13/02/2018 Victoria Derbyshire


Download Subtitles

SRT

ASS


13/02/2018

The BBC's daily news and current affairs programme with original stories, exclusive interviews, audience debate and breaking news.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to 13/02/2018. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

Hello, it's Tuesday, it's 9 o'clock,

0:00:090:00:11

I'm Victoria Derbyshire,

welcome to the programme

0:00:110:00:13

Our top story today -

the Commonwealth has secretly begun

0:00:130:00:16

considering who might succeed

the Queen as its head -

0:00:160:00:22

it won't automatically

go to Prince Charles

0:00:220:00:23

on the Queen's death.

0:00:230:00:24

We'll bring you the story

0:00:240:00:26

Also on the programme - why are men

seven and a half times more

0:00:260:00:29

likely to gamble then women?

0:00:290:00:35

I just think it's sort of a lad

culture thing, you can't go to the

0:00:350:00:40

pub on a Saturday afternoon without

having the foot walk on the TV and

0:00:400:00:44

obviously there's adverts that, on

and you get the urge to sort of have

0:00:440:00:49

a bet on the football and I can't

watch a game of football without

0:00:490:00:55

having a bet on it.

0:00:550:00:56

We'll find out how much of a problem

0:00:560:00:58

gambling amongst men is.

0:00:580:00:59

Plus - stand down or

face being forced out.

0:00:590:01:01

The ultimatum given

to South Africa President Jacob Zuma

0:01:010:01:04

by his own party this morning.

0:01:040:01:13

It's very hard to find real

supporters of Jacob Zuma even in his

0:01:130:01:18

former stronghold, it's hard to find

supporters now.

0:01:180:01:20

We'll look at a legacy

of allegations of corruption.

0:01:200:01:28

And we are here talking to Willian

from the Black eyed peas about a

0:01:280:01:36

range of issues.

0:01:360:01:38

Hello...

0:01:380:01:39

Welcome to the programme,

we're live until 11.

0:01:390:01:41

Throughout the morning we'll bring

you the latest breaking news

0:01:410:01:43

and developing stories

and as always really keen

0:01:430:01:45

to hear from you.

0:01:450:01:47

Do get in touch on all the stories

we're talking about this morning -

0:01:470:01:50

use the hashtag Victoria LIVE

and If you text, you will be charged

0:01:500:01:53

at the standard network rate.

0:01:530:01:54

Our top story today.

0:01:540:01:55

The BBC has learned

that the Commonwealth has begun

0:01:550:01:57

considering who might succeed

the Queen as the head

0:01:570:02:00

of the organisation.

0:02:000:02:01

Our reporter Caroline

Davies is here...

0:02:010:02:07

First of all, what is the

Commonwealth? It's a group of 53

0:02:070:02:11

countries, some of them used to be

British, colonies, some of them have

0:02:110:02:16

no ties to Britain at all, the

language mostly used as English but

0:02:160:02:20

there is no official status for

that.

What are they considering at

0:02:200:02:26

the moment?

People may be quite

surprised that Prince Charles does

0:02:260:02:29

not automatically become head of the

Commonwealth, the Queen is currently

0:02:290:02:34

head, but it is not hereditary, they

don't have a formal process to

0:02:340:02:39

select the leader at all so this is

something that will be considered

0:02:390:02:42

today. There is a high-level group

set up by the Commonwealth to look

0:02:420:02:47

at how it operates, they are going

to be considering whether, different

0:02:470:02:52

elements of the Commonwealth and how

it works, we hear from insiders they

0:02:520:02:55

will potentially talk about the fact

who takes over from the Queen after

0:02:550:03:00

she dies. There are an a few things

currently on the table, it could be

0:03:000:03:05

in style is is selected to be the

next leader, that might be that it's

0:03:050:03:13

a one off, it's Charles for now,

when he dies, it might not

0:03:130:03:16

automatically move on to Prince

William. The other option, they

0:03:160:03:21

decide it's going to be hereditary

from now on, it is whoever the

0:03:210:03:24

British monarch is automatically

becomes leader of the Commonwealth.

0:03:240:03:29

Another option, Prince Charles is

still the most likely option but

0:03:290:03:32

there is the other option they elect

a ceremonial leader, a strong

0:03:320:03:39

democratic tradition with the

Commonwealth, that is another

0:03:390:03:42

potential feature they might

discuss.

Thank you very much,

0:03:420:03:45

Caroline. Here is the rest of the

news.

0:03:450:03:52

Rachel Schofield is

in the BBC Newsroom

0:03:520:03:58

The ANC has made an official demand

for leader Jacob Zuma to step down.

0:03:580:04:02

It follows a 13 and a half hour

meeting stop his time in office has

0:04:020:04:07

been overshadowed by corruption

allegations.

0:04:070:04:17

Cyril Ramaphosa left a 13 hour

meeting on Monday night under the

0:04:170:04:21

weight of the momentous decision, to

remove President Jacob Zuma as the

0:04:210:04:26

head of state. Earlier Cyril

Ramaphosa delivered an ultimatum to

0:04:260:04:30

the President at his official

residence telling him to step down

0:04:300:04:34

within the next two days but an

unconfirmed report said Jacob Zuma

0:04:340:04:37

had responded by asking for another

three months in office.

The new

0:04:370:04:44

President of the African National

Congress...

Since Earl Ramaphosa was

0:04:440:04:48

elected party leader in December

Jacob Zuma has resisted immense

0:04:480:04:53

pressure to resign. His second term

has been plagued by scandal and the

0:04:530:04:57

party rift has threatened the

stability of South Africa's Gulbis

0:04:570:05:03

liberation movement. On Sunday Cyril

Ramaphosa told supporters in Cape

0:05:030:05:06

Town he was seeking a new beginning

and pledged to tackle the corruption

0:05:060:05:10

that has marred nine years in office

by Jacob Zuma. Allegations

0:05:100:05:18

surrounding his links to the wealthy

Gupta family have caused his

0:05:180:05:22

popularity to plummet recently but

he continues to command support in

0:05:220:05:26

rural areas. Cyril Ramaphosa has

said publicly he wanted to avoid

0:05:260:05:32

recalling the President eager

perhaps to protect his chances in

0:05:320:05:35

the election next year yet still,

Jacob Zuma refuses to quit and there

0:05:350:05:40

is a no-confidence vote, even more

turmoil could be around the corner.

0:05:400:05:47

A new tool to fight online extremist

0:05:470:05:48

activity is being unveiled

by the Home Secretary

0:05:480:05:50

during a trip to the US.

0:05:500:05:53

It aims to detect content

and remove it instantly.

0:05:530:05:54

Funded with more than half a million

pounds of government money,

0:05:540:05:57

the tool draws upon a vast database

of material posted by

0:05:570:05:59

the so-called Islamic State.

0:05:590:06:00

Our technology reporter

Dave Lee has more.

0:06:000:06:10

Created by an artificial

intelligence company based in London

0:06:110:06:14

and funded with more than have the

million pounds government money to

0:06:140:06:17

draws upon a vast database of

material posted online by so-called

0:06:170:06:21

Islamic State.

We have two videos,

one of which is legitimate news

0:06:210:06:26

content, the other is terrorist

propaganda. To my naked eye I

0:06:260:06:31

actually can't tell the difference

between them. But fortunately down

0:06:310:06:34

at the bottom this is very low

probability of being terrorist

0:06:340:06:39

content but this one is much higher.

Using this technique the software

0:06:390:06:46

creators believe they can spot up to

94% of Islamic State content posted

0:06:460:06:52

online with an accuracy of 99.9 and

5%. Anything the software is unsure

0:06:520:06:58

about a slide for human review.

I've

had a demonstration of it and I know

0:06:580:07:02

a lot of other people have as well

and it's a convincing example that

0:07:020:07:07

you can have the information you

need to make sure this material does

0:07:070:07:10

not go online in the first place.

Advocates of an open Internet often

0:07:100:07:14

pushed back against this kind of

software because it can produce

0:07:140:07:18

false positives, content being

blocked when it should not be yet it

0:07:180:07:21

is estimated over 400 different web

services were used to spread

0:07:210:07:27

propaganda in 2017 and the task is

less about blocking jihadists online

0:07:270:07:33

today but addicting offer they might

be on the Internet tomorrow.

0:07:330:07:41

Two teenagers have an arrested on

suspicion of murder after a six-week

0:07:410:07:44

baby died in. Police were called to

an address with reports of a child

0:07:440:07:55

needing medical attention, the baby

was taken to hospital and pronounced

0:07:550:07:59

dead. An 18-year-old woman and

16-year-old boys were arrested and

0:07:590:08:04

are being held in custody.

0:08:040:08:06

This programme has learned that men

0:08:060:08:08

are seven-and-a-half times more

likely than women to

0:08:080:08:10

become problem gamblers.

0:08:100:08:11

In the UK there are thought to be

around 430,000 problem

0:08:110:08:13

gamblers but experts and gambling

addicts say a mix of lad culture,

0:08:130:08:16

advertising and biology is to blame

for more men becoming addicts.

0:08:160:08:19

The gambling commission say

they are focused on ensuring

0:08:190:08:21

that the gambling industry tackles

problem gambling for all people.

0:08:210:08:23

We'll have a special report

on this issue shortly.

0:08:230:08:29

British holiday-makers are heading

back to Tunisia this morning more

0:08:340:08:38

than two years after a terror attack

all 38 people, 30 of them Britons in

0:08:380:08:44

the Beach resort. Thomas Cook is the

first British tour company to resume

0:08:440:08:48

flights to the country as John

Maguire reports.

0:08:480:08:56

With it is idyllic white

beaches and pristine

0:08:560:08:58

Mediterranean coastline,

Tunisia was a popular holiday

0:08:580:08:59

destination for British tourists -

attracted around 4430,000 of them

0:08:590:09:02

each year.

0:09:020:09:03

But then came the attack in June

2015, when a gunman killed

0:09:030:09:07

on a beach near Sousse.

0:09:070:09:09

So-called Islamic State said

it was behind the shooting.

0:09:090:09:12

Almost three years

on from that deadly attack,

0:09:120:09:14

and British tour companies are once

again offering package holidays to

0:09:140:09:16

the country.

0:09:160:09:19

This morning the 220 passengers

were the first to return

0:09:190:09:21

- flying from Birmingham.

0:09:210:09:25

I'm a bit nervous,

because I didn't know we

0:09:250:09:29

were the first one and we were out

there the last time when the

0:09:290:09:32

terrorist attack was on,

so we were staying in the hotel down

0:09:320:09:35

the road, but we love the country,

so as soon

0:09:350:09:37

as we knew there was a flight going,

we thought we would be going back

0:09:370:09:42

out there.

0:09:420:09:42

I have still been travelling

while it's been closed.

0:09:420:09:44

I go to France or Germany normally.

0:09:440:09:46

Yeah, so, no, I'm not scared at all.

0:09:460:09:48

Fine, can't wait.

No trouble.

0:09:480:09:51

Beautiful place.

Beautiful.

0:09:510:09:57

Probably more dangerous

staying in London

0:09:570:09:58

than it is staying out there.

0:09:580:09:59

British officials say Tunisia has

made huge progress in counter

0:09:590:10:02

terrorism and security

since the attacks,

0:10:020:10:03

although the Foreign Office advice

that is travellers are

0:10:030:10:05

vigilant at all times as the country

remains in a state of emergency.

0:10:050:10:15

Thousands of people -

mainly women and children -

0:10:150:10:18

are fleeing the Democratic Republic

of Congo to neighbouring Uganda

0:10:180:10:20

following an army offensive

against rebel groups.

0:10:200:10:24

Aid workers say the situation

is at "breaking point"

0:10:240:10:26

with the United Nations claiming up

to 370,000 people could leave.

0:10:260:10:28

Half a million people have already

been displaced by fighting

0:10:280:10:31

over the last two years.

0:10:310:10:37

That's a summary of the latest BBC

News - more at 9.30.

0:10:380:10:48

Good morning. Welcome to the

programme, this is a message from

0:10:480:10:52

Andrew on Facebook, a report in a

few minutes, gambling is mentally of

0:10:520:10:56

avoiding issues like stress,

depression, loneliness, women can

0:10:560:10:59

open up and talk to each other, men

hide away and play online games or

0:10:590:11:04

gamble.

0:11:040:11:06

Do get in touch with us

0:11:060:11:07

throughout the morning -

use the hashtag Victoria LIVE

0:11:070:11:09

and If you text, you will be charged

at the standard network rate.

0:11:090:11:12

Let's get some sport with Holly.

0:11:120:11:14

Elise Christie is going for gold

in Pyeongchang this morning,

0:11:140:11:16

how much of a chance has she got?

0:11:160:11:21

She is one of the most exciting

prospects in Team GB, one of the

0:11:210:11:26

most likely to walk away with a gold

medal but she is the favourite for

0:11:260:11:30

the 1000 metre audits the 500 metre

she has this morning, just shortly

0:11:300:11:36

after 10am but she is leaking in

incredible shape at the minute. She

0:11:360:11:41

won her short track heat in an

Olympic time but it was broken just

0:11:410:11:49

some minutes later but she remains

second favourite for the race this

0:11:490:11:52

morning, favourite for the 1000

metres, the thing is it can all go

0:11:520:11:58

wrong, think back to Sochi 2014, she

was disqualified in all three of her

0:11:580:12:05

events, after the referee held

responsible for a three woman

0:12:050:12:09

pile-up. As you can see, her escape

connected with one of the other

0:12:090:12:14

racers, it's been a hard road for

her, she's had to endure online

0:12:140:12:20

abuse, get into training again for

the Olympic Games, she has clearly

0:12:200:12:23

put all of that behind her, 10am

this morning that race will get

0:12:230:12:27

under way and if you are going to

watch one thing this should

0:12:270:12:32

definitely be it. Fingers crossed

for her.

0:12:320:12:42

England are playing

New Zealand in a Twenty20

0:12:420:12:44

cricket match, how

are they getting on?

0:12:440:12:46

Chelsea won last night,

has that saved Antonio Conte's job?

0:12:460:12:47

Kane Williamson firmly in control,

England having some success,

0:12:520:12:56

including this extraordinary catch

from Chris Jordan but that did not

0:12:560:13:00

stop New Zealand reaching an

imposing total, 196, the England

0:13:000:13:06

response got off to a pretty good

start, wickets falling regularly

0:13:060:13:11

168-8 after 18 overs, keep across

that on the BBC sport website, all

0:13:110:13:15

the latest news.

0:13:150:13:17

Chelsea won last night,

has that saved Antonio Conte's job?

