01/08/2014 Newsnight


01/08/2014

In-depth analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines. Can the outside world halt the deaths in Gaza? The botnet protection racket. The Military Wives Proms Choir sing Holst.


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The ceasefire in Gaza was meant to be for three days.

:00:09.:00:10.

What chance of stopping the violence in Gaza when the two

:00:11.:00:20.

sides can't stop killing each other for longer than it takes to reload.

:00:21.:00:29.

So much depends now on the fate of an Israeli soldier who went missing

:00:30.:00:36.

this morning. If he has been captured alive, the violence could

:00:37.:00:39.

intensify. Tonight, we will hear from an

:00:40.:00:45.

adviser, the former secretary David Miliband and the UN's adviser to the

:00:46.:00:57.

Middle East. Also: The botnet protection racket, give us your cash

:00:58.:01:01.

or your websites go down. And... Newsnight's latest Proms

:01:02.:01:08.

preview. Today was meant to be the day

:01:09.:01:19.

when the guns of Gaza fell silent and the talking around negotiating

:01:20.:01:23.

tables grew louder. This morning, at 8.00am, Gaza time,

:01:24.:01:26.

a 72-hour humanitarian ceasefire A truce that took days

:01:27.:01:31.

of deliberations, involving leaders US Secretary of State, John Kerry,

:01:32.:01:36.

is said to have made 100 It was a huge achievement to reach

:01:37.:01:42.

that 8.00am moment, more than Then, it all fell apart

:01:43.:01:49.

within 90 minutes. Not only that,

:01:50.:01:54.

the crisis now appears even more serious, with Hamas's reported

:01:55.:01:57.

capture of an Israeli soldier. In a moment, we'll look ahead to

:01:58.:02:01.

where this leaves the herculean First,

:02:02.:02:04.

let's look at what happened today. As the day began, it was quiet but

:02:05.:02:24.

not calm. For Gazans, a truce is time to return to their homes or

:02:25.:02:29.

what is left of them. And to stock up on food, quickly. No one is ever

:02:30.:02:37.

sure how long any pause will hold. This one did not last much longer

:02:38.:02:44.

than one hour. Both sides blamed the other. The first major incident was

:02:45.:02:52.

in southern Gaza near the crossing with Egypt. Israeli soldiers came

:02:53.:02:57.

under attack as they searched for Hamas tunnels. This truce left

:02:58.:03:02.

Israeli ground forces in place, to continue operations to destroy the

:03:03.:03:07.

tunnels used for cross-border raids. Today, Israel said one of its

:03:08.:03:12.

soldiers was captured when her Hamas gun men emerged from a tunnel. A 20

:03:13.:03:20.

Three Rd lieutenant is said to have been taken back into Gaza in a

:03:21.:03:26.

tunnel. -- a 23-year-old lieutenant. His father has pleaded for his

:03:27.:03:33.

release. But this has already become a major setback in the difficult

:03:34.:03:39.

effort to reach a cease-fire. Hamas is being widely blamed, by both the

:03:40.:03:43.

United Nations and the United States. We have and I have

:03:44.:03:53.

unequivocally condemned Hamas and the Palestinian factions who are

:03:54.:03:57.

responsible for killing two Israeli soldiers and abducting a third,

:03:58.:04:02.

almost minutes after the cease-fire had been announced. For Israel, the

:04:03.:04:11.

soldier's capture is a game changer and its worst nightmare. Almost

:04:12.:04:16.

every Israeli family has a connection to the military. In 2006,

:04:17.:04:21.

a young conscript, Gilad Shalit, was also captured on the Gaza border.

:04:22.:04:26.

Israel blew up that tunnel shortly after. The missing soldier was a

:04:27.:04:31.

major wound for five long years, until finally Israel got him back in

:04:32.:04:35.

exchange for 1000 Palestinian prisoners. Hamas knows an Israeli

:04:36.:04:42.

soldier alive or dead, can be a strategic weapon. Corpses and body

:04:43.:04:48.

parts have also been exchanged in the past. But this time, Israel

:04:49.:04:53.

warns it only response will be crushing force.

:04:54.:04:57.

Joining me now is our diplomatic editor, Mark Urban.

:04:58.:05:03.

Why is there so much confusion about whether or not an Israeli soldier

:05:04.:05:09.

has been captured? It is interesting and gruesome. 1600 people killed in

:05:10.:05:16.

