22/08/2014 Newsnight


In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Emily Maitlis.

Similar Content

Browse content similar to 22/08/2014. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!



Self funded and generating $40 million a month, why the finances of


ISIS make it such a powerful en After the death of James Foley, the


rights and wrongs of paying a ransom. We talk to a host age negoti


or. The Yazidi Swire who escaped ISIS bullets and the pit he was


buried in but found his entire village had been massacred. And why


would a football manager in this day and age have to say this? I am no


racist. I am no sexist. I'm no home ophobe and no anti-Semitic. Good


evening. ISIS terror tactics are well known. Their strategies brutal


and publicity seeking. What is less understood is how this terrorist


group grew into a working business virtually the size of a small state.


They have a glossy annual report, a business plan, and generate a


revenue of - conservatively - $40 million a month. Their money comes


from oil and also from extortion and kidnap ransom. But what makes the


group so terrifying is how contained they have become, insulated from


sanctions as they are no longer dependent on foreign funds or


governments. Our economics correspondent, Duncan Weldon, looks


at where its money comes from and how the self


at where its money comes from and it such a powerful enemy.


at where its money comes from and State is an unusually well organised


terrorist group. Everything from me till louse record keeping to slickly


produced videos suggest it. Floss better illustration of the their


approach than the annual publication of a report detailing their


activities. Complete with graphics detailing their success on things


like suicide bombings and kidnappings. They are the most well


funded group of their ilk we've ever seen. Like most terror groups


Islamic State first relied on donors. Since 2011 Islamic State's


fighting in the Syrian civil war reportedly received donations from


Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Kuwait. Much of this cash apparent ly flowed


through Kuwait. One of the traditional ways the Governments


seek to combat organisations like IS is through cutting off the flow of


finance, identifying and sanctioning is through cutting off the flow of


donors and related firms. But IS is is through cutting off the flow of


no long er dependent is through cutting off the flow of


funds. It raises is through cutting off the flow of


firmly rooted into the local is through cutting off the flow of


regional economies of is through cutting off the flow of


Iraq. IS's biggest source of revenue is isle. There's been a large black


market in oil in the Middle East in decades. It was used by Saddam


Hussein in Iraq to get round sanction,s. And it has been


exploited by the complots IS has controlled several fields in Syria


since 2012 and this year added four small fields in Iraq. Some of this


oil is transported to Turkey, Jordan and Iran and sold on the black


market for $50 to $60 a barrel. Some of it is transported to refineries


in northern Syria. As these pictures show, this is dangerous work. The


refined fuel is used in IS's only vehicles and sold in petrol stations


in areas under their control. Taken together, crude and refine. Oil


sales are currently worth around $1 million to ?3 million per day to


Islamic State. There's more to Islamic State's revenue an oil. It


extorts cash from local businesses in areas it controls, behaving like


a Mafia protection racket. Before the capture of Mosul extortion


wassest mated the capture of Mosul extortion


million a month. It has almost certainly increased significantly


since then. There have been reports that IS is selling captured women


and girls to people traffickers. The sale of hostages is another means of


cash. It asked for goods 250 million for the release of James Foley. The


average price paid for the release of James Foley. The


to 5 million. What are they spending all of this cash on? IS's revenues


are in the region of at least $40 million a month and possibly much


higher. Manchester of it goes on fighting their enemies, but not all


of it. In areas they control, IS is subsidising food and water,


providing basic public services and dolling out charity. This attempt to


win over hearts and minds is a crucial part of their strategy. They


are by far and away the best funded group of their ilk we've seen. With


the funds they've got they are in a cycle that allows them to attract


fighters, to buy weapons, to take more territory and more financially


attractive assets. That's a psyche hall the West needs to try and


break. Through conquest, extortion and oil trading IS have managed to


make themselves financially self sufficient. It is increasingly


looking less like a financed terror group and more Plaid Cymru a poor


state. The brother of murdered hostage James Foley said today he


believed the US Government could have done more to help his brother.


