11/03/2017 Reporters - Short Edition


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From here in the world's news room, we send our correspondents to bring


you the best stories from across the globe.


Owen Bennett-Jones finds the Pakistan army back in control


of the tribal area on the Afghan border, after a huge military


operation to clear out Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.


Around one million people from north Waziristan fled


when the conflict was at its height, and the question now


Carrie Gracie investigates Beijing's new measures


The Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal.


And in the one party state there is little the public can do,


to force the politicians here to deliver air fit to breathe.


Fergus Walsh meets the researchers unlocking the science of thought.


The tribal areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have


long been associated with militancy and lawlessness.


The ancient tribal customs, with their emphasis on both


revenge and hospitality, have been challenged in recent


years by violent Jihadis, imposing Sharia, not tribal law.


North Waziristan became home to Al-Qaeda, the Taliban,


and Jihadists from all over the world, but as Owen Bennett-Jones


reports, after a long and bloody military campaign,


the Pakistani army is now firmly in control.


For years now, these remote areas on the Afghan-Pakistan border have


In 2014, the Pakistan army launched a campaign


to win back this land, and today virtually all


The militants left behind this roadside bomb factory.


Capturing facilities like this has made a difference.


There used to be thousands of bomb attacks in Pakistan each year,


The army reckons its operations here are the most successful


anti-Jihadist campaign the world has yet seen.


So somewhere it was the IED that was a threat to you,


somewhere it was small ambush or different, so different incidents


happening in different areas when we were trying to get them.


Just like Aleppo and Mosul, the army caused massive destruction


When the battle was raging, the entire population left.


The effort is now on to get them back.


Around a million people from north Waziristan fled when the conflict


was at its height and the question now is will they come back?


So the army has built facilities like this school,


that can take 1,000 children - not open yet - but it is hoped this


will attract people to come back thinking there are ways they can


live here, and get their children educated.


A few hours' drive away in the city of Peshawar,


traders say the number of bombs has gone down, but they


The survivors say they are determined to resist the militants,


If you don't get over it, you don't get to live,


because you see, if people become stuck in that psychological


depression and that kind of thing, you can't cope with your studies,


you can't cope with the world, you can't see the beauty of life,


so you have to cope up, and all we did, we all did


There is a growing nationalism in Pakistan.


Some militant groups remain strong and haven't been


challenged by the state, but there is also a rejection


of those Jihadis who attack targets on Pakistani soil.


Owen Bennett Joan, BBC News, north Waziristan.


In China the government wants to invest billions on renewable energy.


They want to encourage the use of new vehicles. Carrie Gracie has


taken to the streets of Beijing to find out. Everything in China is on


a massive scale. The problems... And the solutions. Cars are to blame. It


is scrapping the worst offenders. But this ritual in the wreckers


Yarde is a losing battle against 30 million new cars taking to the roads


this year. If these people want clean air, then they have to change


their behaviour. -- clean air. China has two kick its addiction to fossil


fuels. For this Beijing couple, the morning commute is a his and hers


divide. He is part of the problem. And she is part of the solution.


Meek little blue, harmful emissions, zero. To beat the petrol heads,


China subsidises electric vehicles and makes them much easier to


licence. On smoggy days, little blue does not face restrictions like


other car is. This woman is proud to do her bit for a cleaner air.


TRANSLATION: The pollution is terrible for our health and for the


image of Beijing. But I don't have to feel guilty even on smoggy days.


I tell my friends they should get one, too. Gathering winter fuel


allowance. To beat the smog, all of the villagers have banned the


burning of coal. And this 70-year-old farmer is forced back to


the old ways. The fire heats their brick bed. The government did give


them an electric heater. But on their pensions they cannot


afford to switch them on much. Winters are a sub zero. He tells me


he is more worried about his electricity bill than about the cold


or the smog. He is wearing thick layers of long johns. Beijing can


clean the air when it wants to. Like now for the annual session of its


rubber-stamp parliament. But it can't do it for a long because


despite the push for a cleaner vehicles and cleaner heating, the


Chinese economy is still fuelled by coal. And in the 1-party state there


is little the public can do to force the politicians to deliver a fit to


breathe. Carrie Gracie, BBC News, Beijing.


It's one of the most prestigious awards in the world of science. A


prize of almost ?1 million for cutting edge research aimed at


understanding the brain. This year it has been won by three British


neuroscientists further work on how the brain uses a system of chemical


rewards to help us make choices. They have been speaking to Fergus


Walsh. How do we motivate ourselves in life, whether it is the choices


we make about the food we eat, cream cake or fruit, to the friends we


make? Thanks, Fergus. The pleasure of a Hauge, or the goals we set


ourselves artwork to succeed or by a better car. What underpins our


decision-making is a chemical in the brain called dopamine, which is


released whenever there is a reward. This sense of reward, which can


sometimes be equated with happiness, pleasure or simply a desire to do


something, has been crucial in Newman evolution. The three


neuroscientists who shared the prize in Denmark have spent 30 years


studying the dopamine reward pathway command say it underpins all our


choices. You look at a menu in a new restaurant. Should you explore a new


type of cuisine? You make a prediction of what it might be like


and you try it. If you try it and it is better, it gives a positive


signal. Next time you return to the restaurant, you are likely to choose


it. If it is not, you will choose it. There is a dark side. Dopamine


can reassert poor decision-making and leads to compulsive behaviour.


Parkinson's disease -- disease... Drugs that boast -- boost dopamine


levels can sometimes bolster addictive behaviour. Can often have


negative effects, leading to excess gambling. I have had numerous


patients who, when treated with these drugs, have resorted to


gambling, often secretive. This has resulted in the tragedy of them


losing their entire life savings. The three prizewinners are all based


in the UK, which has a track record of world leading brain research.


Their work will help in the development of treatments for


patients with psychiatric illnesses, like schizophrenia, where the brain


reward system goes wrong. Fergus was, BBC News. That is all


from Reporters for this week. From May, Philippa Thomas, goodbye


for now. -- from me. Good evening. We had quite a bit of


sunshine in the north-west and the South and east today. Where the sun


A weekly programme of stories filed by BBC reporters from all over the world, ranging from analyses of major global issues to personal reflections and anecdotes.

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