0:13:170:13:25

It was only last week we were

talking about that, the thought of

0:13:260:13:29

him being out of a job after

back-to-back defeats, he needed a

0:13:290:13:33

win last night and it was quite a

comfortable victory over West Brom

0:13:330:13:38

at Stamford Bridge, 3-0, two goals

from Eden Hazard and a goal from

0:13:380:13:45

Victor Moses, Antonio Conte thanked

the fans for sticking by him and

0:13:450:13:49

there was a bit of a show of support

him last night, singing his name

0:13:490:13:53

throughout the game but there is a

feeling that the clock is running

0:13:530:13:57

down to the end of the season, maybe

to the end of his Chelsea career,

0:13:570:14:02

who knows? In the meantime, bad

result puts them back in the top

0:14:020:14:07

four, a point ahead of Tottenham but

I can't imagine this is the end of

0:14:070:14:11

the speculation.

Thank you. More

from Holly throughout the morning.

0:14:110:14:16

Problem gambling is an issue we've

covered a number of times

0:14:160:14:18

on this programme --

we know the impact

0:14:180:14:20

can be devastating -

not only running up huge debts

0:14:200:14:23

but also disrupting family

relationships and careers.

0:14:230:14:24

What we haven't explored before

is why so many gamblers are men.

0:14:240:14:27

In fact the figures

are particulary stark.

0:14:270:14:29

Men are seven and a half times more

likely to become problem

0:14:290:14:32

gamblers then women.

0:14:320:14:33

Why is that?

0:14:330:14:35

Our reporter Chris Hemmings has

been trying to find out.

0:14:350:14:38

In the UK it is now thought about

430,000 people can be described as

0:14:450:14:49

problem gamblers. With as many as 2

million at risk of developing an

0:14:490:14:55

addiction. But what is known is who

makes up the majority of those with

0:14:550:14:58

a problem. The answer... Men.

0:14:580:15:02

I had problems from 30 years ago

financially. I went on to steal from

0:15:070:15:11

my employer and I guess along the

way I have lost hundreds of

0:15:110:15:15

thousands of pounds, ended up in

prison.

I started gambling about

0:15:150:15:19

four years ago when I turned 18,

probably lost within the region of

0:15:190:15:25

20- £30,000, wasn't all my money. I

think it's had a major effect on the

0:15:250:15:30

last few years of my life.

I'm a

gambler, it's the way I made, I am a

0:15:300:15:36

gambler, my wife wasn't at all happy

when I lost three months income on

0:15:360:15:40

the turn of a card in a poker game

but that did not stop me. I changed

0:15:400:15:44

to gambling on property.

In the UK

there's hardly any difference

0:15:440:15:48

between the sexes when it comes to

food gambles each year but when it

0:15:480:15:52

comes to a problem the difference is

much starker, in fact if you are a

0:15:520:15:57

man you are seven and a half times

more likely than a woman to become a

0:15:570:16:01

problem gambler. Why is that? What

is it specifically about men that

0:16:010:16:08

makes us more as a set book to

gambling?

0:16:080:16:14

makes us more as a set book to

gambling? I'm meeting up with Matt.

0:16:140:16:16

He started gambling

0:16:160:16:17

gambling? I'm meeting up with Matt.

He started gambling when he was 18.

0:16:170:16:19

By the age of 22 he had already

gambled away nearly £32,000.

I

0:16:190:16:25

started to play small bets on the

football. Then it sort of got more

0:16:250:16:30

and more out of hand. I started

placing larger stakes. And I started

0:16:300:16:36

losing a lot more than I was

intending to.

What you think it is

0:16:360:16:39

about men in particular that makes

gambling so attractive?

I think it

0:16:390:16:45

is a lad culture kind of thing. You

cannot go to the pub on a Saturday

0:16:450:16:49

afternoon without the football on

the telly. Then adverts come on. You

0:16:490:16:56

get the urge to have a bet on the

football. I couldn't watch a game of

0:16:560:17:01

football without having a bet on it.

Did you find it difficult, as a

0:17:010:17:05

bloke, to come forward and admit you

had a problem?

I did. I opened up to

0:17:050:17:13

my parents first of all. I wish I

had done it sooner than I did,

0:17:130:17:18

because I probably wouldn't have

been in the position I got to.

Did

0:17:180:17:23

you and your friends never talk to

each other?

We did, but they

0:17:230:17:28

sometimes were involved in gambling

themselves. It was sort of

0:17:280:17:33

embarrassing to open up to them in a

way where you think, I'm really

0:17:330:17:37

struggling with this. With all men,

you just want to live the high life

0:17:370:17:41

and just want to be able to do

whatever you want to do. I think

0:17:410:17:45

with gambling it is in your mindset,

making money, but I think in reality

0:17:450:17:50

you just...

It just takes you down.

What does it feel like when you are

0:17:500:17:57

chasing that when?

-- that women.

It's not the best feeling. I've been

0:17:570:18:11

very low. It has made my life a

misery. -- chasing that win. I feel

0:18:110:18:19

like I've lost the last three years

of my life. I don't want it to

0:18:190:18:23

affect my life.

This doctor has been

helping people with addictions over

0:18:230:18:28

30 years. As a former gambler

himself he has a rare insight into

0:18:280:18:33

the mind of a gambler. He started

gambling during his time at

0:18:330:18:36

university. But that turned into

much higher stakes on property

0:18:360:18:40

speculation.

It was inevitable that

I would be interested in people who

0:18:400:18:45

have problems like I do. I

eventually set up a rehab. Mine was

0:18:450:18:50

the first rehab to treat compulsive

gamblers in the UK.

What is it that

0:18:500:18:55

draws men into gambling?

Men tend to

be hedonistic, yeah, let's go for

0:18:550:19:03

it. That tendency seems to be Nacho,

you know, real man! We found that in

0:19:030:19:10

the group. -- that tendency seems to

be macho. All addictions go

0:19:100:19:18

together, they are all saying the

same thing, let's get plastered.

0:19:180:19:23

Those are the people I came across

as having particular addictive

0:19:230:19:28

behaviour with gambling.

Those

people are more likely to be male?

0:19:280:19:32

Yes. Men are greater risk takers

than women. They tend to be rather

0:19:320:19:40

proud of it. I used to boast on how

much I lost. I lost three months'

0:19:400:19:47

income on the turn of one card in a

poker game. This isn't something I

0:19:470:19:51

should be proud of. But I'm a

gambler, and a real gambler! It's

0:19:510:19:56

like the fishermen boasting about

the one that got away.

Where should

0:19:560:19:59

I be looking for answers here? Is

this a social thing? Are their

0:19:590:20:04

biological factors at play?

There

are three causes of any addiction.

0:20:040:20:09

The first is genetics. Some of us

have an addictive nature. The second

0:20:090:20:14

is sociological. Its environment.

Their Rosamund Bradbury 's which are

0:20:140:20:19

particularly risky. And the third is

exposure.

Is there a way gambling is

0:20:190:20:25

advertised, its link with sport is

that why so many people get caught

0:20:250:20:28

up? -- there are certain

environments which are particularly

0:20:280:20:34

risky.

I was at a football match. We

were pestered constantly, short

0:20:340:20:42

skirted, young, attractive women,

saying who is going to score the

0:20:420:20:46

next poll? What will be the

half-time score? Who will be

0:20:460:20:50

injured? Who will win? We could bet

on anything as part of a norm.

0:20:500:20:58

Gambling and sport go together

uncomfortably closely.

0:20:580:21:03

For example it's estimated that

British men will watch an average of

0:21:060:21:10

about 20,000 hours of televised

sport in their with football by far

0:21:100:21:14

being the most popular. In

comparison, women will watch half

0:21:140:21:17

that amount. In October last year,

this programme found that almost all

0:21:170:21:23

ad breaks during a football match

feature at least one gambling

0:21:230:21:26

advert. In the 25 games we watched

there were over 1300 adverts, one in

0:21:260:21:31

five of them were for betting.

0:21:310:21:35

It isn't just young people who get

caught up in gambling. You're more

0:21:370:21:42

likely to develop an addiction if

you are middle-aged. That is why I

0:21:420:21:46

am in Sheffield to meet David. He

was an accountant and he got sent to

0:21:460:21:50

prison after defrauding his company

out of more than £70,000 to feed his

0:21:500:21:53

gambling addiction. Overall he lost

over half a million.

It is a hamster

0:21:530:21:59

wheel once you are in it. You cannot

find a way out. You just go faster

0:21:590:22:04

and faster before your legs give in,

which is basically when I gave in.

0:22:040:22:10

At one end you don't spend money on

things you cannot afford, and at the

0:22:100:22:15

other and you steal money for things

you cannot afford. Whether it is

0:22:150:22:21

gambling itself or the depth it

creates. I have travelled from one

0:22:210:22:24

end to the other. It was my brain

making those decisions. I have to be

0:22:240:22:30

accountable and responsible for

those decisions. But what I cannot

0:22:300:22:36

do is say why I made those

decisions.

What is it about men

0:22:360:22:41

specifically that make us more

likely to develop a gambling

0:22:410:22:44

problem, in your opinion?

We want to

be seen as the breadwinner. The head

0:22:440:22:49

of the family. As getting a great

deal of respect. Makes things

0:22:490:22:57

happen... Is there to support the

family, as well. To have this

0:22:570:23:03

hanging around you as something that

you should have shared with the

0:23:030:23:09

family was a great burden. Having

said that, the escapism of

0:23:090:23:15

compulsive gambling made you forget

the things that create that burden.

0:23:150:23:20

You are in a different place. I was

sent to prison. It came out then.

0:23:200:23:25

And it wasn't me saying it.

Why

couldn't you own up?

Embarrassment,

0:23:250:23:31

Shane, that is the one half of me,

the other half kept convincingly

0:23:310:23:36

that I could put it right, gamble,

win big, that every thing right. --

0:23:360:23:42

embarrassment and shame. Convincing

myself I could handle it.

He went to

0:23:420:23:50

help groups, how much of them would

have been male immigrants?

Almost

0:23:500:23:53

100%. I get people ringing me up. --

how much of them would have been

0:23:530:24:05

male in those groups? People really

up and ask for advice. I have never

0:24:050:24:10

thought of the relevance, but it is

only males who have called me.

0:24:100:24:14

They both explained how their

environment affected their

0:24:140:24:18

decision-making. But some

researchers in California think they

0:24:180:24:21

have found a biological difference

which might explain why men are more

0:24:210:24:24

likely to chase their losses. Mara

was part of that team.

There hadn't

0:24:240:24:30

been a lot of research on stress and

what it does to decision-making. We

0:24:300:24:35

realised that there is a lot of

stress involved in risky decision

0:24:350:24:38

making. We used a common

decision-making task about risk

0:24:380:24:45

where people have to blow up

balloons on the trial. They see the

0:24:450:24:49

balloon. They are asked you want to

inflate it to be larger or cash out

0:24:490:24:53

and get all of the money. You get

more money the bigger the balloon,

0:24:530:24:56

but every time you inflate it it

could pop and you lose all your

0:24:560:25:01

money. We had people play this game

after they were stressed by us

0:25:010:25:09

having them put their hand in ice

water. It reliably induces cortisol

0:25:090:25:14

release, which is the primary stress

hormone, which influences the brain

0:25:140:25:17

and the body. Cortisol peaks about

20 minutes after people do this ice

0:25:170:25:25

water task. We had them play the

game 20 minutes later.

Men and

0:25:250:25:30

women?

Yes. We were not expecting

gender differences. We were

0:25:300:25:35

interested in what stress would do

to decision-making. We found that

0:25:350:25:40

the people in the controlled

condition who had just put their

0:25:400:25:43

hand in warm water, there were no

sex differences. But under stress,

0:25:430:25:49

men and women diverged. Men were

significantly more risky. Women were

0:25:490:25:56

more Conservative. They were more

likely to cash out their balloons,

0:25:560:25:58

men were more likely to hit and hit

until the balloon blows up.

Risky

0:25:580:26:06

decisions are often not profitable.

Do you see a correlation between

0:26:060:26:09

what you found on the fact there are

seemingly more men who are problem

0:26:090:26:14

gamblers?

It very well could be.

Having a gambling problem can lead

0:26:140:26:18

to stress. It could be a vicious

circle. As somebody gets into

0:26:180:26:26

gambling and they might get into

trouble and that, that leads to

0:26:260:26:31

stress and what they are looking for

as the solution is this risky

0:26:310:26:35

outcome where they can get a big

reward. And that really isn't very

0:26:350:26:38

helpful. But that is what is driving

their behaviour.

In West London,

0:26:380:26:47

Henrietta runs the only NHS clinic

specifically set up to support

0:26:470:26:56

problem gamblers.

We see patients

here who talk about being introduced

0:26:560:27:01

to gambling activities by their

fathers. It is normally their

0:27:010:27:04

fathers. And when you dig deeper you

find that their sisters, when they

0:27:040:27:11

were children, were not taken by

their fathers to the races with the

0:27:110:27:15

same frequency or the same level of

emotional involvement.

The

0:27:150:27:19

relationship between men and their

predisposition for risk taking, how

0:27:190:27:23

does that transpose itself into the

number of men with a gambling

0:27:230:27:26

problem?

It's possible that men with

higher levels of risk taking and

0:27:260:27:32

impulsivity are more attracted to

the immediacy of some gambling

0:27:320:27:35

types. For example, the in game

betting, or the fast turnover of

0:27:350:27:45

some of the roulette machines.

Very

little research has been done in

0:27:450:27:49

this area so far.

There are areas

within the research of pathological

0:27:490:27:54

gambling that are still quite

unexplored.

What next? Clearly more

0:27:540:28:01

research needs to be done to

discover if male brains are

0:28:010:28:04

predisposed to developing a gambling

addiction. But we do know that

0:28:040:28:08

environmental factors certainly play

a huge part. The gambling commission

0:28:080:28:12

said guidelines are already in place

suggesting gambling adverts

0:28:120:28:16

shouldn't appeal to particularly

masculine traits. It has now

0:28:160:28:19

launched a consultation on whether

or not fines can be used to deter

0:28:190:28:23

gambling companies from using them.

0:28:230:28:32

Really keen to hear

from you if you've been

0:28:320:28:34

affected by problem gambling.

0:28:340:28:37

To get in touch and the usual ways

and share your experiences. This

0:28:370:28:42

e-mail from one woman who does not

wish me to use her name. My husband

0:28:420:28:48

gambolled regularly for years and

wouldn't tell me he had a problem.

0:28:480:28:51

He used to lie to me and say that he

used to spend £2 50. I found out he

0:28:510:28:56

was spending £16 in the betting

shop. There doesn't seem like a lot,

0:28:560:29:00

but it was a lot for me, it could

have bought our dinner. Gamblers

0:29:000:29:03

don't realise the hardship they

cause other family members. We used

0:29:030:29:07

argue all the time. He used to say

it was his money and I would say

0:29:070:29:12

yes, but I have to subsidise because

of it. We got into debt of over

0:29:120:29:19

£6,000. Gambling causes nothing but

argument and in my case poverty.

