Britain on the Brink: Back to the 70s? Panorama


Britain on the Brink: Back to the 70s?

Britain is suffering the longest peacetime slump in decades. Panorama asks whether Britain is able to cope with a new age of austerity with surprising echoes of the 1970s.


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double-dip recession was in the mid-70s. That led to social unrest

:00:03.:00:09.

and political upheaval, but are all of the ingredients here for a

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similar reaction? If we don't find solutions they could have very

:00:14.:00:18.

large social ramifications, and not very nice ones.

:00:18.:00:23.

With many predicting that the worst is still to come, tonight Panorama

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asks whether Britain is ready and able to cope with a new age of

:00:27.:00:37.
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Times are tough. People worry that we are facing a dismal future.

:00:47.:00:57.

No growth, high unemployment, deep cuts and little hope.

:00:57.:01:03.

Clapham, South-west London. For most of the past hundred years or

:01:03.:01:09.

so, this has been the home to the ordinary man on the street. Average

:01:09.:01:14.

income, average house price, average lifestyle, home for 9 "man

:01:14.:01:19.

on the Clapham omnibus". So, how is the ordinary man on the

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Clapham Omnibus going to cope with the financial and the economic

:01:22.:01:29.

challenges that we are facing today? Well, he's been here before.

:01:29.:01:39.
:01:39.:01:44.

Tickets, please. The 1970s began with such hope, but

:01:44.:01:49.

ended with strikes, crippling public finances and soaring prices.

:01:49.:01:54.

It resulteded in a political and economic revolution, and massive

:01:54.:01:59.

social upheaval. The land of hope and glory has

:01:59.:02:06.

become the land of beg and borrow. It is that is ruining this country.

:02:06.:02:13.

We are not a sinking ship. This country is more like the boiler

:02:13.:02:16.

room of the Titanic every other day. The only difference is that they

:02:16.:02:19.

had a band. On the surface, we have come a long

:02:20.:02:24.

way from the dark days of the 70s, but could today's crisis

:02:24.:02:27.

destabilise the country in a similar way? Well, it is already

:02:28.:02:33.

having a severe impact on the lives of many ordinary people.

:02:33.:02:38.

Hayley Gay is a single working mum, living in south London. She is

:02:38.:02:42.

juggling her role as a school administrator and bringing up her

:02:42.:02:45.

two children. You get the wages that come in once

:02:45.:02:50.

a month. You budget that across the time. The fuel bill, for instance,

:02:50.:02:54.

whether it is energy, electricity, gas, or car bills are spiralling

:02:54.:02:59.

out of control. We either buy food or school shoes, but sometimes the

:02:59.:03:03.

school shoes are bought and therefore you downgrade on the food.

:03:03.:03:08.

It strikes me as odd that a very advanced country like the UK,

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places ordinary working people like you in a situation where you have

:03:12.:03:17.

to decide between buying shoes for the kids to go to school or buying

:03:17.:03:24.

food... Yes, it is a decision, yes. It is bleak? It feels that way.

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But Hayley's circumstances are not exceptional. One in five UK

:03:28.:03:33.

families admit that they are now financially living on the edge.

:03:33.:03:40.

I feel that we have to common miez on everything that we do.

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Therefore, I basically do not eat as well, necessarily, so that they

:03:44.:03:48.

can have the things that they should be provided with.

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One of the big financial strains for ordinary working people is the

:03:52.:03:57.

cost of housing. Back in the 70s, Clapham was seen

:03:57.:04:02.

as the stereo typical home of the average man, the man on the Clapham

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Omnibus. And there was good reason for that.

:04:05.:04:10.

Houses and rents here were far more affordable then.

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Clapham was a place where working- class people grew up, people like

:04:15.:04:19.

actor, Neil Pearson. I know it was a fairly close-knit

:04:19.:04:23.

community. I did seem to know pretty much everyone who lived on

:04:23.:04:27.

the street. When Neil was growing up on the

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street, living conditions were often poor and dilapidated, the

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kind we thought that we left behind in the archives of the 70s sitcom.

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Good Lord! I know it is not five- star, but it is short notice.

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There is water running down the walls! You expect champagne? Your

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house is on the corner? Yes, the one with the royalist Union Jacks.

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This two bedroom flat was home to Neil, his brother and sister and

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mother. All three children shared one bedroom. There was no bathroom,

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just a tin bath on the sitting room floor.

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This is... As I remember it. This is the kitchen.

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This is the living room, also unchanged.

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This is pretty much as it was. I haven't been in here for 42 years.

