01/09/2016 Newsnight


Reporting on social mobility, Labour's leadership battle, Greenland as a model for leaving Europe, the Brexit 'bounce', and the US election. With Kirsty Wark.

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Privilege and patronage still pays off - whether its young


Etonians at the Kremlin or working-class candidates all


What's all this got to do with the Great Gatsby.


On the day of a damning report by the Social Mobility Commission,


More Labour manoeuvres - a bid to reintroduce democratic


The Corbynistas are dead against it now.


People around Ed Miliband are spinning this as his clause four


moment, where he demonstrates strong leadership by beating


I just think he's misread the situation.


We'll talk to the Labour MP who is behind the move.


The territory did just that in 1984 and Brussels banned the seal trade.


It's been difficult when you sit on the outside.


It would be a lot easier to sit on the inside, at the table, and say


And, by the way, I don't like this mic.


Whoever the hell brought this mic system, don't pay him.


Is Trump versus Clinton America's weirdest election ever?


We convene America's freshist commentators.


Today there were two stark reminders of how much class still matters.


In a variation of the adage "too posh to push", today's report


by the Social Mobility Commission suggests if you're posh you don't


need to push to make your way into employment in areas such


Indeed, you might be best qualified for the job,


but if you don't have the right attire, for example,


if you're male - brown shoes and a loud tie - or the right accent


or you don't carry yourself well - you can forget it.


While all the Old Etonians might have been kicked out of the Cabinet,


we learned that Young Etonians are more than welcome


Would there have been such a warm welcome from Vladimir Putin


for a bunch of male sixth formers from a local comp?


Social mobility is apparently at the top of Theresa May's bucket


list, but does any politician really have the political courage


Our policy editor, Chris Cook, reports.


Britain has a particular issue with social mobility. We can't seem to


get people moving in the right direction. Dress code is the latest


suspect. A new report in the City found that few paws that wearing


brown shoes with a suit were hobbling the careers of people from


less grand backgrounds. Meanwhile, a group of Etonians on a trip to


Moscow spent time in the Kremlin, even meeting Vladimir Putin. No


brown shoes there. You can see why Theresa May made the opportunity


agenda central to her opening statement as Prime Minister. If


you're a white, working-class boy, your' less likely than anybody else


in Britain to go to university. If you're at a state school, you're


less likely to reach the top professes than if you are educated


privately. Perhaps we shouldn't be too surprised that Britain has a


social mobility problem. Economists have described something known as


the Great Gatsby curve after the novel of a bootlegger in the roaring


20s.s. That hes a the name for observation with countries with


higher inequality you tend to get lower social mobility. These bar


show how closely linked, the higher the bar, the more important your


family back underis. The higher bar means worse social mobility. You can


see the Great Gatsby effect. In more unequal countries, like the US and


the UK, social mobility is a bigger problem. In more equal countries,


like Sweden and Germany, things are a bit better. Social mobility then


is a rather bigger issue than just city recruit am. In fact, it's been


a major issue in Westminster, in particular, for the last 10 years or


so. Ever since research emerged which suggests that poor people born


in 1970 had worst life chances than people born in 1958. One of the


authors of that research thinks things may have got better. When the


social mobility in the UK was falling, yes, there was a stronger


link between family background and education. When we look more


recently, through children going into Edinburgh education in the 90s,


we could see that there was a real catch-up for poor kids and that many


more were getting good GCSEs and doing well. In general terms we've


seen disadvantaged pupils at school do better and make a faster rate of


progress in their educational attain am than the average. There has been


a closing of the gap. We know that's a pretty decent proxy for what's


likely to happen to some element of social mobility in the future. Is


education the key thing though? Is let's go back to that graph. We can


actually estimate how much of our social mobility problem can be


explained by the fact that educational achievement is unequal.


