22/01/2016 Newsnight


22/01/2016

In-depth investigation and analysis of the stories behind the day's headlines with Kirsty Wark.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to 22/01/2016. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

They're paying ?130 million in back corporation tax

:00:09.:00:13.

We were following the rules as they were and now we will follow the

:00:14.:00:22.

rules as they are, and we want to move fast to make sure that we pay

:00:23.:00:24.

the right amount of tax. Is Google now in the good

:00:25.:00:28.

books or is this a deal From Russia in the week

:00:29.:00:31.

of the Litvinenko inquiry we have an exclusive

:00:32.:00:34.

interview with this man - one of the last remaining thorns

:00:35.:00:36.

in Putin's side who has made a film The thrust of the film is the

:00:37.:00:47.

corrupt officials are gorging on billions of dollars worth of

:00:48.:00:51.

Russia's wealth, just like the seagulls on these chips.

:00:52.:00:57.

It was ugly and acrimonious but it changed newspapers forever.

:00:58.:00:59.

We revisit the Wapping dispute 30 years on.

:01:00.:01:04.

But they thought they could tough it out and they were wrong.

:01:05.:01:14.

Today Google's doodle was of the man who invented the measure

:01:15.:01:20.

The global company will be hoping the heat is now off them in the UK

:01:21.:01:26.

after they announced less than an hour ago

:01:27.:01:28.

that they are going to pay the Treasury ten years' worth

:01:29.:01:32.

of corporation tax to the tune of ?130 million.

:01:33.:01:35.

Tonight the company told Newsnight that the method for calculating

:01:36.:01:38.

the company's corporation tax liability going forward

:01:39.:01:41.

will have an added component - based on a percentage of revenue

:01:42.:01:44.

Google has agreed to pay more than ?100 million of back taxes

:01:45.:01:57.

after an open audit of its accounts by the tax authorities,

:01:58.:02:00.

And they'll pay more to HMRC going forwards.

:02:01.:02:05.

Google paid just ?20 million in UK taxes in 2013.

:02:06.:02:12.

We have announced we will be paying more tax in the UK.

:02:13.:02:14.

The rules are changing internationally

:02:15.:02:18.

and the UK Government has taken the lead in applying those rules,

:02:19.:02:21.

so we are changing what we are doing here

:02:22.:02:24.

and paying ?130 million in respect of previous years,

:02:25.:02:27.

when the rules were to pay in respect of profits

:02:28.:02:29.

you made in a country and, going forwards, we will also be

:02:30.:02:32.

paying in respect of sales to UK customers.

:02:33.:02:34.

Google's name has become dogged by association with questions

:02:35.:02:40.

For example, an anti-avoidance measure

:02:41.:02:47.

introduced at a Budget last year was dubbed the Google tax.

:02:48.:02:49.

The former chair of the Public Accounts

:02:50.:02:52.

Select Committee was pretty fierce with the company.

:02:53.:02:54.

You are a company which says that you do no evil and I think

:02:55.:02:58.

that you do do evil, in that you use smoke and mirrors

:02:59.:03:00.

Tax is a matter of following the laws that are there internationally.

:03:01.:03:10.

We have all heard today how you define this...

:03:11.:03:16.

But the sums being paid out now will not kill off these concerns.

:03:17.:03:19.

If you look at Google's UK accounts for

:03:20.:03:21.

2013, they report turnover of ?642 million, but that isn't

:03:22.:03:23.

all the money Google makes in Britain.

:03:24.:03:25.

If you look at documents filed by Google in the US,

:03:26.:03:28.

they show that Britain accounts for $5.6 billion

:03:29.:03:32.

of revenues in 2013 alone, rising to $6.5 billion in 2014.

:03:33.:03:38.

But Google earns a lot of money in Britain that doesn't go

:03:39.:03:45.

So this isn't the end of the issue for Google,

:03:46.:03:50.

not least since other European countries would also like more tax

:03:51.:03:52.

from them, so where does it leave Google's

:03:53.:03:54.

My colleague Kamal Ahmed enquired today.

:03:55.:03:58.

How reputationally damaging has the tax controversy been?

:03:59.:04:06.