Gaza but so much depends on this young lieutenant. Hamas waltzes

:05:17.:05:22.

briefly told journalists they had him and then that was taken back. --

:05:23.:05:27.

Hamas sources briefly told journalists that they had him. There

:05:28.:05:33.

are possibilities that he is dead. But Israelis plastered the area with

:05:34.:05:38.

fire. But President Obama's statement clearly contains the

:05:39.:05:41.

assumption that Hamas do have him, perhaps on the basis of

:05:42.:05:46.

intelligence, and that is the assumption people are working to and

:05:47.:05:50.

that is why they are worried. It puts the Israeli government on the

:05:51.:05:54.

high road to military escalation rather than getting back to the

:05:55.:05:59.

cease-fire business. So this means the cease-fire talks are trapped? At

:06:00.:06:03.

one stage the Egyptian government said talks would go ahead.

:06:04.:06:09.

Palestinians have talked about going there tomorrow. But nothing will

:06:10.:06:14.

happen until it is much clearer what has happened to this man.

:06:15.:06:19.

happen until it is much clearer what acknowledge that they have him,

:06:20.:06:22.

maybe an understanding, they have created a situation that is too hot

:06:23.:06:27.

to handle. They do, it seems, wants this cease-fire now, but if they

:06:28.:06:34.

acknowledge they have him, that may frustrate it.

:06:35.:06:36.

Thank you. Let's get a Palestinian perspective now.

:06:37.:06:40.

Joining me from Ramallah, in the West Bank,

:06:41.:06:42.

is Mohammad Shtayyeh, a Minister in the Palestinian Authority who has

:06:43.:06:45.

Is it a good idea to be capturing Israeli soldiers at this delicate

:06:46.:07:01.

point in the crisis? We were all hoping that this aggression should

:07:02.:07:06.

stop by 8am in the morning. A Palestinian delegation were on their

:07:07.:07:11.

way to Cairo. Unfortunately, violence has escalated. The people

:07:12.:07:18.

in Rafa are telling us that this was taken at 6:30am, the Israeli sources

:07:19.:07:24.

are saying this happened at 9am or 10am. We have two stories.

:07:25.:07:29.

Regardless, the cease-fire should continue, as it has been said

:07:30.:07:35.

earlier by the earlier speaker. I think the focus should not be on a

:07:36.:07:39.

soldier who has been taken captive. I think we should continue with the

:07:40.:07:47.

cease-fire in order for us to really stop this aggression and put an end

:07:48.:07:53.

to it. But 6:30am or 9:30am, whenever he was captured, do you

:07:54.:07:58.

condemn it, because it is derailing the objective which is to end the

:07:59.:08:06.

suffering of the Palestinians? Thousands of Palestinians have been

:08:07.:08:09.

killed. This morning, in order for the Israeli army to try and block

:08:10.:08:15.

the roads leading out of rougher, more than 80 Palestinians have been

:08:16.:08:22.

killed, in order for the Army to. This is an operation. The Israeli

:08:23.:08:30.

army are taking aggression measures. Let's just be clear if we could deal

:08:31.:08:39.

with this central issue. How is the capture of an Israeli soldier got in

:08:40.:08:47.

the way? Do you condemn it? As I told you, the Israeli army is

:08:48.:08:52.

occupying... So you do not condemn it? No, excuse me, if the story that

:08:53.:08:59.

we have been told that the soldier has been taken captive at 630 in the

:09:00.:09:04.

morning, it was in the middle of an escalation in the Israeli side. The

:09:05.:09:10.

problem that occurred today is that the agreement itself has seeds of

:09:11.:09:18.

conflict. When you allow Israel to continue destroying tunnels and they

:09:19.:09:24.

claim the tunnels are under houses, that left seeds of conflict. On the

:09:25.:09:29.

other hand in the agreement, it did allow Hamas to retaliate in self

:09:30.:09:34.

defence. The two sides in the agreement, they did leave the seeds

:09:35.:09:40.

of conflict which have left a catastrophic situation which we left

:09:41.:09:47.

today. What happens now? Are the delegation is going to be heading to

:09:48.:09:53.