That is the portion in red. So you can see in Germany, where it's


selected schools, education seems to be the driver of mobility. In


Britain who ends up with which qualifications accounts for about


half of the problem. It's other things. Things like brown shoes that


account for the rest. So do we need to focus on things other than


education? Yes. I think we are learning more about the importance


of other factors. Of course, education is always important, but


if you look at the United States and the recent studies in there in some


cities, like Seattle, higher levels of social mobility than other cities


like Atlanta. Part is education, but part is how concentrated poverty is


within a city and how distributed it is. It's also urban transportation


systems, it's how the city has been planned. These other broader factors


about city development are very important.


NEWS REEL: Today decide 07... As anyone who


visited Eton would know, parents have very different sets of


resources with which to make sure their kids do well. Inequality makes


the policy objective of aiding social mobility.


Tougher. If there's an arms race in that children are constantly being


pushed to do better and richer parents are better prepared for that


kind of arms race, they can prepare their children using private tutors,


giving the information they need about the best universities. It's


hard to know what public policy can do about that and if indeed it would


want to intervene. Getting poor kids to rise above their richer peers


means fixing a lot. But if you do that, richer parents will fight


back. Optimism on mobility is thin on the ground.


Well, joining me now from Southampton is


Lord David Willetts, who, until 2014, was in


David Cameron's Cabinet as Universities Minister and now


Executive Director of the Resolution Foundation,


Faiza Shaheen, director of the Class think-tank, and writer Poppy Noor.


Hello to all of you. David Willet is. This is meant to be Theresa


May's big push, after Brexit, of course. What can she do that David


Cameron couldn't? I hope that we can, first of all, see more people


going to university and then employers recruiting from a wider


range of universities. This specific report today on investment banking


shows that part of the problem they are looking to four or five


universities and the initiatives that are underway that broaden


employers horizons so they recruit more broadly is very significant.


Secondly, the reason why I'm one of the optimists, I think the big data


revolution is arriving with social mobility and it will be increasingly


possible for employers to design their own ways of boosting social


mobility, saying they want to look at students, applicants in the top


10% or 20er % of their class which ever type of school they were at. It


doesn't exist at the moment. I want to bring Poppy Noor in here. You


were homeless, you were on benefits, and you went to Cambridge. Was that


pure luck and hard work or did you actually have state help? Yep. That


was happening at a time when there was a much more robust welfare


system for people from my background. In terms of university


you had Educational Maintenance Allowance. Maintenance grants for


pupils from poorer backgrounds which you don't have now. You have to have


loans. There was a lot more financial assistance. You had a


teacher who backed you, pushed you, you weren't going to have anywhere


to live when it wasn't term time. This teacher insisted the college,


said to Trinity - is there somewhere she can live. That made a difference


or you wouldn't have gone? It would have made a big difference. The


question is - how do we make the university system more accessible


for people who don't have those kind of teachers. What was it like? What


attitudes did you come up against at Cambridge? I think once you get to


university, if you are from a working-class background, it's a


long experience of trying not to be bullied out. It really is. People


kind of... I speak about the fact that when I first started at Trinity


I was chased through the gates on a daily basis by officials asking me


if I went there. Because, you know, passing the interview and getting my


grades wasn't enough. Poppy would agree she has become more


middle-class, your accent changed. It shows that social mobility is a


big issue? Sure. Social mobility and the lack of it is a big issue. The


issue I have, it's an inspiring story, Poppy beat the odds to get


there. Exceptional. She was the exception. The point is social


mobility, I really think it's a flawed concept. What it says is that


- as long as you... We have people rising up, it's fine to have huge


levels of inequality, fine to leave people behind in a bad flight


plight. It plays into the idea that life should be a rat ration. I don't


think it's a good vision for society. There should be dignity for


all, not a matter of - you have to go to Oxford or Cambridge shall -.


