29/04/2014 Newsnight


29/04/2014

Jeremy Paxman presents in-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines, including UKIP, cancer survival rates and Obama's record.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to 29/04/2014. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

You wouldn't imagine things could get much better for UKIP, but then

:00:00.:00:12.

tonight they did. A Conservative MP discredited by sleaze stepped down,

:00:13.:00:16.

forcing a by-election, the party reckons it might be able to win. I'm

:00:17.:00:22.

an ex-soldier, I believe when I get something wrong you have to fess up

:00:23.:00:27.

and get on with it. No point in shelly shallying and trying to avoid

:00:28.:00:32.

it. We will ask if that ex-soldier just stuck a bayonet in the guts of

:00:33.:00:37.

his own party. Our chances of treating many forms of cancer have

:00:38.:00:42.

improved hugely. Is the emphasis on defeating the disease though

:00:43.:00:46.

starving other illnesses of resources? This shows one single

:00:47.:00:50.

stock market share being traded right around the world in half a

:00:51.:00:56.

second by a computer. Will we look back soon fondly on the mere greed

:00:57.:01:01.

of the City trader. Instead of the bottom of the class at Oxford and

:01:02.:01:04.

Cambridge going to work in the City, it is the top of the class. And the

:01:05.:01:09.

top of the class is capable of doing unlimited damage to everybody else.

:01:10.:01:14.

And this: Unsex me here and fill me from the crown to the toe, top full

:01:15.:01:28.

of diarist cruelty. They are here, they are there, they

:01:29.:01:32.

are everywhere, the United Kingdom Independence Party have achieved

:01:33.:01:36.

quite a feat considering they don't have a single MP in parliament. In

:01:37.:01:40.

just over three weeks' time at the European elections, we shall see

:01:41.:01:43.

whether the anxiety of the big parties which do have MPs is

:01:44.:01:48.

justified. And tonight, with the resignation of the disgraced Tory

:01:49.:01:52.

MP, Patrick Mercer, there is even the chance of the UKIP leader

:01:53.:01:56.

running for parliament himself. In the meantime there is the question

:01:57.:02:01.

of whether UKIP is racist? The UKIP council candidate who said that the

:02:02.:02:05.

black comedian Lenny Henry ought to emirate to what he called a "Black

:02:06.:02:10.

Country", and he didn't mean the West Midlands, which actually is

:02:11.:02:12.

where Lenny Henry comes from any way, resigned from the party today.

:02:13.:02:18.

But all the other parties, the older parties, continue to assert that

:02:19.:02:23.

UKIP is racist. # So while you work... Dads Army is

:02:24.:02:30.

coming back. Your name will also go on the list. What is it? Don't tell

:02:31.:02:38.

him Pike! 45 years after it was first seen on TV, it is about to hit

:02:39.:02:44.

the big screen as a feature film. The reworking, this time with Bill

:02:45.:02:50.

Nighy and Toby Jones, look impossible to fail. But the timing

:02:51.:02:55.

of the venture play be superb. Half a century on the story of a small

:02:56.:02:59.

island alone and under siege still seems to have enduring appeal. A

:03:00.:03:03.

small Band of Brothers, led by the local bank manager, waiting with

:03:04.:03:08.

baited breath for the invasion of an impending force, energy occupied

:03:09.:03:13.

Europe. Sound familiar? Not war but quite possibly a sentiment that goes

:03:14.:03:17.

straight to the heart of the UKIP message. That seems to be garnering

:03:18.:03:24.

support. Tonight news from an ex-soldier that may well blast a

:03:25.:03:28.

hole in the Tory battleship. Patrick Mercer, an MP suspended for six

:03:29.:03:32.

months over "cash for questions" allegations, has announced he had a

:03:33.:03:38.

stand -- will stand down, triggering a by-election. I believe when you

:03:39.:03:42.

get something wrong you have to fess up and get on with it, no point in

:03:43.:03:48.

shilly shallying and avoiding it, I'm ashamed of it. I will do what I

:03:49.:03:52.

can to put it right for the constituency of Newark. Bad enough

:03:53.:03:55.

for the Conservatives if it ended there, reminders of more financial

:03:56.:04:00.

sleaze, so soon after the Maria Miller affair, will do nothing to

:04:01.:04:03.

cheer the troops, weeks before voters held to the polls. But within

:04:04.:04:08.

minutes of the Mercer resignation came reports that Nigel Farage, or

:04:09.:04:15.

to give him the full title "the man who scares the living daylights out

:04:16.:04:19.

of the Conservatives" may try to stand in the seat that is vacant.

:04:20.:04:25.

Under by-election rules it can't be fought until after next month's

:04:26.:04:29.

European elections, when UKIP might be riding high. Today there were

:04:30.:04:35.

predictions for next week's European elections, they predict UKIP with 20

:04:36.:04:41.

seats up by 13 last time, beating the Conservatives into third place,

:04:42.:04:44.

and second to Labour who they are putting on 28 seats. It looks as if

:04:45.:04:49.

the UKIP gains will be disproportionately at the Tories'

:04:50.:04:51.

expense. But interesting to note that last year 4% of the Labour vote

:04:52.:04:56.

of 2010 was heading to UKIP, this year that number has almost doubled.

:04:57.:05:02.

UKIP is becoming an issue for all the main parties. The question now

:05:03.:05:08.

is how they choose to tackle it. Last week when UKIP launched their

:05:09.:05:12.

campaign, these posters were labelled racist by a Labour MP.

:05:13.:05:18.

