27/08/2016 Witness


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Hello and welcome to Witness at the British Library in London.


We've got another five witnesses who have


given us a glimpse of history through the eyes of people who were


This month on the programme, one of Al-Qaeda's first terrorist


Bangladesh's struggle for independence.


And the creation of the world's most famous sheep.


But first to Afghanistan where for 1,000


years three huge statues of Buddha towered over the valley of Bamiyan,


some of the country's most significant monuments.


But in 2001 they were destroyed by the Taliban.


Sayed Mirza Hossein was one of the local people


taken captive and forced to


Sayed Mirza Hossein still lives in the Bamiyan Valley where he


In August 1998 Al-Qaeda carried out one of its


first major attacks, targeting the US embassies


George Mimba, an American national, was working


in the American Embassy in


Nairobi when it was hit by a massive truck bomb.


I cannot describe to you


Then the smoke started filling up the building.


for help, some shouting, some people crying, some


The first explosion sounded like a tremor.


Then it turned out it was a


People were arriving to look at what was going on.


I did not want to be left behind but I had an


e-mail that I had to send, so I clicked send.


Then I started also walking, following them.


The building next door to the American Embassy was almost


There are people clambering over the destroyed


building and people inside the United States embassy.


I started fighting myself out of the debris.


Then all I could see were bodies of people.


The people you just talked to a few minutes ago, seconds ago.


You look at yourself, what is there for me to live for?


When I opened my eyes I see across the


I just closed my eyes and left the building.


And then something told me to open my eyes.


And I still hear people crying in the building.


So I am heading back into the building.


When I went up to the first floor it is dark, it is


So I started to crawl on my knee, touching the bodies, to


feel if there is anybody that still has life.


And then I am calling out, is anybody here?


Then I heard somebody calling my name, George, please help me.


I started moving very fast towards that direction.


I just held on to that person like this and started


The voice that called me out for help was a lady's voice.


And when I called out again there was


On the face of it it is like we have recovered.


More than 200 people were killed in the bombing and more than


George returned to work at the US Embassy in Nairobi and he


In July 1996 scientists at the Roslin Institute


in Scotland created the first animal cloned from an adult cell.


Dolly the sheep was created in a laboratory


using an adult cell taken from one sheep to fertilise an egg from


It was a breakthrough in the history of genetic engineering.


Sir Ian Wilmut led the team of scientists.


It was extremely exciting to see her knowing she was


the first animal to be cloned from an adult cell.


From a professional point of view it's the most


Scientists in Scotland have produced the first ever clone of an animal.


Dolly, a seven-month-old sheep, was created in a laboratory using a cell


This was the culmination of about five years of


It was not a eureka experiment where you just stepped out


The new technique involves taking a cell from an adult sheep and


removing the genetic material from it.


The genes are then inserted into


an empty egg cell taken from another sheep.


The egg is then used to start a pregnancy, the offspring being a


Many clones could be produced this way.


In the case of Dolly the cells came from mammary tissue


which could be removed from an animal which was autopsied


for other experimental reasons and it was two of the stockmen


who were watching the sheep who had suggested


that she should be christened after Dolly Parton as a mark of respect


it was necessary to carry out molecular biology tests to show that


she was genetically what we said she was. Once we had that information


that could be written up into a manuscript. I do not think we were


prepared for the number of people that came out first Monday. Clearly,


as we had cloned an adult, there was a possibility at some time that we


could clone an adult person. There was a lot of excited debate about


whether it was an appropriate thing for us to do. How easy mate it be


scientifically for someone somewhere to apply your methods to the cloning


of humans? If he really wanted to do it it could be done. Now it is


generally understood and accepted that morning itself is not a useful


thing in medicine. Further discussions are required. This was


only with the background of knowing how she had been produced that she


was scientifically very interesting. She became special as time went by


because she was used to people wanting to photograph her and they


where you got her to stand in a particular place for the cameraman


was to offer her food. She was healthy and continued to be healthy.


She had a total of six worms in the vacancies. Dolly was born on Easter


Monday. She is said to be in good health. Her lamb is sprightly. Later


in life Dolly was infected by a virus which causes lung cancer. We


decided that was time to end her life. Her remains went to


National Museum of Scotland where National Museum of Scotland where


she is to this day. She is one of the most popular exhibits in this


country. The importance of Dolly to me is in the science. It was a


privilege and an and excitement to be part of the group that did that.


There is no doubt all of us were very fond of Dolly.


And even later received a knighthood for his role in the creation of


Dolly. You can watch witness every month on


the BBC News Channel or you can catch up on all our films and more


than 1000 radio programmes in an online archive.