What you're saying those who rise up there will have to be those who come


down. See saw will always exist? Not just that. It's matter of... A sense


of like you have to move out of your working-class background. We should


be ashamed of that background and should look down at people that


haven't made it to the top. Isn't that right, Lord David Willetts,


that it's not OK. One must strive at least to be middle-class, that


actually being working-class is something you have to try and get


rid of nowadays? I think it's good that people have aspirations to get


on into well-paid jobs and have professional careers. I think it


would be a really bad message to send that was somehow an aspiration


we want to oppose. I do accept that then across society people do a


whole range of jobs and a lot of where you end up is luck. It


shouldn't be the case that because you've ended up in a particularly


well-paid job or profession you look down on or think this is somehow


some judge of your moral worth. So in the way that Poppy has been


talking about her own circumstance, that would have been open to a whole


lot more people if a lot of the maintenance grants and so forth had


still been kept. She said it was a more benign atmosphere, if it could


be call benign then than it is now. I would argue, as students don't pay


up front there is no reason why I student should be put off going. As


we have got rid of the control of the number of students going, there


are more students going, particularly more students from


lower income backgrounds. It's an argument based on privilege and the


idea that one day you will be able... I mean, the fact that you


don't have to pay upfront doesn't make you any more nervous about your


ability to pay it later on. Why should it be. Why should you be


thinking about you could do a degree because of the money you have got.


No student has to think about how much money they've got. The


evidence... The evidence is that more applicants apply for university


from low income backgrounds. Let us look at the signifiers in society.


Before we talk about the young Eton eatians at the Kremlin. Let's talk


about attitudes in banking, simple things like you dress wrongly, your


accent is wrong, brown shoes with a suit. These are signifiers that you


can laugh about them, they actually made a huge difference to certain


applicants? Yes. I think that's shocking. In fact, what's even more


shocking is the number of privately educated people in investment


banking appears to be going up, not down. It's bad for investment


banking. They need to recruit from a wider, more diverse talent pool and


particularly that means looking out beyond four or five universities. It


is interesting how this evening we focused on getting to came bridge.


That is fantastic. No. Poppy went there. We are not focussing on


getting to Cambridge, Poppy'ses exceptional story. Coming to talk


about that. The signal that it sends also that Putin will have young


Etonians there where I don't think he would have somebody from a


comprehensive from Newcastle there. It wouldn't have matter. They were


showing something by being able to get to him. That privilege still


exists? It reminds us it's who - who you know. I want to go back very


quickly on that issue of debt. When you come out of uni from a less


privileged background you come out with ?53,000 of debt. I mean,


actually to pay that back, when you are from a richer background, you


pay that back sooner. Those from... Will find it hard to buy a house. It


does disadvantage you still. All political parties talk the talk over


social mobility. Poppy, what do you think would actually be something


they could achieve and achieve quickly?


have been told for so long the reason therein isn't more int about


things like education, it is about they haven't got the right grades,


maybe they haven't worked hard enough. What the report shows is it


doesn't matter how well you do your class back ground will act against


you. That is a good argument for positive discrimination.


In a motion to reintroduce elections for the Shadow Cabinet a bid to heal


divisions in the party or a cunning plan to thwart Jeremy Corbyn?


When Parliament returns on Monday, Labour backbencher, Clive Betts,


will table a motion for the PLP meeting in order,


as his motion put it, "To ensure that the Shadow Cabinet


has the support of backbench Labour MPs and that the entire PLP can


The elections were scrapped by Ed Miliband five years ago,


so you'd think that the Corbynistas would be in favour.


Well, all is not quite as it seems in Labour land.


I'm joined by our political editor, Nick Watt.


Nick, tell me about Monday's vote? That is right. There a debate on


this on the motion in the PLP on Monday and probably a vote on it on


Tuesday, and as you were saying this was the system that was in place in


the long years of opposition under Michael Foot and Neil Kinnock and


established by Ed Miliband must to the conster macing of one


backbencher at the time. I hear that people around


Ed Miliband are spreading this as his clause four moment,


where he demonstrates strong leadership by beating


the party into submission. I just think he's


misread the situation. Ed Miliband dropped them because of


the whole of the Shadow Cabinet was more of a David Miliband complexion.