I think it's right that, where there is

:04:07.:04:08.

public concern and politicians and the press are concerned

:04:09.:04:15.

about international companies, not just

:04:16.:04:17.

us, that you should change when the rules change.

:04:18.:04:19.

As a business, we want to focus on building amazing

:04:20.:04:23.

products and hiring people to help the UK make the most of the Internet

:04:24.:04:26.

That is what we want to spend our time doing.

:04:27.:04:30.

It has taken years to complete this audit, which covers a decade of tax,

:04:31.:04:33.

but it isn't over for Google or anyone else.

:04:34.:04:36.

The European Commission is currently looking into whether Ireland has

:04:37.:04:38.

been too favourable to Apple and deals of this size won't take

:04:39.:04:41.

Joining me to discuss this is the economist and director

:04:42.:04:50.

of Tax Research UK, Richard Murphy, one of the lead voices

:04:51.:04:52.

in the campaign to make Google pay more tax,

:04:53.:04:54.

and from the Financial Times, Vanessa Houlder.

:04:55.:05:01.

Richard, who is the winner? Superficially, the UK, we have ?130

:05:02.:05:10.

million. That is a tiny amount of money, Google must be laughing all

:05:11.:05:13.

the way to their bank in Bermuda with this one, to be honest. This is

:05:14.:05:18.

a settlement which seems minuscule in proportion to the amount of tax

:05:19.:05:21.

they have saved, and if the future tax is paid in proportion to this,

:05:22.:05:25.

they are getting a settlement which is extraordinarily small. Do you

:05:26.:05:31.

agree? Hey Jim RC insists this is the right amount of tax, -- Pecs MRC

:05:32.:05:37.

insists this is the right amount of tax, the Treasury says this is a

:05:38.:05:41.

ground-breaking decision, reflecting what the government has been doing,

:05:42.:05:45.

but in terms of public perception Richard is right, people will look

:05:46.:05:48.

at the very large amount of sales going into the many billions of

:05:49.:05:52.

dollars and say, actually it is not very much in relation to that. How

:05:53.:05:58.

did they make such a calculation? Well, we don't know, and we probably

:05:59.:06:05.

will never find out, the details, but they have told us a bit about

:06:06.:06:10.

the mechanisms. As Chris said in the base, they have a cost plus formula

:06:11.:06:15.

which they normally use, and they are adding a slice of Cyres, how do

:06:16.:06:22.

they define that slice? -- sales. No one needs to pay more tax than they

:06:23.:06:25.

are due to play, we should say, but what is not clear, going forward,

:06:26.:06:31.

this is a percentage of the revenue from UK advertising, and it does not

:06:32.:06:34.

define what that percentage is, is that quite unusual? We do not tax

:06:35.:06:40.

corporations, profit taxes on their Cyres, this is unusual, it is the

:06:41.:06:44.

wrong basis for taxation -- on their sales. It raises a question about

:06:45.:06:50.

the international settlement, it looks like Google might not become

:06:51.:06:53.

resident in the UK, it will do an adaptation of the existing scheme

:06:54.:06:57.

which leaves it selling from Ireland, and that leaves it looking

:06:58.:07:02.

like one of these deals which is the revenue did which led them into so

:07:03.:07:05.

much trouble with Parliament and the public and everyone. They must think

:07:06.:07:09.

that this is copper bottoms otherwise they would not have

:07:10.:07:14.

announced it. I agree with Richard, in the way that we were expecting

:07:15.:07:19.

this to pan out, Google announcing they had a permanent presence in the

:07:20.:07:26.

UK, and the signs are that is not what is going to happen. That is a

:07:27.:07:32.

win for Google? It is probable that that is the way it sees the

:07:33.:07:36.

international rules going, and these people are experts, HM RC are

:07:37.:07:43.

experts, this might be a sign of how the settlement is going to pan out

:07:44.:07:46.

for multinationals generally. It makes it less competitive? For the

:07:47.:07:55.