Cairo in the morning for talks? Yes, yes, the Palestinian delegation

:09:54.:09:57.

is going to Cairo because we are sending a very clear message. We are

:09:58.:10:03.

keen on a cease-fire. We want to stop the aggression, we want to stop

:10:04.:10:07.

the killing of innocent people. 80% of those who were killed in the Gaza

:10:08.:10:11.

Strip are innocent Palestinian children, old men and women and so

:10:12.:10:17.

on and so forth. We are keen for a cease-fire. We want all parties to

:10:18.:10:22.

commit to it and nobody should be allowed to sabotage it. Is their

:10:23.:10:28.

concern in Ramallah where you are, the seat of the Palestinian

:10:29.:10:31.

authority, of fatter, fatter and Hamas our long-standing political

:10:32.:10:40.

rivals -- Fatah. Do you believe they have been strengthened in this war?

:10:41.:10:51.

We think the aggression on Gaza is an aggression on all of us. Of

:10:52.:10:57.

course, we will remember one important thing, this whole war on

:10:58.:11:03.

Gaza has come a month after the Palestinian reconciliation. We were

:11:04.:11:10.

in the middle of bringing the whole issue to a different scenario. The

:11:11.:11:14.

Palestinian Authority was going to Gaza. Hamas was not coming to the

:11:15.:11:20.

West Bank. Unfortunately, the whole international community, or

:11:21.:11:23.

fortunately, the international community has fully is a ported the

:11:24.:11:28.

agreement on the Palestinian government. It was Israel who wanted

:11:29.:11:34.

to sabotage this. Israel wants to keep Gaza totally isolated from the

:11:35.:11:39.

rest of the Palestinian territory, in order for it not ever to have a

:11:40.:11:45.

Palestinian state or Palestinian territory. This is what Israel

:11:46.:11:51.

wants. Mohammad Shtayyeh, thank you for joining us from Ramallah.

:11:52.:11:56.

So, with a 72-hour truce in tatters, and a lasting ceasefire even harder

:11:57.:12:01.

to reach, what more can the United Nations do - aside from saying,

:12:02.:12:04.

"there must be a ceasefire!" We're joined from UN Headquarters

:12:05.:12:07.

in New York by Jeffrey Feltman, the UN's Under-Secretary-General

:12:08.:12:10.

for Political Affairs. He's the main man advising

:12:11.:12:12.

the Secretary-General on the Middle East.

:12:13.:12:21.

Can there be a continuation of cease-fire talks now? We have no

:12:22.:12:30.

choice but to continue pushing for a cease-fire. If we look at the

:12:31.:12:34.

casualty rate just from today, it is appalling. We link the escalation

:12:35.:12:39.

directly back to the capture of the Israeli soldier this morning. Israel

:12:40.:12:45.

says it can't continue, even though Ban Ki-Moon has said the 72 hour

:12:46.:12:50.

humanitarian cease-fire must resume. The language Israel is using

:12:51.:12:57.

tonight is crushing force. We are very aware of the language the

:12:58.:13:00.

Israelis are using and others are using, but I can assure you that our

:13:01.:13:05.

goal is to figure out a way to protect the civilians who are the

:13:06.:13:08.

ones who are caught up in this conflict. To find a way first of all

:13:09.:13:13.

to make sure the humanitarian relief to those sheltering in their

:13:14.:13:17.

schools, continues to flow, that we find ways to bring in food, water

:13:18.:13:23.

and sanitation etc. But we also have to get back to where we were

:13:24.:13:27.

yesterday, which is bringing the parties around the idea that this

:13:28.:13:31.

cannot continue. That unique to have enough of a pause for the

:13:32.:13:35.

humanitarian side and enough of a pause to create the political space

:13:36.:13:41.

that you start to deal with some of the issues that are handed back row

:13:42.:13:44.

raised, that you need to address to make this durable. -- that Mohammad

:13:45.:13:54.

Shtayyeh raised. We have seen Gaza erupt into this fighting

:13:55.:13:57.

periodically. We cannot have this every couple of years. But can you

:13:58.:14:05.

actually pick up where you left off, because the UN

:14:06.:14:07.