We will hear from Clive Beths who is tabling this motion who is saying


it's a matter of promoting unity. The Corbyn camp may be smelling a


rat. I think the view in the Corbyn camp may well be that he did an


inclusive Shadow Cabinet when he became leader, appointed Tony


Blair's former flatmate and there is a feeling this is a delayed part of


the coup an attempt to make Jeremy Corbyn perhaps a prisoner of a hoes


style Shadow Cabinet. Maybe they can say election, that is a great idea,


why don't we widen the franchise beyond the PLP and allow the


Conference to elect the members of the Shadow Cabinet. Thank you.


Joining us from Sheffield is the MP who has tabled that


It is hard to see this anything other than an attempt to hobble the


man you think is going to win the leadership election, Jeremy Corbyn.


First I don't know who is going to win the election, that is clearly


ongoing, well, it is very easy to see it is an alternative way, my


motion talks about unity, getting the whole of the Parliamentary


Labour Party working together. In recent weeks I have talked to party


members and lots of Labour Party voters in my constituency, and they


say one simple thing, for heavens sake get your act together, start


working in a united way in Westminster, start being an


effective opposition to this right-wing Tory Government. We are


fed up of you falling out. This is a pragmatic motion, a motion to try


and help achieve that objective. Clearly only a few weeks ago we


weren't working together, there was sackings, resignation, and whoever


wins the leadership election we can't go back to that sort of


situation. Imagine a scenario where Jeremy Corbyn does win the


leadership, and elections to the Shadow Cabinet produce people like


for example Yvette Cooper, Angela Eagle, all sorts of people who


wouldn't perhaps it would be fair to say would not sit comfortably with,


beside Jeremy Corbyn now, how is that going to heal divisions? The


fact they would have to sit down, however uncomfortably and work


together, that would be a major step forward in my view, and that is a


you have to achieve. People recognise that there are divisions


and differences from the inception of the Labour Party, we have had


people of different view, backgrounds, coming together with


one objective, and that is to get Labour MPs elected to get Labour


councillors elected and challenge and beat the Tory, what we have to


do, we can't win an election for some time to form a government is to


be an effective opposition and get people of different views, who


probably haven't got on in the past, to sit down together. My motion is


an attempt to achieve that. I have been a member of the Labour Party


for 47 year, I have been an MP for 24 year, what I feel strongly is we


need party unity. That is what the members are telling me, what the


voters in Sheffield are telling me. I think they are telling us up and


down the country, get together and work together and be an effective


opposition. My motion tries to achieve that. You will have heard


our political editor say there could be some unintended consequences


here, perhaps the Shadow Cabinet could be indeed elected, perhaps by


the PLP, but what about wisening that and make it elected at the


Labour Conference, would that not be more democratic We have the election


of the Labour Party leader is done by all members and beyond, there are


elections for the NEC, when we come down to the Shadow Cabinet it is


right that the Parliamentary Labour Party have a say in that process to


heal some of the divisions that are around now, that is my objective


around my intention, you know, the other spin on it that you put s


somehow it is part of the ongoing plot to curb Jeremy, if he gets back


as leader, that isn't certain yet of course, that is ridiculous this is


my motion, I have put the motion down, I haven't been going round


talking to people and plotting with people, and trying to enlist


support. I am tabling for my colleagues to reflect on whether as


MPs we don't have a responsibility to Labour voters to try and sort our


problems out and try and start working together more effectively.


Thank you very much indeed. That is my sole objective. Back to you,


there is more. Yes, this is not the only idea coming down the pipeline.


I am told there is a move to try and get the Labour Conference this year,


to vote on bringing back the old electoral college system. That would


be seen as deeply hostile to a future Jeremy Corbyn, because


obviously it would dilute the grass roots members who look like they


might put him back in to office, they would only have a third of the


vote. It would be the trade unions who would have the other third and


MPs and MEPs who would have the other third. The reason for the rush


is to vote it in as the Conference, the national executive committee the


Labour Party would have to say we think you should have a vote on it.