His ransom, the unimaginable sum of $132 million, never seemed remotely


realistic. I spoke to a hostage negotiator. He goes by the name of


Jan. He wishes to remain anonymous. We work for anybody who has been


kidnap ed. Whether that's a family, an individual or a company, a


corporation, an aid agency for instance as well. How often is a


ransom part of the ultimate negotiation? Quite often. It depends


on the country and the area and the profile of the victim and the


kidnappers. What we would always do is do our utmost not to pay a


ransom, if there is another way of getting somebody released by


providing some sort of concession for instance, which is not money. We


would have a go at that. Quite often with aid agencies in south Asia


particularly, then the aid agencies are sufficiently well liked by the


local communities that if one of them is kidnapped, they can use that


community leverage in order to pressure the kidnappers or persuade


them to release them for no money. Ostensibly there's a real


discrepancy between the way, say, British and US Governments deal with


ransoms with hostages and the way the French Government deals with


them. The French is more likely to pay money. Is that a good thing?


Governments, particularly the Europeans, have got a very bad


record now for paying far too much and far too quickly and feeding the


kidnappers, the terrorists, with money. Governments are poor


generally at countering kid naps, because they are seen by the


kidnappers to be a bottomless pit of money. And they are also seen as


being very subject to political, domestic political precious, so they


pay very fast and quickly, which is exactly what kidnappers like. But


essentially you're saying if the Government says we are not paying,


but here's a negotiator who will work it out for you, you are still


paying the ransom. You are still increasing the likelihood that more


hostages will be taken. I think it is right that you try to save


people's lives, innocent people who've been caught up with let's say


aid agency workers on journalists who just somebody who is travelling


and is kidnapped. The UK and US Governments tell us they don't pay


ransoms. Is the that true? I think it is true that the US and the UK


don't. I think the Europeans or some European governments have been for


fairly sure. But I think what the US and UK are doing now is trying to


stop people, families and corporate or companies from paying rans Oms.


They are trying to ban the payment of rans Oms to terrorists. I think


that is wrong. That is wrong to take out of the hands of people their own


way to get their loved ones back. You can see why they are doing it,


because they want to cut down on the incidence of kidnap-taking. You can


and I sympathise with that entirely but I think there are more direct


ways of bringing security to these areas. Again I just think it is


wrong. I think legally it is very dubious to be trying to ban people


from trying to save their loved ones. Jan, thank you. Joining us now


is a research fellow from RUSI, the think-tank. He said it is legally


dodgy ground for the Government to stop people. His explanation is


dubious. He says bring security instead. That's effectively a call


for world peace. We would all like to see Iraq, Syria stabilise, but


that isn't going to happen. His points about not incentivising


further kidnappings or funding terrorist groups, which they can use


to grow. Whoever pays the ranges, pays the ransom, it makes no


difference to the long-term effect of the market for hostages. You


can't say if no ransom were ever paid there would be no host age


taking. No, if you go back to Al-Qaeda in Iraq, they murdered many


hostages brutally for pure propaganda purposes alone, so we can


concede there'll certainly be hostage taking for political


reasons, propaganda purposes and blew bloodshed, which is barbaric


group like ISIS desires. We are not talking a bit of spare change or


bonus money, but the core funding for Al-Qaeda over recent years and a


significant source of the growth of this plague, the Islamic State. And


yet you could say, and you could never quantify a human life in terms


of money or money paid, but you could say that the response to the


killing of James Foley may now be war. May now be military


intervention, maybe a hardening of public opinion which is clearly


going to be way more costly than paying for his release. That's an


interesting argument but we know the structural conditions in Iraq and


Syria point in that direction anyway. The growth of Islamic State,


there are over 500 British fighters with the Islamic State, all of this


means a form of confrontation with the ITV, military or otherwise, was


coming. So you are saying the beheading of this hostage had very


little bearing on American policy now? I think American policy has


been gearing up slowly. I think it would have made a difference to


Chuck Hagel's sweeping statement about ISIS being a luge threat yet,


but it is inevitable they will expand air strikes. Before Foley. I


think after Foley that's how it is. Clearly this is something the


Americans haven't stated is explicitly, but we know our Foreign


Secretary said, we will not go into business with Assad. Air strikes on


Syria are presumably going to do Assad's work for him? Assad will be


the beneficiary but so will those fighting Assad or the Islamic State.