Secretary-General said what has happened today, the breaking of the

:14:08.:14:12.

cease-fire, the kidnapping of the soldier, calls into question the

:14:13.:14:17.

assurances given by Hamas. Do you actually have a movement to

:14:18.:14:20.

negotiate with still? Can you trust them? I do not think this is an

:14:21.:14:28.

issue of trust. That is what the Secretary-General said. He said

:14:29.:14:32.

called into question means you do not trust any more what Hamas said,

:14:33.:14:39.

they do not keep their promise. We certainly did work on the assurances

:14:40.:14:43.

that we got yesterday, that we received yesterday, to try and put

:14:44.:14:46.

in place the cease-fire. It did not work. But that does not mean we

:14:47.:14:51.

should not be trying again and learning from what happened this

:14:52.:14:55.

time. What did you learn from what happened this time? I hope that

:14:56.:15:05.

others have learned and thought hard about the fact that whether they

:15:06.:15:10.

like it or not, when there is an Israeli soldier that has been taken

:15:11.:15:15.

captive, the Israelis are going to take very tough measures. We saw

:15:16.:15:21.

this in 2006 with Lebanon as well. You mentioned the Gilad Shalit

:15:22.:15:25.

capture in 2006 and you may remember how hard the Israelis then hit the

:15:26.:15:28.

Gaza Strip and the same thing happened a month or so later with

:15:29.:15:33.

Lebanon. The war between Israel and Lebanon. Those who took the soldier

:15:34.:15:40.

today need to think about what is in the best interests of the

:15:41.:15:45.

Palestinians. Right now I would say the best thing is to try and work

:15:46.:15:49.

with all parties to get back to where a cease-fire can create enough

:15:50.:15:54.

of a pause that you start to get political momentum to a more durable

:15:55.:15:59.

solution. I do not let how we get back to where we were yesterday that

:16:00.:16:02.

we have to explore our options to do so. How are you talking to Hamas, a

:16:03.:16:09.

terrorist organisation, in the mind of the United States and the

:16:10.:16:13.

European Union. Are you and officials sitting down face-to-face

:16:14.:16:17.

talking to Hamas? I'm not going to get into the tactics - Are you

:16:18.:16:21.

talking directly, so you can give them the messages you are giving us

:16:22.:16:26.

tonight on Newsnight. Can you give those directly to Hamas,

:16:27.:16:29.

face-to-face? Yes. Yes, face-to-face? We have many ways to

:16:30.:16:35.

make sure that Hamas understands our message and Hamas has ways of

:16:36.:16:38.

communicating with us through a variety of channels and through a

:16:39.:16:42.

variety of means. Including face-to-face? I'm not going to go

:16:43.:16:49.

into how we do this. I'm sorry. I just... There are ways we

:16:50.:16:54.

communicate. There are ways that we can try to verify that messages get

:16:55.:16:59.

through when they aren't direct. There are other ways of talking as

:17:00.:17:06.

well. 24-hours ago the focus was on the high civilian casualty toll in

:17:07.:17:13.

Gaza. Atrocious action, to use again the Secretary General's words. What

:17:14.:17:18.

is the message to Israel? There has to be some way of providing greater

:17:19.:17:25.

civilian protection. There has to be some way that these casualty rates

:17:26.:17:29.

do not continue to escalate in the way that they're going now. It's

:17:30.:17:36.

heartbreaking to see the imagery that your news broadcasters and

:17:37.:17:40.

others are sending out from Gaza. The Secretary General has made it

:17:41.:17:43.

very, very clear that, even in times of war, there are rules. There are

:17:44.:17:48.

international standards that have to be applied. So we, despite the

:17:49.:17:55.

heightened emotions that the Israelis today have, we still have

:17:56.:18:05.

to counsel that restraint, that taking extraordinary measures to

:18:06.:18:09.

protect civilians is a requirement under international law. These

:18:10.:18:13.

messages are the same today as they were yesterday. Very good luck with

:18:14.:18:18.

the negotiations. Thank you for joining us.

:18:19.:18:26.

It may seem like a long time ago, but the spark for this conflict

:18:27.:18:30.

wasn't lit in Gaza, it was the killing of three Israeli teenagers

:18:31.:18:32.

in the West Bank which precipitated the events that led to the pounding

:18:33.:18:36.

Today, Hamas called on Palestinians from all factions to participate

:18:37.:18:39.

in a Day of Rage against the Israeli Defence Force

:18:40.:18:42.

There have been eruptions of violence in the West Bank

:18:43.:18:49.

since the conflict started, Tim Whewell spent the day there.

:18:50.:18:57.