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It's a little overwhelming. Yvonne Hunt and her husband have

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rented the flat since Neil's family moved out 40 years ago. While

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inside has remained remarkably unmodernised, outside of the front

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door it is now a very different world.

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Do you recognise much of Taybridge Road or Clapham as a whole from

:05:58.:06:02.

those times? It has all changed. You are a lone recommend naent of

:06:02.:06:07.

that period? Yes. There are more people with more money and sort of,

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the people that we know have either died or moved on.

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Yvonne is one of the last survivors of a class which is no longer

:06:16.:06:22.

living on streets like this. It was soldly, what we would see

:06:22.:06:30.

now as working-class? This was a solid working-class area? I would

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not have art I can lated it like that, but I recognise everyone as

:06:34.:06:39.

being like me it was monolithically one class then. I think it is now

:06:39.:06:44.

also, but it is a different class. The middle-classes moved in and

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gentrified the area, but the rise of financial services as the new

:06:50.:06:56.

engine of Britain's economy, brought in an even wealthier class.

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Yuppies. ! It is them that is pushing the

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rents up. These houses were five bob a week rent once. I could

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afford to own. Not now, though. What sort of people could buy a

:07:10.:07:17.

house today? It will be bankers, flavour of the month, obviously.

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Definitely bankers, accountants, lawyers, it is a fact if a house

:07:21.:07:26.

costs �1 million, you must be well paid or independently wealthy to

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afford it These price tags have put Clapham

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beyond the man on the ordinary Clapham Omnibus. In the 70s house

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prices were three tievs average earnings u, now it is over five

:07:41.:07:45.

times. In London it is worse than that. Pricing people out of their

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traditional neighbourhoods have v has made many working-class

:07:51.:07:55.

families marginallised. The discrepancies between the house

:07:55.:08:00.

prices and the wages is so great now to when it was in the 70s, when

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this was affordable. We are now coming to a point where that is not

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the case and aspiration starts to fall back. Once it starts to go,

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the aspiration, the hope disappears. For ordinary working professionals,

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getting the keys to a family- sized home can involve moving many miles

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and hours from your place of work. It's a move that the Pilditch

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family felt forced to make, leaving their Clapham flat behind for a

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house 06 miles away in rural Berkshire.

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We needed to put our roots down and purchase, to get on the ladder. We

:08:40.:08:47.

could have done a tiny little two- bedroom flat in Clapham. For the

:08:47.:08:52.

money it would absmall shoe box. Now, Justin, a website designer and

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Rosanne who works as a personal manager, each spend three hours a

:09:00.:09:02.

day compute commuting two and fro work in London.

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I think if you are professionals, bankers, lawyers, those are the

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people who can have the houses. There is talk of a squeezed middle,

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do you feel squeezed? Yes, definitely. The costs and the

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expenses in life are going up. Not least of which the train fares, the

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electricity and everything else like that, but salaries are not

:09:25.:09:31.

going up in the same way that they did 20 years ago. You have to draw

:09:31.:09:35.

the balance between what you are going to eat, not the meat, you

:09:35.:09:41.

have to get them meat for their diet, but if food, fuel, everything

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is increasing, the challenge is harder and harder, you run out of

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options. The notions of a squeezed middle is

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more than middle-class mooning. Average real earnings fell by 3% in

:09:55.:10:00.

2011, that is the largest one-year fall for 30 years.

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Little wonder the Government's just reversed its plans to raise duty on

:10:04.:10:12.

fuel. That squeeze is also felt in the

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falling amount of money we have in our pockets for essential weekly

:10:17.:10:21.

shopping. Although average inflation has been relatively mod

:10:21.:10:26.

estover the past few years, the cost of things that we buy each day

:10:26.:10:32.

has gone up dramatically. My daily cup of coffee, for instance, is

:10:32.:10:38.

around 30% more expensive than it was just four years ago. That is

:10:38.:10:43.

around 2.5 times the rate of inflation.

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Tastes the same, though. It's not just coffee, over the past

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year or so, fuel and utility bills have rocketed. Gas is up 16%, the

:10:55.:11:01.

cost of childcare is up nearly 6% and this while we are told that

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official inflation is just 2.8%, but what many notice the most is

:11:05.:11:12.

the rising cost of food. Been here before as well! Yesterday

:11:12.:11:18.

I went in the same shop it were 7.5 for a tin of tomatoes. They have

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gone to so.5. They were doing them like that that is in a day! In the

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70s, in flaigs pressures were clear to everyone, but -- inflation

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pressures were clear to everyone, but are they so cleared to today?

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We are at a fish stall, what has happened to the price of white?

