


triggered. Russia and the US have tonight been


talking about renewed negotiations to resolve this crisis. And the


stakes could hardly be higher. For the imperative now is not just to


avoid conflict in eastern Ukraine but to prevent large scale western


sanctions against Russia that could follow any invasion. Now we have


President Obama's White House co-ordinator for weapons of mass


destruction between 2009-2013, he's now at Harvard University, we have


an expert in Russian foreign policy from St Anthony's College Oxford.


What do you think is Putin's ambition in this situation? Well, I


think President putt tin Putin is hoping to achieve this through the


threat of force, including efforts to destablising eastern Ukraine. At


the same time I am afraid if that doesn't work, if he's not able to


achieve the changes in the Ukrainian institution constitution --


constitutions he is seeking, I believe he's prepared to use force


to seize and occupy parts of Ukraine. What is he seeking? Changes


in the constitution of Ukraine that would protect Russian interests, so


for example the proposals would make sure that the Government of Ukraine


would not join any military alliance, for example, NATO. The


propose changes would also create a federal structure so that the


eastern provinces that are dominated by Russian speakers would constrain


what the central Government in Kiev was prepared to do. And the Russians


would like to see these changes put in place before the presidential


elections in Ukraine that are scheduled for May 25th which, I


don't think is very realistic, because the interim Government has


not really been organised nor does it have the legitimacy to organise


such a constitutional convention. So I'm afraid the Russians will push


very hard. Let's see if there is a shared analysis? One thing is we


overstrategyise Putin, we assume these are brilliant pre-laid plans.


From the information coming out Crimea, the decision to take Crimea


as it was taken probably preceded that by a fortnight. There were


contingency plans, that is why it went smoothly. Broadly speaking


Putin wants to have the old former Soviet Union, he wants sufficient


leverage over Ukraine to prevent it becoming a member of NATO. But more


than that I don't think. And to leverage it when he wants to. So his


interest lies at the moment in translating discontent in the


eastern parts of Ukraine with Kiev, which is very widespread, only 20%


of south-east support the Government, into a leverageable


situation where you can turn that into cause and demands for


devolution within Ukraine. I don't think he wants the partition of


Ukraine. From the way it seems to be playing out, hasn't the west tacitly


accepted that this is Russia's sphere of influence? I think we have


tacitly accepted that Crimea is gone. Crimea was a very special


case. I don't think we have accepted that Russia has the right to


partition at will Ukraine. Which is an independent, sovereign state. I


don't think we have. It may not be what he's seeking? I don't think we


have a policy though that is well thought through. As usual we rely on


Washington to set a policy and strategy. At the moment from what I


see I don't think we have a good will thought-through strategy in


Washington. There are not many levers to be pulled are there? Well,


we're certainly not going to defend Ukraine, we and the Europeans. I


don't think the Ukrainians are capable of defending themselves,


especial ly in the east. The big tool the Europeans have is the


threat of serious economic sanctions which obviously have been withheld


up to now. The sanctions that have been imposed so far have been mainly


symbolic. Sanctions cut both ways. It is interesting to see how far


Europe will be prepared to go in terms of sanctioning the gas sector.


Which is obviously a huge step, but would hurt Europe as well as Russia.


What do you think of the chances of serious sanctions being used? I


think sanctions have a very poor track record throughout the world.


We should hold out the prospect of sanctions, but what we should be


doing now is also holding out the word to Russia that it is a great


guardian of international law and make it actually do something.