Possibly the wrong approach, John WoodAlcock tells me, the mainstream

:05:19.:05:24.

parties can't afford the "fruitcakes, racist and loonies"

:05:25.:05:28.

line any more without isolating their own voters. Those posters

:05:29.:05:33.

might time with people, if we label the party racist, the worry is

:05:34.:05:37.

everyone who looks at those posters and is stirred in some way by them

:05:38.:05:42.

feels like we are calling them racist. They are not, they are

:05:43.:05:46.

concerned about their jobs and their livelihood. This week a cross-party

:05:47.:05:51.

group, Migration Mars, has launched the fightback, has accused UKIP of

:05:52.:05:58.

eur-racism, and some are not frayed to hit where it hurts. We need to

:05:59.:06:09.

expose the activists in UKIP who are the BNP in blazers. They are saying

:06:10.:06:14.

the same thing about foreigners and people of a different coloured

:06:15.:06:18.

different. As the National Front used to say before them. We need to

:06:19.:06:22.

show that these are not the charming, reasonable, normal people

:06:23.:06:26.

they pretend to be. Why do the main parties ause UKIP of being racist or

:06:27.:06:34.

zenophobic, but refuse to believe that could be applicable to those

:06:35.:06:48.

who vote UKIPble to those who vote UKIP. A party's leader and the

:06:49.:06:52.

people who vote for them are not always the same. The people who tap

:06:53.:06:58.

into the "the country is going to the dogs" sentiment. They talk about

:06:59.:07:02.

issues which have little to do with politics. They talk about the

:07:03.:07:05.

teacher killed yesterday in her own school. Or much more prosaically

:07:06.:07:09.

about the difficulty of finding a human voice when you call your local

:07:10.:07:14.

bank. They say that the three main parties have stopped listening,

:07:15.:07:18.

stopped caring, given up on Britain, now that is much harder for them to

:07:19.:07:22.

tackle than any one underlying policy. Tomorrow Nigel Farage has

:07:23.:07:27.

promised to announce if he will stand in Newark, place your bets

:07:28.:07:31.

now. The Conservatives have a 16,000 majority there, that could be hard

:07:32.:07:47.

to shift. Now Newark is not warm -- Warmington-on-sea, the fictional

:07:48.:07:50.

down in dads' army, but it may be the place where they go to war.

:07:51.:07:59.

My guests are with me. Doesn't the very formation of a cross-party

:08:00.:08:03.

campaign from all vested interests like you and your colleagues and

:08:04.:08:07.

other parties demonstrate precisely why UKIP is successful. That you are

:08:08.:08:11.

out-of-touch with public opinion and they are not? No I don't think it

:08:12.:08:14.

does at all. I think it is the mainstream parties saying there are

:08:15.:08:18.

very real differences about Europe, there are very real differences

:08:19.:08:21.

about immigration and let as discuss them. But don't let's have it in the

:08:22.:08:26.

way where we pander to the lowest common denominator, where we have a

:08:27.:08:30.

campaign in which if we were talking about black people or Asian people,

:08:31.:08:33.

people would be up in arms, but it is OK to talk about people from

:08:34.:08:38.

Europe, 26 million of them apparently, are coming over here

:08:39.:08:41.

looking for jobs. Let's look at the poster here, you tell us why this

:08:42.:08:46.

poster, 26 million people in Europe are looking for work, whose jobs are

:08:47.:08:50.

they after, why is that racist? Because it is an absolute nonsense.

:08:51.:08:55.

It may be nonsense, that doesn't mean it is racist? There are 26

:08:56.:08:59.

million people, alarmist in Europe. That wasn't your accusation, your

:09:00.:09:03.

accusation it was racist, why? If you substituted for the word

:09:04.:09:08.

"Europe", you substituted "people from Africa" or "people from Asia"

:09:09.:09:14.

are coming here for work, everybody would think that is racist. There is

:09:15.:09:18.

no reason why it says Europe that isn't racist in exactly the same

:09:19.:09:23.

way. It is alarmist, it is nonsense, as Nicholas Soames says it is

:09:24.:09:28.

completely devisive. Where does your party appeal to racists? I don't

:09:29.:09:31.

think it does any more than the other parties. I think we are under

:09:32.:09:35.

enormous media scrutiny, which I don't complain about, as ming

:09:36.:09:41.

Campbell said to me yesterday, "welcome to Test Match cricket",

:09:42.:09:46.

where there are people who have expressed racist sentiments we root

:09:47.:09:49.

them out and take disciplinary action. You don't accept the poster

:09:50.:09:55.

is racist? Of course it isn't. We in UKIP are proposing an immigration

:09:56.:09:59.

policy which would be a level playing field with every country in

:10:00.:10:02.

the world. A points-based system so the migrants who can benefit Britain

:10:03.:10:06.

can come here. What we have at the moment is open-door migration from

:10:07.:10:10.

more than two dozen neighbouring countries and the absurd situation

:10:11.:10:14.

where an Indian engineer or New Zealand brain surgeon would struggle

:10:15.:10:17.

to get in, but an eastern European a very grant has a complete right to

:10:18.:10:20.

come. That is the double standard, and it is crazy. Why are you raising

:10:21.:10:26.

your eyebrows? I think Patrick doesn't quite appreciate that we

:10:27.:10:33.

have a system at the moment which is points-based. Not for the EU. Anyone

:10:34.:10:40.

can come from the EU? We have the level playing field. It is not

:10:41.:10:43.

level, that is the point. There are a lot of British people, as you

:10:44.:10:46.

know, working and living in Europe and you give them no thought. But

:10:47.:10:50.

the question is this isn't it, we hear almost on a daily basis about

:10:51.:10:57.

extreme candidates. If they are not attacking Lenny Henry, you have

:10:58.:11:06.

these UKIP candidates now, today, attacking Mo MoFarah for not being

:11:07.:11:09.

British enough, and talking about banning Islam. Isn't it enough when

:11:10.:11:12.

you have the leader of your party saying to the Guardian on Saturday

:11:13.:11:16.

when asked should people be worried about Romanian families living in

:11:17.:11:21.

their street? He says yes. Is it any wonder that you are encouraging

:11:22.:11:25.

racists of this kind. I completely refute that accusation. Quite rank

:11:26.:11:29.

frankly, let's be real about this, people value their sense of

:11:30.:11:33.

community. When any people come from another community or nationality,

:11:34.:11:37.

that causes them to worry about their community cohesion. So you

:11:38.:11:41.

disagree with your leader on this subject? You would be happy to have

:11:42.:11:47.