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What do you say? Shout it out, what do you think? Gone up. It has gone

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up 12%! So that is something like four times the actual rate of

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inflation. That's just the past year! What

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about over the last four years? What do you think may have happened

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to the price of rump steak in the past four years? 10%? 10%? It is

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worse than that. Is a%.

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Is a%? It is worse than that. It is worse than that. 20%.

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22% it is worse than that, over the past four years, the price of meat

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is up 26%. Despite the fact that the inflation

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rate is not up to the levels of the 70s, people are feeling the pinch.

:12:30.:12:34.

Poorer people spend a higher proportion of income on basic

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products like food and fuel. Exactly the feigning thing thats

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that have gone up the most. There is a big difference between

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the general inflation rate and the rate at which the things that we

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really need, food, housing or childcare are becoming more

:12:49.:12:54.

expensive. At the same time, their incomes are stagnant or sometimes

:12:54.:13:00.

going down. So you are trying to pay for the same thing, with more

:13:00.:13:06.

for it and less money to spend. The lowest-paid are the worst

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affected. Their pay fell by almost 5% between 2010 and 2011.

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While so many are struggle, there is a growing feeling that the rich,

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by contrast, have never had it so In fact, the share of income of the

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top 1% doubled between the years The highest earners often justify

:13:32.:13:34.

those kinds of rewards by claiming they're creating wealth for

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everyone, producing jobs, businesses and money that would

:13:36.:13:46.
:13:46.:13:55.

It wasn't restraint that started the Industrial Revolution. It

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wasn't restraint that inspired us to explore for oil in the North Sea

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and bring it ashore. It was Positive, vital, driving,

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Margaret Thatcher became leader of the Conservative Party in 1975, the

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last time the UK was in a double- dip recession. Her answer to that

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economic chaos was to release the full force of the free market.

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We'll do it by letting profits rise to a level which offers a real

:14:28.:14:35.

One of the biggest long-term beneficiaries are the bankers and

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Fund manager Crispin Odey is one of the new class of Britain's super-

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rich. According to the Sunday Times Rich List in 2010, he took home

:14:48.:14:57.

Together we shall meet the crisis of this country, and tomorrow the

:14:57.:15:07.
:15:07.:15:07.

Show me the incentive, and I will show you the outcome. If you're

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wanting a vibrant economy, you are going to have winners and losers.

:15:13.:15:16.

We will only basically save ourselves if we start forgiving the

:15:16.:15:22.

bankers, because we've got to allow banking to be profitable. If

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banking is profitable, people will lend money. If people lend money,

:15:26.:15:30.

the economy will grow. So you're saying it's actually good for the

:15:30.:15:33.

whole nation to have an elite group who are wealth creators, because

:15:33.:15:38.

they drag, in your view, the whole of the nation up. That's what I'm

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saying. There's been no shortage of

:15:42.:15:46.

incentives for the top earners in recent years. It's a reward many

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feel is unpalatable, given others in the City are today accused of

:15:49.:15:55.

sharp practice and potential illegal behaviour. The wider

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question is whether the rewards at the top trickle down to the rest of

:15:59.:16:05.

the working population. If we have an economic model which

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increasingly concentrates the fruits of that economy at the very

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top, then what happens is you create consumer societies without

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the capacity to consume, and that is because you're cutting

:16:13.:16:23.
:16:23.:16:25.

Do you want a vibrant economy in which there is change, and where

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there is improvement, and there is a general sort of entrepreneurism?

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In which case, you're going to get these inequalities. Or do you want

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a much more stable society that might not move at all? You can

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either all be richer, or you can all be more equal, you can't be

:16:44.:16:49.

both? That's what I'm saying. And in fact the gap between rich

:16:49.:16:52.

and poor has grown faster in Britain than in any other developed

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country in recent decades. We've done research that's looked into

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the future, looked to the year 2020, and what that's telling us is that

:17:00.:17:07.

gap's going to continue to get The gap's even more obvious when

:17:07.:17:12.

times are tough, as in this recession. This is a rare sight

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South Yorkshire was once synonymous with coal, but now the industry is

:17:21.:17:27.

all but dead. Hayley Taylor is among those trying to pick up the

:17:27.:17:33.

pieces. Half a mile below the wet streets of Dennerby lies the seam

:17:33.:17:36.

of coal upon which the town's poor fortunes are literally built.

:17:36.:17:39.

There's over a million unemployed now, in't there, so where else can

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we go? There's nothing else round here.

:17:44.:17:47.