President Putin should go on television, let us say and appeal to


his compatriots in eastern Ukraine to obey the law as they would in


Russia. We need to make Russia hold to its word as an upholder of


international order. We need to inject lots of money into Ukraine


and make sure the eastern parts of Ukraine see some of that money from


Kiev. Why would we do that? They feel it is not just a political


pro-Russian anti-Kiev movement, it is also economic. In Crimea


pensioners were delighted that their pensions would double when they


became members of Russia. People in the region of industry which is rust


built in many ways want a better standard of living. They feel they


are being neglected by Kiev. Do you see any appetite to spend money in


Ukraine? Well I agree with Alex that we should be trying to prop up the


economy and help Ukrainians, but I frankly don't think that assistance


can arrive in time to avert the current crisis. The big question is


whether the Government in Kiev is prepared toe make some concessions


in order to accommodate the Russians. And in particular on


issues like NATO membership. Which frankly I don't think Ukraine will


ever be brought into NATO. Because the western countries are not


prepared to defend Ukraine. So will Ukraine be willing to provide


assurances to Russia that will satisfy Putin and avert further


conflict and instability? Thank you both very much indeed. The Prime


Minister is showing no sign of throwing his Culture Secretary to


the dogs, however loudly they may have barked again over Miller's


abuse of public funds and her 32-second apology to the House of


Commons. He declared today that what matters is doing the right thing and


that he thought she had done so. Other parliamentarians were


wondering exactly how she or the committee of MPs who let her off the


repayment demanded by the regulators have enhanced the standing of


parliament or trust with the voter? If you ever want to know who your


friends are, trying tri-going through a parliamentary expenses


scandal. Twitter is great place to go if if you want to see how


unpopular you are. This weekend the Department of Culture, media and


sports account was hacks, this is the result. In a parody of the


policy they used a hashtag to comment. It is interesting how


loathe how many MPs are to speak out any way. This issue is just as toxic


as it was when it first hit the headlines five years ago, that


thatted nadire relationship between those who rule and those who vote


them in and out. It came down to the PM. This morning he was out and


about in a supermarket and with a baby. He was talking about new jobs


for 12,000 people. His Culture Secretary, however, was not one of


them. Maria McMillan is in Miller is doing an excellent job and that is


why she is there. He has said it three times. Even before he came to


office David Cameron made it clear he didn't want to chop and change


his ministers via raging press. He has stuck to it, fewer reshuffles


and sackings, more sustained tenure in the top jobs. The difficulty may


not be with the public perception but his own MPs. Some of whom are


feeling particularly vulnerable right now. Jackie Doyle Pryce has


the most marginal Tory seat in the country, a majority of just 92 and


says this is making the fight much harder. Would it make it easier for


you if she went? That is a matter for her and the Prime Minister. But


I will just make this observation that if I was in that position,


facing a difficult set of local election, I wouldn't be expecting my


colleagues to defend me. So yes? That's a matter for her. David Law


as you might remember went quietly over his expense, Mark Harper


resigned almost before the story broke over his illegally employed


nanny. It is a no-fuss approach colleagues say reaps its own


rewards. But the fury isn't only directed at Maria Miller, but the


system that allowed it to happen today. One of the Labour MPs, who


sparked the initial investigation, called for policing of MPs. David


Cameron says he's open to the thought and others say not


necessarily. Ultimately the democratically elected part of


Government is the highest form of authority you have. So anything you


set up that is independent is set up by that body and can be abolished by


the body. Therefore it is more honest for parliament to say we will


regulate ourselves than to elect some unaccountable and unelected


bureaucrat that they can get rid of any way. I have got hold of the


House of Commons document into Maria Miller's expenses, all 110-pages of


it, it is impen treble, has details of the first and second home. On


page 25 you find the crux of the matter, Code of Conduct, the sense


she failed adequately to respond to the commissioner's questions, and


she consistently challenged his inquiries. When you talk to MPs on


both sides of the House, the agreement is she doesn't get it


still. Tonight a ministerial colleague, one


arguably after her job, pointedly said she would have done things


differently. So will Miss Miller survive? Well she has been seen in


neither of her two homes. But timing, as ever, will be crucial.


One thing stands in her favour, and that is the Easter parliamentary


recess. If she can hang on two more days, she may have earned a


political resurrection until the next reshuffle at least. There were


intensely moving commemorations in Rwanda today of the genocide that


began there exactly 20 years ago. In 100 days of violence more people


were killed than Britain lost in the entire First World War. We are going


to hear the testimony now of Liliane Umubyey. She was 15 in 1994 when the


Hutus began murdering so many of their Tutsi neighbours. She saw


almost her entire family killed by a Hutu mob. Understand escaping her


caters and moving to Britain in 2000, she has worked with other


survivors through the Survivor's Fund. She's currently studying for


an MA at Oxford Brookes University. 2000, she has


My name is Liliane Umubyey, long before the inside I was 12 years


old, we didn't know who was Hutu or Tutsi. Even if the parents gave you


a bad eye you wouldn't take much notice because you didn't know why.