Romanians living next to you, unlike your leader. What we know about the

:11:48.:11:57.

Romanian influx is there is cashpoint fraud, and begging in the

:11:58.:12:00.

streets. That is a whole country. You have an amazing thing of putting

:12:01.:12:04.

words in my mouth, if you let me finish. There are many Romanians who

:12:05.:12:08.

work extremely hard, and Romanians who, with those values coming to

:12:09.:12:13.

live in your street fine, once you get to know them. If it is a

:12:14.:12:17.

Romanian running a cashpoint skimming gang you have every right

:12:18.:12:20.

to be concerned and sustain that concern. The question wasn't are you

:12:21.:12:27.

happy to have people indulging in criminal activity living next to

:12:28.:12:32.

you. It was Romanians in general. To make the whole statement about a

:12:33.:12:36.

whole country strikes me as extraordinary, is it any wonder you

:12:37.:12:39.

have people aligning themselves with you with this view. It is great

:12:40.:12:42.

pity, there are very, very many decent people who have voted for

:12:43.:12:46.

UKIP in the past. How sweet of you to say so. And who will vote for

:12:47.:12:51.

UKIP in the future. They will. It is a great shame that some of their

:12:52.:12:55.

representatives and candidates have these extreme views. Two things we

:12:56.:13:02.

know, 70% plus of the British public don't want open-door, unlimited

:13:03.:13:05.

immigration from the rest of the European Union. The second thing we

:13:06.:13:11.

know is there is an extraordinary degree of antipathy towards the

:13:12.:13:14.

Westminster political class represented by you today. You are a

:13:15.:13:18.

lovely person but with enemies like you who needs friends, that would be

:13:19.:13:22.

UKIP's analysis of today. We will stop this before it gets personal.

:13:23.:13:28.

Thank you both. For anyone, if any of us is unlucky enough to be

:13:29.:13:32.

diagnosed with cancer figures published today give some comfort.

:13:33.:13:36.

An average of half of us could expect to still be alive in ten

:13:37.:13:40.

years' time, the survival rate is much better for some cancers than

:13:41.:13:46.

others, but the advances in treament treatment have been so impressive

:13:47.:13:53.

that the picture is quite changed. Cancer one of Britain's biggest

:13:54.:13:59.

fears. Partly because as recently as the 1970s, treatment was very

:14:00.:14:03.

ineffective. People thought of it as a death sentence. It is certainly

:14:04.:14:15.

still common, in 2011, 330,000 people were diagnosed with a form of

:14:16.:14:19.

the disease. In the same year, 160,000 people died. But there is

:14:20.:14:26.

good news. Back in the 1970s, around one half of people diagnosed with

:14:27.:14:30.

cancer died within a year. But survival rates have been rising and

:14:31.:14:36.

rising. The latest estimates imply that around one half of people

:14:37.:14:40.

diagnosed with cancer will survive a decade. That's because we have got

:14:41.:14:46.

better at all parts of the treatment process. We are spotting diseases

:14:47.:14:51.

earlier and treatments are much better. But the progress hides some

:14:52.:15:01.

major variation. Ten -year survival rates for breast cancer are 78%. For

:15:02.:15:06.

bladder cancer they are 50%, for lung capser they are 5%, and for

:15:07.:15:15.

pancreatic cancer they are just 1%. More common cancers tend to attract

:15:16.:15:21.

more research time. But, even some relatively prevalent cancers like

:15:22.:15:24.

lung cancer have just proved difficult to crack. Differences in

:15:25.:15:28.

survival rates also reflect things like how quickly the cancers tend to

:15:29.:15:32.

get found and diagnosed. That is an important reason why survival rates

:15:33.:15:37.

for pancreatic cancer have barely moved in 40 years. Still there has

:15:38.:15:42.

been improvements, it is of course great thing. But we should also

:15:43.:15:46.

remember that Britain could do much better. A recent study found that 9%

:15:47.:15:52.

of British people with lung cancer survived for five years. In Norway

:15:53.:16:00.

it was 14%. In Australia 17%. And in Canada it was 18%. So we should

:16:01.:16:06.

celebrate the recent improvements in care, cancer is, in many cases, now

:16:07.:16:13.

a manageable condition. But, there is still a long way to go.

:16:14.:16:20.

Here now is the Medical Director of Cancer Partners UK. And Chris, who

:16:21.:16:25.

has lived with breast cancer for five years and set up the cancer

:16:26.:16:34.

awareness cancer charity, Coppafeel. And a member of the Alzheimer's

:16:35.:16:37.

Society. This changing experience of cancer, how is it altering the way

:16:38.:16:44.

we look at the disease? I think cancer is rapidly becoming a chronic

:16:45.:16:49.

illness, like diabetes and high blood pressure. That is a long-term

:16:50.:16:53.

illness? A long-term illness. When I began as a consultant 25 35 years

:16:54.:16:59.

ago, 25% of patients would survive ten years, now it is 50%, and in the

:17:00.:17:04.

next 20 years it will be 75%. The fear goes with the statistics. So

:17:05.:17:07.

that changes the way people think about it? It does, people come to

:17:08.:17:12.

the clinic, telling someone they have cancer no longer has that

:17:13.:17:19.

dreadful conotation it did when I started. Having said that there are

:17:20.:17:22.

still sad situations and people are still going to die of cancer. So we

:17:23.:17:26.

could do much better if we put more effort into it. Tell me if the

:17:27.:17:29.

terminology is wrong, you have lived with cancer now, you were diagnosed

:17:30.:17:33.

how long ago? Five years ago. Breast cancer? Yeah. And you have lived

:17:34.:17:38.

