05/03/2016 Witness


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Hello and welcome to Witness. I am back at the British library in


London, with more remarkable insights into history from the


people who were there. This month, we will hear from the Filipino


novelist who took part in the uprising against the notorious


Marcos regime. A survivor of the attack on Pearl Harbor. And the


first woman chess player to humble the world champion. But first, it is


20 years this month since Serb forces retreated from the Bosnian


capital, Syriza. Ending the longest siege in history -- Sarajevo. Heavy


bombardment in salary a vote as forces defended their positions


against attacks from the Serb army. I grew up in war, overcame what I am


today during the wartime. When the siege started in 1992I was 16,


living with my mother, my brother and my grandmother. We lived in the


centre of Sarajevo. It was a battle to survive. We would get


humanitarian aid, mostly macaroni, some rice. Sometimes we got American


army lunchboxes that would contain a meal, enough for one soldier. But my


mother would spread it to four people for two days. The airlift was


what was feeding us. Each day, in order to get to work, I would have


to cross a bridge, and that bridge was extremely dangerous because it


is very open to a hill, and a particular spot on that hill where


the sniper was. Each morning, you would have to cross a bridge,


knowing that you might be watched by a sniper person on the hill. And at


some point, there was this guy with the camera who appeared out of


nowhere. First morning we were crossing the bridge and we didn't


really see him until the point that we stepped on the bridge, then we


saw him get out and prepare his camera. Then we realised he was


waiting for one of us to get shot. We felt like we were watched, and


everybody is watching these terribly bitches, but just watching them and


doing nothing about it. -- terrible images. I thought I would live in


war, my children would live in war, there would be no one left and we


would all die. But in 1995 real felt it was coming an end. Then it became


really scared, because not only did I know what shrapnel can do to you,


but also because I didn't want to be the one who dies at the end of the


war. That is just irony, you know. If I was going to die should have


died in 1992, not 1995. I expected to have an official announcement or


something like that that the war was over. I expected liberators to come


to the city. I expected there to be a huge joy and celebration and


everything, and... It was just... It was quiet. I expected that people


will live finally the lives that we deserve as someone who went through


the siege and terrible war with so many atrocities, so many massacres.


Very often I remember people that are not here any more, and very


often I asked myself why. She is now a successful actress. Next, to the


Philippines. A country dominated for decades by Ferdinand Marcos and his


wife in Melbourne. In February 1986, they were brought down by a wave of


popular protests. One writer was one of hundreds of thousands who took to


the streets. At the beginning, it sounded like it was a military coup


or uprising. We began asking ourselves if we should go out there


and support that uprising. For that instant, people were of one mind.


Get Marcos out whatever it takes. We had been under martial law for 14


years, and people in a way had got used to martial law. President


Marcos and his wife in ruled together, very dark and Krul


dictatorship. -- cruel. When Marcos cheated his opposition out of the


presidency, it led to a massive protest revoke of the few military


officers who could no longer take Marcos and his men. The people came


out and protected the rebel army. It was like a huge picnic, actually. I


was there with my wife, I was there with our daughter, taking a gamble


on freedom. We found our voices, we found the courage that had preceded


too far in many of us. But we know that on the periphery of this


movement, where Marcos's mass forces, who wouldn't at one command


descend on us, it was the people you least expected, the nuns and


priests, women, who took to the forefront. They met the soldiers and


attack commanders with food and flowers. We were out on the street


and there was a sniper up in one of the towers firing down, but not


really at people but on the street. People would scatter and then


nervous laughter would be heard, and then we would slowly, giggling,


crawl back to our previous position. No Filipino really wanted to kill a


fellow Filipino. It just wasn't worth it. Marcos wasn't worth it.


Defections took place by the minute by the Tower. -- hour. Then in the


space of four days Marcos would be gone. 1-off generals has given me


the first formal confirmation. Has he left the country? I don't know,


but he is no longer there. The nation just exploded in euphoria.