The Free Syrian Army or whatever we wish to call them, they've been


under the Islamic State cosh. They will benefit and the question is not


just does Assad benefit or not, parents by being seen to overtly


work with Assad, what effect does that have on the tens of millions of


disenfranchised Sunnis who support we need to ultimately defeat the


Islamic State? That's a bigger issue. Not does Assad benefit but is


this going to help us peel Sunnis away from the Islamic State? I think


overt active co-operation with Assad doesn't fulfil that objective. Thank


you. What about those who survive ISIS but find themselves narrators


of the terrible events they've witnessed with. One Yazidi man from


northern Iraq tells Newsnight of the day his vic near Sinjar was


surrounded by ISIS militants. They rounded up the men, shot them and


buried them en masse. Rafid Said Amu fled but a thousand of his fellow


villagers disappeared. He told his story. Hospitals in northern Iraq


are struggling to cope with the influx of both wounded


are struggling to cope with the military personnel, as Kurdish


are struggling to cope with the Iraqi soldiers tried to push back


against the IS offensive here. There are daily skirmishes. We are in the


largest hospital in Dahuk, where many of the wounded are brought.


This is the emergency room. I've seen a number


This is the emergency room. I've being treated. This is also where


they brought victims of a recent massacre.


they brought victims of a recent five times during the massacre of


non-Muslims by ISIS militants in a village near Sinjar. At least 80 men


each the minorityies sect were rounded up and shot dead. Women and


children were abducted. When they were surrounding you in


your village, what was happening, what were they telling you?


He told me he walked for about 12 hours, finally reaching Mount Sinjar


in the dead of night. He says between 40 and 50 of the villagers


rounded up with him died in the massacre. Where are the rest of the


family? Do you know what happened to your


wife and your children? Yalda Hakim speaking to the sole


survivor. To give Malky Mackay credit,


his text messages suggest he was indiscriminate


in his discrimination. His racist, sexist, homophobic,


anti-Semitic comments suggest he Today came a full-scale apology


and a reminder that anyone who had their personal texts scrutinised


would probably be in But it was the phrase that followed


the texts, a plea to dismiss them as friendly banter, which some


found most offensive of all. A new term has been added to the


offensive language Mexican and that word may just be banter -- the


offensive language lexicon. The text stream was between Malky Mackay and


Iain Moody. Markey Mackay apparently covers the full gamut of offence,


racist, anti-Semitic and sexist. It was something that was


unacceptable, but as far as I am concerned, I have been in a


multicultural football environment for 20 years. I love British


football. I am no racist, I am no sexist, I am no homophobe, I am no


anti-Semitic. The text messages have been condemned but a lone figure let


to his defence. Show me someone who has never made a mistake and I will


show you a liar. He has not murdered anyone, he is not a rapist, he is


not a paedophile. He has made a mistake, a big mistake, but it


should not finish his football career. The LMA has apologised for


its wording and accepted it is beyond argument that it was


discriminatory, a window has been opened onto the part of footballing


world that they have tried so hard to shut. Have things changed or has


the beautiful game managed to bury its beautiful side?


I am joined now by former footballer turned pundit,


Mark Bright, and the award-winning sports writer, Matthew Syed. Malky


When you have a manager saying, I am not anti-Semitic, I am not a


homophobe, it is a strange state of affairs. This is about far more than


Markey Mackay and Iain Moody. There are no black managers. No women


managers. No women working in youth team football. No openly gay


footballers. That is what the situation is in football. It hints


at a culture going way beyond one man, these two men. That is the


issue football has to address. It is deeper and wider. You were pretty


shocked. We talked on the phone. How wide do you think this goes?


Everyone in football condemns what they have said. No one can put up a


case with them. I have been in Iain Moody's company since he joined the


club, in the boardroom, travelling, he has never said anything untoward


to me. There have always been rumours and when it came out, the


content of the texts, I was shocked. I did not think in 2014 anyone is


going to write it down never mind think it. You said write it down,


the defence Harry Redknapp tried to put up was


the defence Harry Redknapp tried to away looking good if their text


messages were scrutinised. Any of us. I don't know. Would you be


comfortable someone going us. I don't know. Would you be


phone? Does he have a point? Depends what it says. Has


phone? Does he have a point? Depends their friends about their boss? That


goes on. But that is discrimination. It is wrong. Every box ticked. And


yet every time you go and watch a game, there are adverts and the


thing about combating racism and homophobia, is that just the surface


question might the reality is a disaster. The spin is good. Better


than it was. -- is that just the surface? Football lags behind. Why?