They say they'll sacrifice themselves for Gaza. But here in

:18:58.:19:05.

Hebron today, there was much that Arabs could do but shout their

:19:06.:19:10.

hopeless rage over the deaths of so many Palestinians. They flew the

:19:11.:19:18.

green flag of Hamas along the side of the Fatah party that has been

:19:19.:19:22.

ruling the West Bank because, two months ago, the once warring

:19:23.:19:26.

Palestinian factions finally formed a joint government. Then, many

:19:27.:19:29.

hoped, that was a step towards peace. No-one here is thinking of

:19:30.:19:36.

that today. This demonstration is emphasising Palestinian unity, but

:19:37.:19:40.

now it's not about unity in favour of a settlement, it's simply about

:19:41.:19:47.

resistance to Israel. This youth worker wasn't a Hamas supporter. But

:19:48.:19:51.

what is happening in Gaza makes him and everyone here back Hamas now.

:19:52.:19:57.

People are very angry. They see children killed in Gaza. They see

:19:58.:20:02.

women, mosques demolished. We see a lot of homes completely destroyed.

:20:03.:20:08.

Neighbourhoods completely smashed, dismanteled completely. People are

:20:09.:20:11.

angry. Violence in them started growing. Two months ago, he says,

:20:12.:20:22.

everything looked very different. They announced they were ready to

:20:23.:20:28.

negotiate with Israel and ready to follow the international conditions

:20:29.:20:32.

and rule. They recognised Israel. Israel was deeply suspicious of the

:20:33.:20:36.

unity government. If you walk through the rocky countryside

:20:37.:20:40.

outside Hebron, you see why. The it's near here, soon afterwards,

:20:41.:20:45.

that three young Israeli hitchhikers were kidnapped. Near here that a

:20:46.:20:50.

huge search operation began. TRANSLATION: It was 5.00pm we were

:20:51.:20:55.

sitting outside a restaurant and soldiers arrived. There must have

:20:56.:21:02.

been 1,000 of them. Eventually, on this pass, the young men's dead

:21:03.:21:08.

bodies were found. Israel, which blamed Hamas, it was proof that the

:21:09.:21:20.

unity government backed terrorists. What happened here is the deep

:21:21.:21:25.

mystery at the heart of the current crisis. The deaths of those three

:21:26.:21:31.

hitchhikers led indirectly to the deaths already of 1,500 people in

:21:32.:21:35.

the warring Gaza, which, on a clear day, you would be able to see in the

:21:36.:21:40.

distance over there. Yet, it's still not clear whether Hamas, as an

:21:41.:21:43.

organisation, was responsible for the murders. This is what happened,

:21:44.:21:49.

the same day the bodies were found, when Israeli forces came to the

:21:50.:21:50.

house of one of the murder suspects. TRANSLATION: They made me and my

:21:51.:22:01.

children leave the house. Then they came in and destroyed. It they broke

:22:02.:22:10.

all the windows. At 2.00am in the morning they strapped dynomite

:22:11.:22:14.

sticks to the walls and blew this part of the house She denies up. Her

:22:15.:22:19.

son, who has now disappeared, could possibly have been involved in the

:22:20.:22:23.

murders. The Israeli government says that he and another suspect were

:22:24.:22:28.

following Hamas orders. Hamas has carried out many kidnappings, it

:22:29.:22:32.

denies this one. Others think the murders were the work of a lone cell

:22:33.:22:38.

affiliated to Hamas. Whatever the truth, there is no doubt of this

:22:39.:22:41.

mother's support of the militants. TRANSLATION: I want freedom fighters

:22:42.:22:48.

to bring us victory and Gaza to be victorious. Israel hit us so

:22:49.:22:51.

brutally. Taught us to hate them. They don't want peace. Today, in

:22:52.:22:57.

Hebron, some of the protesters certainly didn't want peace. In a

:22:58.:23:02.

ritual that has been repeated again and again, they began throwing rocks

:23:03.:23:08.

at Israeli soldiers. The troops replied with rubber bullets. Laters,

:23:09.:23:13.

protesters claimed, with some live rounds. About 80 people, according

:23:14.:23:18.

to the demonstrators, were wounded. This man believes the rage will burn

:23:19.:23:22.

for a long time and he thinks the war on Hamas is counter productive.

:23:23.:23:27.