In 1994 the Hutus picked up the machetes and killed the Tutsis. The


sixth April 1994, the Rwandan President is killed when his plane


is shot down. With confusion over who is to blame and the Government


in disarray, the killing of Tutsis begins. I remember when they came to


my uncle's house. Singing very joyful songs that nobody should


escape. Rejoicing over what they were going to do. The killing was


already spreading in the whole neighbourhood. My parents didn't


want to open the door. So as we hear the song, they are approaching the


house. As I saw them with all sorts of weapons and I couldn't just


believe. That painful death it was so unbearable to my mind. I just


jumped through the back window. I tried to run but the whole group was


already surrounding the compound. So I climbed the tree that was in the


back yard. The 7th of April 1994, as UN peacekeepers stand aside, Rwandan


soldiers and Hutu militia hunt for Tutsis, some people are shot, but


many more are killed with clubs, sticks and machete, radio broadcasts


call for the extermination of Tutsi cockroaches. A minute later all I


could hear from the house was... Was the noise of my parents screaming...


And it was terrifying but I couldn't do nothing. I couldn't even go down.


Once they finished killing everybody they pulled all the bodies outside


to double check who escaped and who is not dead yet. In the tree of


course I was holding the branch I couldn't cover my ears to hear what


was going on. There was lots of, then my family, my uncle's family


and, yeah... I remember seeing all of them... The 11th April 1994 tens


of thousands of Tutsi and had you sue moderates have been kicked. The


civilians they been sheltering are left to the Hutu mobs as the


peacekeepers move to the airport. I stayed there for a long, long time.


I thought will I stay here for ever, and I didn't have anywhere else to


go. When the evening came the dog, the wild dogs just start coming to


savage the bodies and I said no way, no chance. This was done by human


beings, but you are a dog you cannot do that. This is all I have left for


me. And I tried to stone them. As I was stoning them I climbed down. I


was running behind the dogs and then I felt I can't go back and then I


went and asked shelter from the neighbours. In the following weeks


as the UN Security Council wastes its breath deciding whether the


massacres can be legally escribed as genocide, the number of deaths


increase, tens of thousands become hundreds of thousands. She is called


Rosa I asked Rosa could you help me, she was even the one who yelled most


to say she's here, and then I tried to run behind the house, I fell in


the pit. I couldn't just get up quickly enough before they


surrounded the pit and said could you come up. I said I'm not, you


kill me here and bury me here, finish your business. One of them


jumped in and carried me up. I remember hearing one of them, how


can you kill this pretty lady without toasting her to know how


good she is. The rape of Tutsi women the rule and absence an exception,


says the UN. With the encouragement of Hutu leaders, hundreds of


thousands of acts of extreme sexual violence take place. I was like this


is not fair. But yet again you were powerless you could not do nothing.


One by one they started raping me. And the most memorable face I


remember is the first one. When the at this forces seized the capital


Kigali in mid-July an estimated 800,000 Rwandans have perished. The


genocide is over. I would like to stop telling my story for now until


when my daughters who are two and five are reaching to the age when I


will be able to explain and tell them exactly what happened to me


personally, even if they knew what has happened to the whole country. I


will consider that moment as a closure to my suffering for the


genocide. Well now my guest is Rwanda's High Commisioner to the UK.


He joins us now from Nottingham. With me here in the studio is


Newsnight's producer in Rwanda during the genocide, and went on to


make the film Shooting Dogs, and has just written a memoir about the


experience, When The Hills Ask For Your Blood. How easy is it to forget


whether you are a Hutu or Tutsi? It is actually very easy. As we are


growing up we are never socialising as hut at thises Tutsis and had you


at thises. The install gaze of Hutu or Tutsi concept was engineered by


colonial forces. But what we have discovered over the last 20 years,


since the terrible strategy of 1994 when during the genocide against the


Tutsis, one million people were butchered in 100 days. We have come


to learn that there is no premium, there is no benefit in


everdramatising and ro Manchester United size -- overdrama sizing or


romanticising the issue. We have been stronger and able to do much


more when we work as one rather than Hutu or Tutsi. You were in and out


of Rwanda all the time, how was it to you? I think his excellency is


not quite right about whether Rwandans feel Hutu or Tutsi or not.


They feel very strongly their heritage, their land, their blood,


their Lennage. -- lineage. They are families with what we heard there,


she can't wait to tell her family her history, people have oral


histories. One has to be very careful in imagining you can simply


reboot people into a different identity and saying we are all


Rwandans. Desnot rebooting, I speak as a Rwandan, I have children, I


have relatives like myself. I have never taught my children they are


Hutu or Tutsi. So I think I'm in a much more comfortable space to


articulate what Rwandans want to view themselves as. Right now as we


speak, and we commemorate the 1994 genocide against the Tutsis, the


overriding conversation in Rwanda is not whether one is Hutu or Tutsi, it


is what it is that we must, you know, use it to redesign ourselves.