Yet it made me feel myself worth again as Filipino citizen, but I had


something more to live for. But for myself and my family and my country.


Jose Dalisay, who went on to become one of the most acclaimed authors in


the Philippines. Now, in the course of history, wars have broken out


over many things. Including fish. In the 1970s, Britain and Iceland fell


out so badly overfished stocks in the North Sea that there were years


of military stand-offs. Witness went to meet Tom Watson, a veteran of the


so-called cod wars. Jedinak it was a sort of David versus Goliath


confrontation. The British fishing fleet was the biggest in the world,


and if we lost the Icelandic fishing ground, it was a major loss to the


British fishing effort. You could make something of yourself, you


could earn a lot of money. It was a tough job, it was very difficult


because you are away from home a lot. The so-called cod wars were a


dispute between the British government and the Icelandic


government on the right to fish around Iceland. And how many fish we


could catch. The Icelandic government wanted to take control of


the waters out to 50 miles. The British government said they weren't


entitled to that. It was a bit of a joke at first, light-hearted, with


them coming along and telling us we couldn't fish there and we would


move, and we would say thank you very much and carry on fishing. It


gradually got worse and worse, with the Icelandic people getting more


insistent. Then they developed a technique for cutting the fishing


gear away, which created quite a problem, because once we lost our


fishing gear, we lost our livelihood. And we finished up with


a confrontation escalating out of control, and we have several


instances where there was quite severe confrontations between the


fishermen and the Icelandic coastguard. When we were kids will


have members of the family who were fishermen. During the summer


holidays we would go off to Iceland. I first went on I was ten, so did


everyone else. In my class at school. We would go off on board a


fishing boat to Iceland, every year. It seemed it was like the national


progression to then join the fishing industry, and we left school at 15


and joined. I first became a skipper when I was 23. He was the mother,


the father, the doctor, the priest, everything. Everything that happened


on board he was responsible for. Each time the weather became


reasonable, and Icelandic boat would be among the fleet. They were


purposely show that he had his cutter, and he would go across and


cut it. We developed what we hoped was a deterrent. We would release


the rope when he went across the gear, and it would get caught up in


their propeller and they would come to stop. We always hoping that the


British government would come to some kind of an agreement, because


there were about half a dozen of us left, and a gunboat ordered us off.


We felt a bit sad, a bit bitter, unsure of what would happen, and we


came away with nothing. No right to fish Iceland, no quotas, the British


government had promised they would look after us and they didn't. We


were humiliated. If you sat a group of fishermen around the table with


the Icelandic government, they would have had an agreement within about


ten minutes. I never used to bother early on, because I was looking for


new opportunities. But when I sit back and look at it now I feel


bitter about the way we were cast aside. North Sea fishermen Tom


Watson. Remember, you can watch Witness every month here on the BBC


News channel, or you can catch up on over a thousand radio programmes in


our online archive. Let's move now to the highbrow world


of international chess. Chess was very much a man's game until the


emergence of Hungarian prodigy. She's been telling Witness about the


day she beat the world champion Garry Kasparov. In my life it was


very important that my parents put the goals at the highest, that I


should challenge Garry Kasparov and Bebe world champion. My father had a


very special idea, the way he wanted to raise his kids. He believed it


would be the best if we were homeschooled but much more focusing


on a daily basis on playing chess. I have a middle sister, she's seven


years older than I am, and I have another sister, Sophia. I was about


five years old when I started to play chess. It was very clear that I


am talented, I've played good. I started to play against adults from


a very young age, practically from the very beginning. Judit from


Budapest was up against Israeli grandmaster, needing just a draw to


win the whole tournament, she easily took the title. I was the only girl


player most of the time already in those competitions. It was difficult


for me to get used to the fact that I am playing alone with all those


guys. Kasparov was the world champion already in 1988 when I met


him. He was watching my game, that's what I heard from other people,


that's what they were telling me, and it gave me a lot of inspiration,


already he looked at what's going on. When will there be a woman world


champion? Maybe she's sitting next to me. I was training daily many


hours and I made a lot of efforts and everything in order that I get


into the top elite between the male players.