0:29:190:29:23

Martin says a complete lack of

personal responsibility and

0:29:230:29:26

selfishness is at the root of

problem gamblers, it ruins lives but

0:29:260:29:31

they still persist. Apps have made

it easier than ever. But it is still

0:29:310:29:34

a conscious choice. These immature

boys should grow up and be men.

0:29:340:29:39

That's interesting, is it a

conscious choice? Or have we learned

0:29:390:29:44

that when it comes to alcohol,

certain drugs, gambling, that it is

0:29:440:29:47

an addiction, and therefore an

illness? Do let me know your own

0:29:470:29:51

experiences.

0:29:510:29:54

Still to come.

0:29:540:29:55

He's a singer, rapper,

music producer,

0:29:550:29:56

and a coach on The Voice.

0:29:560:29:58

Now Will I Am is turning his

attention to becoming an author.

0:29:580:30:01

We'll speak to him on this

programme before 10.

0:30:010:30:07

And as the Charity Commission lodges

a statutory inquiry into Oxfam and

0:30:070:30:12

the sex scandal surrounding its

workers in Haiti, we'll speak to

0:30:120:30:17

someone who campaigns against

prostitution and child trafficking.

0:30:170:30:22

Time for the latest news -

here's Rachel Schofield

0:30:220:30:24

The BBC News headlines

this morning...

0:30:240:30:28

BBC News has learned

that the Commonwealth has begun

0:30:280:30:30

considering who might succeed

the Queen as the head

0:30:300:30:32

of the organisation.

0:30:320:30:33

Member states could choose anyone

as the ceremonial leader,

0:30:330:30:36

as the role is not hereditary.

0:30:360:30:37

The BBC has been told 53 member

states have established a high level

0:30:370:30:41

group of independent figures to look

at the way the Commonwealth

0:30:410:30:43

is governed.

0:30:430:30:44

It will meet for the first

time today in London.

0:30:440:30:48

South Africa's ruling party has

made an official demand

0:30:480:30:50

for President Jacob Zuma to step

down, after a 13-hour meeting

0:30:500:30:53

with leading figures

from the African National Congress.

0:30:530:30:55

Mr Zuma has been the head

of state since 2009,

0:30:550:30:57

but his time in office has been

overshadowed by

0:30:570:31:00

corruption allegations.

0:31:000:31:01

It is unclear how he will respond

to the formal request to resign.

0:31:010:31:05

A new tool to fight online extremist

0:31:050:31:07

activity is being unveiled

by the Home Secretary

0:31:070:31:09

during a trip to the US.

0:31:090:31:10

It aims to detect content

and remove it instantly.

0:31:100:31:19

Funded with more than

half a million pounds

0:31:210:31:23

of government money,

the tool draws upon a vast

0:31:230:31:26

database of material posted

by the so-called Islamic State.

0:31:260:31:28

The Home Secretary Amber Rudd

will meet with tech companies

0:31:280:31:30

to discuss the software -

as well as other efforts

0:31:300:31:32

to tackle extremism.

0:31:330:31:36

Two teenagers have been arrested

on suspicion of murder

0:31:420:31:44

after a six-week-old baby

died in Southampton.

0:31:440:31:48

Police were called to

a home in Defender Road

0:31:480:31:49

in Peartree on Sunday after reports

of a baby boy needing

0:31:490:31:52

medical attention.

0:31:520:31:53

The child was taken

to Southampton General Hospital

0:31:530:31:55

where he was pronounced dead

a short time later.

0:31:550:31:58

An 18-year-old woman

and a 16-year-old boy were arrested

0:31:580:32:01

and are being held in custody.

0:32:010:32:06

British package holiday

companies have started taking

0:32:080:32:10

tourists back to Tunisia -

almost three years since a gunman

0:32:100:32:14

opened fire at a beach

resort killing 38 people.

0:32:140:32:18

30 British holidaymakers

were killed at the resort

0:32:180:32:20

in Sousse in June 2015.

0:32:200:32:23

Until last summer,

the Foreign Office advised

0:32:230:32:25

against travel to Tunisia due

to the high risk of terrorism.

0:32:250:32:30

That's a summary of

the latest BBC News.

0:32:300:32:41

Here's some sport now with Holly.

0:32:420:32:50

England have unbeaten in their match

against New Zealand. They need to

0:32:500:32:54

win their next game to stand any

chance of making the final. A 500

0:32:540:33:00

meter dash for Durie, Team GB's

Elise Christie will compete this

0:33:000:33:06

morning, she is tipped to win the

first edition medal in the Winter

0:33:060:33:10

Olympics in Pyeongchang.

Snowboarding sensation Chloe Kim

0:33:100:33:17

produced a stunning performance to

win gold, at just 17 with a score of

0:33:170:33:21

90 point to five footer final one,

she is a big hit with the home fans

0:33:210:33:27

because of her South Korean fans.

Marcel here should won the men's

0:33:270:33:32

combined event after a thrilling

slalom show. He was at the top of

0:33:320:33:38

the leaderboard, we will bring you

the results from the 500 metre race

0:33:380:33:42

involving Elise Christie shortly

after 10am. See you then. Holly,

0:33:420:33:46

thank you.

0:33:460:33:50

Inflation figures are out -

they measure the rate

0:33:500:33:52

in which the price we pay for goods

and services is rising.

0:33:520:33:57

Andy Verity is here to explain

everything. I am supposed to. This

0:33:570:34:03

is measured by the Office for

National Statistics you look at a

0:34:030:34:05

basket of goods and services and

track out the prices in the basket,

0:34:050:34:09

your milk, serial, order bus fares,

the prices are going up and by how

0:34:090:34:15

much. It's a very important thing

for setting policy and interest

0:34:150:34:19

rates which determine the cost of

mortgages, the headline news is that

0:34:190:34:24

inflation has stayed the same as it

was last time, 3%, at the top end of

0:34:240:34:30

the target range for inflation is

supposed to be according to the

0:34:300:34:33

rules laid down the Bank of England

to follow. It's supposed to be

0:34:330:34:38

between 1-3%, not higher or lower,

3% is exactly where it is. The

0:34:380:34:42

highest it got recently was 3.1%,

it's now subsided just a little, the

0:34:420:34:50

consensus was that it would carry on

going down, some people might be a

0:34:500:34:55

little disappointed inflation has

not got a little lower but what you

0:34:550:34:59

have is signs that there is less

inflationary pressure than used to

0:34:590:35:02

be. The pound got weaker, a lot of

what we buy is imported, when the

0:35:020:35:08

pound gets weaker it takes more

pounds to buy the dollars or euros

0:35:080:35:12

you need to buy imported goods and

that was pushing up prices in pounds

0:35:120:35:16

in the shops. Bad effect some people

think may start to fade and this may

0:35:160:35:26

be the first signs. We've had a

reduced in the price of raw

0:35:260:35:33

materials, those prices have not

been rising as fast. The

0:35:330:35:36

inflationary pressure is easing and

it's quite likely inflation will

0:35:360:35:41

continue to subside from now on.

But

what about average earnings, are

0:35:410:35:46

they still behind where inflation

is, our our living standards being

0:35:460:35:51

squeezed?

We are still going through

a real turn pay cut, unions used to

0:35:510:35:58

get very worked up about this, we've

had that for most of the last

0:35:580:36:01

decade, the worst decade or rises in

income in 200 years. But carries on

0:36:010:36:07

for the moment, wages not rising as

fast as prizes but there is a hope

0:36:070:36:11

that will come to an end in the

second half of this year.

What does

0:36:110:36:18

this mean potentially for interest

rate rises later in the year.

The

0:36:180:36:21

last I looked the markets were

betting the next interest rate rise

0:36:210:36:26

will be in May, thank you very much.

0:36:260:36:36

Next let's turn our attention

to what's happening

0:36:360:36:38

in the Democratic Republic

of Congo in Africa.

0:36:380:36:40

The country - which has

a population of 79 million

0:36:400:36:42

and is more than 4 times the size

of France - was for many years known

0:36:420:36:46

as being at the centre of civil

war and corruption -

0:36:460:36:49

which claimed up to six million

lives - either directly

0:36:490:36:51

through fighting or malnutrition.

0:36:510:36:57

Now though concerns

are mounting again

0:36:570:37:05

about the country's future -

thousands of refugees are fleeing

0:37:050:37:07

into neigbouring Uganda

in an attempt to escape violence

0:37:070:37:09

between rival ethnic groups.

0:37:090:37:10

Aid workers there say the situation

is at "breaking point".

0:37:100:37:18

Let's talk to Ben Shepherd from the

Chatham House Africa programme and

0:37:180:37:25

looks at foreign affairs and in a

moment we hope to talk to Jan

0:37:250:37:34

Egeland, the Secretary General of

the Norwegian Refugee Council, we

0:37:340:37:37

are having technical ethical base

but we will persist and do our best

0:37:370:37:41

to get hold of him but first, Ben

Shepherd, good morning. Why do so

0:37:410:37:47

many people want to lead their own

country?

The crisis that has erupted

0:37:470:37:52

over the last couple of weeks is due

to a re-emergence of fighting

0:37:520:37:57

between two ethnic groups, these

groups fought seriously in the late

0:37:570:38:06

90s, early 2000s, with real worries

it would turn into genocide, it was

0:38:060:38:11

the site of the first EU

peacekeeping mission outside Europe,

0:38:110:38:16

things East around 2006 albeit at

the cost of 60,000 lives, fighting

0:38:160:38:24

re-emerging between these groups,

frightening people, life is very

0:38:240:38:28

precarious, very few jobs, most

people reliant on subsistence

0:38:280:38:33

farming, if they are forced from

their land they don't have anywhere

0:38:330:38:35

to go.

Why has the fighting erupted?

It's very hard to say the specifics

0:38:350:38:43

of this, at the heart is competition

overland in a place where most

0:38:430:38:48

people do not have paid employment,

land is everything. And these groups

0:38:480:38:53

involved, one is traditionally

cattle raising and the other is

0:38:530:38:56

traditionally farming, there has

been a long-standing confrontation,

0:38:560:39:01

friction, over who gets to use

Butland, there was a rumour this was

0:39:010:39:10

triggered by cattle rustling, the

government is incapable of providing

0:39:100:39:13

security for its population and the

police and military forces that go

0:39:130:39:16

into places tend to cause more

difficulties than they solve much of

0:39:160:39:21

the time.

In terms of the levels of

violence that are being endured by

0:39:210:39:29

some of the population, some of the

stories are horrific.

Indeed,

0:39:290:39:33

indeed. Some of the stories coming

out are awful. It's one of the most

0:39:330:39:42

difficult things with the Democratic

Republic of Congo to get exact

0:39:420:39:46

information, this is going on in

rural areas, there are reports of

0:39:460:39:50

hundreds of villagers being burnt,

Nasa curse of 30-60 people, it may

0:39:500:39:58

disguise something more serious,

it's hard to know until people get

0:39:580:40:01

in on the ground and find out what

is going on.

Reports of women being

0:40:010:40:05

rates, hopefully we will talk to Jan

Egeland, hopefully he will be able

0:40:050:40:11

to corroborate that. It estimated

almost 8 million people, 10% of the

0:40:110:40:18

population affected by extreme

hunger, 4 million children under the

0:40:180:40:21

age of five at risk of acute

malnutrition. -- women suffering

0:40:210:40:28

serious sexual assault.

It's the

outcome of a furry long process of

0:40:280:40:37

disintegration of the state of Congo

which started back in the 60s and

0:40:370:40:44

70s under the cold war. The Congo

went through two deeply obstructive

0:40:440:40:51

wars, killing millions of people.

I

have a heading that way again?

The

0:40:510:40:59

current President became President

of the age of 29 after the

0:40:590:41:02

assassination of his father in 2001,

for the first few years of his role

0:41:020:41:07

it looked as if the area was

emerging successfully, the next

0:41:070:41:14

electoral cycle after five years he

won those, a lot of questions asked

0:41:140:41:20

about whether those elections were

free. His second term in office it

0:41:200:41:26

is like the US, you only get two

madrigals, should have come to an

0:41:260:41:30

end on December 2016, it did not

happen, he is still there, there

0:41:300:41:34

were promises last year, they did

not happen, they have been promised

0:41:340:41:37

again for the end of this year, the

date everyone is aiming at is the

0:41:370:41:41

23rd of December, deep suspicions

among a lot of people and observers

0:41:410:41:47

as to whether the President wants to

give up power.

It does not sound

0:41:470:41:50

like it.

0:41:500:41:52

Let's talk now to Jan

Egeland who arrived

0:41:520:41:54

in the Democratic Republic

of the Congo yesterday

0:41:540:41:56

and is the Secretary General

of the Norwegian Refugee Council

0:41:560:42:05

Hello and thank you for talking to

us. Can you hear me OK? Definitely

0:42:050:42:10

not. There is no phone line. I'm

sorry about that. He was hopefully

0:42:100:42:16

going to give you an insight into

the scale of the movement of people,

0:42:160:42:20

the displacement of people but not

to worry. Thank you so much. I am

0:42:200:42:25

told he is there, I am going to try

again. Yes, can you hear me? Thank

0:42:250:42:33

you so much for being so patient.

Thank you so much for talking to our

0:42:330:42:38

British audience. I wonder if you

could give us an insight into what

0:42:380:42:41

is going on, what you have

witnessed, having just arrived

0:42:410:42:45

there?

I am now in one of the

epicentre is of this horrific war on

0:42:450:42:56

the civilian population in the

Congo. This is in the south-east of

0:42:560:43:01

the Congo. There are 400,000

displaced people here, only the last

0:43:010:43:10

12 months, today I met with five

children, their husband was killed

0:43:100:43:16

in the communal violence by one of

the armed groups, they desperately

0:43:160:43:23

fled to camps, we are overwhelmed

because there are very few relief

0:43:230:43:31

organisations able to respond and we

are totally underfunded. This is a

0:43:310:43:38

forgotten crisis, this is one of the

worst crises on earth now and nobody

0:43:380:43:43

seems to focus on it really. It is

underfunded, it is under resourced

0:43:430:43:49

in all possible ways.

One of the

worst crises on earth, that is quite

0:43:490:43:54

a statement. Why aren't countries

doing more?

0:43:540:44:08

Can you hear me still?

I can, please

repeat. You said it was one of the

0:44:140:44:18

worst crises on earth, that is quite

a statement, why isn't the

0:44:180:44:23

international community doing more?