But a new values system can we put in place that helps us to view


ourselves as one rather than focus on the things that divide us. That


is a very pious ambition. That is a conversation that is going on in the


country right now as we speak, we are focussing on that. What are you,


are you a Hutu or Tutsi? What do you think? I have no idea, that is why


I'm asking you? That's the point, why are you trying to make me


redesign myself by something I detest, because it allowed madness


to grip our country. Because we are talking on the anniversary of a


genocide, that's why? And as we talk about the anniversary of the


genocide, the conversation that the people of Rwanda are having right


now is not about Hutu or Tutsi, but about what it is we must see as our


system that unites us. And that particular conversation in Rwanda is


called not I am Hutu or Tutsi. It is interesting what the ambassador says


about a shared values system. That's the big question that Rwanda faces


really. Whose values are they and does everybody share them together?


And I think there is a real sense of national purpose and his excellency


is right, people really believe in trying to move Rwanda forward and we


have seen tremendous progress. The risk is in asking everybody to


participate in this shared system of values, you forget who you are. Of


course I defer to his excellency, he's Rwandan and I'm not. I have sat


with Rwandans, I have been walking around the hills and talked with


them for many, many years, what you find is people will tell you their


stories when they feel comfortable. When they don't feel threatened by


what the Government is saying or indeed what the people around the


village corner are saying. It was interesting I thought at the


commemoration today the number of senior figures, both from Rwanda and


in fact the President from Uganda made the same point. A lot of the


blame for this lies with colonial powers. Is that a widespread


perception? It is a perception that has been, I think the blame is being


shared, I think today we saw politics being played by President


Kigami, to make it clear where Rwanda stands as opposed to the old


colonial powers. If you go to the schools in Rwanda you get a clear


sense of where blame is attached. It is attached partly to the colonial


powers that identified the different cultural groups Hutu or Tutsi and


gave them identity cards. But it is also the bad Government in 1994.


People are taught very specifically that story. The narrative is of the


Government. It is not necessarily whether their fathers or mothers


were active participants or passive participants. Thank you very much.


Tragedy struck the Geldof family today, Peaches Geldof, whose mother


Paula Yates died of a drug overdose, she was found dead at 25. She was


rarely out of the tabloid press and leaves behind two young children. A


life lived in front of the flash bulbs, a daughter of celebrity, then


a celebrity herself. Peaches Geldof was one of the children of the


ill-fated match of bob Geldof and Paula Yates, her mother died of an


overdose when she was just 11 years old. But from her teens Peaches


Geldof chose to follow their fame. A writer, presenter, regular fixture


on fashion front rows. Formerly a member of London's party scene and


now talking about parenting on TV. This is a prime example of someone


who did not grow up with attachment parenting, someone who goes on the


media to slag off other women. The 25-year-old was found dead at her


home in Kent this afternoon. Her father said the family was beyond


pain. But in a life of public moments, Peaches Geldof's last


message was to share a picture of herself with her mother. She said


she had been unable to grieve her properly till 16. But her two young


sons and husband will now have to live their lives with loss. With us


now is the Guardian columnist Hadley Freeman. Everybody seemed immensely


shocked today, why do you think that was? There is several layers of


sadness to the story. Obviously first she was very young, nobody


should die at 25. She had two very young children, no-one and


two-year-old should lose their mother. A lot of us remember her


being born, we see her grow up, I'm old enough to remember her as the


daughter of bob Geldof and Paula Yates, we know her father is still


alive and we know how sad he feels. It was such a surprise. She was a


wild child, she was that cliche in her teenage years, she talked about


experimenting with drugs, for a long time it looked like she might be


going the same way as Herrera, her mother died of a drug overdose and


she talked about her struggles. But she gets married and has two boys,


seen on TV talking about parenting, very much involved with her children


and seeming very happy. For something to then go wrong was a big


shock to a lot of people. It did seem, I wouldn't claim any


specialist knowledge of course, but from a distant awareness, she did


seem to have changed her life, didn't she? When I had a book launch


in 2008 when she was going through the period. She crashed my book


lunch launch to my and my friends' surprise, she was the chaotic mess


she was portrayed. She was seen as another Amy Winehouse and Pete


Doherty in the tabloids. Then I saw her recently at fashion show, she


was healthy, she was happy with one of her children. It was a big


surprise for it to happen now. Tells us something about ourselves that


people were so shocked and saddened by this. Because everybody knew her


personal story and it actually speaks rather well I think doesn't


it of social sympathy? And also I think people like to have these


narratives and certainly the tabloids had written narrative for


her. For a while she would be Paula Yates part two, and then she was a


success story, the happy story for bob Geldof, he lost his former wife


but the child was doing well. This has happened now. We have known bob


Geldof for so long in the public eye for 30 years, to see someone you


know well as a celebrity lose their child is terribly sad.