UK? Yes. The UK has been pushing tax competitiveness very strongly for

:07:56.:08:02.

the last five years, and along with that putting pressure on companies

:08:03.:08:05.

to pay their fair share, as well, and my guess is the Treasury will be

:08:06.:08:09.

very pleased with this outcome, it would think it has the best of both

:08:10.:08:13.

of those worlds. I wonder if other global companies will think about

:08:14.:08:19.

this, there's the row with Apple, for example. But them it is also

:08:20.:08:25.

news, but it is very bad news for the OECD and their plans to bring in

:08:26.:08:29.

a new international tax regime if the stands up, but this could be a

:08:30.:08:33.

spoiler by George Osborne, as well. He brought in the diverted profit

:08:34.:08:38.

tax, called the Google tax, as a spoiler to that process, has he done

:08:39.:08:42.

this settlement to spoil the implementation of the agreement?

:08:43.:08:47.

This is not straightforwardly the diverted profits tax. No, this is

:08:48.:08:52.

the corporation tax, but does the settlement undermines the way that

:08:53.:08:55.

process works, and if it does that is bad news for everybody. There are

:08:56.:09:01.

sounding is coming from France, that Google is actually trying to reach

:09:02.:09:04.

agreements with other European governments, and that will be

:09:05.:09:10.

interesting to watch. 1 billion euros which the French government

:09:11.:09:13.

thinks that Google knows it and we will see what happens. -- owes it.

:09:14.:09:22.

You still going to be campaigning? Heavens, yes, this is a success, but

:09:23.:09:26.

this is a small one, we have a long way to go to get what we really

:09:27.:09:28.

want. Thanks for joining us. The state-sponsored assassination

:09:29.:09:31.

of Alexander Litvinenko raises questions about law and order

:09:32.:09:33.

in Russia, or the lack thereof. One man who is an expert on this

:09:34.:09:36.

subject is Russian opposition activist and blogger Alexei Navalny,

:09:37.:09:39.

who has several short spells His brother, Oleg, is in jail now,

:09:40.:09:41.

on, critics say, trumped-up charges In a Newsnight exclusive,

:09:42.:09:47.

Alexei Navalny has spoken to John Sweeney about Litvinenko,

:09:48.:09:53.

his own fight to free Russia from corruption and whether

:09:54.:09:55.

it is worth the risk. Welcome to Siberia. Actually, this

:09:56.:10:27.

is Southend. But you don't need a Visa to get to Essex. We are here

:10:28.:10:33.

because Alexei Navalny, the effective leader of the Russian

:10:34.:10:37.

opposition, has declared war on the Seagull, in Russian. That is the

:10:38.:10:44.

name of Vladimir Putin's top law enforcement officer, Russia's

:10:45.:10:51.

prosecutor general. The scourge of the seagulls, Alexei Navalny, is

:10:52.:10:56.

banned from leaving Moscow and rarely gives interviews to the

:10:57.:11:04.

foreign media. He led anti-Putin protests four years ago. More than

:11:05.:11:10.

any other Russian, he is fighting the Kremlin over corruption. How

:11:11.:11:15.

much money is being sucked out of the Russian economy every year?

:11:16.:11:19.

Through corruption, at least something like $50 billion a year.

:11:20.:11:27.

How corrupt do you think is Mr Vladimir Putin? He is the basement

:11:28.:11:35.

of this corruption. He is personally involved in corruption and he is

:11:36.:11:41.

encouraging our officials into corruption, because it is his way of

:11:42.:11:46.

rolling the country. Alexei Navalny knows only too well what happens to

:11:47.:11:50.

people that challenge the Kremlin's power, when you go his friend and

:11:51.:11:55.

opposition leader was shot dead in Moscow. -- one year ago. Boris was

:11:56.:12:03.

my friend and he was shot dead, maybe 100 metres from the Kremlin. I

:12:04.:12:07.

asked him about the strange murder of Alexander Litvinenko. Is it

:12:08.:12:13.

possible to buy polonium in a shop in Russia? That is why I guess your

:12:14.:12:21.

investigation shows it was an FSB operation. The British investigation

:12:22.:12:28.

about Mr Litvinenko, one of the conclusions from the investigation

:12:29.:12:34.

was that Mr Putin personally, probably, was involved it in giving

:12:35.:12:43.

orders to commit such a crime. On Monday, Alexei Navalny will launch

:12:44.:12:46.

the English language version of his documentary on corruption in Russia.