That is my main question also, why

0:44:230:44:36

are we not accepting that women and

children should have the same kind

0:44:360:44:40

of protection and basic assistance

as we try to deliver everything and

0:44:400:44:46

everywhere else in the world? I

think it's like people are used to

0:44:460:44:50

it being horrific in the Congo and

thought it could not get worse.

0:44:500:44:56

Well, it got twice as bad in 2017 as

it was before. Actually the last two

0:44:560:45:03

things, 16 and 17, it has become the

worst place, one of the worst places

0:45:030:45:11

on the planet for in forced

displacement, people having to flee

0:45:110:45:14

for their lives, really, and people

think it is impossible to help, but

0:45:140:45:18

it is not true. We are here, we need

resources, we can respond, we are

0:45:180:45:23

willing through courageous workers

to expand relief but then we need a

0:45:230:45:31

donor conference, we need more

donors, attention, we also need a

0:45:310:45:36

stronger partnership with the United

Nations.

Thank you so much for your

0:45:360:45:40

time. Secretary General of the

Norwegian Refugee Council who

0:45:400:45:48

arrived in the Democratic Republic

of Congo yesterday and you heard

0:45:480:45:51

from Ben Shepherd from the African

programme at Chatham House.

0:45:510:45:59

Oxfam is facing an enquiry into the

sex scandal involving its workers in

0:45:590:46:03

Haiti. We'll hear from one woman who

worked in the country in the

0:46:030:46:06

aftermath of the earthquake there.

Next, we will

0:46:060:46:14

hear from...

0:46:140:46:17

Will I Am who is best known

for his work with the Black Eyed

0:46:170:46:21

Peas and being a compassionate coach

on The Voice and this morning

0:46:210:46:24

in an extended interview he tells

us his real passion is education

0:46:240:46:26

and finding leaders of the future.

0:46:260:46:28

The singer also delivers his view

on Donald Trump, Brexit and tells us

0:46:280:46:31

why he loves Britain so much.

0:46:310:46:32

But we start with robots - and why

he's written a book about AI.

0:46:320:46:36

He was joined by his

co-author Brian Johnson.

0:46:360:46:38

I wanted to write a book,

because I like the ability to build

0:46:380:46:41

worlds and go deep and you know

when Brian was telling me the book

0:46:410:46:47

he wrote, it inspired me.

0:46:470:46:49

So I asked him if he wanted

to collaborate and we did that.

0:46:490:46:52

Brian, tell us what people can

expect from the book.

0:46:520:46:55

So it is a young adult model.

0:46:550:46:58

It's a futuristic action

adventure that centres around

0:46:580:47:00

a young female engineer.

0:47:000:47:06

She builds robots and finds herself

in the centre of this centuries long

0:47:060:47:11

battle between wizards

and robots and she's the key

0:47:110:47:13

to saving the world.

0:47:130:47:15

Right.

0:47:150:47:18

You are fascinated by robots,

by artificial intelligence

0:47:180:47:20

is my understanding.

0:47:200:47:21

Why?

0:47:210:47:23

Well, I started about ten years ago

with the school that I have

0:47:230:47:30

in the ghetto that I'm from.

0:47:300:47:34

I built an after school programme

where we teach our kids computer

0:47:340:47:37

science, robotics and engineering

and I see how it's changing not

0:47:370:47:39

only the lives of these

kids, but our community,

0:47:390:47:41

our community's changing.

0:47:410:47:44

The graduation rates are going up

and our kids are going to school,

0:47:440:47:53

four year colleges for

engineering and robotics and,

0:47:530:47:57

you know, so here's a new form

of technology that can help

0:47:570:48:00

solve people's problems,

when they don't have

0:48:000:48:01

to wait for somebody

to solve their problems for them.

0:48:010:48:04

So artificial intelligence is like

electricity and light for this

0:48:040:48:06

fourth industrial revolution.

0:48:060:48:07

So it's just a means to solve

problems, it's a tool.

0:48:070:48:10

So that to me is exciting

to encourage and enable

0:48:100:48:12

and empower people.

0:48:120:48:14

But you know that lots of people

think actually the progress of this

0:48:140:48:18

technology is actually going to take

people's jobs away from them,

0:48:180:48:21

what do you say to these critics?

0:48:210:48:26

I say the same thing happened

in 1918, the same fears

0:48:260:48:28

with the candlestick makers thought

that lights were going

0:48:280:48:30

to take their jobs.

0:48:300:48:34

Folks that make carriages

thought that cars were

0:48:340:48:36

going to take their jobs.

0:48:360:48:37

In actuality it created

more jobs and the jobs

0:48:370:48:40

are going to come from folks that

are using the technology

0:48:400:48:46

and imagine a world

that the folks are that

0:48:460:48:50

are responsible for jobs

today can't imagine.

0:48:500:48:52

It's you know a whole new era

and we have been through these types

0:48:520:48:56

of changes in the past.

0:48:560:48:57

So there's nothing

to be frightened of?

0:48:570:48:59

The only thing to be frightened

of is how governments

0:48:590:49:01

are not educating people.

0:49:010:49:02

That is the thing to

be concerned about.

0:49:020:49:04

You could say, oh, wow,

this technology is going to take

0:49:040:49:07

jobs away, meanwhile we're not

educating the youth.

0:49:070:49:08

I think we're worried

about the wrong thing actually.

0:49:080:49:13

Actually the people need

to remember that the technology

0:49:130:49:15

doesn't get to decide.

0:49:150:49:16

People get to decide.

0:49:160:49:19

Artificial intelligence

is built by people.

0:49:190:49:21

So, just like Will said,

we know this is coming,

0:49:210:49:26

we know this change is coming,

so let's harness it and use it

0:49:260:49:29

for good, but don't let that

future happen to you -

0:49:290:49:32

take action and do

something about it.

0:49:320:49:34

You you have launched a smart watch

and a couple of other gizmos,

0:49:340:49:37

if you don't mind me calling that.

0:49:370:49:39

Why is this an area you want

to venture in, are you thinking,

0:49:390:49:42

I'm going to compete with Samsung

and Apple in the future?

0:49:420:49:49

Actually I don't see it

as competing, I see it

0:49:490:49:51

as the why to the what.

0:49:510:49:54

What I'm doing is, I started

a company, five years ago

0:49:540:50:00

we had 300 employees,

we build artificial intelligence

0:50:000:50:04

voice operating systems that

you know Deutsche Telecom's coined

0:50:040:50:08

more efficient than IBM Watson,

that's why we are in

0:50:080:50:10

the market in Austria.

0:50:100:50:11

So that's a check mark of success.

0:50:110:50:14

More importantly, it is the why -

why am I doing that?

0:50:140:50:20

Because kids in the inner cities

have no one to model themselves

0:50:200:50:23

after around a course of science

technology, engineering

0:50:230:50:25

and mathematics.

0:50:250:50:26

So am I going to wait

for somebody else to do that?

0:50:260:50:33

Or am I going to make that

sacrifice and, you know,

0:50:330:50:36

risk failing in front of the whole

entire world in order to show kids

0:50:360:50:40

that this is the path forward?

0:50:400:50:43

If I can't do music while I tell

them to do science,

0:50:430:50:46

technology and mathematics,

that's hypocritical.

0:50:460:50:48

For us as you know adults to wave

one hand and say, you know...

0:50:480:50:51

You shouldn't do that,

while we don't provide

0:50:510:50:53

the opportunities for kids to move

forward, then we can't

0:50:530:50:55

be hypocritical.

0:50:550:50:57

I don't want to talk out

of both sides of my mouth.

0:50:570:51:02

Do you think you're more influential

as somebody who is passionate

0:51:020:51:05

about technology than as a musician

or as a writer or as

0:51:050:51:08

a talent show judge?

0:51:080:51:11

So here's the conductor,

a conductor has violins,

0:51:110:51:15

a piano, rhythm section, brass

and he's conducting an orchestra.

0:51:150:51:25

Every single piece of the pie is,

you know, important in what I do.

0:51:280:51:31

Music is music and without

technology, music wouldn't

0:51:310:51:33

be what it is today.

0:51:330:51:34

So if I'm up there judging

kids, not even judging,

0:51:340:51:39

coaching and encouraging,

if folks want to make music

0:51:390:51:42

their path, I'll do that.

0:51:420:51:43

If folks are confused and don't feel

the passion towards music,

0:51:430:51:46

but are interested in science,

I'm going to do that as well.

0:51:460:51:49

I'm going to do every single area

to encourage kids to be excellent.

0:51:490:51:55

There is enough time

in the day to be able

0:51:550:51:58

to do both, to do all,

here, here is an example of it.

0:51:580:52:01

Just do one thing, I don't know.

0:52:010:52:03

Do you just want to be

a television host?

0:52:030:52:05

No.

0:52:050:52:06

There we go!

0:52:060:52:10

You are, I'm going to ask

you about your television work,

0:52:100:52:13

because you are a

compassionate judge.

0:52:130:52:15

You're never rude, you always manage

to find the positive in anyone.

0:52:150:52:19

I don't know if you watched

any of the last series

0:52:190:52:22

of the X Factor, but the judges

were much, much kinder.

0:52:220:52:25

Are they copying you?

0:52:250:52:30

I just, no, they're not copying,

it is just the day and age we live

0:52:300:52:33

in with cyberbullying,

bombardment of media -

0:52:330:52:35

everything is just

harsh, harsh, harsh.

0:52:350:52:38

There's wars, there's

you know so much like...

0:52:380:52:44

You know spiritual warfare happening

that you have seen this cry

0:52:440:52:47

out of people's hearts

and trying their best

0:52:470:52:50

to encourage people to be better

versions of themselves.

0:52:500:52:53

I hope it continues.

0:52:530:52:54

So society's changing?

0:52:540:52:55

I hope so.

0:52:550:52:58

I hope so.

0:52:580:53:01

And I pray for that.

0:53:010:53:04

Who wants to live in a cruel world?

0:53:040:53:09

For likes and hearts and followers.

0:53:090:53:14

Bearing that in mind then,

you have really taken

0:53:140:53:16

Britain to your heart,

you love London, what do you think

0:53:160:53:19

of the sort of the public discourse

in this country generally,

0:53:190:53:22

particularly around

Brexit for example?

0:53:220:53:30

I love this country.

0:53:300:53:33

And the whole world

loves this country.

0:53:330:53:43

And as the world's, you know,

we have this global village,

0:53:450:53:48

the status quo, the powers that be,

folks that are comfortable the way

0:53:480:53:53

they live their lives,

you know, are concerned.

0:53:530:54:01

Is their life going to be altered

when people are coming in?

0:54:010:54:03

You start to have a

different perspective,

0:54:030:54:05

not everything is harmful.

0:54:050:54:10

And the thing like I said

that we need to be focused

0:54:100:54:13

on is education, how do we make

sure our kids are

0:54:130:54:15

leaders of tomorrow?

0:54:150:54:16

How do we make sure our country -

whether it's America

0:54:160:54:20

or, you know, the UK - are leading?

0:54:200:54:30

And you're leading when you invite.

0:54:300:54:33

You're leading

when people are a part of it.

0:54:330:54:35

You know, Singapore is...

0:54:350:54:37

Less than 60 years old actually and

I don't know, I could live there.

0:54:370:54:43

There's places in China, like,

it's inviting and it's

0:54:430:54:45

becoming more inviting.

0:54:450:54:50

We might wake up 20 years from now

and nobody wants to come to the UK.

0:54:500:54:53

Would you ever move to Britain?

0:54:530:54:55

Yeah, I'm practically here every

year, six months a year.

0:54:550:54:59

But I'm telling you,

for you out there, China's

0:54:590:55:01

looking really nice now.

0:55:010:55:02

Hong Kong's looking really amazing,

Singapore's looking really

0:55:020:55:07

fresh and they're, like, hey,

come here and work with us.

0:55:070:55:09

As a matter of fact,

this camera here that we are filming

0:55:090:55:12

on is made in China.

0:55:120:55:13

The iPhone, everything that we have

on us is made over there.

0:55:130:55:16

It's looking really fresh.

0:55:160:55:22

There are down sides, though,

people would say of China,

0:55:220:55:30

human rights abuses,

lack of democracy, stuff

0:55:300:55:31

that perhaps we take for granted.

0:55:310:55:33

That is the past, I would

say come out forward.

0:55:330:55:35

When you're moving forward

and you're opening your doors

0:55:350:55:37

and borders, you're going to change

how you do things,

0:55:370:55:40

when you close your doors,

you go back to yesterday.

0:55:400:55:42

I'm not saying, I'm

not a politician.

0:55:420:55:44

No.

0:55:440:55:46

But I love this country and want

the things that I love to be able

0:55:460:55:50

to sustain themselves

and have a place tomorrow.

0:55:500:55:52

You will know that politicians that

voted to leave are saying,

0:55:520:55:54

we're not closing our doors,

what we are choosing to do

0:55:540:55:57

is actually control immigration?

0:55:570:55:58

Yeah, that's important, while you do

that, let's educate the youth.

0:55:580:56:05

Before the US presidential election

you said, "Trump would be

0:56:050:56:08

a disaster for America,

but for the world as well."

0:56:080:56:10

What do you think of

that prediction now?

0:56:100:56:13

Well, this is heavy.

0:56:130:56:20

We have got this book out

about wizards and robots!

0:56:200:56:23

I know, but you must

remember saying that!

0:56:230:56:25

It's a big world

and it's complicated.

0:56:250:56:29

And technology's moving fast.

0:56:290:56:36

And if you're leading the world,

you have got to think

0:56:360:56:39

about everyone, including your own.

0:56:390:56:41

More so your own.

0:56:410:56:42

I don't see education

changing in America.

0:56:420:56:44

I didn't see it...

0:56:440:56:48

I didn't see it change

for in a long time.

0:56:480:56:53

I don't know the answers

to what you're asking me.

0:56:530:56:56

I know the heart.

0:56:560:56:57

I know how I feel.

0:56:570:56:59

Do you feel he has been

a disaster for America so far?

0:56:590:57:05

I know how I feel when I travel

when I see how people react to it.

0:57:050:57:11

I see how, I see people and...

0:57:110:57:16

How they feel about America

right now because of it.

0:57:160:57:22

How they feel about America

right now because of it.

0:57:220:57:25

And how they question,

how can you have a leader like that?

0:57:300:57:33

Or you guys are idiots for...

0:57:360:57:40

Putting up with something like that,

the inhumane ways that he looks

0:57:400:57:42

at females and how can you tolerate

you know Nazism and, yeah,

0:57:420:57:45

there is a lot of stuff.

0:57:450:57:47

But like I said, that

is a heavy question.

0:57:470:57:49

That's a long conversation.

0:57:490:57:50

But what can you do about it

other than just focussing

0:57:500:57:53

on your community that you come

from and make sure that

0:57:530:57:55

your community's OK?