Israel is giving the opportunity for Hamas to be stronger. They are not

:23:28.:23:32.

destroying Hamas. They are strengthening Hamas by targeting the

:23:33.:23:36.

civilians and targeting them in Gaza. On the other hand, they are

:23:37.:23:44.

weakening their partner. Israel thinks the opposite. That

:23:45.:23:47.

Palestinians will tire of war and turn against Hamas. But that isn't

:23:48.:23:57.

happening here yet. For a broader reflection on this Gazan war

:23:58.:24:10.

David Miliband, the President and CEO of the International Rescue

:24:11.:24:12.

Of course, he was Foreign Secretary from 2007 to 2010 and

:24:13.:24:16.

on his watch the world grappled with a previous war in Gaza.

:24:17.:24:19.

I started by asking him who he blamed.

:24:20.:24:21.

It's important the focus remains on the civilian casualties. It seems

:24:22.:24:25.

evident from the news today that Hamas did break the ceasefire. The

:24:26.:24:29.

hard won ceasefire, the hard-fought ceasefire that was established this

:24:30.:24:33.

morning. The terrible tragedy is, Hamas cannot rocket their way to

:24:34.:24:37.

victory and Israel cannot bomb its way to security. And, at the centre

:24:38.:24:42.

of this conflict, are 1.8 million civilians who are at the absolute

:24:43.:24:45.

epicentre of a terrible military storm. I think their needs need to

:24:46.:24:51.

come centre stage, if any sanity is to be restored. Negotiations should

:24:52.:24:54.

still continue, even though there is now an Israeli soldier, it seems, in

:24:55.:25:01.

captivity? I think it's very important that all sides recognise

:25:02.:25:07.

that the rights of civilians in war are absolute, over hundreds of

:25:08.:25:08.

years, through to are absolute, over hundreds of

:25:09.:25:11.

years, through the Geneva Conventions, especially in 1949 that

:25:12.:25:17.

established the rights of civilians in warfare, there is a drive to

:25:18.:25:21.

ensure new laws were established. The trend we have seen, not just in

:25:22.:25:26.

Gaza, Syria, in Sri Lanka too, is that civilians aren't just pawns in

:25:27.:25:31.

a conflict, they end up becoming the victims without any proper status at

:25:32.:25:37.

all. The whole notion of a non-combattant inner conflict is now

:25:38.:25:40.

under threat. I think that's a very serious issue for democratic

:25:41.:25:43.

societies around the world and for those who would seek to undermine

:25:44.:25:48.

them. Has Israel used disproportionate force in this

:25:49.:25:49.

crisis, in this war? disproportionate force in this

:25:50.:25:52.

crisis, in this Well, look, for me as a leader of a humanitarian

:25:53.:25:57.

charity, it's important to assert that a single civilian, who loses

:25:58.:26:05.

their life innocently in a war, that is to breach the most fundamental

:26:06.:26:08.

basics of international humanitarian laws. If you are a lawyer you have

:26:09.:26:12.

to look at questions of intent and have to look at wider questions of

:26:13.:26:16.

porportionality. What I'm saying to you is, for me, as someone leading a

:26:17.:26:21.

humanitarian organisation, I want to assert the principle that every

:26:22.:26:25.

single civilian life is worth defending. When a single civilian

:26:26.:26:29.

life is lost, that is disproportionate to the norm that is

:26:30.:26:32.

have been established. The norms are about absolute rights, not about the

:26:33.:26:37.

tradeoff of rights of civilians. The now you are wearing a humanitarian

:26:38.:26:42.

hat rather than the Foreign Secretary hat, you would say it has

:26:43.:26:45.

been a disproportionate use of force by Israel? Of course. Of course. Of

:26:46.:26:51.

course. 80% of the civilians that have been lost, 80% of the

:26:52.:26:54.

casualties in this war have been civilians. As the leader of a

:26:55.:26:58.

humanitarian movement I have to defend the principle, after

:26:59.:27:01.

centurieses in which civilians were, to use your phrase "caught in the

:27:02.:27:08.

cross fire of war" in 1949, the Geneva Convention, established

:27:09.:27:10.

absolute rights for civilians in defence of times of war. That is

:27:11.:27:17.

being brooched. The the the situation that faces the people of

:27:18.:27:20.