There has been an election to the NEC, it's a move to the left but


crucially the new members don't take up their voting positions until


after the Conference, so perhaps you could sneak it in, really important


point to make, the outgoing members of the NEC are highly sensitive.


There has been an election, they would be wary of being part of a


stitch up. The word "Greenland" probably didn't


cross the lips of Cabinet members at Chequers when they were dreaming


up their bespoke Brexit model, but the experience of the world's


largest island, an autonomous territory of Denmark,


might have lessons for the way the UK proceeds -


even the relationships between Scotland, Northern Ireland


and the rest of the United Kingdom. We sent our reporter,


James Clayton, to learn Usually Greenland waters,


most seals are usually Because it's easier


for them to see the fish. They represent the country's


latest battle with the EU, a journey that started


four decades ago. In 1982, fed up of European


fishing trawlers, Greenland chose to leave the EU -


then the EEC. Just like that, the union lost


almost half its territory. In the subsequent negotiations,


Greenland has agreed to give EU In the subsequent negotiations,


Greenlanders agreed to give EU limited fishing quotas


in exchange for cash. That deal took three


years to complete. This man was part of


the negotiating team. While it was very difficult


to the European Union and the Europeans to understand why


we wanted to get out, and why we didn't want the money,


but the fact is that there was no money, there was minimal investment


in infrastructure, which we needed badly,


so that is why we could see that there was no economic


reason to stay. The deal has generally been seen


as good for Greenlandic fishermen, Every time it comes


up, shoot beside it. In 2010, the EU banned the sale


of seal products within the union. There is an Inuit exception


to the ban, but it has Mitzy owns a travel shop


in Greenland's capital. So when the EU banned seal products,


what happened to your business? They had been more slow to sell them


to another place in Europe, Before the EU ban, how many seal


skins were you selling? This man is an MP for the Democrats,


the minority party in I definitely think it would have


been easier, with more bargaining We would go, "You guys want fish


more, we want to sell seal skins, That is still the argument


we are making, but it is really difficult


when you sit on the outside. It would be easy to sit


on the inside at the table, and say "Hey guys, this is the deal,


we are part of this too." Fortunately for the marine life,


Lars was better at hitting The only thing he brought


back in his boat was For other industries,


Greenland's exit from the EU Nikolai has just started


exporting beer to the EU. Like in Germany and so on,


if we were a Danish company in Denmark, we would have to pay 25%


on everything we buy But because we are outside the EU,


we have the possibility, of deducting the 25%


when we take it up here. if we were a member of the EU,


it would be easier for paperwork and handling


all the practical matters. Being a part of the kingdom


still gives us certain advantages and it is easier to use Denmark


as a stepping stone It is almost as easy to export


to Denmark as if we When the goods are in Denmark,


they are in the EU. The runway in the capital isn't long


enough to land large aircraft and there are no interconnected


roads in Greenland - this is as far as you can


get in the capital. Some believe that Greenland's size,


and more importantly its potential mineral wealth means if Greenland


were in the EU it would be Basically, EU is a place that has


a lot of money. They get a lot of money


from the member states and they redistribute it,


and we basically wanted the goods that would get more money back


than we would get in. It should be a no-brainer,


economically. We should get in there and get


access to that big pot of money. It would be difficult to say that


Greenland has thrived It is heavily subsidised by Denmark,


alcoholism here is rife, and the country boasts


the unenviable claim as the suicide Nicola Sturgeon has floated the idea


of doing a reverse Greenland, with Scotland staying inside the EU,


as the rest of Britain exits. Well, I was surprised


by the opposite policies there, because you don't get the more


independence joining European Union. But you might get independence


from the UK. If that is the only case


that the Scots have, then it is excellent,


but going to European Union is actually giving your political


freedom to someone. When asked, most people


here are only vaguely conscious of the EU, but Greenland does offer


the UK an imperfect template In many ways, it has


benefitted from leaving, but it has also been left out


in the cold when major policy decisions were being made


about the future of one In this post-Brexit environment,


every scrap of economic data is being poured over to see


if we can get a sense of what impact our planned departure


from the EU will have. Today, we had another


important indicator. Our business editor,


Helen Thomas, is here. Today, we had the PMI figures for


manufacturing in August. They showed a sharp recovery from the month


before. This is survey data. They ask firms about their levels of


business activity, new business and so on. It's really widely followed.