:12:47.:12:52.

The thrust of his film is that the corrupt officials are gorging on

:12:53.:12:56.

billions of dollars worth of Russia's 12, just like the seagulls

:12:57.:13:05.

on these chips -- Russia's wealth. The film alleges multi-million

:13:06.:13:09.

dollar corruption, by the sounds of prosecutor general. Seen here with

:13:10.:13:24.

the Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, and the patriarch, Russia's version

:13:25.:13:28.

of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Corruption in Russia is not

:13:29.:13:35.

something like White collar crime or something, and we wanted to show

:13:36.:13:39.

this level of the degradation of Russian power. In the film, he

:13:40.:14:00.

alleges that Artem has been involved at all levels. They have been

:14:01.:14:06.

involved in torture and murder. The hotel is worth 30 million Euros,

:14:07.:14:11.

welcome to the opening ceremony for the pomegranate wellness spa in

:14:12.:14:21.

Greece. Cutting the ribbon, Russian people turned out for the gig, this

:14:22.:14:27.

man said that Russians have an extra chromosome which make them supermen.

:14:28.:14:32.

He is not a geneticist, but the Russian Minister of culture. His

:14:33.:14:42.

business associates have been close to the crime family, allegedly, six

:14:43.:14:44.

years ago the gang committed a massacre. It was a crime, which

:14:45.:14:52.

shook all of Russia, because it was a real massacre and 12 people were

:14:53.:14:58.

killed including four children, one newborn child, they threw him into

:14:59.:15:00.

the fire while he was alive. The film also alleges that he sold a

:15:01.:15:13.

shipping company from underneath its owners. Its director complained

:15:14.:15:21.

about him. The next day, he was found dead with a rope around his

:15:22.:15:27.

neck. Suicide, said the authorities. But, according to the paper from the

:15:28.:15:34.

coroner's office, a trace on his neck showed that it wasn't a

:15:35.:15:42.

suicide. But Russian investigating bodies, they just refused to have

:15:43.:15:49.

any investigation. Newsnight asked this man for a response, but got no

:15:50.:15:56.

answer, but his dad, the prosecutor general, is said of Navalny's film

:15:57.:16:01.

that it was a black PR action and a hatchet job and the information in

:16:02.:16:07.

response it -- presented is deliberately. Fight with no basis in

:16:08.:16:11.

fact, adding that it was paid for by the British and Americans. Navalny

:16:12.:16:18.

isn't just challenging if you people called Seagull. He is also taking

:16:19.:16:24.

aim at the system in Russia, which he thinks is rotten, and, of course,

:16:25.:16:29.

the man in charge of that system, Vladimir Putin.

:16:30.:16:35.

Rupert Murdoch might be making the headlines now for his impending

:16:36.:16:37.

marriage to the former model Jerry Hall, but 30 years ago this

:16:38.:16:40.

weekend he was in the eye of the storm - not for love

:16:41.:16:43.

When his 6,000 printers went on strike, threatening the future

:16:44.:16:47.

of his four titles, Murdoch hoodwinked them by swiftly moving

:16:48.:16:50.

production out of Fleet Street to a brand new plant in Wapping,

:16:51.:16:53.

which he had pretended was for the launch of a new Sunday paper.

:16:54.:16:57.

Stephen Smith takes us back to the dispute.

:16:58.:17:10.

It was mayhem in the streets around Rupert Murdoch's printing

:17:11.:17:12.

Hundreds of police and thousands of demonstrators vied for control

:17:13.:17:17.

of the roads in and out of the plant.

:17:18.:17:25.

The audacity with which it was done, the switch to Wapping.

:17:26.:17:38.

It was very much a Thatcherite phenomenon, the changes in the law

:17:39.:17:41.

And also, the cult of individualism rather than collectivism.

:17:42.:17:45.

Many, though not all journalists, at Rupert Murdoch's titles came

:17:46.:17:49.

to when the papers decamp from Fleet Street

:17:50.:17:51.

6000 other workers had been given notice after

:17:52.:17:57.

What did the dispute look like inside

:17:58.:18:01.