with it since then? Yes, I was already diagnosed with secondaries

:17:39.:17:42.

when I was first told I had cancer. So I didn't go through a stage of

:17:43.:17:46.

being diagnosed and thinking I was going to be OK. It was already stage

:17:47.:17:50.

four breast cancer when it was found. And do you recall what the

:17:51.:17:58.

impact of that news was and can you contrast it with how you feel about

:17:59.:18:01.

the disease now? I knew very little about it. And I actually didn't know

:18:02.:18:06.

what the conotations were of it, being the secondary compared to it

:18:07.:18:09.

being primary. So I just, I didn't also know anything positive about it

:18:10.:18:15.

either, so I knew it was bad. But I didn't really think I would be here

:18:16.:18:18.

five years on. What do you think about it now? I am very much veering

:18:19.:18:25.

towards the side of it being more of a chronic illness. Because I'm

:18:26.:18:29.

living with it. And I have an identical twin sister and you

:18:30.:18:32.

wouldn't be able to tell I'm the one who has cancer. And I know so many

:18:33.:18:36.

other people living with the disease as well. So surely that's when we're

:18:37.:18:42.

starting to think it is a manageable disease. This is a great advance

:18:43.:18:46.

isn't it? Absolutely. I think it is really great news for cancer and for

:18:47.:18:51.

people with cancer, but it is also a great news story for medical

:18:52.:18:54.

research in general. Because it shows that by putting the right

:18:55.:18:59.

investment in medical research, we can realise a discovery as new

:19:00.:19:04.

treatments and cures for medical conditions. It is great news for

:19:05.:19:07.

cancer, we need to see the same happening for dementia and

:19:08.:19:11.

Alzheimer's and other diseases. I want to clear up one point with the

:19:12.:19:15.

professor here, why is it there is a huge discrepancy between the

:19:16.:19:20.

survival rate in some cannisters and others? -- cancers and others?

:19:21.:19:26.

Pancreatic is the worst, 3% 40 yearsing and 3% now. It is partly

:19:27.:19:31.

because of late diagnosis, but also because there is something about the

:19:32.:19:40.

cells of the pan crease of the pancreas that we don't understand.

:19:41.:19:45.

We are hoping to discover it through molecular analysis, so what applies

:19:46.:19:49.

to cancer will apply to dementia. It is about reducing a reductionist

:19:50.:19:56.

interpretation of what makes it cancerous. Clearly it would be

:19:57.:20:00.

better if we had survival rates of the kind that exist in Norway or

:20:01.:20:04.

Estonia, I think that is another one, or Australia. How do you

:20:05.:20:09.

improve those? You need some money and you need to change the system.

:20:10.:20:13.

You need to get better earlier diagnosis. What Chris is doing

:20:14.:20:18.

through her charity is raising awareness of breast abnormalities,

:20:19.:20:22.

persisting through an often negative system, general practitioners, going

:20:23.:20:26.

to clinics, getting through that there is something wrong with you. I

:20:27.:20:32.

guess the name explains what your charity is about Coppafeel, feel

:20:33.:20:38.

your breasts, and that is a step towards early diagnosis? And not

:20:39.:20:42.

ignoring symptoms, having the confidence to say to your GP, I have

:20:43.:20:46.

noticed these changes, they are not right for me, it needs to be

:20:47.:20:51.

investigated. Is there some sort of measurable result? Awareness is very

:20:52.:20:55.

hard to measure, but we are seeing more stories come through, case

:20:56.:20:58.

studies of people saying it was because of your message that I went

:20:59.:21:02.

back to my GP and it was taken more seriously and I asked to be referred

:21:03.:21:05.

and I was subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer and it was found

:21:06.:21:10.

early. We need to make shower that breast cancers are found early, that

:21:11.:21:13.

is when you are more likely to survive it. You have already

:21:14.:21:19.

referred to the difference between the sort of resource that is are

:21:20.:21:26.

available in cancer care. And the sort of resources, Alzheimer's is

:21:27.:21:32.

your field, dementia. Do you resent the attention that cancer gets?

:21:33.:21:39.

Absolutely not. The amount going into Cancer Research is fantastic,

:21:40.:21:41.

even though today's news is good news, there is still a lot more that

:21:42.:21:45.

needs to be done in cancer. What we can do in the dementia field is

:21:46.:21:52.

learn a lot from Cancer Research colleagues about awareness raising.

:21:53.:21:59.

We can bring new money in to dementia to make progress. The

:22:00.:22:03.

Government have doubled its spend on dementia, and the Alzheimer's

:22:04.:22:08.

Society will spend extra over the next ten years. That is a step in

:22:09.:22:13.

the right direction, we need to keep the momentum going. The political

:22:14.:22:17.

spotlight we have on dementia but seeing a big increase in research.

:22:18.:22:24.

Do you feel because cancer has a particular talismanic, terrifying

:22:25.:22:28.

impression upon people, that you some how have an unfair share of the

:22:29.:22:31.

cake? I do feel that sometimes. I have been a great campaigner and I

:22:32.:22:35.

think maybe I'm taking it away from someone. But I think the great thing

:22:36.:22:39.

I know about Cancer Research, the lessons we are learning there will

:22:40.:22:45.

alie right across the board of many different diseases. The epidemics of

:22:46.:22:51.

our time are not the plague and infection, they are non-communable

:22:52.:22:55.

conditions, chronic diseases. In all of them the molecular basis of them,

:22:56.:23:01.

and how we treat them better, comes down to an analysis of the genes and

:23:02.:23:07.

DNA, where it has gone wrong. The social implications of dementia and

:23:08.:23:12.

older people especially living with cancer there is a lot of commonalty.

:23:13.:23:16.

And cancer patients have other diseases as they get older. Do you

:23:17.:23:21.

feel you are slightly jeopardising funding for other areas of medicine?

:23:22.:23:30.