It had a sharp drop in July. Consistent with a potential


recession. That was part of what prompted the Bank of England to take


action, cutting interest rates and so on. This bounce back is really


quite comforting. We've seen some quite good data from the consumer


since the referendum on spending and confidence and so on. This now


suggests that business hasn't fallen off the economic cliff as well. Now,


the weaker pound is helping that boosted exports, makes our goods


cheaper overseas. The psychological aspect is important. July, people


were in shock. We had political turmoil. We didn't have a Prime


Minister for part of the month. Now, this suggests that work may have


been postponed, but we're getting back to business as usual. Does this


suggest that we'd be giving any kind of recession a body swerve? Well, we


can hope so, but I think it's too soon to make any judgment on that


front. I mean, for a start, we are not in a post-Brexit environment so


how business reacts when Article 50 is triggered when you have


negotiations about our place in the world remains to be seen. Good data


tends to mean the pound strengthens a bit. That helping hand starts to


wane. Most importantly, this was manufacturing data. That hes a only


10% of the economy. What we're really waiting for are construction


numbers tomorrow and then services numbers tomorrow. Next week. If you


see a rebound in services it feels like the post-vote shock factor


lifted quickly. That would be good Helen, thanks very news. Much


indeed. From now until the US presidential


election on November 8th, we'll be hearing from the cream of American


political commentators on the programme regularly as we tap


into the expectations and anxieties We will make America great again!


We'll fix it together! The day after Donald Trump made


a big speech on immigration, we're joined by Ana Marie Cox,


senior political correspondent for MTV News, who is in Minneapolis,


and Josh Barro, a senior editor at Business Insider,


who is speaking to us from New York. Good evening to both of you. We


asked you both to pick your clips which kind of for you encapsulate


the way this election is playing out. Ann Marie Cox let's see your


clip fist. Have you even read the United


States Constitution? Why did you choose that clip Well,


there are a few instances. An clip of an immigrant family of colour.


That has become a big issue in this election, both people of colour and


white supremacy as well as immigration. Second of all, that


clip shows how there has been a reversal of polls when it comes to


which party is associated with being pro-America. Which party is being


associated with patriotism and love of country and which party is


considereded pro-military, for that matter. It's significant that the


most emotionally resonate moments of the entire campaign has come not


from someone involved in the campaign specifically. It didn't


come from Hillary Clinton. One of the most powerful arguments for her


presidency came from someone else besides her. Let's look at your


clip, Josh. We didn't discuss payment


of the wall, that'll They don't know it yet, but they're


going to pay for the wall. Josh, why does that clip encans late


what is going on for you? The second part was not from a later date, it


was from several hours later on the same day. It reflects how Donald


Trump has had this ideaed that he can, basically, change his mind and


change his statements on any topic as quickly as he wants. Say whatever


he thinks is best for the audiences that he is in front of and sell both


of them on the idea that he's on their side. This has been a fixture


of his business career going back 40 years. I think he has been learning


in the reaction to his flip flop on the wall that we've seen this week


is that people notice what he says in front of both those audiences and


it's catching up with him. Looking at the way that certainly here the


media tends in a way to look at Trump as a kind of cartoonish


figure. As the campaign goes on, he has been cutting through albeit his


approval ratings are dipping behind Hillary Clinton's, we have under


estimated his power to get to feel, for people to feel enfranchised by


him? Well, I think he was under estimated a year ago. I think now


he's not under estimated. I think Clinton had the right formulation


that, you know, you don't have to take him seriously, but the prospect


of his presidency you have to take very seriously. Ann Marie, looking


at these candidates, both candidates, in a sense this time


round we don't have a hero candidate, if I might call Obama


hero candidate, they are both flawed candidates. How does that change the


way the campaign goes? Well, I think that both of our candidates are


heroes to some people. There are a lot of women in the country who


consider Hillary Clinton a hero. She will be the first female president.