0:57:550:57:59

If we all do a little bit of that,

everything's going to be all right

0:57:590:58:03

and you know if you do that,

Trump will take credit for it.

0:58:030:58:06

Which is cool.

0:58:060:58:07

I don't care.

0:58:070:58:08

I just want to see

awesome results, right?

0:58:080:58:10

OK.

0:58:100:58:11

I want to ask you finally

if I may about the state

0:58:110:58:14

of the music industry.

0:58:140:58:16

We have had the Me Too campaign,

the Time's Up campaign that's

0:58:160:58:21

focused on Hollywood and acting,

do you think sexism

0:58:210:58:24

and inappropriate behaviour

is as prolific in the music industry

0:58:240:58:26

towards women and some men?

0:58:260:58:36

Entertainment as a whole.

0:58:400:58:43

After this break,

you're going to see

0:58:430:58:46

a commercial and the commercial

you're going to see

0:58:460:58:48

throughout the day is sexist.

0:58:480:58:49

They see women as sex objects.

0:58:490:58:50

It's entertainment as a whole.

0:58:500:58:52

You're going to watch

the Victoria Secrets awards

0:58:520:58:56

at the same time as you talk

about you know women empowerment.

0:58:560:59:01

It is hypocritical.

0:59:010:59:02

Every way you look at it.

0:59:020:59:08

I think it's a society as a whole

that we have to reflect on.

0:59:080:59:12

It is not just music.

0:59:120:59:13

It's not Hollywood.

0:59:130:59:14

It is even in tech.

0:59:140:59:15

It is even in politics.

0:59:150:59:19

What is crazy is it is in politics

and there is politicians that

0:59:190:59:22

still stay in their seats.

0:59:220:59:24

It's in...

0:59:240:59:25

It's in religion.

0:59:250:59:26

It's what you know...

0:59:260:59:30

The unthinkable things happen

to little boys in religion.

0:59:300:59:35

It is everywhere actually.

0:59:350:59:45

Humanity has issues actually

and it's a hot topic

0:59:450:59:47

right now for the news.

0:59:470:59:48

We could talk about it and sell some

commercials after and that is kind

0:59:480:59:54

of weird to me actually if you think

about it, that is why I say

0:59:540:59:57

education, education, education,

because the solution

0:59:570:59:59

to all our problems

is a well educated society.

0:59:591:00:01

OK.

1:00:011:00:03

Musically, what are you doing next?

1:00:031:00:05

Musically is an app.

1:00:051:00:06

Actually it isn't!

1:00:061:00:09

My youngest son uses

it and loves it.

1:00:091:00:16

Black Eyed Peas, we just released

a virtual reality platform with...

1:00:161:00:22

occulists and so virtual reality

is an amazing platform for folks

1:00:221:00:26

to create in and create these

experiences and these worlds.

1:00:261:00:30

We scored it with Hans Zimmer

and we have an alternative

1:00:301:00:34

reality book with Marvel,

the same story told.

1:00:341:00:41

So that's what we do

with Black Eyed Peas.

1:00:411:00:47

I think right now's

the time to invent,

1:00:471:00:49

there is awesome tools and AI

is an amazing tool as well and this

1:00:491:00:53

book with the robots is about that -

robotics, artificial intelligence

1:00:531:00:55

and I'm so proud of this thing,

it took six years to make.

1:00:551:00:59

Brian and I were working

at Intel at the time.

1:00:591:01:09

This guy blows my mind with his way

of looking at the world, projecting

1:01:091:01:16

what might happen based on

probability, when we were in an

1:01:161:01:21

think-tank at Intel ad was super

inspired about all things tomorrow

1:01:211:01:27

and concerned about all things

tomorrow, the investment for

1:01:271:01:31

artificial intelligence at ways the

investment but human intelligence

1:01:311:01:35

and that brought concerns, those

concerns were, we wrap them around

1:01:351:01:40

fantasy and build this amazing world

and amazing story, check it out its

1:01:401:01:46

number ten right now in all books on

Amazon which is really great. We

1:01:461:01:51

could use your help to get it going,

get it to the top of the charts.

You

1:01:511:01:56

brought it back round to the book

and thank you so much for talking

1:01:561:01:59

about other subjects, you have a lot

to say and it's good to hear.

Brian,

1:01:591:02:03

thank you.

Thank you. That's a good

interview.

You are really good, but

1:02:031:02:10

put me on the spot.

You can handle

it. Will I Am and Brian David

1:02:101:02:17

Johnson's book is out right now.

This bureau says Will I Am for

1:02:171:02:24

President, a man who chooses to do

good with his fame. Abbey adores

1:02:241:02:29

him, she says I have somewhat love

and respect for him. Thank you for

1:02:291:02:33

those. News and sport on the way.

Before that, the weather. It is

1:02:331:02:38

freezing, again.

1:02:381:02:38

Yesterday brought sunshine, today

brings cold, very wintry across some

1:02:441:02:48

parts of the UK. Lou is where it has

been raining, white is where it has

1:02:481:02:54

been snowing, turning heavier and

crossed north-east England and

1:02:541:02:58

Scotland, that will impact travel

especially across higher roots.

1:02:581:03:02

Getting better. In the South

outbreaks of rain, strong winds

1:03:021:03:06

touching gale force around the

coast, becoming confined to the east

1:03:061:03:11

of things and later, the West of the

UK will see a lot more sunshine this

1:03:111:03:15

afternoon, still cold. Temperatures

are around 4-8d at best. Similar to

1:03:151:03:22

yesterday, without sunshine. The

cloud across East event and breaking

1:03:221:03:26

up, plunging temperatures across

much of the country, widespread

1:03:261:03:32

frost and the rain, sleet and snow

turning icy, cold air in place,

1:03:321:03:38

another system pushing from the

West, snow tomorrow, mainly limited

1:03:381:03:42

to the hills, northern England, the

far north of Scotland, across much

1:03:421:03:47

of Scotland, lower levels, turning

to rain, fairly cloudy, damp and

1:03:471:03:51

windy, writer in the west later,

temperatures reaching double

1:03:511:03:54

figures.

1:03:541:03:54

Thank you.

1:04:001:04:01

Thank you.

1:04:011:04:02

Hello, it's Tuesday, it's 10

o'clock, I'm Victoria Derbyshire...

1:04:021:04:04

Our top story today...

1:04:041:04:05

The Commonwealth has secretly begun

1:04:051:04:06

considering who might succeed

the Queen as its head -

1:04:061:04:09

it won't automatically be passed

on to Prince Charles

1:04:091:04:11

on the Queen's death.

1:04:111:04:12

We'll bring you the story.

1:04:121:04:13

Also on the programme -

you're seven times more likely

1:04:131:04:15

to have a gambling problem as a man.

1:04:151:04:17

This man has lost millions

of pounds in gambling

1:04:171:04:20

Of course I used to boast on how

much I lost, I lost three months

1:04:201:04:25

income on the turn of a card in a

poker game. This is not something I

1:04:251:04:28

should be proud of.

1:04:281:04:31

We'll be speaking

to a former addict.

1:04:311:04:33

If it's a problem for you -

do get in touch.

1:04:331:04:36

Plus - should he stay

or should he go.

1:04:361:04:38

An ultimatum has been given

the South Africa President Jacob

1:04:381:04:40

Zuma by his own party this morning.

1:04:401:04:45

It's very hard to find real

supporters of Jacob Zuma even in his

1:04:451:04:53

former stronghold, to find

supporters now.

1:04:531:04:55

We'll look at a legacy

of allegations of corruption.

1:04:551:04:58

Good morning.

1:05:011:05:02

Here's Rachel Schofield

in the BBC Newsroom

1:05:021:05:04

with a summary of todays news.

1:05:041:05:06

Thank you and good morning.

1:05:101:05:12

BBC News has learned

that the Commonwealth has begun

1:05:121:05:14

considering who might succeed

the Queen as the head

1:05:141:05:16

of the organisation.

1:05:161:05:17

Member states could choose anyone

as the ceremonial leader,

1:05:171:05:19

as the role is not hereditary.

1:05:191:05:21

The BBC has been told 53 member

states have established a high level

1:05:211:05:24

group of independent figures to look

at the way the Commonwealth

1:05:241:05:27

is governed.

1:05:271:05:28

It will meet for the first

time today in London.

1:05:281:05:32

UK consumer price inflation

remained at 3% in January,

1:05:331:05:35

the same level seen in December.

1:05:351:05:38

The rate, reported by the Office

1:05:381:05:40

for National Statistics,

is close to the six-year high

1:05:401:05:42

of 3.1% set in November.

1:05:421:05:52

Most economists were expecting a

small fall to 2.9%.

1:05:541:06:00

South Africa's ruling party has

made an official demand

1:06:001:06:02

for President Jacob Zuma to step

down, after a 13-hour meeting

1:06:021:06:05

with leading figures

from the African National Congress.

1:06:051:06:07

Mr Zuma has been the head

of state since 2009,

1:06:071:06:09

but his time in office has been

overshadowed by

1:06:091:06:11

corruption allegations.

1:06:111:06:12

It is unclear how he will respond

to the formal request to resign.

1:06:121:06:17

A new tool to fight online extremist

1:06:171:06:19

activity is being unveiled

by the Home Secretary

1:06:191:06:22

during a trip to the US.

1:06:221:06:24

It aims to detect content

and remove it instantly.

1:06:241:06:28

Funded with more than

half a million pounds

1:06:281:06:30

of government money,

the tool draws upon a vast

1:06:301:06:32

database of material posted

by the so-called Islamic State.

1:06:321:06:34

The Home Secretary Amber Rudd

will meet with tech companies

1:06:341:06:37

to discuss the software -

as well as other efforts

1:06:371:06:39

to tackle extremism.

1:06:401:06:46

Two teenagers have been arrested

on suspicion of murder

1:06:471:06:49

after a six-week-old baby

died in Southampton.

1:06:491:06:51

Police were called to

a home in Defender Road

1:06:511:06:54

in Peartree on Sunday after reports

of a baby boy needing

1:06:541:06:57

medical attention.

1:06:571:07:00

The child was taken

to Southampton General Hospital

1:07:001:07:02

where he was pronounced dead

a short time later.

1:07:021:07:04

An 18-year-old woman

and a 16-year-old boy were arrested

1:07:041:07:06

and are being held in custody.

1:07:061:07:12

That's a summary of the latest BBC

News - more at 10.30.

1:07:131:07:16

Before the sports news -

let me show you this video

1:07:201:07:25

from Robotics company

Boston Dynamics

1:07:251:07:31

Have a look at this any moment now.

It's coming...

1:07:321:07:36

I find that rather sinister, I don't

know why. Weird! The robots are

1:08:111:08:17

Illya going to take over the world,

quite a few of you pointing out the

1:08:171:08:24

similarity to that dog and the one

in the episode of black murder. --

1:08:241:08:31

robots are really going to take over

the world.

1:08:311:08:33

Here's some sport now with Holly.

1:08:331:08:39

Elise Christie has been competing in

short track speed skating, the

1:08:391:08:45

quarterfinal, David Ornstein is our

correspondent in Pyeongchang. A

1:08:451:08:48

great result, we've then watching

it, tell us what happened.

Good news

1:08:481:08:55

for Team GB and Elise Christie,

safely through to the semifinals of

1:08:551:09:00

the 500 metre short track speed

skating. This was the first event

1:09:001:09:04

she raced in in Sochi four years ago

and that was the start of the

1:09:041:09:10

disaster, she won silver in the 500

metres but later disqualified, the

1:09:101:09:16

first of three disqualifications in

all her events, she ended up

1:09:161:09:20

receiving death threats from South

Koreans having taken up one of their

1:09:201:09:24

athletes and we hear that thing you

Olympic record for her in the

1:09:241:09:27

quarterfinal, she did not lead from

the front but got herself out top

1:09:271:09:31

and won comfortably in a new Olympic

record. She's the world

1:09:311:09:36

record-holder espied this is not

being her favourite event, but as

1:09:361:09:40

the 1000 metres, her final event and

she races in the 1500 bidders before

1:09:401:09:46

then. The semifinal will be at 11am

UK time and the final just after 12

1:09:461:09:54

noon UK time, looking good for Elise

Christie and Team GB as they search

1:09:541:09:59

for the first gold medal at these

Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, the

1:09:591:10:02

first medal at all, I should say.

Absolutely, David, she looks well on

1:10:021:10:08

track, we will keep across that and

thank you for the moment. As David

1:10:081:10:12

said shortly after 11am the

semifinals. England's up of reaching

1:10:121:10:19

the G20 tri- Nations final and by a

thread after they were beaten by New

1:10:191:10:23

Zealand in Wellington. New Zealand

put into bat, Martyn Williams and

1:10:231:10:29

Kane Williamson in control. Regular

wickets saw England fall short of

1:10:291:10:35

the New Zealand total of 196. It

means they lost all three in the

1:10:351:10:41

tri- series and need Australia to

beat New Zealand in their next game

1:10:411:10:44

to stand any chance of making the

final. Antonio Conte has praised the

1:10:441:10:50

club's fans for sticking by him

after a comfortable win over West

1:10:501:10:56

Brom last night. Eden Hazard scored

twice in the 3-0 victory at Stamford

1:10:561:11:00

Bridge, a resort that eases the

pressure on the manager after two

1:11:001:11:04

successive losses to Bournemouth and

Watford, putting them back in the

1:11:041:11:09

top four, a point above Tottenham.

It has all been happening Victoria,

1:11:091:11:13

we will keep across the action from

Pyeongchang online and on BBC Radio

1:11:131:11:20

5 Live, and we will keep you abreast

of Elise Christie's progress as she

1:11:201:11:24

continues after 11am.

Thank you.

Good morning, it's Tuesday morning,

1:11:241:11:31

welcome to the programme.

1:11:311:11:32

The Commonwealth has secretly begun

considering who might succeed

1:11:321:11:34

the Queen as its head.

1:11:341:11:36

The role isn't hereditary

and so won't automatically pass

1:11:361:11:38

to the Prince of Wales

on the Queen's death.

1:11:381:11:40

At the moment there is no formal

process for deciding her successor

1:11:401:11:43

and that's what is being

discussed right now.

1:11:431:11:45

As you'd expect it's highly

sensitive and shrouded in secrecy.

1:11:451:11:48

Joining me now is Dr Elena

Woodacre who is a senior

1:11:481:11:50

lecturer in Modern European History,

at Winchester University

1:11:501:11:58

Hello to you and tell our audience

what is going on and five.