You may have seemed an image circulating online of a cargo ship


overloaded with refugees, sometimes described as Syrians trying to reach


Europe, or Europeans trying to reach North Africa in World War II. In


fact that's picture shows tens of thousands of Albanian migrants who


commandeered a cargo ship in August 1991 and ordered the captain to take


them across the bed till union to them across the bed till union to


the Italian of Bari. Robert was one of those on board. -- take them


across the Mediterranean Sea. It was a dream of freedom. Everyone was


crying, saying Italy, Italy. Albania was closed. After 50 years


of commoners people to leave because they were who were. In 1991 the


economy completely failed and we did not have any choice. The only way to


have fees is to leave Albania. Italy for as was a symbol of freedom. We


left the Albanian port at two o'clock in the afternoon. 22,000


people 25,000 people inside the boat. We arrived at the Italian port


of Bari at 11 o'clock. We were absolutely convinced that they would


accept us. They put ours, 20,000 people, in a very small space. I was


suffocating. I could not believe any more. It was horrible, a nightmare.


The plan of the Italian police was to bring them to a stadium. It was a


big space, but to deliver food for 10,000 people you need five hours,


so it was not possible for the Italian authorities to deal with


this difficult situation. At this moment we began to fight with each


other because the Italian authorities left as a loan and it is


like a society without roots. In this moment you must fight for


yourself. I stayed in the stadium ten days. Doing this, ten days, a


back to Albania. Me and my friends back to Albania. Me and my friends


decided to stay but we must try a way to escape from the stadium. I


tried four or five times. Three times the same policeman cots B. The


third time I asked him, why do you stop me gaining my freedom? My


father is dying in Albania. They need help from me. I have two worked


here to send some money there because we are a pool and you stop


me. I am not on the dying myself, also my family. This Italian


policeman began to cry. He said, I am sorry, what I can do for you now


to escape, he said, leave me alone, I will find my way to escape. I


stayed in Bari for one year. I need some money. With this money I


decided to come to open a restaurant. We have two worked here.


It is a beautiful country. People who can do something for their own


country they have two stay in Albania, not go outside. Robert is


now a film-maker in Albania. For our final film we are going back


to 1971 when Bangladesh, then East Pakistan, was fighting for its


independence. The conflict began in March when Pakistani troops started


out a raid against prominent in galley nationalists and


intellectuals to try and quell the growing liberation movement.


Meghna's father was one of those. That night was the darkest of


nights. It was the darkness that fell upon humanity. Workers in Dhaka


shout for author shall independence for East Pakistan. The already call


the country Bangladesh, Bengal state, and claimed they have


achieved official independence. There is a noncooperation policy


with the central Government. On the 25th of March 19 701I was a


schoolgirl. My father was then associate professor of English. The


Leader of the Opposition at that moment had given a declaration that


all schools and colleges should be caused and that no Bengali should


take part as a symbol of protest. Near to midnight I was almost


asleep. My father was looking at exam scripts when he heard a lot of


out of the window and he's so a out of the window and he's so a


convoy of military vehicles coming in near to the compound gates and


they came and and asked for the professor. My mother said, why do


you want them? They did not answer. They tracked him out of the


building. In eight moment we have turned our backs to the doorway and


we heard eight shots. It was shocking. It's just hit us that they


have not come to arrest people, they have not come to arrest people, they


have come to kill. It was as if the sky fell down on us. We went through


the back door and into the front of the building where we sought my


father lying. He was conscious. We asked what had happened. He said he


was asked to stand there and he was asked his name. He gave his name.


They asked his religion. Once he told them he was a Hindu then there


was an order to shoot. There was no way to take him into a hospital


because there was curfew. It was only on 27th -- ten to seven in the


morning that the curfew broke and we asked them to take my father to the


hospital. The hospital was full of dead and injured people. My father


was fatally injured. On the 30th he succumbed to his injuries and died.


Throughout the nine months of the war that followed we were living in


other peoples houses. Friends, families who gave us shelter. A lot


of people were trying flee Dhaka. Finally after nine months we saw


independence. Where he was shot, and artist later wanted to build a


memorial, not only to my father, but also to the other people who were


not have emerged of it was not for not have emerged of it was not for


the sacrifice of these people. My father was among them so I feel very


proud of it. Bangladesh declared independence in December 1971.


During the nine-month war and estimated 3 million Bengalis were


this month. We will be back next this month. We will be back next


month with another round-up of history. Thank you for joining me.


Goodbye. Some of us have had a nice day and


others the opposite with violent thunderstorms


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