This is a campaign largely of of negatives. The two most unpopular


candidates we have had. That is one of the reasons this race turned so


nasty. Turned into arguments against the other candidate than any other


race I can remember. I feel like, you know, I want to speak to the


caricature of Trump whether he is a cartoon character. I think that's a


danger for all us in the media he can seem ridiculous. I can't think


of an election in my lifetime that has had... I choose that clip of Mr


Khan I feel our constitution is under threat. Donald Trump poses a


threat to American democracy, really. Actually, Josh, if you look


at how, what he says goes with different communities, then, let us


take something like the wall and the row it has developed today on


Twitter between himself and the Mexican president and so forth. It


seems to be a disconnect between what he is saying, what the Mexican


president is saying, it doesn't seem to damage Donald Trump. He is very


resilient? Well, I think it's because Donald Trump has never been


about policy and the wall has never really been about the Wallace a


physical structure as such. It's about being tough, standing up to


these outside forces that trump and many of his voters blame for their


troubles and what they perceive as the troubles of the United States. I


thought that trip to Mexico went quite well for him. For whatever


reason the Mexican president wases extremely gracious to him. Sought


his presence in Mexico City. Only politely rebuked him for the fact he


spent much of his campaign fillifying Mexico. He got what he


wanted out of that, a demonstration of strength. His voters are not


holding him accountable line byline, he said he will implement this


policy. It isn't about policy he makes the right enemies for them.


They perceive him as standing up for them. What is frustrating about


covering this election as a urn Lists is how pointless it is. They


have two different visions of what America ought to be and who has real


claim over America. That hes a an important conversation. It tends to


be a pretty stupid conversation. I wonder, looking at the ten Europe of


Donald Trump's comments in Mexico and indeed the toning down and his


new team and so forth. If we're going to see more toning down, as it


were, in Trump's manner, in the next six weeks? I think your' going to


continue to see this that Josh's clip pointed out. He will continue


to try to do day time Trump and Trump after dark. I think he's going


to try to talk out of both sides of his mouth. His ardent fans don't


care he is doing this. As long as he sends the signal to them that will


he is still the same person that they thought he was, I think that


has to do, quite frankly, with a lot of bigotry. I think as long as he


sends that signal he is still that person and still has those feelings,


they are willing to let him do what he needs to do in order to win. To


finish, on that question, I think Trump said as well he was the Brexit


man. A lot of the establishment here, Mr Brexit he called himself, a


lot of people in the establishment under estimated the vote to leave


the EU. It might be the establishment in America, have


underestimated his ability to turn out the vote on 8th November? I


don't buy that comparison. I realise almost everybody expected the Brexit


vote to lose. I expected it to lose. Half the polls had Leave ahead of


Remain. They were ignoring polling evidence out there. In the United


States nearly all the polling had Hillary Clinton ahead. Well North of


90% of the polls conducted this year have her leading. Even now it's


about her being ahead by four instead of eight. Presidential


elections in the United States in recent decades do not go by enormous


margins. Eight would be a blow out win. The biggest since 2004. A four


point win would be a good within. People in the establishment have


good reason to believe Hillary is ahead because she has been ahead


through almost this entire thing. Thank you very much. We have the


debates to come. When a flying pig named Algie


materialised above the V Museum this week, it turned out that it


heralded the announcement of a 50th Algie, you'll recall, first appeared


on a 1977 album cover, before escaping and floating off


to 30,000 feet, causing havoc Here he is back in his heydey,


complete with the wrong music. # Remember when you were young


# You shone like the sun # Shine on you crazy diamond...


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