Good

1:11:581:12:02

morning, Victoria. There's been a

lot of speculation, the Queen

1:12:021:12:06

getting older, increasing discussion

about the future of the monarchy and

1:12:061:12:09

in this case the future of the

Commonwealth. I think it's important

1:12:091:12:14

to recognise obviously this is

speculation, we don't know exactly

1:12:141:12:18

what they are discussing but in some

ways it is only ride the

1:12:181:12:21

Commonwealth considers its future

generally. I think we can see the

1:12:211:12:25

Queen has been for some time

preparing Prince Charles for this

1:12:251:12:28

role he has been really engaged with

visits to the Commonwealth,

1:12:281:12:33

particularly from 97 onwards,

visited over body Commonwealth

1:12:331:12:35

countries and he's been very clear

he believes the Commonwealth is a

1:12:351:12:40

force for the future, particularly

solving global issues and problems.

1:12:401:12:46

I think that trajectory has been set

to some extent but obviously it's up

1:12:461:12:51

to the Commonwealth to decide what

happens going forward. As you

1:12:511:12:55

rightly noted Charles position as

the head of the Commonwealth is not

1:12:551:12:58

tied to his position as the

successor to the Crown.

Why isn't it

1:12:581:13:04

an hereditary position?

I think it's

because of the nature of the

1:13:041:13:08

Commonwealth, the Commonwealth was

set up in 1949, it has changed over

1:13:081:13:13

time, it has grown but obviously

it's something very much tied to,

1:13:131:13:18

the timing of when it was created,

it was dominated either Queen's rain

1:13:181:13:22

and in many ways we have mentally

associated the two is being linked

1:13:221:13:27

and they are to some extent. But

strictly speaking, the two rules are

1:13:271:13:32

separate.

2.4 billion people live in

Commonwealth countries, many

1:13:321:13:40

speaking English, could member

states choose absolutely anyone as

1:13:401:13:43

there a ceremonial leader?

I think

the absolutely anyone is probably

1:13:431:13:47

going a bit far. I think likely it

will be someone from from a major

1:13:471:13:54

Commonwealth nations, perhaps a

former President or Prime Minister,

1:13:541:13:58

one of the key nations but I think

it very likely that Prince Charles.

1:13:581:14:04

Into this role. It's not a dead cert

but again we can see that the Queen

1:14:041:14:08

and Prince Charles have the very

much preparing him for that position

1:14:081:14:11

and I think the Commonwealth

certainly is very familiar with

1:14:111:14:16

Prince Charles because of this deep

engagement with them, his attendance

1:14:161:14:22

at Commonwealth meetings,

representing the Queen before in

1:14:221:14:25

2013, I think it feels like a

natural progression stepping into

1:14:251:14:29

the role but in theory they could

take almost anyone.

Thank you very

1:14:291:14:38

much, almost anyone.

Thank you for

having me.

1:14:381:14:45

Jacob Zuma has been president

of South Africa for nine years.

1:14:451:14:47

And according to his critics -

nine years of corruption that has

1:14:471:14:50

seen the poorest grow poorer

and the ruling elite prosper.

1:14:501:14:53

Overnight the party that put him

in power finally decided

1:14:531:14:55

that his reign is over and voted

to formally ask him to resign -

1:14:551:14:58

known as to "recall" him.

1:14:591:15:00

The President is still refusing

to go and if he hasn't

1:15:001:15:02

changed his mind by next Thursday

he will be forced out by a vote

1:15:021:15:06

in the South African parliament.

1:15:061:15:12

We can speak now to Toby Shapshak

a Journalist and writer

1:15:121:15:19

who has been a fierce

critic of Jacob Zuma.

1:15:191:15:25

It would seem he is a survivor, but

do you think this is definitely get?

1:15:251:15:30

Definitely. We have lived through

nine very lean years of a corrupt

1:15:301:15:36

era. Remember, he was facing 783

charges of fraud corruption and

1:15:361:15:42

racketeering before he became

president. And through nifty work he

1:15:421:15:47

managed to get those charges thrown

out. They have since been reinstated

1:15:471:15:50

by the highest court in the land.

The same constitutional court found

1:15:501:15:54

him not -- found him guilty of

breaking the constitution. He was

1:15:541:16:03

deeply flawed before he became

president. He was never able to

1:16:031:16:07

balance his cheque-book. His

personal financial adviser was found

1:16:071:16:11

guilty of corruption. He was meant

to be charged with these 783 counts.

1:16:111:16:16

Through a very long legal process,

the opposition parties and a bunch

1:16:161:16:22

of other civic organisations have

had these charges reinstated. In the

1:16:221:16:27

meantime even more Das to the

stories of corruption have come up.

1:16:271:16:33

-- even more stories of corruption

have come up. There is a family that

1:16:331:16:41

has interesting business, mining, TV

stations, newspapers, they've been

1:16:411:16:44

implicated in a range of what we

call state capture, which is

1:16:441:16:48

corruption. Jacob Zuma is extremely

tarnished. What has happened is that

1:16:481:16:53

every five years the African

National Congress, the ruling party,

1:16:531:16:59

have their internal meetings and

conferences. They have elected a new

1:16:591:17:05

leader, their own president, and he

has given Jacob Zuma the ultimatum

1:17:051:17:12

that he needs to resign or they will

recall him. The problem with the

1:17:121:17:19

recall is that Jacob Zuma, as soon

as he came into power, he recalled

1:17:191:17:23

his predecessor. He doesn't want to

be seen -- South Africa doesn't be

1:17:231:17:30

seen to recall all of their past

presidents, but that's the case.

1:17:301:17:33

Jacob Zuma is a profoundly guilty

man. The evidence is in black and

1:17:331:17:37

white.

This hanging on, which he is

currently doing, is he,

1:17:371:17:43

behind-the-scenes, trying to come up

with some sort of deal so he faces

1:17:431:17:46

fewer charges, no charges, what?

He

has been negotiating for a variety

1:17:461:17:50

of deals. None of which we

understand he will be offered. He

1:17:501:17:57

has been asking for an amnesty

agreement. In South Africa you

1:17:571:18:01

cannot get one until you have

committed a crime. There is a real

1:18:011:18:07

baying for his blood. He's been at

the centre of all of this corruption

1:18:071:18:11

and state capture and somebody want

to see -- and everybody was to see

1:18:111:18:15

somebody charged. But he would need

a witness and he would turn on his

1:18:151:18:21

son. There's a lot going on in the

background. But it is almost

1:18:211:18:26

certain. The decision we understand

from the sources within the ANC is

1:18:261:18:30

that he has been told to step down.

In Jacob Zuma's mind he's done

1:18:301:18:34

nothing wrong, he's behaved with

impunity, this isn't out of

1:18:341:18:40

character, he is just completely

failed to see that the tie is to him

1:18:401:18:44

and his time is over.

Thanks very

much for talking to us.

1:18:441:18:55

Still to come:

1:18:551:19:01

Oxfam is facing a statutory

1:19:011:19:02

inquiry in the sex scandal

involving its workers in Haiti.

1:19:021:19:04

We'll hear from a woman who worked

in the country in the aftermath

1:19:041:19:07

of the 2010 earthquake.

1:19:071:19:08

This morning we've been asking why

men are seven and a half times

1:19:081:19:11

more likely to be gambling

addicts than women.

1:19:111:19:13

Our reporter Chris Hemmings has

been trying to find out.

1:19:131:19:16

We bought you his full

report earlier - here's

1:19:161:19:18

a short extract.

1:19:181:19:22

It is now thought that 430,000

problem gamblers are in Britain,

1:19:221:19:27

with as many as 2 million at risk of

developing a problem. There is

1:19:271:19:32

hardly no difference between the

genders when it comes to gambling,

1:19:321:19:39

but the addictiveness is the

difference, if you are an annual

1:19:391:19:45

seven and a half times more likely

to become a problem gambler. What is

1:19:451:19:49

it about men that makes us more

susceptible to gambling? -- if you

1:19:491:19:52

are male you are seven and a half

times more likely to become a

1:19:521:19:57

problem gambler. I met Matt who has

lost nearly £30,000 on gambling.

It

1:19:571:20:02

started with betting on football. It

got more and more out of hand. I

1:20:021:20:07

think it is a lad culture thing. You

cannot go to the pub on a Saturday

1:20:071:20:11

afternoon without the football on

the TV. Then there is adverts that

1:20:111:20:16

come on and you get the urge to have

a bet on the football.

Think fast,

1:20:161:20:25

act fast to come in play!

This

programme watched 25 live football

1:20:251:20:30

games last October. Of the more than

1300 adverts in the games, more than

1:20:301:20:36

a fifth were for gambling. Doctor

Robert has been helping people with

1:20:361:20:41

their addictions for over 30 years.

As a gambling addict himself he has

1:20:411:20:46

a rare insight into the mind of a

problem gambler. What is it that

1:20:461:20:51

draws men into gambling?

Men tend to

be hedonistic, yeah, let's go for

1:20:511:20:56

it! That characteristic seems to be

macho, or a real man. Generally men

1:20:561:21:06

are greater risk takers than women.

They tend to be rather proud of it.

1:21:061:21:10

I used to post on how much I lost. I

lost three months' income on the

1:21:101:21:16

turn of a card in a poker game. This

isn't something I should be proud

1:21:161:21:20

of, but on a gambler, I'm a real

gambler. You see comments like the

1:21:201:21:24

fishermen boasting about the one

that got away.

Experts have said

1:21:241:21:31

that not a lot of research has been

done on the biological differences

1:21:311:21:34

between the sexes, but there are

theories as to why men don't have a

1:21:341:21:42

problem with chasing their losses.

We made a trial where people have to

1:21:421:21:46

blow up a balloon. They see a

balloon and they are asked would you

1:21:461:21:50

like to inflate it to be larger, or

would you like to cash out and get

1:21:501:21:54

the money. You get more money when

the balloon is bigger, but with

1:21:541:22:01

every press of a button the balloon

could pop. Men were significantly

1:22:011:22:06

more risky. Women were more

Conservative. They were more likely

1:22:061:22:10

to cash out their balloons. Men were

more likely to take the risk.

Do you

1:22:101:22:18

see a correlation between what you

have found and the fact that there

1:22:181:22:21

are seemingly more men who are

problem gamblers?

Somebody gets into

1:22:211:22:25

gambling, they might get into

trouble, get into debt, that leads

1:22:251:22:28

to stress. What they are looking for

is the solution, this risky outcome

1:22:281:22:32

where they could get a big reward,

and that really isn't very helpful,

1:22:321:22:39

but that's what is driving their

behaviour.

1:22:391:22:47

We can talk now to

Mark Potter - he's from

1:22:471:22:49

Epic Risk Management; they work

1:22:491:22:51

in areas with problem gambling -

like professional sports

1:22:511:22:53

as well as in the finacial services

sector and they go into schools too

1:22:531:22:56

- he's a former addict himself.

1:22:561:23:03

Adam Bradford is Gambling

campaigner whose father

1:23:031:23:09

Adam Bradford is Gambling campaigner

whose father David lost over

1:23:101:23:12

£500,000 to gambling.

1:23:121:23:15

Annika Lindberg

- a chartered psychologist

1:23:151:23:18

specializing in gambling

1:23:181:23:19

addiction.

1:23:191:23:22

Let's start with your own

story tell me about your

1:23:221:23:25

issues with gambling.

1:23:261:23:30

I was playing competitive sport. I

got an injury. As a way to pass the

1:23:301:23:34

time, handled the boredom, I was

placing small bets.

How much?

£5,

1:23:341:23:43

£10, but pretty quickly I had a

large win of £11,000. After that my

1:23:431:23:51

stakes dramatically increased. But

then I couldn't go back to placing

1:23:511:23:58

smaller stakes. And it got more and

more, to the extent where ten years

1:23:581:24:06

later when I eventually stopped I

stole money from my employer. I was

1:24:061:24:11

pretty close to going to prison for

fraud. And eventually in 2012 I went

1:24:111:24:19

to a clinic, run by Tony Adams,

things have improved quite a lot,

1:24:191:24:24

and I have managed to keep some

money in my pocket.

Is there

1:24:241:24:28

something about the fact that you

are a bloke so you are more

1:24:281:24:32

susceptible to problem gambling?

I

would say so. I would say men

1:24:321:24:39

generally take more risks.

Especially being a sportsman, the

1:24:391:24:42

sort of competitive nature of that

very much mirrors gambling, in which

1:24:421:24:49

the ups and downs of winning and

losing, highs and lows, are very

1:24:491:24:52

much the same as winning the big bet

and the downers of having a few

1:24:521:24:59

weeks when you are losing and

chasing your tail. Generally women

1:24:591:25:06

haven't been big into going into

high street bookmakers.

But you

1:25:061:25:10

don't need to any more.

Exactly. So

you will find that there are more

1:25:101:25:15

women becoming problematic gamblers

now compared with ten years ago. I

1:25:151:25:18

would say these statistics about

seven and a half times more likely

1:25:181:25:23

for men, I think that will change.

Do you think that's right?

1:25:231:25:28

Presumably it is mostly men that you

treat, but do you think the gap will

1:25:281:25:34

narrow?

It is mainly men. But I

think the gap will narrow. In recent

1:25:341:25:40

years I think the advertising is

gearing itself more towards women,

1:25:401:25:44

as well. So, making adverts for

online gambling a bit more colourful

1:25:441:25:49

and attractive and things like that.

I think that women, maybe even young

1:25:491:25:54

women, are becoming a bit more of a

target group, actually.

In the

1:25:541:25:59

meantime, why are men more

susceptible?

There is something to

1:25:591:26:03

say about the way men are more

likely to take risks. The study was

1:26:031:26:10

interesting which you were just

displaying. The big thing we have

1:26:101:26:16

seen in therapy is that men, you

know, they enjoy the gambling

1:26:161:26:23

experience a lot. When they are

standing in a bookmakers, their

1:26:231:26:28

mates are there. There is a lot of,

you know, companionship, and so on.

1:26:281:26:34

Actually, when you are looking at

people who do sport betting, and so

1:26:341:26:37

on, in the bookmakers, you know,

those...

That's part of the

1:26:371:26:46

experience, being with your mates,

putting on a bet, having a drink.

1:26:461:26:50

Exactly. Classically you don't see

ladies particularly enjoying that

1:26:501:26:54

type of environment. But I would say

that you have to look out the

1:26:541:27:03

function of gambling, what it is for

the person. I won't make over

1:27:031:27:07

generalisations, but a lot of the

women that we treat for gambling

1:27:071:27:13

addiction are usually not enjoying

the experience of the gambling as

1:27:131:27:16

much. However, it's a really nice

little bubble that they are

1:27:161:27:21

enjoying. For example, they might be

having some emotional difficulties,

1:27:211:27:26

they might be having some marital

problems, they might have been

1:27:261:27:29

through some of the crisis, and they

are actually using the gambling as a

1:27:291:27:34

way of zoning out and really going

to their bubble.