Thank you very much. Media outlets around the world's, and Dark Matter


is one of the Holy Grails of atrophysics. For decades scientists


have been trying to work out what it is or whether it exists. Here is the


BBC's simplified explanation of it. A type of matter hypothesised in


cosmology to account for effects that appear to be the result of mass


where no such mass can be seen. Clear you have eh! Rebecca Morelle


will lighten our darkness with a report from South Dakota where


scientists are hoping to be the first to provide proof of its


existence. Mount Rushmore, gazing over the black hills of South


Dakota. It was about the same time the heads were being carved into the


rock in the 1930s that elsewhere scientists began to notice there was


something very strange about the universe. A huge chunk of it


appeared to be missing. It is a mystery that has baffled scientists


for decades. But now an answer might lie just around the corner from


here, it is not far away in the black hills a bold new experiment is


about to get under way. The Home Stake Gold Mine. It is here


where scientists have the best chance yet of finding Dark Matter. A


mysterious substance born in the big bang, it could make up more than a


quarter of the universe. South gates going to the 48-50. Nobody knows


what form Dark Matter takes or even if it really exists. This cage


descent was once the daily commute for gold miners, now it is


scientists that make the journey one mile down to one of the deepest


laboratories in the world. It takes about ten minutes to get to level


4850, ample time to swat up on a bit of particle physics.


Galaxies like our own consist of planets and stars and dust. All


rotating around a dense centre. The thing is, all this regular matter


simply doesn't have enough mass to account for the gravity needed to


hold the galaxy together. The whole thing should fly apart. There must


be something else there, something we can't see. And scientists believe


that's Dark Matter. And it is this that creates the mass and the


gravity needed to bind the galaxy together. The thinking is that Dark


Matter played a vital part in the evolution of the universe. Its


existence is even more compelling if we consider its influence on a


grander scale. This is a computer projection mapping in blue where


scientists think it is at its densist, and across its web of


clumps and tangles galaxies merge and cluster, it is the scaffold on


which our Cosmos is hung. Nobody actually knows what Dark


Matter looks like. But imagine I could use this lens to take a look


at these mysterious particles. Scientists think they are


everywhere, hanging in space, but because the earth is constantly in


motion, it would look like they are streaming through us, trillions upon


trillion, passing through us every second, like ghosts. This


phantom-like quality is what makes them so hard to detect. But, there


is a theory that Dark Matter part icles do sometimes pump into regular


matter. That is why we are going deep underground to the laboratory


where they hope to catch these extremely rare encounters in the


act. This subterranean lab is shielded from naturally occurring


radiation found up on the surface. Giving the experiments the cosmic


quiet it needs for its detection work. And this is what it is all


about, one mile underground a tank spanning two storeys, it contains


nearly 100,000 gallons of ultra purified water and suspended at its


heart is the more sensitive Dark Matter detector ever built. The


detector contains 800 pounds of the chemical element Xenon, although


most particles will pass through, in the hope that a particle bumps into


a Xenon particle it will give a bit of light that sensors will record.


Rick is one of the people behind the work going on in this lab cave. His


quest to prove Dark Matter exists is decades long. We all thought we were


going to solve it in the first five years of looking, we are just on the


threshold of starting a new search with the Lux Detector that will last


for 300 days. We are configuring the detector to look for the extremely


occasional reaction, one every month or few months. If we can get an


answer to what Dark Matter is, not only will we have explained what the


majority of the matter in the universe is made of, but we will


also really usher in a new era in our understanding of the fundamental


physics of this universe. Finding Dark Matter will put the laboratory


on the map. But they are conscious they are not the only team looking.


There are a handful of experiments located at different underground


laboratories around the world that they want to be the first ones to


stand up and say they have discovered it. And so it is very


competitive and they track what each other is at and results that come


out. It is really an interesting process to see these guys and ladies


competing to try to be the first. Back up at the surface and just


round the corner from the gold mine is the old gambling town of


Deadwood, now it is scientists hoping to strike it lucky here.