Gaza tonight is that 1.8 million of them are trapped in an area where

:27:21.:27:25.

frankly there is no safe zone. That is completely contrary to every

:27:26.:27:30.

basic fibre of being that anyone can really understand or uphold. Has the

:27:31.:27:34.

British Government been strong enough in its condemnation of

:27:35.:27:40.

civilian casualties? Look, I'm not spending my time following the ins

:27:41.:27:45.

and outs of British politics. I will not get into a partisan political

:27:46.:27:52.

attack one way or another or defence of the British Government. What I

:27:53.:27:55.

think is important is that democratic societies around the

:27:56.:27:59.

world uphold the principle that democratic governments are held to

:28:00.:28:03.

higher standards than terrorist organisations and that is the

:28:04.:28:06.

defence of civilians in times of war. I think that the stakes now are

:28:07.:28:11.

very high indeed. Not just in Gaza, but more wide spread because the

:28:12.:28:16.

idea that civilian rights and the interests of civilians, never mind

:28:17.:28:22.

the thousands, tens of thousands of children at stake, the most t

:28:23.:28:28.

innocent of all, the fact it could be traded away is very difficult

:28:29.:28:33.

indeed. Diplomacy is needed more than ever. I remember 2009 when I

:28:34.:28:38.

was at the centre of negotiating the ceasefire for the 2008-0 # Gaza

:28:39.:28:44.

conflict, at the heart is reestablishing political stability

:28:45.:28:47.

in the Gaza Strip. That means the re-entry of the Palestinian

:28:48.:28:50.

Authority as the governing authority there. And reassertion of basic

:28:51.:28:54.

humanitarian at the heart of the Middle East. David Miliband, thank

:28:55.:28:55.

you. Now, to shift gear. If you live on the internet,

:28:56.:29:07.

getting knocked offline could ruin your whole day -

:29:08.:29:09.

such is the world we live in. If you make your living

:29:10.:29:12.

on the internet, then it's a lot more serious

:29:13.:29:14.

when someone kills your connection. Your entire business could be

:29:15.:29:16.

at stake. Pay up, they're telling tech

:29:17.:29:18.

companies, or we'll take you down. They're using what's known as

:29:19.:29:22.

a Distributed Denial of Service, or Malicious attacks

:29:23.:29:24.

on websites have grown in frequency Our technology editor,

:29:25.:29:29.

David Grossman, reports. If you want

:29:30.:29:38.

your business competitors to go If you want your rivals to

:29:39.:29:40.

go offline, well they will. You have to admit,

:29:41.:29:44.

it's pretty brazen, offering to take The weapon, a distributed denial

:29:45.:29:47.

of service attack, or DDoS. A denial of service attack is all

:29:48.:29:56.

about filling up the resources of a website, so that legitimate

:29:57.:30:02.

requests can't get through. In the physical world,

:30:03.:30:07.

you could think of it as something like a sit-in or

:30:08.:30:10.

if you had all of your friends go to a store, fill the entire space,

:30:11.:30:13.

but not actually buy anything. The result is,

:30:14.:30:16.

a whole load of clients or potential customers who can't access your

:30:17.:30:19.

website for hours or even days. The worrying development though is

:30:20.:30:23.

an increasing number of these attacks are now being launched,

:30:24.:30:27.

not personal revenge or business A hacker writes

:30:28.:30:31.

a virus that then infects a whole load of computers, sometimes running

:30:32.:30:42.

into the hundreds of thousands. Then, unknown to the owners of those

:30:43.:30:46.

computers, the hacker instructs this network, known as a botnet,

:30:47.:30:51.

to attack the target website. Previously, the people who made

:30:52.:30:56.

these botnets would hire them out to email spammers who would try

:30:57.:31:00.

to sell you Viagra or convince you they were the Nigerian

:31:01.:31:04.