Let me bring in

1:27:341:27:37

Adam. Your dad featured in the long

version of our film which we played

1:27:371:27:43

a little earlier. He talked about

the shame involved. Particularly

1:27:431:27:47

because he felt so guilty because he

was the breadwinner. What do you

1:27:471:27:50

think of that?

Is it an interesting

point. If you go back to the history

1:27:501:27:58

of gambling, it all started with

horse racing and sports. It was very

1:27:581:28:04

much exclusive to that. And it was a

very different landscape to how it

1:28:041:28:08

is now. Where my dad found himself,

I think, we are living in a society

1:28:081:28:13

that already has a lot of financial

pressure, career pressure, family

1:28:131:28:17

pressure. Even though he has a good

job he had trouble with his

1:28:171:28:23

finances. He ran into trouble with

gambling. To him it was being

1:28:231:28:28

marketed as this product that was

going to make him a fortune. You had

1:28:281:28:34

thousands of -- he had thousands of

e-mails and text messages telling

1:28:341:28:42

him to spend more because you are

going to be closer to winning every

1:28:421:28:46

single time. Your guest talked about

the adrenaline rush that you get

1:28:461:28:49

while you are in it. From the

outside it can look very delusional.

1:28:491:28:54

But his, kind of, masculinity, you

know, wanting to be the head of the

1:28:541:29:01

family, not wanting to deliver any

kind of bad news, leading to conceal

1:29:011:29:04

that addiction completely from the

family. We never knew until he was

1:29:041:29:08

pretty much on his way to prison

that he had this problem. That it

1:29:081:29:12

had stolen money. He was going to

prison...

Can I ask, in terms of

1:29:121:29:18

your campaign to reduce the harm

gambling can do, you would like a

1:29:181:29:22

complete ban on advertising across

the board, is my understanding.

1:29:221:29:27

What's the influence advertising can

have on an individual when it comes

1:29:271:29:30

to problem gambling?

First, there

hasn't been enough research being

1:29:301:29:37

done on how the pervasiveness of

these adverts has made gambling so

1:29:371:29:44

normalised. Young men, in

particular, he would go to the

1:29:441:29:47

football, go to the races, have much

more time on their smartphones, and

1:29:471:29:52

spent much more time on the

Internet. I think, really, the only

1:29:521:29:56

way that we can prevent people from

being further incentivised by, you

1:29:561:30:01

know, what's already come out as

these free bet adverts that are not

1:30:011:30:04

really free, you know, let's ban

them all. There is never going to be

1:30:041:30:10

a case where doing tiny things to

tighten up the screws is going to be

1:30:101:30:14

enough. Our view is really that the

adverts need to go. And if people

1:30:141:30:18

want to gamble they still can. But

an advert, necessarily for somebody

1:30:181:30:23

who will want to spend the money for

a company will still go and do it. I

1:30:231:30:31

don't think adverts are necessary.

And let's remember, not that long

1:30:311:30:39

ago there weren't any advert on the

gambling industry still seemed to do

1:30:391:30:43

OK.

This message from Mike on

Facebook who worked in the gambling

1:30:431:30:50

industry, betting shops and casinos,

and having an addictive father who

1:30:501:30:54

would beg, borrow, and steal to

gamble. Gambling is an oddity.

1:30:541:30:58

Unlike substance abuse it is

difficult to figure out. I came to

1:30:581:31:02

the conclusion that many addicted

gamblers are people who are losers

1:31:021:31:07

in life or feel unsuccessful, on the

field, and are trying to redress the

1:31:071:31:10

balance somehow by being successful

at something. Does that sound like

1:31:101:31:14

you?

1:31:141:31:19

I think to an extent, yes, everybody

is true different and everybody's

1:31:191:31:26

triggers are different. Our

philosophy is to try and educate as

1:31:261:31:31

many people as possible from an

early age, we go into schools,

1:31:311:31:36

statistically we try and work in

what is the highest prevalence

1:31:361:31:39

sectors for problem gambling,

professional sport is one, financial

1:31:391:31:46

services another, the military,

criminal justice, education, they

1:31:461:31:50

are mainly men as well. So I think

our idea will be that if we can

1:31:501:31:57

educate from an early age around the

dangers of problematic gambling and

1:31:571:32:03

how it can be an issue down the line

people may be able to make informed

1:32:031:32:06

decisions and we can hopefully help

reduce the harm created.

A final

1:32:061:32:11

thought from you, our men less

likely to ask for help when they

1:32:111:32:16

realise the gambling has become an

issue?

Yes, the male pride is an

1:32:161:32:20

obstacle to seeking truth and they

often have an inability to express

1:32:201:32:26

and talk about feelings and so on.

So yes, absolutely and I think women

1:32:261:32:31

who start gambling, they progress a

little bit quicker but also they

1:32:311:32:37

often identify that there is a

problem sooner and you know, the

1:32:371:32:41

imbalance is still there.

All right,

thank you all, thank you very much

1:32:411:32:47

for coming in.

1:32:471:32:52

Breaking news now -

England cricketer Ben Stokes has

1:32:521:32:54

appeared in court and pleaded not

guilty to charges of affray

1:32:541:32:57

following an incident

outside a nightclub.

1:32:571:32:58

We'll hear from our reporter outside

Bristol Magistrates' Court later

1:32:581:33:02

Time for the latest news -

here's Rachel Schofield

1:33:021:33:08

Good morning.

1:33:081:33:10

BBC News has learned

that the Commonwealth has begun

1:33:101:33:12

considering who might succeed

the Queen as the head

1:33:121:33:14

of the organisation.

1:33:141:33:15

Member states could choose anyone

as the ceremonial leader,

1:33:151:33:17

as the role is not hereditary.

1:33:171:33:19

The BBC has been told 53 member

states have established a high level

1:33:191:33:22

group of independent figures to look

at the way the Commonwealth

1:33:221:33:24

is governed.

1:33:241:33:25

It will meet for the first

time today in London.

1:33:251:33:29

South Africa's ruling party has

made an official demand

1:33:291:33:31

for President Jacob Zuma to step

down, after a 13-hour meeting

1:33:311:33:34

with leading figures

from the African National Congress.

1:33:341:33:37

Mr Zuma has been the head

of state since 2009,

1:33:371:33:39

but his time in office has been

overshadowed by

1:33:391:33:41

corruption allegations.

1:33:411:33:44

It is unclear how he will respond

to the formal request to resign.

1:33:441:33:51

UK consumer price inflation

remained at 3% in January,

1:33:511:33:54

the same level seen in December.

1:33:541:33:58

The rate, reported by the Office

1:33:581:34:00

for National Statistics,

is close to the six-year high

1:34:001:34:02

of 3.1% set in November.

1:34:021:34:05

Most economists were expecting

a small fall in the CPI to 2.9%.

1:34:051:34:14

A new tool to fight online extremist

1:34:141:34:16

activity is being unveiled

by the Home Secretary

1:34:161:34:18

during a trip to the US.

1:34:181:34:19

It aims to detect content

and remove it instantly.

1:34:191:34:23

Funded with more than

half a million pounds

1:34:231:34:25

of government money,

the tool draws upon a vast

1:34:251:34:27

database of material posted

by the so-called Islamic State.

1:34:271:34:31

The Home Secretary Amber Rudd

will meet with tech companies

1:34:311:34:33

to discuss the software -

as well as other efforts

1:34:331:34:35

to tackle extremism.

1:34:351:34:38

Two teenagers have been arrested

on suspicion of murder

1:34:421:34:44

after a six-week-old baby

died in Southampton.

1:34:441:34:46

Police were called to

a home in Defender Road

1:34:461:34:48

in Peartree on Sunday after reports

of a baby boy needing

1:34:481:34:51

medical attention.

1:34:511:34:53

The child was taken

to Southampton General Hospital

1:34:531:34:55

where he was pronounced dead

a short time later.

1:34:551:34:58

An 18-year-old woman

and a 16-year-old boy were arrested

1:34:581:35:00

and are being held in custody.

1:35:011:35:05

British package holiday

companies have started taking

1:35:081:35:10

tourists back to Tunisia -

almost three years since a gunman

1:35:101:35:13

opened fire at a beach

resort killing 38 people.

1:35:131:35:16

30 British holidaymakers were killed

1:35:161:35:17

at the resort in Sousse

in June 2015.

1:35:171:35:21

Until last summer,

the Foreign Office advised

1:35:211:35:23

against travel to Tunisia due

to the high risk of terrorism.

1:35:231:35:29

That's a summary of

the latest BBC News.

1:35:291:35:31

Here's some sport now with Holly.

1:35:341:35:42

Coming up Elise Christie claims a

new Olympic record store ring

1:35:421:35:45

through to the semifinals of the

short track speed skating event.

1:35:451:35:53

That will take place at quarter past

11, the final taking place at 12

1:35:531:36:01

noon. Snowboard sensation Chloe Kim

produced a superb performance to

1:36:011:36:06

take gold in the women's half pipe,

17 years old she took gold with a

1:36:061:36:14

score of 90 a point to 5%, a long

awaited first Olympic gold medal for

1:36:141:36:29

Marcel Hirscher. England beaten by

New Zealand in the Twenty20 tri-

1:36:291:36:32

series, losing by 12 runs in

Wellington, losing all three in the

1:36:321:36:36

tri- series and need Australia to

beat New Zealand in the next game to

1:36:361:36:40

stand any chance of making the

final. We have all the latest from

1:36:401:36:44

Pyeongchang and the semifinal

involving Elise Christie on the BBC

1:36:441:36:47

News Channel throughout the morning.

Holly, thank you.

1:36:471:36:54

Inflation is one of

the most important issues

1:36:541:36:56

in economics and looks at the rate

at which the level of prices

1:36:561:36:59

for goods and services is rising.

1:36:591:37:00

It influences the interest rate

we get on our savings and the rate

1:37:001:37:03

we pay on our mortgages.

1:37:031:37:04

Inflation also affects the level

of pensions and benefits,

1:37:041:37:07

as well as the price

of some train tickets.

1:37:071:37:09

And today it has stayed

at three per cent -

1:37:091:37:11

close to its six year high of three

point one per cent in November -

1:37:111:37:15

and some way off the government's

target of two per cent .

1:37:151:37:24

The Conservative MP

and Financial Secretary

1:37:241:37:26

to the Treasury, Mel Stride,

is in Westminster.

1:37:261:37:30

When is the squeeze on living

standards owing to end?

The OBR

1:37:301:37:36

forecast is that it will decrease

down to the target or around the

1:37:361:37:41

target of 2%, the pressure will

start to come off this year, in

1:37:411:37:45

terms of real wages increasing,

faster than the rate at which prices

1:37:451:37:50

are increasing, we anticipate

kicking in 2019 onwards, we are

1:37:501:37:55

seeing a surge of inflation coming

through at the moment which will

1:37:551:37:58

fade away.

Ayew embarrassed it's

been the worst decade for living

1:37:581:38:02

standards in 200 years?

-- are you

embarrassed? After the crisis of

1:38:021:38:09

2008 and all that crisis brought it

and the level of debt at that time,

1:38:091:38:15

we have reduced the level of deficit

is 0.75 by 20 ten, still a lot more

1:38:151:38:20

to do, it's not surprising it has

been more difficult than it might

1:38:201:38:25

otherwise have been.

You were

supposed to have paid the deficit of

1:38:251:38:29

why now.

We are on target to reach

intermediate target...

No, no, not

1:38:291:38:35

originally, the previous Chancellor

was my target, the deficit would

1:38:351:38:40

have been paid off by now.

We said

in the manifesto reads told the

1:38:401:38:44

electorate in the last election we

would eliminate the deficit by the

1:38:441:38:47

middle of the next decade, that is

the target of the Craig Lee have but

1:38:471:38:51

if I could get back to your point

about living standards which I

1:38:511:38:54

appreciate is extremely important to

many of your viewers, we have done

1:38:541:38:59

what we can within limited resources

to tackle this. For example we

1:38:591:39:05

frozen fuel duty at the time of the

last budget which is worth about

1:39:051:39:09

£800 to the average motorist

converted 2010, we will increase the

1:39:091:39:13

national living wage for the lowest

paid in the country by four points

1:39:131:39:18

4%, we've increased the personal

allowance for income tax, the amount

1:39:181:39:22

you can earn before you pay any tax

at all, we have put that up above

1:39:221:39:26

any rate of inflation, 2-3,000,000

people compared to 2010 not having

1:39:261:39:31

to pay any tax on their income

adult.

You've frozen benefits and

1:39:311:39:37

after the last budget in November

the Resolution Foundation said it

1:39:371:39:41

will result in the poorest third of

households losing around £700 a

1:39:411:39:44

year.

The most disadvantaged, those

with disabilities have not had the

1:39:441:39:50

freeze entirely that you have

referred to but the most important

1:39:501:39:54

thing that we are doing is to get

the fundamentals of the economy

1:39:541:39:58

right, to make sure work pays to

encourage people into work. We have

1:39:581:40:03

a near record in terms of the level

of employment at the moment, more

1:40:031:40:06

women in work than at any time in

our history, the lowest level of

1:40:061:40:11

employment for around 45 years and

as I said at the same time we have

1:40:111:40:14

reduced the deficit by three

quarters since 2010. Sorry, in terms

1:40:141:40:19

of growth... We come into the next

period on the bike of 19 consecutive

1:40:191:40:26

quarters of economic growth, we've

got to keep the economy on the right

1:40:261:40:29

track, that is what this government

has successfully doing. If we were

1:40:291:40:33

to address the precious you are

quite rightly raising and I

1:40:331:40:36

recognise people are facing.

Do you

accept bosses in this country are

1:40:361:40:40

not going to offer higher wage rises

because there is somewhat

1:40:401:40:45

uncertainty around Brexit? And they

want to know if Mrs me has a Brexit

1:40:451:40:51

plan?

We certainly have a plan.

What

is it?

Firstly was to make sure we

1:40:511:40:58

came to an agreement with the EU on

the phase one issues of the amount

1:40:581:41:02

of money we would be paying into the

EU and the Northern Ireland question

1:41:021:41:07

and EU nationals, we reach that

element. -- Mrs May.

What does

1:41:071:41:13

Brexit look like? We don't know yet.

I'm not sure why Mrs May is keeping

1:41:131:41:19

it secret.

I am trying to explain

it. In March we will try to secure

1:41:191:41:25

and into meditation period running

up until 2020 or thereabouts, that

1:41:251:41:30

will provide vital certainty to

businesses and the economy such that

1:41:301:41:34

we can continue to move forward and

then engage in the end state

1:41:341:41:40

negotiations that we will be looking

to conclude some time towards...