Pit villages like Stainforth grew up around Doncaster to service the

:17:47.:17:52.

mines. Once models of activity and industry, they are now among the

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worst unemployment black spots in the country. OK, who's got a mobile

:17:58.:18:06.

phone on them? What's that mobile phone doing right now? I want it

:18:06.:18:09.

off. Employment consultant Hayley Taylor

:18:09.:18:14.

is running a jobs workshop for young unemployed people. Almost a

:18:14.:18:16.

quarter of under-24-year-olds here are not in work, education or

:18:16.:18:22.

training. You don't read the paper, how do you find a job in the paper

:18:22.:18:26.

if you don't read it? Hayley finds that the youngsters she meets are

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ill-prepared for the harsh realities of today's employment

:18:28.:18:35.

market. They don't understand what a CV is, they don't know how to

:18:35.:18:39.

apply for a job, it's never taught. What is required of them in work,

:18:39.:18:42.

what a National Insurance card is for, what happens in the working

:18:42.:18:46.

world, what are the expectations of an employer from an employee.

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Teresa is 17. She left school last year but has so far failed to find

:18:51.:18:56.

work. You don't believe in yourself, why? What is there not to believe

:18:56.:19:00.

in? I don't know, I've had experience, but when you've tried

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so much, it just... I don't know, it makes you feel worthless and

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you're not going to get anywhere. It kind of makes you want to give

:19:11.:19:15.

up, but you don't want to, because you want to get out there and get a

:19:15.:19:24.

For youngsters like Teresa and her friend Amy, prospects are bleak.

:19:24.:19:27.

The employment landscape is wholly different to what it was in the

:19:27.:19:32.

'70s. It was an automatic assumption that all the guys that I

:19:32.:19:35.

was at school with would follow in their fathers' footsteps, which was

:19:35.:19:39.

to go and work in the mining industry. The girls, they were very

:19:39.:19:42.

much evolved in wanting to work for the farm stores, which was packing

:19:42.:19:45.

food for the supermarkets at that time, whereas now those openings

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don't exist, because you know those industries, unfortunately, in

:19:47.:19:54.

Yorkshire have all gone. Teresa may lack confidence, but she

:19:54.:19:58.

certainly doesn't lack determination.

:19:58.:20:02.

When you come into town looking for work, you often can't afford the

:20:02.:20:09.

bus, can you? No, we walk. How long is it? It's like six or seven miles

:20:09.:20:15.

each way. That's a long walk. it's tiring. But it shows we're

:20:15.:20:21.

trying and not just sitting at home doing nothing. It shows we're up

:20:21.:20:31.

early and wanting to get out there In places like this, the journey

:20:31.:20:39.

back to work is not one that people can make without help. 20 years

:20:39.:20:41.

after the coal mining industry largely left the region, there is

:20:41.:20:47.

still nothing to replace it. It has therefore fallen to the public

:20:47.:20:54.

purse to support much of this A third of all jobs in Doncaster

:20:54.:20:58.

are in the public sector. Around a fifth of the working population are

:20:58.:21:05.

on benefits. How many jobs do you apply for?

:21:05.:21:10.

week, I would say about 12 or 13. Like two a day. You're not fussy

:21:10.:21:15.

about the jobs you take? anything. You just get nothing,

:21:15.:21:21.

just like e-mails, you're either too young or inexperienced.

:21:21.:21:24.

ruins your confidence, just trying and trying and just getting shot

:21:24.:21:30.

down. There is talk about an actual lost generation of youth, do you

:21:30.:21:36.

think that's accurate? I think that's totally accurate. Their

:21:36.:21:39.

opinion is that there there's no hope, there is no hope for them.

:21:39.:21:42.

There is no hope of opportunities, no hope of employment, there's no

:21:42.:21:47.

new business being created. You know, this is just an existence and

:21:47.:21:54.

not a life, and to hear that is so Though the latest figures show a

:21:54.:21:56.

slight drop in overall unemployment, more than a million under-24-year-

:21:56.:22:02.

olds are still out of work. That's one in five, just down from its

:22:02.:22:07.

record high early this year. The consequences of cutting off a

:22:07.:22:13.

generation from work and opportunity could be severe.

:22:14.:22:17.

Those people who are taking the biggest pain are people who had no

:22:17.:22:21.

responsibility for this crisis. There is a danger of, you know,

:22:21.:22:23.

spreading social unrest and antagonism towards a society that

:22:23.:22:25.

seems to deny a significant proportion of the population decent

:22:25.:22:35.
:22:35.:22:39.

opportunities and decent Though the causes were complex and

:22:39.:22:42.

hotly debated, we caught a glimpse of what that kind of social unrest

:22:42.:22:52.
:22:52.:23:03.