Finance Minister or something. But the email providers have got

:31:05.:31:07.

much, much better The answer they've come up with,

:31:08.:31:10.

is to turn them into a weapon The sums demanded to stop attacks

:31:11.:31:19.

are comparatively trivial. The targets are often small to

:31:20.:31:24.

medium-sized tech companies who cannot afford to be offline

:31:25.:31:32.

for a minute, let alone a day. Companies like meetup, a social

:31:33.:31:35.

network for community groups. The attack started on a Thursday

:31:36.:31:40.

morning, early. We received an email asking

:31:41.:31:44.

for money to stop the attacks. They hadn't actually started yet,

:31:45.:31:47.

but within a few minutes of receiving

:31:48.:31:50.

the email we saw large traffic that That was the start of a five-day

:31:51.:31:53.

battle to bring the site back up It was really a kind

:31:54.:32:01.

of cat-and-mouse game with Meetup is pretty rare

:32:02.:32:08.

in being a company that doesn't mind I've been in contact with many

:32:09.:32:15.

more who, although happy to talk CloudFlare is a network protection

:32:16.:32:23.

company based in San Francisco. They say they've seen a huge

:32:24.:32:32.

increase in the numbers of tech I think that there's

:32:33.:32:35.

a reluctance to talk about this happening because there's a

:32:36.:32:39.

perception that these companies have The challenge is,

:32:40.:32:42.

a lot of these companies have done Some of the companies we have

:32:43.:32:52.

seen are incredibly tech-savvy. They have contingency plans

:32:53.:32:54.

in place, redundant providers. The attackers, the criminals,

:32:55.:32:57.

can generate so much traffic that unless you have the resources

:32:58.:32:59.

of a company like CloudFlare or Google, that literally has a global

:33:00.:33:02.

network, it's very hard to defend Smashing the window,

:33:03.:33:04.

putting it out of business. It's, effectively,

:33:05.:33:08.

like an old mobster sort The police have

:33:09.:33:10.

a straight-forward view of this activity and say they will

:33:11.:33:18.

investigate if complaints are made. So far there has been one successful

:33:19.:33:21.

prosecution in the UK These programmers were filmed

:33:22.:33:27.

by Greater Manchester Police threatening a DDoS attack

:33:28.:33:32.

on an online casino. But, in this case, the extortionists

:33:33.:33:34.

were known to the victim. When there is that connection

:33:35.:33:38.

between the victim and the offender, obviously it's

:33:39.:33:41.

a lot easier to investigate. But even when there isn't that

:33:42.:33:43.

connection, there is still obviously stuff law enforcement can do

:33:44.:33:45.

because they still have to have an element of communication with

:33:46.:33:49.

the victim because they want Obviously,

:33:50.:33:52.

if they are attacking a number of different companies, then they might

:33:53.:33:56.

be using the same email address, the same language in the email that

:33:57.:33:59.

gets profiled and you can build a The random nature of most DDoS

:34:00.:34:03.

attacks means the long-term answer Attacks are magnified

:34:04.:34:10.

by exploiting a weakness in the very To find out about a website,

:34:11.:34:16.

a computer will send a very short In one type of DDoS attack,

:34:17.:34:27.

hackers use this to their advantage by telling the websites to send

:34:28.:34:37.

the response to the server they're trying to knock offline instead

:34:38.:34:40.

of back to themselves. The target network is then inundated

:34:41.:34:43.

with data that makes the attack far These kinds of attacks exploit

:34:44.:34:47.

the open, free-flowing way that internet servers around the globe

:34:48.:34:54.

communicate with each other. There are fears that introducing

:34:55.:34:57.

more checks and limits could slow But while we wait for a solution,

:34:58.:35:00.

many tech companies take the view it's better to pay up

:35:01.:35:04.

the comparatively small amounts of money being demanded

:35:05.:35:08.

and hope the extortionists move As part of our season of Proms

:35:09.:35:10.

previews, in the week we remember Here's the 100-strong Military Wives

:35:11.:35:25.

Choir performing, Home They Brought Her Warrior Dead by Gustav Holst,

:35:26.:35:29.

and conducted by Gareth Malone. # Home they brought her warrior dead

:35:30.:35:32.

# She nor swooned, nor uttered cry # All her maidens watching said,

:35:33.:35:49.

# She must weep or she will die. # Then they praised him, soft and

:35:50.:36:00.

low, # Called him worthy to be loved,

:36:01.:36:05.

# Truest friend and noblest foe, # Yet she neither spoke nor moved.

:36:06.:36:15.

# Stole a maiden from her place, # Lightly to the warrior stept,

:36:16.:36:28.

# Took the face-cloth from the face # Yet she neither moved nor wept.

:36:29.:36:38.

# Rose a nurse of 90 years, # Set his child upon her knee

:36:39.:36:49.

# Like summer tempest came her tears

:36:50.:37:00.

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