So

1:41:401:41:48

for...

It was always going to be

bumpy, I don't think when you leave

1:41:481:41:53

an organisation after all these

years... It was not going to be a

1:41:531:41:57

stroll in the park.

What will

happen?

Exactly what I said, in the

1:41:571:42:02

medium term and implementation

period, we are engaged in

1:42:021:42:05

discussions about that on top that

come the European meetings in March

1:42:051:42:10

we will have secured that which will

give us that vital breathing space

1:42:101:42:14

in which we will continue to trade

on the same terms that we have at

1:42:141:42:19

the moment, the European Union for a

period is business has that

1:42:191:42:23

certainty to invest and to employ

people and this will help clearly

1:42:231:42:27

help, with the pressures on living

standards as well.

I'm sorry, what

1:42:271:42:32

does the plan look like?

The plan is

being negotiated, in other words...

1:42:321:42:39

What is your vision. We want to have

a close economic relationship with

1:42:391:42:43

the European Union, we want to trade

as frictionless borders as we

1:42:431:42:48

possibly can, we had a Customs White

Paper last year looking at the

1:42:481:42:52

various scenarios we would consider

in that aspect and we want to be

1:42:521:42:56

free to have control of our

migration policies and at the same

1:42:561:42:59

time to be going out there as a

globally facing nation doing free

1:42:591:43:05

trade agreements with other

countries around the world so that

1:43:051:43:08

we can further our trade and there

is already evidence for example in

1:43:081:43:11

the economy at the moment, exports

picking up, manufacturing picking

1:43:111:43:15

up, we want to see that continue and

we will do that is striking deals

1:43:151:43:19

with other countries around the

world.

Businesses haven't got a

1:43:191:43:23

clue, they are really hacked off

with you.

I don't think that's true.

1:43:231:43:27

I spoke only a couple of weeks ago

at a business club and there were a

1:43:271:43:32

variety of different businesses

there, or very up and optimistic at

1:43:321:43:36

the moment, their order books are

up, look at manufacturing, eight

1:43:361:43:40

straight month in succession of

growing order books and growing

1:43:401:43:43

output and you haven't had that

since the mid-19 80s. Exports

1:43:431:43:47

rising, the trade deficit narrowing,

there aren't many things that are

1:43:471:43:53

fundamentally right on the economy,

I talked earlier about employment

1:43:531:43:56

levels, below was level of

unemployment for over 40 years, many

1:43:561:44:00

things that are right and I think

businesses generally or in very good

1:44:001:44:03

shape at the moment what they want

from government is to secure the

1:44:031:44:08

demonstration deal as quickly as

possible, to give businesses the

1:44:081:44:16

certainty about the terms of trade

that they are facing going forward

1:44:161:44:20

and I believe that will happen next

month and I think we will see a

1:44:201:44:24

further uptake in business

confidence as a consequence. Thank

1:44:241:44:27

you very much for talking to us.

Thanks Victoria.

The financial

1:44:271:44:32

Secretary to the Treasury.

1:44:321:44:41

The regulator the Charities

Commission has opened

1:44:411:44:42

a statutory inquiry into Oxfam -

the most serious action it can take

1:44:421:44:46

- in response to the sex scandal

involving its aid workers.

1:44:461:44:48

The charity has been accused

of concealing the findings

1:44:481:44:50

of an investigation into the use

of prostitutes by its

1:44:501:44:53

staff in Haiti in 2011.

1:44:531:44:57

Helen Evans told Channel 4 News said

she heard of three new allegations

1:44:571:45:02

of sexual assault in a single day.

There was one of a woman being

1:45:021:45:13

coerced into having sex by an aid

worker.

This was a woman receiving

1:45:131:45:17

Oxfam aid?

Yes. Another case where a

woman had been coerced to have sex

1:45:171:45:23

in exchange for aid. And another one

where it had come to our attention

1:45:231:45:30

that a member of staff had been

struck off for sexual abuse and had

1:45:301:45:35

not disclosed that. We were then

concerned about what he might be

1:45:351:45:37

doing. That was three allegations in

one day.

1:45:371:45:43

Oxfam's deputy chief

executive has resigned over

1:45:431:45:45

the handling of the scandal,

and the charity denies a cover up.

1:45:451:45:48

We can speak now to

Marie-Rose Romain-Murphy,

1:45:481:45:50

who's the president of a Haitian-led

non-profit organisation set up

1:45:501:45:52

in the aftermath of the 2010

earthquake; Alice Evans,

1:45:521:45:55

who's a lecturer in international

development at King's College

1:45:551:45:57

London; and Chloe Setter

is from a charity called Ecpat,

1:45:571:45:59

which campaigns against child

trafficking and prostitution .

1:45:591:46:09

Are paedophiles seeing

charities as a way for them

1:46:111:46:16

to target children?

1:46:161:46:21

Certainly, yes, we have been

monitoring this issue for the past

1:46:211:46:24

25 years. There are situations where

children are extra vulnerable. There

1:46:241:46:29

is often displacement, war, natural

disasters, after these events child

1:46:291:46:36

trafficking increases. We know that

offenders target children who they

1:46:361:46:40

see as more vulnerable in a way they

feel they can operate with more

1:46:401:46:43

impunity. But we also see situation

or offenders. Which we might see in

1:46:431:46:50

these situations. People who would

never consider themselves to be

1:46:501:46:53

offenders. In some situations where

there is chaos, weak and child

1:46:531:46:58

protection systems, and pressures on

those individuals. They feel they

1:46:581:47:02

can act that way. They are almost

operated in a protected microcosm.

1:47:021:47:10

-- operating in.

I wonder what make

from the claims from one of the

1:47:101:47:19

people who worked there. A woman was

coerced into having sex in exchange

1:47:191:47:23

for aid.

That interview was really

troubling. We see this from so many

1:47:231:47:30

organisations. Organisations try to

cover up stories of abuse because

1:47:301:47:32

they are trying to preserve their

good name, preserve public trust,

1:47:321:47:37

secure their ambition for the

greater good. We see this in

1:47:371:47:42

universities, in Parliament, it's

all over, a real scandal.

1:47:421:47:50

Marie-Rose, how angry

are you about what Oxfam

1:47:501:47:53

officials did in Haiti

after the earthquake?

1:47:531:47:58

I'm not happy about it. That is a

mild way of putting it. On the other

1:47:581:48:03

hand I have is to tell you come

Oxfam is taking a beating right now,

1:48:031:48:07

but I think I want everyone to step

back and look at the fact that this

1:48:071:48:12

is a systemic issue. -- I have to

tell you, Oxfam is taking a beating

1:48:121:48:20

right now.

Is it wider than Oxfam?

Yes. It is to do with imbalance of

1:48:201:48:29

power, which leads to abuse of

power. These organisations, you have

1:48:291:48:34

a context in Haiti which is

dominated and controlled by very

1:48:341:48:43

large international organisations.

They very often come. They have a

1:48:431:48:48

Budget that is much larger than many

state agencies. They also have

1:48:481:48:53

political connections. So they come

and they have an awful lot of power.

1:48:531:49:06

Let me ask Alice, Alice, how does

this sector need to be monitored and

1:49:061:49:09

cleaned up?

The Minister for

National in development, --

1:49:091:49:15

International development, Penny

Mordaunt, put out a press release

1:49:151:49:18

saying we need external independent

review. Trouble is, no organisation,

1:49:181:49:22

whether it is the Labour Party, the

Catholic Church, my university, they

1:49:221:49:29

cannot do this because it would

quash their name. We need a well

1:49:291:49:33

funded public body that investigate

abuse across all organisations. This

1:49:331:49:39

is about organisations preserving

their good name and we need that

1:49:391:49:41

independent review. The Minister

also said the UK will be leading a

1:49:411:49:46

summit on this. I am delighted to

see that there will be UK leadership

1:49:461:49:50

addressing this global issue.

The

stretch from the British Government

1:49:501:49:53

and the EU to withhold money from

Oxfam is -- if it doesn't sort this

1:49:531:49:58

out, that's fair, isn't it?

I cannot

comment. Oxfam does a lot of great

1:49:581:50:03

work. We need to focus on the

victims and potential victims. What

1:50:031:50:08

mechanisms are there for them to

step out -- speak out and report

1:50:081:50:12

what has happened to them. What's

been done in terms of police

1:50:121:50:16

investigations. We have the

legislation for British people who

1:50:161:50:28

commit these sexual crimes abroad.

We want a cutdown across the sector.

1:50:281:50:32

It is not just about charities, it's

about businesses, it's about all

1:50:321:50:37

parts of life where we know child

abuse is happening. This is endemic

1:50:371:50:40

in our society.

Thank you very much.

1:50:401:50:46

The UK government has unveiled

a tool it says can accurately detect

1:50:461:50:49

jihadist content and block it

from being viewed.

1:50:491:50:51

Our reporter Chris Foxx has been

talking to the people

1:50:511:50:53

who developed it.

1:50:541:50:57

What we have here is an example of

our algorithm running in practice.

1:51:271:51:33

We have tee videos. One is

legitimate news content. The other

1:51:331:51:36

is terrorist propaganda. -- two

videos. Down the bottom we have our

1:51:361:51:42

algorithm running. We can see it is

flooding this one as very low

1:51:421:51:48

probability of being terrorist

propaganda, and this one as being

1:51:481:51:51

much higher. You can use this when

anybody clicks to upload a video and

1:51:511:51:55

flag this video for review and let

this one through without any

1:51:551:51:59

problem.

They're big tech giants

trying to create similar algorithms

1:51:591:52:03

with a lot more money and they have

had more time. They haven't been

1:52:031:52:07

able to crack it completely. Why do

you have more confident in what you

1:52:071:52:10

have developed?

Nobody knows what

the tech giants are doing

1:52:101:52:15

internally. Google misses the point.

These videos are on the Internet

1:52:151:52:19

right now. Over 1000 different

videos on over 400 different

1:52:191:52:24

platforms. If Google and Facebook

were to solve this problem overnight

1:52:241:52:28

it would simply move it to the

smaller platforms. What we need to

1:52:281:52:32

do is make the AI expertise

available to these other smaller

1:52:321:52:37

platforms. That is what we are

hoping to do with this work.

You

1:52:371:52:40

haven't been able to show the

algorithm working life today, why is

1:52:401:52:45

that?

There is a sensible level of

caution around making sure it is as

1:52:451:52:50

hard as possible for them.

We cannot

go into detail on into how it works,

1:52:501:53:01

is that because the things they are

looking for are easy to defeat?

We

1:53:011:53:05

want to be careful about talking

about the intricate details of the

1:53:051:53:08

algorithm. It has been designed to

be as robust as possible.

It might

1:53:081:53:17

just push them underground, onto the

dark web, are you worried about

1:53:171:53:20

that?

What we are looking to do is

to move this content from the public

1:53:201:53:25

web. If it requires somebody to have

ten passwords, and incredibly

1:53:251:53:32

complicated browser before they can

get access to content, we see that

1:53:321:53:36

as a victory. It means it cannot be

shared between friends on their

1:53:361:53:41

mobile phones and just accessed with

an Internet browser. We see this as

1:53:411:53:47

an incredibly positive feature, if

it gets pushed into more and more

1:53:471:53:50

inaccessible places.

1:53:501:53:56

Tour operator Thomas Cook

is taking British tourists back

1:53:561:54:01

to Tunisia this week for the first

time since an ISIS gunman

1:54:011:54:04

massacred 38 people -

30 of them British -

1:54:041:54:06

on a beach in Sousse in 2015.

1:54:061:54:08

Until last summer,

the Foreign Office advised

1:54:081:54:09

against travel there due to the high

risk of terrorism.

1:54:091:54:19

We can speak now to Allen Pembroke -

1:54:201:54:22

who ran back to the location

of the attack after first

1:54:221:54:25

getting his wife to safety,

Michelle Turner in Bangor

1:54:251:54:30

who has booked a holiday to Tunisia,

and Raouf Jaiem, a tour

1:54:301:54:33

operator in Sousse.

1:54:331:54:34

You are on the beach, you heard the

gunshots, you saw the gunman, you

1:54:341:54:38

grab your wife and ran to your

hotel. What has that experience done

1:54:381:54:42

to you, would you say?

It was

traumatic. After taking my wife back

1:54:421:54:50

I went back to the beach to help the

victims. What I saw and experienced

1:54:501:54:56

was, honestly, horrific. I did

manage to save the life of one lady.

1:54:561:55:05

Seeing those images, the horror, the

gunshots, it was just a horrific

1:55:051:55:11

personal experience.

What do you

think about the news Thomas Cook is

1:55:111:55:16

taking British tourists back there?

I appreciate their commercial

1:55:161:55:23

concern. Tourism is important to the

Tunisian Government. And holiday

1:55:231:55:26

operators. From my own perspective,

certainly more should have been done

1:55:261:55:35

to protect the holiday-makers at

that time. They were aware of

1:55:351:55:38

previous incidents.

Michelle, did

you have any reservations about

1:55:381:55:45

booking a holiday to Tunisia

1:55:451:55:49

-- holiday to Tunisia?

Not at all.

The Tunisian people are fantastic

1:55:531:55:58

people and I cannot wait.

You had a

friend there at the time of the

1:55:581:56:03

shooting.

Yes.

Why hasn't that are

not influenced you in terms of

1:56:031:56:08

staying away?

-- why has that not

influenced you. There haven't been

1:56:081:56:16

any other incidents since. That is

why I want to go back. The Tunisian

1:56:161:56:20

people are so friendly, so nice,

they do not deserve this. Thank you

1:56:201:56:30

for talking to us, Raouf, why should

people visit?

The British tourist

1:56:301:56:42

has been, for a very long time,

visiting Tunisia. More than 50

1:56:421:56:47

years. We like, as professionals,

the British clientele, because they

1:56:471:57:02

are nice, because they come almost

all year round. So we are really

1:57:021:57:10

happy.

How important is British

tourism for your country's economy

1:57:101:57:18

happy.

How important is British

tourism for your country's economy?

1:57:181:57:20

It is very important. The British

used to be, just in 2014, there were

1:57:201:57:31

more than 400,000 British guests

coming to Tunisia. Now that they

1:57:311:57:40

have decided to come back. The first

flight are starting today with

1:57:401:57:46

Thomas Cook. I can tell you that

today, just at the start, close to

1:57:461:57:55

17,000 bookings have been made for

this summer. And on top of that,

1:57:551:58:01

Thompson with TUI is starting in

May. What can I say? I'm really

1:58:011:58:10

pleased. I'm sure the flights will

be full all the season.

Thank you

1:58:101:58:17

very much, Raouf and Alan and

Michelle, thank you your time.

1:58:171:58:32

That's all for

1:58:331:58:33