Whoever is fortunate enough to be able to discover Dark Matter first,


it will be a Nobel Prize winning result. But entire careers are being


staked on a particle that might not even be there. You know we have to


allow for the idea that the experiment may produce a negative


result, the standard repost under those circumstances is to build a


bigger one. Here in South Dakota, an audacious


gamble can sometimes pay off. If you are looking for a working example of


a complete shamble, you could do worse than gawp in disbelief at


yesterday's Sheffield half marathon. It was cancelled with minutes to go


because there apparently wasn't enough water for the runners. Plenty


of them didn't get the message and thousands completed the course any


way. Nick Clegg a local MP called the situation "farcical" and he


knows a thing or two about farces. What about this, water. We have one


of the presenters of Trust Me I'm a Doctor, how much water do we need?


That is why I put the water on the table, it varies a huge amount. This


is the most water I have ever drunk in day, this is probably the least,


in fact I may have drunk less than that today. For one individual it


can vary that much. That was a hot day doing hard exercise in a


difficult climate. If you are working in a cold office it will be


very little. If you add to that medical conditions, age, immensely.


So there is no minimum? There is a minimum, without water for more than


a few days we will all die. A few days? But you can get by, if you


work in a cold environment, you are not doing any exercise and you start


the die hide demonstrated, you -- day hide demonstrated and you want


immediate need a lot of water. Drinking water if you feel a bit


hungover or like you need cleansing, there is a lovely idea of putting


something clear in your body that gets rid of waste. To that idea we


add a layer of clever marketing and slightly misrepresented science from


companies with enormous vested interests in selling large


quantities of bottled water. If you delve into the research the eight


glasses a day is nowhere to be found really. The best evidence says you


should drink to thirst. If you go on one of these websites that advises


you about how much you have to drink it will tell you large quantities


really? This is the perils of certain websites on the Internet. If


you go to the BBC website where I have written an article of what you


need to drink. Drinking to thirst that gets you enough water. You


should drink when you are thirsty. If you feel like a glass of water


have one. That is true if you are an Olympic athlete or if you are


someone sitting in an office. If you do drink too much what is the


problem, you just Pete it out don't you? No, brinking too much water is


very dangerous. The marathon in question probably more people die at


the end of marathons from drinking too much water without anything in


it than people who die from dehydration. Why? Because having a


lot of water die lutes your body you and get brain swelling. When you


sweat you lose salt. For each bottle of water like that, if it was sweat


that is about how much salt you would have in it, and you have to


replace the salt. If you put the salt in the water it would be


unpalatable, and most of the over the counter electrolithe drinks


don't have enough salt in them. It is important for runners to


rehydrate carefully. If you drink too much the salt gets washed out of


your body? Essentially, you end up drowning. If I drank all that water


today it would be dangerous. So the emphasis from overhydration has now


shifted to make sure we hit the sweet spot. Like everything, fat,


sugar, vitamins, too much is very bad, too little is very bad for you,


exactly what our grandmothers would say. This other one here? This is


sugar. It is salt? Maybe it is a mixture? We may have confused


things. It is horrible? To make it absorbable rapidly we usually add a


bit more sugar. Sugar and salt in that proportion would be a good


rehydration mix, diluted fruit juice with salt in it would be great for


runners. If we rank too much water it would be good to get the sugar


out of you? We are eating too much sugar drinking water would be good


for us. You don't excrete sugar in your urine only happens when you


have a problem. It is not very useful this water lark? It is


important not to try to overthink it I guess. Drink when you are thirsty


is the headline. Thank you very much, thank you. Both? Probably


affected by too much water. Tomorrow morning's front pages now the Prime


Minister is at war with his party over Maria Miller. They are also in


the Telegraph Tory MPs calling for her to be sacked. I don't know why


we are not looking at the pictures of the front pages, we apparently


don't have T as all viewers are aware the cult HBO series Game of


Thrones eagerly awaited fourth series arrived last night. It is


best known as marital aid for fans of Dungeons and Dragons everywhere.


Should you feel slightly underinformed about series 1-3, here


is the potted character guide, kindly provided by the Screen


Junkies YouTube Channel. Good night. Meet unforgettable hero, John Snow,


a Moby bustard who doesn't know anything. You know nothing. And


Ardarian, a super-hot Queen obsessed with her dragons. Right on an


adventure where any lead character can die, whether you are Sean


SKACHLT bean's wife, son, best friend, daughter-in-law, his family


dogs, his unborn grand kid, all men must die who are in any way close to


Sean Bean.


New Russian revolts in Ukraine. Maria Miller. Twenty years since Rwanda. The death of Peaches Geldof. Will scientists find dark matter? With Jeremy Paxman.

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