If you work at a big corporate institution, you are told by the


very very strenuous page our department that it is unacceptable


to use racist, sexist, homophobic terminology as banter. In football


clubs, on the training pitch, homophobic epithets used as terms of


abuse. It is just a group of young guys, a bit of banter. Let me


finish, if I made? This is a place of work. If there is a gay person


not out of the closet... They are not going to say, it is out of


order. They might not want to be identified. Think of the attritional


affected that will have. They do not understand that this is not just


banter, it is not just a group of guys having a kick around, it is a


place of work. They need to have the same rules as big companies. I have


heard players told the manager to F off on the training ground. Anywhere


else, you lose your job. In football, you don't. You can't down


on the manager comes down and you say sorry and move on. -- you calm


down. What is your point, it is not going to change? It is not banter.


It is an exchange on the pitch against each other and the manager


and the player, when you are in training... I mean, we were talking


before and I said, Jeremy Clarkson has come out with a couple of


things, close to the knuckle, he is still employed. You talk about


football having a problem... Really interesting. Thank you very much.


The Budleigh is the perky and hold of butterflies who seek out


The Budleigh is the perky and hold nectar but to government officials


and Network Rail it is a scourge smothering native plants and


damaging infrastructure with its restless pen draws. It has been


branded a non-native invader. In the late summer zenith, it is


unbelievably common. Here is Steven Smith. What could be more restful?


Yet we need to be on our guard against a threat on our very


doorstep. On the white Cliffs of Dover themselves. They comes in the


deceptively innocuous guys of a foreign invader. The buddleia. Is it


a case of us and then with the buddleia? You have to admire these


plants, but they are causing a lot of damage to wildlife. I think it is


wonderful and vibrant and colourful. Let buddleias rule. You may have


admired it from a railway carriage. In fact, you can hardly have missed


it. It flourishes where other plants shrivel. Dry soil, cracks in mortar.


It is a supreme opportunist, on the front, park rangers like this man


keeping watch under the famous chalky sentinels, the home guard. It


is a nature reserve that is protected for its very rare wild


flowers and particularly its very rare assemblage of insects. Hundreds


of insects that have been recorded here which are often not recorded


anywhere else in Britain. It is very dense. You could not force your way


through. This is what buddleia does. The shade kills off everything


growing underneath. All of the wild flowers, grass, the insects and


butterflies depend on them and they are not there any more. This is part


of the buddleia? The Jan has eliminated almost everything. -- the


buddleia. At garden centres like this one, customers are wild for


buddleia though it can smother some plants. Paradoxically it is also


known as a haunt of mature butterflies. We are up 20% on year


to date. People are passionate about wildlife because of the decline of


butterflies and ladybirds, they want to encourage these into their


gardens again. This is the perfect thing. It flowers all summer until


autumn and it is really pretty. Whitehall officials describe


buddleia as invasive and purge gardeners to deadhead the plants


before they can seed -- and they purge gardeners. The garden


centre's star employee spruces the place up in honour of gardening


royalty. Very nice to see you again. I hope you like the set we have


bowled for you. What about these plants, the name of which I have


momentarily forgotten, but I know you know what they are and they are


running riot all over the country at the moment. Buddleias. When you


think of a British garden, you think of buddleias and butterflies, maybe


an Edwardian wall space, what harm does the buddleia of suburbia do?


Genius! I see a range of gardening accessories. This could be huge. A


garden is a melting pot so many different cultures, so many


different places. Look how it combines beautifully and that is


what this country has always been good at. Towards the end of August,


do you have any gardening tips? Should they be deadheading anything?


Hydrangeas. Fine when I last checked them out. On a clear day, you can


look out to France across The Channel, the source of so many


earlier threats to this green and pleasant land. Meanwhile the French


can look back at us and see our buddleia. We leave you with a treat.


As part of Newsnight's Proms preview, we enter night with the


principal cellist with the London Symphony at playing the haunting


Linguae Ignis, or Tongues of Fire, by Peter Maxwell Davies. Good night.


Download Subtitles