Apart from the computer blowing up about half a dozen times, the rest

:18:02.:18:15.

of it has been absolutely fantastic. It was a nightmare in the sense that

:18:16.:18:20.

I had three bodyguards, I was driven in, and everybody knew the cars was

:18:21.:18:25.

not especially when we came out of the factory, there was shouting and

:18:26.:18:29.

early aching and generally trying to cause a problem. What Murdoch and

:18:30.:18:37.

Coe were turning their backs on was cold, hot metal technology. As well

:18:38.:18:44.

as the alleged Spanish customs of the print unions. They were not only

:18:45.:18:48.

getting their share but everybody else's. They were taking money home

:18:49.:18:54.

in wheelbarrows, were checking -- working virtually no hours, refusing

:18:55.:19:02.

to embrace new technology. To make any change,

:19:03.:19:04.

to embrace new technology. To make lasting years. They were not moving

:19:05.:19:09.

with the times. Therefore, they paid the price and, actually, they

:19:10.:19:13.

deserve it. There were undoubtedly people who were double jobbing it,

:19:14.:19:19.

signing on, as Mickey Mouse etc. In a way, the boss class colluded. They

:19:20.:19:25.

wanted their product out, sharpish and soon as. Other proprietors

:19:26.:19:32.

subsequently said that -- showed that negotiations could be carried

:19:33.:19:36.

out in a civilised fashion. Murdoch showed -- chose not to. He is very

:19:37.:19:42.

clever. It was a long ago dispute over a product nobody cares about

:19:43.:19:45.

any more, or so we are always being told. In fact, there are still at

:19:46.:19:51.

least two sides to be dispute. Didn't allow Murdoch and other less

:19:52.:19:57.

obtrusive proprietors to put off the end of newsprint, or was it an end

:19:58.:20:04.

-- a moment of infamy in the history of workers' relations? In a way, you

:20:05.:20:10.

miss the smell because the plant isn't where the papers are made by

:20:11.:20:15.

the journalists, but honestly, the conditions were shocking, kind of

:20:16.:20:22.

medieval, and the idea of dropping lead into a molten pot and mucking

:20:23.:20:27.

about with it, it is quaint, but the truth of the matter is, a

:20:28.:20:32.

ten-year-old could do it today. It is a time that has come and gone.

:20:33.:20:36.

With me from New York is Sir Harry Evans, editor

:20:37.:20:39.

of the Times newspaper under Rupert Murdoch in the early 1980s,

:20:40.:20:42.

and Ann Field, who was involved with the Sogat print union

:20:43.:20:44.

Harry Evans, how did Rupert Murdoch operate during that whole Wapping

:20:45.:20:58.

time? Was he leading from the front or was it all from behind? He led

:20:59.:21:07.

from behind by absolutely brilliant planning before the Wapping

:21:08.:21:10.

confrontation took place. I had by that time left the Times, I was

:21:11.:21:16.

editor of the Sunday times, and my recollection of all of this was how

:21:17.:21:20.

very hard it was at the Sunday Times to get into one -- get into

:21:21.:21:26.

operation what was lovingly called new technology, computer

:21:27.:21:31.

typesetting, and just efficiency. So the actual Wapping dispute

:21:32.:21:38.

overshadowed the previous seven or eight years when the management at

:21:39.:21:43.

the Sunday Times, and I was on board so I agreed with it, tried very to

:21:44.:21:48.

introduce computers, offered lifetime guarantees for the workers,

:21:49.:21:55.

but we didn't get it. On top of that, the Sunday Times was sabotaged

:21:56.:21:59.

week after week in the press room. We were very close to the print

:22:00.:22:07.

people, the people who put the type. By the way, I have a high

:22:08.:22:12.

appreciation of their skills in a previous speaker does. He doesn't

:22:13.:22:13.

understand what was really happening. Having said that, the

:22:14.:22:19.

press room unions were completely hostile. When I published the final

:22:20.:22:26.

thalidomide investigation, which had taken eight years, they sabotaged

:22:27.:22:32.

the run. Were you shocked that he managed to hoodwink the print unions

:22:33.:22:37.

by that new plant at Wapping? Were you quite shocked? I wouldn't say

:22:38.:22:46.