No. Not at all. If anything awareness is quite different to

:23:31.:23:34.

buying items needed for research. I can still go out on the street to

:23:35.:23:40.

tell someone to check their breasts without money in my pocket. That is

:23:41.:23:44.

not to say we don't need money because we need it to do the

:23:45.:23:47.

projects we are talking about. We are about taking the message early

:23:48.:23:51.

and educating young people, so they don't start learning the fear of

:23:52.:23:54.

cancer and get anything there before they even start doing that. Thank

:23:55.:23:59.

you all very much. President Obama rounded off a visit to the Far East

:24:00.:24:02.

today by trying to defend the way he deals with the rest of the world.

:24:03.:24:08.

Soft and consistent seem to be his themes. They could hardly be a

:24:09.:24:14.

greater contrast to his predecessors George W Bush's eagerness to send

:24:15.:24:19.

soldiers to Iraq and Afghanistan. But yet failing to appreciate the

:24:20.:24:23.

mood of Russia and failing to do in Syria. As he approaches the end of

:24:24.:24:27.

his time in the White House. Obama is obviously thinking of his

:24:28.:24:33.

reputation. Aware of how many people see him as a disappointment. This

:24:34.:24:40.

week the President has been in the Far East. A trip designed to

:24:41.:24:45.

emphasise his foreign policy tilt towards the Pacific. Come on now,

:24:46.:24:52.

ready, right here. But the scorecard has been mixed. America has given

:24:53.:24:57.

guarantees on Japanese and South Korean security but not got a whole

:24:58.:25:03.

lot back. And with the crises simplering elsewhere in Syria and

:25:04.:25:07.

Ukraine, President Obama felt he had to answer his critics. Typically

:25:08.:25:15.

criticism of our foreign policy has been directed at the failure to use

:25:16.:25:21.

military force. And the question I think I would have is why is it that

:25:22.:25:25.

everybody is so eager to use military force. After we have just

:25:26.:25:34.

gone through a decade of war at enormous to our troops and to our

:25:35.:25:41.

budget. When it comes to sports and photo opportunities, basketball has

:25:42.:25:44.

always been the Obama game of choice, and even during his first

:25:45.:25:49.

campaign, his emphasis on ending wars and choosing diplomacy was a

:25:50.:25:53.

Lambert dunk with the American public. President Obama came to

:25:54.:25:58.

office with the thought that when you talk to the people around him

:25:59.:26:02.

that the US was overinvested in the big land wars of the Middle East and

:26:03.:26:07.

south Asia, Iraq and Afghanistan, and underinvested in terms of his

:26:08.:26:12.

time and attention in terms of East Asia. Power in the world, economic

:26:13.:26:15.

and military power is shifting towards East Asia, I think President

:26:16.:26:19.

Obama, I think maybe his greatest achievement has President has been

:26:20.:26:22.

to redirect the strategic attention of the country towards the Far East.

:26:23.:26:27.

And along with the abandonment of unpopular wars came a deliberate

:26:28.:26:33.

focus on healing America's economic ills. Over the last decade we have

:26:34.:26:38.

spent a drill I don't know dollars on war, at a time of rising debt and

:26:39.:26:44.

hard economic times. Now we must invest in America's greatest

:26:45.:26:48.

resource, our people. America it is time to focus on nation building

:26:49.:26:56.

here at home. And in the 2012 campaign that was portrayed by his

:26:57.:27:00.

opponent as an abandonment of American global leadership. In an

:27:01.:27:05.

American century we lead the free world and the free world leads the

:27:06.:27:08.

entire world. If we don't have the strength or vision to lead, then

:27:09.:27:14.

other powers will take our place, pulling history in a very different

:27:15.:27:19.

direction. And as the President defended his emphasis on healing

:27:20.:27:24.

America first, he ridiculed his opponent for suggesting that America

:27:25.:27:29.

might still have enemies, like Russia. I'm glad that you recognise

:27:30.:27:34.

that Al-Qaeda is a threat, because a few months ago when you were asked

:27:35.:27:37.

what is the biggest geopolitical threat facing America, you said

:27:38.:27:43.

Russia, not Al-Qaeda, in the 1980s are calling to ask for their foreign

:27:44.:27:47.

policy back. The reset in relations with Russia was a cornerstone of

:27:48.:27:56.

Obama's first attempt at foreign policy, and the attempt to make a

:27:57.:28:00.

friend of an enemy that have subsequently led to charges of

:28:01.:28:05.

naivity. Both Republican candidates in the 2008 and 2012 presidential

:28:06.:28:10.

races were explicit in their opposition to Russia. With

:28:11.:28:15.

Republicans and other critics of the administration are hitting home is

:28:16.:28:18.

on Syria President Obama did draw a lion in the sand, and when President

:28:19.:28:23.

Assad crossed it, President Obama did not respond in the brutal,

:28:24.:28:28.

cynical world of Middle East politics that was a blow to US

:28:29.:28:33.

credibility. In the Ukraine and the Crimea process, President Putin has

:28:34.:28:36.

been highly opportunistic, strategic, very quick and decisive

:28:37.:28:42.

and both Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Obama have been a

:28:43.:28:45.

couple of steps reacting behind him. Russia, in basketball terms is the

:28:46.:28:53.

President's biggest mis. For the plans in Syria and the wider Middle

:28:54.:28:58.

East, and even the administration concede as complete re-think on

:28:59.:29:04.

security policy. Basketball aficionados might have noticed he

:29:05.:29:09.

has slowed down since he was Senator Obama, the dynamic of simple policy

:29:10.:29:14.

has gone, to be replaced by a more complex calculation, and the

:29:15.:29:17.

knowledge that sometimes a draw is the best you can hope for. A little

:29:18.:29:26.

earlier I spoke to a spokeswoman for the Obama administration at the

:29:27.:29:31.

state department. In what way is the world a safer place than it was when

:29:32.:29:41.

President Obama took office? I would make a few points, when he took

:29:42.:29:46.

office we had 150,000 US troops overseas engaged in two large wars.