In August last year, this corner of Clapham descended into chaos. The

:23:03.:23:06.

shops were looted, buildings burnt on and pitched battles fought with

:23:06.:23:16.
:23:16.:23:16.

There were similar scenes in other city centres. More than 4,000

:23:16.:23:26.

At times of crisis, we've traditionally turned to our

:23:26.:23:31.

political leaders, trusting they'll have the answer. Today that's no

:23:31.:23:37.

longer true. In a survey for Panorama, we found that over two-

:23:37.:23:40.

thirds, 67% of the population, have little or no confidence in our

:23:40.:23:50.
:23:50.:23:54.

politicians' ability to get us out Most of the country believes our

:23:54.:24:04.

political class are simply not up If you had to pick a word to

:24:04.:24:08.

describe this situation that we're all in now, what would that be?

:24:08.:24:12.

Quite angry in a lot of ways, because I think the way I see it is

:24:12.:24:14.

that the people who are actually making the decisions for the

:24:14.:24:18.

country are people who are out of touch with the people who are

:24:18.:24:20.

actually at the bottom, who are actually suffering. And also a

:24:20.:24:24.

sense of not being able to change it, not just being frustrated but

:24:24.:24:34.
:24:34.:24:35.

being... Helpless. Helpless, yeah, A lack of faith in politicians is

:24:35.:24:40.

only part of the problem. Today there is an increasing sense that

:24:40.:24:46.

we are not all in this together. There are symbols of growing

:24:46.:24:56.
:24:56.:25:02.

inequalities everywhere. Take our In the 1970s, footballers on the

:25:02.:25:05.

pitch felt much like they were the same people who were on the

:25:05.:25:08.

terraces, there was a continuity between the two. That simply

:25:08.:25:14.

doesn't exist anymore. Footballers have become so well paid that the

:25:14.:25:20.

connection between the supporters and the players has disappeared.

:25:20.:25:23.

Today you have to come down to football's lower leagues, to places

:25:24.:25:26.

like Brentford, to recapture the togetherness of the '70s, where

:25:26.:25:29.

supporters still feel they're living in the same world as the

:25:29.:25:37.

players they're watching. There was a sense that we were, to coin a

:25:37.:25:40.

phrase, all in it together, that I think is going to be very difficult

:25:40.:25:44.

to recapture now. Because I think people will look at the super-rich,

:25:44.:25:47.

the elite in society, and say, well, clearly we're not all in it

:25:47.:25:55.

together, there are things that I don't know how I'll get through.

:25:55.:25:58.

Cheer up, could be worse. The state this country's in, you could be

:25:58.:26:01.

free. Stuck outside, with no work and a crumbling economy. How

:26:01.:26:07.

The visibly growingly gap in inequality in society is adding to

:26:07.:26:14.

a sense of tension and anger. Even those who have benefitted the most

:26:14.:26:17.

in recent years agree that their advancement has caused a sense of

:26:17.:26:24.

frustration. I think that when the train stops, like it's stopped,

:26:24.:26:27.

it's then that everybody starts to say who's in first class and who's

:26:27.:26:34.

in second class, and basically, you know, let's storm the first class.

:26:34.:26:41.

The disadvantaged feel increasingly lost and isolated. The gap has

:26:41.:26:44.

widened between those who have and those who have not. People just

:26:44.:26:47.

don't know where to go. Every time they turn around, there's more

:26:47.:26:51.

money been taken off them and more charges been put on them. One of

:26:51.:26:54.

the fears about the country is that there's what they're calling a lost

:26:54.:26:59.

generation. Do you feel lost? without a job, a job's mainly all I

:26:59.:27:06.

want, just to get out there and just to do something with every day.

:27:06.:27:09.

At the end of the 1970s, Britain found an answer to the economic

:27:09.:27:12.

chaos by identifying the unions as a common enemy and turning to the

:27:12.:27:19.

free market instead. This time it seems we have a new common enemy,

:27:19.:27:24.

City bankers. But unlike the '70s, there's no obvious radical

:27:24.:27:27.

alternative, even though the sense of frustration and anger which lead

:27:27.:27:37.
:27:37.:27:41.

to such huge change back then is Next week, Panorama is on the trail

:27:41.:27:43.

Britain today is suffering the longest peacetime slump in decades. Our economy is in a double-dip recession for the first time since 1975. Panorama asks whether Britain is ready and able to cope with a new age of austerity with surprising echoes of the 1970s. Reporter Adam Shaw examines if we're about to suffer the same social and political upheaval that emerged from that decade.


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