shocked but impressed. I don't want to sound like a complete boot in the

:22:47.:22:54.

face employer, but all of the journalists, who were very

:22:55.:22:57.

frustrated, frustrated with the management of the company, of

:22:58.:23:03.

course, but also very frustrated with the guys in the press rooms,

:23:04.:23:09.

who actually sabotaged the work of their colleagues upstairs. So I

:23:10.:23:12.

wasn't shocked at what happened. I thought nothing would ever break the

:23:13.:23:20.

complete deadlock. Ann Field, were you impressed or shocked when,

:23:21.:23:24.

suddenly, the move to Wapping happened and left you high and dry?

:23:25.:23:31.

The real word is shock and disgust at the overnight dismissal of 5500

:23:32.:23:36.

people. Kelvin MacKenzie says that there were avenues open for new

:23:37.:23:44.

technology discussions... There were no avenues open. Murdoch laid down

:23:45.:23:48.

an ultimatum in the autumn of 1985, after a period of silence of about

:23:49.:23:54.

five months, where the trade unions were pressing the company for

:23:55.:23:58.

negotiations on the move to Wapping. The company said that they were not

:23:59.:24:02.

prepared to discuss anything about the move. Unless we agreed to lesser

:24:03.:24:12.

conditions for the London post, which was a fictional newspaper

:24:13.:24:17.

which never existed. The long-term ramifications for this, one way of

:24:18.:24:21.

putting it is is that he was ahead of his time. I wonder if you agree?

:24:22.:24:28.

No, I actually think he acted like a barbarian, ignoring all basic human

:24:29.:24:31.

rights and dignity of workers, and it was a conspiracy, nothing to do

:24:32.:24:38.

with formal, proper negotiations. Harry Evans, what do you think the

:24:39.:24:42.

ramifications were for journalism, looking back? Just a quick comment,

:24:43.:24:51.

I was in the management of the Times newspapers forced we were very

:24:52.:24:58.

civilised. We tried for 12 months. The previous speaker, who is totally

:24:59.:25:03.

sincere, has no experience of what it is like for the journalists and

:25:04.:25:07.

the press men when your work is destroyed. You have been offering

:25:08.:25:12.

lifetime guarantees, all of this, to get new technology, so I have a

:25:13.:25:17.

different view. But I wasn't part. Many of my journalists were in

:25:18.:25:20.

Wapping and didn't like what they saw. Having said that, obviously,

:25:21.:25:26.

the decline of print associated with the rise of digital has made

:25:27.:25:30.

investigative journalism more difficult to be sustainable, and you

:25:31.:25:36.

have seen a serious decline in long-term investigations. It is so

:25:37.:25:40.

sad to me, so very, very sad, that all of those crafts men, with whom I

:25:41.:25:45.

worked for 15 years, getting out the paper, having very good results,

:25:46.:25:51.

ending cervical cancer, all of these things, were sabotaged by the

:25:52.:25:54.

complete disunity among the print unions. Do you think there is an in

:25:55.:26:03.

security now in the whole medium? I am sure you are right, no question.

:26:04.:26:09.

Nowadays, the people who are falling by the wayside by the journalists. I

:26:10.:26:14.

have total sympathy. The people I worked with on the print site were

:26:15.:26:18.

at absolutely wonderful, all of them. They were desperate to keep

:26:19.:26:23.

the paper. They were frustrated week after week by the engineers in the

:26:24.:26:29.

press room. The NGA in the composing room at a different view. The thing

:26:30.:26:37.

to do, now, is the fact, when you say shocked about Murdoch, listen, I

:26:38.:26:42.

had my own battles with Murdoch and I have written about them. That is

:26:43.:26:46.

one reason I am not in the UK. Thank you, both.

:26:47.:26:49.

The funeral was held today in Israel of one of Britain's most

:26:50.:26:52.

influential, philanthropic and cultured non-grand grandees

:26:53.:26:53.

Lord Weidenfeld got out of Austria at the age of 19

:26:54.:26:58.

with his parents after the German invasion,

:26:59.:27:00.

but not before fighting a duel with a Nazi.

:27:01.:27:02.