:29:47.:29:50.

Today one of those wars is over. Americans are home with their

:29:51.:29:54.

families. If you look at the threat from terrorism, from Al-Qaeda corp,

:29:55.:29:59.

the group that attacked us on 9/11 was out there when the President

:30:00.:30:04.

took office, they were operating freely in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

:30:05.:30:08.

Today that group sumpivically is a shadow of what it once was. I could

:30:09.:30:12.

mention many more things but the negotiations with Iran over the

:30:13.:30:16.

nuclear programme today. We are engaged in the most serious and

:30:17.:30:20.

sensitive negotiations with the best chance of peacefully resolving our

:30:21.:30:22.

concerns over their nuclear programme. None of this is easy,

:30:23.:30:27.

many, many challenges remain. Those are just a few examples of how we

:30:28.:30:31.

have made progress during the last six years now. Do you still believe

:30:32.:30:35.

that the relationship between your country and Russia has been, as it

:30:36.:30:46.

was put, "reset"? Well that was -- Well that was a certain time in our

:30:47.:30:49.

policy, how we describe our relationship with Russia today is

:30:50.:30:53.

complicated. Anyone looking at the situation would describe it in the

:30:54.:30:56.

same way. We clearly have fundamental deep-seated differences

:30:57.:31:00.

with how Russia is behaving in Ukraine today, we have been clear

:31:01.:31:03.

about, that yesterday sanctioning more Russian officials, when we can

:31:04.:31:07.

work together, for example on the Iran negotiations I mentioned, we

:31:08.:31:11.

will continue to do so because it is in our national security interests

:31:12.:31:16.

to do so. Wh Secretary of State Kerry describes the Ukraine crisis

:31:17.:31:21.

as "putting the entire model of global leadership at stake", what

:31:22.:31:30.

does he mean. ? What he means is in 2014 it is unacceptable for a

:31:31.:31:33.

country to invade its neighbour. To take the steps we have seen Russia

:31:34.:31:36.

take when it comes to Ukraine. We have been very clear that countries'

:31:37.:31:42.

territorial integrity and sovereignty is a key notion that

:31:43.:31:47.

underpins the whole international system of which Russia is a key

:31:48.:31:51.

part. That is what it is referred to. Are there any circumstances

:31:52.:31:56.

under which the United States commit troops should the Russians intervene

:31:57.:32:02.

militarily in Ukraine? No, we are not talking about that. For a couple

:32:03.:32:09.

of reasons. What we want to s is the situation deescalated not

:32:10.:32:17.

escalating, also we have no interest whatsoever in engaging with some

:32:18.:32:21.

sort of proxy war with Russia that harkens back to a time decades ago,

:32:22.:32:25.

which we have no intention of going back to and don't think the Russians

:32:26.:32:29.

should want to either. This is rather like the situation in Syria

:32:30.:32:33.

where a threat is made and the country doesn't have the means or

:32:34.:32:41.

the desire to follow it through? Absolutely not, I would disagree

:32:42.:32:48.

with the emise, in the Ukraine we have promised a number of things,

:32:49.:32:53.

economic pressure through sanctions, economic and diplomatic pressure to

:32:54.:32:58.

punish them for what they have been doing in Ukraine. We won't commit

:32:59.:33:02.

military resources there, because we don't think there is a military

:33:03.:33:05.

solution. We have also said on the flip side we will stand by the

:33:06.:33:09.

Ukrainian Government and people. We believe the best way to support them

:33:10.:33:14.

is through economic, diplomatic assistance. That is exactly what we

:33:15.:33:17.

are doing now, exactly what we said we would do. Do you like the Braing

:33:18.:33:23.

snake-hipped greedy Charlatans that become the poster boys for 21st

:33:24.:33:27.

Septemberry capitalism. Silly question, no-one does, or anything

:33:28.:33:35.

like how much they love themselves. The red-meat eating good guys come

:33:36.:33:39.

last trading world doesn't care. And capitalism depends on them to

:33:40.:33:44.

function N a remarkable new book, Michael Lewis analyses the damage

:33:45.:33:48.

being done to capitalism, by the way some so called high freakcy traders

:33:49.:33:54.

are behave -- frequency traders are behaving. First an explanation of

:33:55.:34:00.

what they have been doing. Imagine reaching into the chiller

:34:01.:34:04.

cabinet, only to have someone snatch it from you and make you pay extra

:34:05.:34:09.

to get your hands on it? That is one of the ways that high frequency

:34:10.:34:13.

traders make money, taking millions of pound out of our savings and

:34:14.:34:18.

investments in such tiny amounts we don't even notice. For example the

:34:19.:34:23.

big pension fund might place a big order for shares in one exchange,

:34:24.:34:27.

because the order is so bad there are not enough shares on that

:34:28.:34:30.

exchange so it is pinged around to other exchanges in turn. What the

:34:31.:34:39.

high frequency der gets there first and buys them up and sells them on

:34:40.:34:45.

to the pension fund with an increased price. We are not talking

:34:46.:34:50.

about peanuts here, one fund manager lost 1% of his total every year to

:34:51.:34:54.

the high frequency traders. You can get an idea of how staggeringly

:34:55.:35:00.

lucrative it is, when you look at how much they will spend to get the

:35:01.:35:07.

tiniest advances. One company spent ?300 million to shave three seconds

:35:08.:35:13.

off the link up time between Chicago and New York. It is ultimately paid

:35:14.:35:17.

for by our pensions and savings. At the moment we are talking about

:35:18.:35:21.

things, the high-frequency traders do that are illegal if morally

:35:22.:35:26.

questionable. However the FBI this month announced it is considering

:35:27.:35:29.

whether this practice of frontrunning, chatsing orders around

:35:30.:35:32.

the world should be considered -- chasing orders around the world

:35:33.:35:36.

should be considered illegal and insider training. There are some

:35:37.:35:40.