I played Garry Kasparov starting from 1994 on many different


occasions. It was a very special psychological match with Kasparov


for many, many years. I sit down at a table, I had all the respect to


him, he's the world champion. And somehow you don't have the


self-confidence, the knowledge. He has this appearance that you should


know already before the game that who wins the game, right?


It was Russia against the rest of the world. I was part of the rest of


the world team. Somehow he chose a very bad opening, I think. It was


the Beryl in defence and I took my chances, I played a solid game and


he made a few mistakes and I took advantage of them. He conceded very


well, his body language, his movements, he's shaking his head,


holding his head. Of course, I saw it on the board what's going on.


When he resigned it was very clear that it doesn't make any sense to


play longer. He was very much annoyed that he didn't give a great


fight. It was kind of an historical moment that I won finally a game


against Garry Kasparov. It was very special. Judit Polgar there, talking


to Witness at her home in Budapest. And finally, to 1941 and the


devastating Japanese attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor. Our


last Witness is Adolphe Kuhn, who is advised the raid that brought


America into World War Two. December the seventh, 1941, a date which will


live in infamy. The United States of America was suddenly and


deliberately attacked. Everywhere you looked bonds were coming down.


All around you you could hear the explosions on different ships. It


was a nightmare. Japan had it all figured out. They knew when to hit


and that's why they picked Sunday because Sunday was church day and


fun day. The day of Pearl Harbor, I was 19 years old, I was on my way to


church that morning. Two sailors came along in a model a row for and


they said get in, we're at war, and they started heading towards the


Pearl Harbor Navy base -- a road for. All around the little car, not


a bullet hit us. Oh, God, they were so close. The landing gear was


touching the top of the palm trees. You could see how low they were.


everywhere I looked there were ships and explosions going on and all


kinds of things. Ships were sinking. Some were leaning to the


starboard side, some were leading to the port side. The guys aboard were


jumping in the water from the ship. Someone with a megaphone," We need


help to go aboard these ships". I said I was heading for the Arizona,


the Arizona was closest to my barracks. It was all up siding, the


hand railing was burnt out and all that, I had to grab the railing and


I finally made my way up and by the time I got to the top of my shoe


soles were smoking because the steel was so hot on top and there were


five bodies all burnt out. You almost couldn't recognise them.


Pretty soon I heard a voice, I looked over and it was one guy over


by the gun turret and I walked over to him, and St Peters pulled him


home. That's the way it went all day long. -- St Peter. Then I got off


the Arizona and went towards my hangar, the planes could have


exploded, the tyres were already on fire burning. The machine-guns in


the cockpit were going off and the bullets were going everywhere. As I


was on my way down, that's when the Japanese pilot spotted me and his


bomb doors opened up and when I saw the bomb coming towards me, I said,


Adolf, this is it, I really did say that, I know that. The bomb came and


it went in the concrete, and big chunks like the size of a


Volkswagen, and propellers and wings and landing gear landing on top of


everything, or I got was these little pebbles. So the Guardian and


was looking after me, you know that. With all those explosions


going on and all that death going on everywhere, and me being in total


safety. That's unheard of, you know? After 19 close calls I'm still


alive. So I have to have a guardian angel here. There's no other way.


It's not just one of those things you know that happens.


Pearl Harbor survivor Adolphe Kuhn there. And that's all from Witness


for this month. Next month we will be in her Van Erp to bring you five


witnesses to the history of Cuba. But for now, from me, and from the


rest of the Witness team, goodbye. -- in Havana.


Snow has been causing issues out and about and it still will do


Ice a big concern however where we've had showers,


even if they haven't been of snow, things are freezing over there now.


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