He worked in London for the BBC Monitoring Service

:27:03.:27:05.

after which he co- founded the publishing house

:27:06.:27:07.

He published De Gaulle, Harold Wilson, Kissinger and a host

:27:08.:27:12.

Here he is talking to Hard Talk in 2015, about his bold decision

:27:13.:27:17.

to publish Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov.

:27:18.:27:20.

I was very impressed by Nabokov firstly.

:27:21.:27:25.

I read his earlier works, I knew his background,

:27:26.:27:27.

Also people like Graham Greene, whom I value, etc, encouraged me

:27:28.:27:34.

to fight the battle and I think we blazed the trail for a change

:27:35.:27:38.

When Lord Weidenfeld died he was in the midst of setting up

:27:39.:27:47.

a charity to help Syrian and Iraq Christians persecuted

:27:48.:27:49.

One of his closest friends, whom he also published,

:27:50.:27:52.

was the writer and historian Simon Sebag Montefiori.

:27:53.:28:04.

When you met him at first, what was he like? He was wonderful, and

:28:05.:28:12.

amazing friend. He existed in this rarefied world, international,

:28:13.:28:18.

Cosmopolitan, sophisticated. When you were talking to him at his

:28:19.:28:23.

apartment, full of Francis Bacons and Renaissance Popes, you felt that

:28:24.:28:30.

you could be in the chancellery of Cardinal reseller or in the palace

:28:31.:28:38.

of a floral time prints. What drove him? It wasn't just to have these

:28:39.:28:45.

things. He was first and foremost an amazing publisher who published

:28:46.:28:50.

everyone from Nabokov, Hook, Edna Rob Brydon, Antonia Fraser. -- Pope.

:28:51.:29:00.

He was also a philanthropist. He really believed in building bridges

:29:01.:29:04.

between Jews and Germans, between the three great Abraham Lincoln

:29:05.:29:09.

religions. From his very deathbed, he was trying to help Syrian

:29:10.:29:18.

Christians -- the three great Abrahamic religions. He was a whit.

:29:19.:29:28.

When you were with him, the conversation, he knew his art, his

:29:29.:29:33.

music. Of course, the written word. He was enormously good fun. And he

:29:34.:29:39.

was enormously kind to everyone. I was just one of the very young

:29:40.:29:42.

writers who he encouraged and helped. When you were with him,

:29:43.:29:48.

again, he was a character who seemed to belong in a variety of great

:29:49.:29:53.

works. He was a Christian character. He could have been in a novel by

:29:54.:30:03.

Disraeli. -- Proustian character. Do you think that bringing outsiders in

:30:04.:30:09.

to bring a new kind of culture, do you need that? He arrived as a

:30:10.:30:16.

refugee from the Nazis. He was a last blossoming of that now

:30:17.:30:19.

blossoming Jewish-Viennese culture which was so persist -- so

:30:20.:30:27.

sophisticated and both high and low, witty and playful. He brought back

:30:28.:30:30.

to England and he was a huge ornament to Europe. He led an

:30:31.:30:35.

extraordinarily long life. You wonder if, with his passing, you

:30:36.:30:41.

treasure the memory, because there are very few people like him left.

:30:42.:30:49.

Even his generation, he was a one-off, but he was one of those

:30:50.:30:54.

amazingly talented, mainly Jewish refugees from Middle Europe. He was

:30:55.:30:59.

very generous. There was nobody like him and there won't be again. You

:31:00.:31:05.

knew him when he was much younger and he encouraged you and nurtured

:31:06.:31:11.

you. Do you have a favourite memory? The way he would ring up and say in

:31:12.:31:15.

his soft Viennese voice, Simon, come over for a quick tour de reason. We

:31:16.:31:24.

would have an amazing chat about great people, Chancellor Kohl, John

:31:25.:31:30.

Paul II, the Pope, any of the amazing people he published. He

:31:31.:31:35.

lived in a great world but he was extremely generous with that

:31:36.:31:41.

greatness. Lord Biden felt, whose funeral was held today in Israel.

:31:42.:31:46.

That is all we have time for. -- Lord Weidenfeld. Emily will be with

:31:47.:31:50.

you on Monday.

:31:51.:31:52.