things that some high frequency traders do that are flat out

:35:41.:35:46.

criminal. Like spoofing. A trader might like to buy a quantity of oil

:35:47.:35:53.

more cheaply by putting a order in below the prize price, they then

:35:54.:36:00.

places orders at increasingly lower prices, fooling traders that it is

:36:01.:36:06.

dropping, he buys quickly cheap and cancels the sell order. He can make

:36:07.:36:10.

a quick profit by doing the reverse. It is all over by the time it takes

:36:11.:36:18.

you to blink. The popular idea of financial markets looks like this,

:36:19.:36:22.

but this is what they look like, black boxes using trading strategies

:36:23.:36:27.

none of us understand. This is risky, a catastrophic meltdown, only

:36:28.:36:34.

ever a nanosecond away. I caught up with Michael Lewis yesterday. Was

:36:35.:36:41.

what these guys are doing wrong? It is an open question whether it is

:36:42.:36:45.

illegal. It is unclear whether the way the stock market has evolved is

:36:46.:36:49.

in the end illegal, I think it will be answered in the court of law

:36:50.:36:54.

whether it is illegal. But the, what is troubling about it is you have

:36:55.:37:02.

got a financial system that is behaving in ways that are not good

:37:03.:37:07.

for investors. There is a lot of behaviour that is probably all legal

:37:08.:37:11.

but still distasteful. Has anyone been charged as a result of your

:37:12.:37:20.

reflations? The -- investigations. The FBI has opened an investigation

:37:21.:37:24.

in the last month or so, they haven't charged anybody yet. They

:37:25.:37:31.

were They were asleep on the job until somebody woke them up? I'm not

:37:32.:37:35.

sure what woke them up, the characters in my book might have

:37:36.:37:39.

woken them up before I did. The people who are really asleep on the

:37:40.:37:44.

job was the Securities and Exchange Commission, the regulators of the

:37:45.:37:49.

financial sector. They seemed incapable of being at all active in

:37:50.:37:53.

the financial market. They respond to crises but don't prevent them

:37:54.:37:57.

happening. I don't know what these guys who were fixing the market were

:37:58.:38:02.

doing that was wrong? If it was smiled upon by the regulators, they

:38:03.:38:07.

were just acting as those sort of people have always acted, weren't

:38:08.:38:13.

they? I think that's probably their point of view. That their behaviour

:38:14.:38:19.

was just, was being condoned by the financial regulator, how could you

:38:20.:38:23.

possibly accuse them of illegal activity, however that is what the

:38:24.:38:27.

New York Attorney-General is about to do. So we may have a very curious

:38:28.:38:31.

situation where people are accused of crimes for doing things that the

:38:32.:38:37.

financial regulators condone. But you know this world, has something

:38:38.:38:44.

changed in it? Are they different sort of people? Yeah it used to be

:38:45.:38:50.

just nice men who went to work in the financial sector. The appearance

:38:51.:38:55.

of probity really mattered to those figures? They didn't require high

:38:56.:39:00.

intellect, this was an advantage, they can only do so much damage when

:39:01.:39:04.

they aren't that bright. What has happened now is instead of the

:39:05.:39:08.

bottom of the class of Oxford and Cambridge going to work in the City

:39:09.:39:11.

it is the top of the class. And they are capable of doing unlimited

:39:12.:39:16.

damage to everybody else, making it complicated in ways we don't

:39:17.:39:20.

understand. That complexity is like a no-pass, it is like what is going

:39:21.:39:24.

on. If the only people who lose money as a consequence of their

:39:25.:39:29.

activities are hedge fund deals, those sort of people who cares? If

:39:30.:39:34.

that was true I would care a lot less. But the effect of the rigging

:39:35.:39:40.

of the stock market is to essentially tax all investment

:39:41.:39:43.

capital. It isn't just hedge funders on the other end of this, every

:39:44.:39:49.

stock market transaction is susceptible to being scalped. Trades

:39:50.:39:52.

by little people, trades by big people. The bigger problem isn't

:39:53.:39:59.

just the scalping going on. In order to arrange the technology so it can

:40:00.:40:04.

owe cushion you have to make it a lot more complicated than it would

:40:05.:40:11.

have been. Their complexity ends up being unstable, they have companies

:40:12.:40:16.

crashing and exchanges going down for hours at a time. Even within the

:40:17.:40:21.

financial system there is a misgiving about the way they have

:40:22.:40:26.

structured it and a concern it is like a catastrophe waiting to happen

:40:27.:40:30.

because the technology has got too complicated. Let's hope it is not a

:40:31.:40:36.

catastrophe, a scandal has been revealed, you have revealed a

:40:37.:40:41.

scandal here, and the authorities will bring in new rules and then the

:40:42.:40:46.

next bunch of smart kids will work a way around them? That is one

:40:47.:40:50.

possible outcome. Surely that is the whole pattern? That has been the

:40:51.:40:56.

pattern. The reason I was interested in telling the story, this is the

:40:57.:41:00.

first time that there has been reform within the market that hasn't

:41:01.:41:04.

depended on regulators doing anything. You had people who were

:41:05.:41:07.

Wall Street insiders, from exchanges and high freakcy trading firms from

:41:08.:41:14.

banks -- frequency trading firms from banks, they need to say the

:41:15.:41:21.

stock market needs to be unrigable and announce to everybody that the

:41:22.:41:25.

markets are rigging things. The people whose money they control and

:41:26.:41:28.

those they were supposed to be creating, once you create that

:41:29.:41:33.

market pressure to move the market into place where it can't be

:41:34.:41:38.

scalped, I think you possibly have a sustainable, unrigable, unAble

:41:39.:41:45.

future. I think the broader picture when you pack away is Wall Street is

:41:46.:41:52.

less and less necessary. It is more and more obnoxiousious. But

:41:53.:41:57.

technology has eliminated the need of what they do. It is a case of the

:41:58.:42:01.

society forcing the issue and saying we don't need you in this, get out.

:42:02.:42:06.

We may be headed in that direction. If you are the sort of person who

:42:07.:42:13.

thinks the old Young British Artists are, were Charlatans, here is a

:42:14.:42:19.

treat. Julian Scnable has a new exhibition in London. It is greeted

:42:20.:42:25.

by a few mixed review, from awful to utterly dreadful according to the

:42:26.:42:29.

Evening Standard. But as the artist and film director told Steven Smith,

:42:30.:42:36.

don't people have a sense of humour. Why not just walk past him while he

:42:37.:42:40.

is standing there. He will be annoyed? He will be fine. You are

:42:41.:42:50.

not left in any doubt you are with a big art world figure when you meet

:42:51.:43:01.

Julian Snachble. You don't forget he's a garlanded movie director

:43:02.:43:17.

either. This painting I Always Thought of Myself as Taller was

:43:18.:43:24.

inspired by old neighbour, Lou Reid. It is as if this is imming were d on

:43:25.:43:32.

the material instead of on them. We had an SVU, and -- SUV and I I was

:43:33.:43:38.

opening the boot, and I said I'm sorry you have to watch the top, and

:43:39.:43:43.

he said I always thought of myself as taller. It was an apology for him

:43:44.:43:57.

being scared for a moment. He is really not dead, can you hear street

:43:58.:44:04.

hassle, and Pale Blue Eyes, he was so relevant. He directed a

:44:05.:44:19.

documentary by the underrated album, he knew a different side of the

:44:20.:44:26.

artist aside from the swagger. When my father died I called Lou and he

:44:27.:44:34.

came over, and we sat next to my father dead in bed and looked at him

:44:35.:44:39.

for a couple of hours and talked to him. And then I wrapped a rag around

:44:40.:44:44.

his face so his mouth would say shut and I put him in the bag. We went

:44:45.:44:54.

through a lot of things together. It isn't only American artists that

:44:55.:45:00.

have inspired him. How did you come upon the works of Bez of Happy

:45:01.:45:08.

Mondays fame? I love them, Black Grape is a great record. I paint to

:45:09.:45:12.

music a lot. And the fact that he doesn't sing or say anything is sort

:45:13.:45:18.

of an emblem of painting, which is mute. So it is kind of a secret. Is

:45:19.:45:26.

he aware that you have immortalised him in that way? We couldn't let

:45:27.:45:32.

things rest there could we? I have never, ever seen his work before.

:45:33.:45:37.

But I am amazed by it. But it is a bit mad with my name all over it

:45:38.:45:40.

though, it is a little bit like I have come along afterwards and done

:45:41.:45:46.

a bit of groupie stuff and ruined the picture. But I love it, it is

:45:47.:45:52.

proper psycadelic sort of graffiti type art. I don't know if they are

:45:53.:45:59.

good and bad when I paint them. What do you think now? I like them more

:46:00.:46:04.

than when I painted them. Since he burst on the art world some 40 years

:46:05.:46:08.

ago, he has not lacked for confidence. And has played the part

:46:09.:46:15.

of the Maestro to the hilt. Often affecting pyjamas at the easal, as

:46:16.:46:21.

here? I have no apologies, sometimes the world needs to catch up with

:46:22.:46:25.

you. A lot of people don't have a big sense of had you more, and

:46:26.:46:29.

things are done and said in tongue and cheek, and there is one where

:46:30.:46:35.

basically my head is being put cut off by an art dealer. The artist

:46:36.:46:45.

insists his paintings will have as long a shelf like as his movies,

:46:46.:46:52.

like The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, about an artist with

:46:53.:46:57.

locked in inDrome, which won the prize at Cannes. Then he says film

:46:58.:47:03.

and art should all hit the same spot? It is like a drug, you want to

:47:04.:47:08.

have that feeling, you take that, inject it into your arm and you walk

:47:09.:47:12.

out of that. That is the feeling you get from the diving and butterfly

:47:13.:47:16.

and looking at one of the paintings, they are just tools to get you into

:47:17.:47:21.

that state to where you might be conscious of yourself in some way.

:47:22.:47:29.

Why are we here, what are we doing? That's almost it for tonight. Back

:47:30.:47:34.

tomorrow, our celebration of Shakespeare's 450th birthday

:47:35.:47:37.

continues now with Dame Harriet Walter and a murderous sill key from

:47:38.:47:48.

act one scene five of Macbeth. The raven himself is hoarse, but cokes

:47:49.:47:59.

the fatal entrance of Duncan, under my battlements. Come you spirits,

:48:00.:48:07.

attend on mortal thoughts. Unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to

:48:08.:48:16.

the toe, top full of direist cruelty. Make sick my blood. Stop up

:48:17.:48:24.

the access and passage to remorse that no compunctions of visiting

:48:25.:48:29.

nature shake my foul purpose, nor keep peace between the effect and

:48:30.:48:40.

it. Come to my woman's breast and take my milk for gall, you murdering

:48:41.:48:48.

ministers. Wherever in your sightless substances you wait on

:48:49.:49:00.

nature's mischief. Come, sick night, and pull thee in the host of hell,

:49:01.:49:10.

that I see not the wound it makes, nor heaven Pope through the blanket

:49:11.:49:17.

of the dark to cry "hold, hold, hold". ??FORCEDWHIT

:49:18.:49:32.

A lot of low crowd and patchy fog by the morning. Particular low across

:49:33.:49:36.

the southern parts of England. The fog lifting and the cloud thinning

:49:37.:49:41.

and breaking and we should see sunny spells emerging. Probably in

:49:42.:49:45.

different places though for most of the day it is

:49:46.:49:46.

Jeremy Paxman presents in-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines, including UKIP, cancer survival rates, Obama's record and high frequency traders. Plus American artist Julian Schnabel and Harriet Walter performs Macbeth.


Download Subtitles

SRT

ASS