04/08/2011 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today, with me, David Eades.


30 years and at least $1 billion, there UN lays out the cost of


cleaning up oil pollution in the Niger delta as Shell admits


liability to two major spills. Europe's instability is spilling,


global markets plummet. More gloom at the International


Monetary Fund, its new head faces investigation in France for abuse


of authority. Turkey's Armed Forces Day up a


silent civilian shake-up. Can the government keeping up haunt -- keep


the upper hand over the military? And you can hear it, you can play


it, but you cannot touch it. A celebration of the electronic


instrument invented nearly 100 and it -- a 100 years ago.


Welcome. The United Nations has called for a $1 billion fund to


clean up 50 years of oil pollution in the delta region of Nigeria. It


comes as the oil giant Shell has accepted liability for two oil


spills in the region and now faces compensation claims running into


hundreds of millions of dollars. The report by the Environment


Programme in the UN said contamination levels were far worse


than previously thought and would take 30 years to clean up. Local


people were also blamed for breaking into pipelines to steal


oil. In this report is a forensic


examination of how oil has brought pollution and run into a small part


of Nigeria. For decades, oil was pumped from Ogoniland, but it came


at a terrible cost. At least 10 of the communities surveyed now


Drinkwater so contaminated it poses a public health risk. Land was


sampled as well and the results show for the first time that years


of pollution have sunk deep down into the soil, five metres down in


some places. This is primarily -- primarily a report about the impact


of the pollution which it is thought will now take between 25


and 30 years to clear up. Oil giant Shell was criticised for failing to


maintain the infrastructure in the area, which directly led to leaks.


The local community' s attempts to steal the oil lead to problems as


well. We were surprised to be here that the oil industry is not


implementing its own standards. That is pretty serious. We have


also discovered that the government, the regulators, are not


implementing their own rules and guidelines. This is putting


communities at risk. Earlier this week, a shell accepted


responsibility for two macros spills in Ogoniland in which oil


flowed unchecked possible once. The UN has recommended that a $1


billion fund be set up for what it is calling the most wide-ranging


and long-term team operation the world has ever seen. It has asked


oil companies and the Nigerian government to come up with the


money. This is the United Nations report, it is a fairly hefty


scientific reports and it is being looked that by the Nigerian


President and the big oil companies. The question is, having made


billions of dollars by exploiting the oil of the Ogoniland, whether


the cash can now be found to begin the process of clearing up the


pollution. I am joined by Ben Amunwa from its


oil industry watchdog Platform. Thank you for joining us. Quite a


weighty tome, I do not expect to to have read all of it, essentially


does the UN assessment meet your own? The report essentially tells


us what we already knew, at which is that Ogoniland in particular has


suffered extensive in Rome until damage. Their report looks into the


scientific extends of the damage -- extensive environmental damage.


What is needed, rather than more studies commissioned by oil


companies, is immediate and effective action on cleaning up the


7000 oil spills. There are propositions hear about the fund,


$1 billion to go towards the clean up, we have had also shell


acknowledging liability for two Major spells. Does this represent a


a turning point, is this a turning point? It could be. The cases that


Shell has admitted liability for two Oil spills, that is a welcome


step forward for the campaign to hold corporations like Shell


accountable for their human rights abort -- aboard. It has been


welcome in Nigeria, this is the people who rely on the health of


the environment for their livelihood, their basic human


rights to food and water have been violated. It is worth pointing out


that a lot of this has been seen by the UN as well, there is sabotage


involved, there have been efforts to tap into the oil wines. It


cannot all be blamed for the oil companies. Shell is to blame for


some of the spills, and some of the Community's tried to get


compensation. We have to realise that bringing a case in London is


the last resort for these communities. They tried to get


compensation from Shell within Nigeria, but were denied access to


justice. What they offered were �3,500, plus bags of rice and sugar,


which is vastly inadequate which is considering there are 369 people --


369,000 people in the area. This is the last resort, it -- is it the


best resort? It could be. Shell and it investors could be concerned


that the company is sitting on a mountain of claims in the Niger


delta, where they have been over 9 million barrels of oil spilled in


the last 50 years. Twice the amount that was spilled in the Deepwater


Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, that BP caused. In the Gulf


of Mexico, 20 billion was mobilised within weeks to clean it up. In the


Niger Delta, we have not seen that. 50 years of this going on, the UN


report talks about another 30 you to clean it up properly.


Nonetheless, do you draw some confidence that even the notion all


the recommendations for or $1 billion fund, and the sense,


perhaps, let us not forget that this was funded by Shelf. I think


for communities in the delta, this will be cold comfort. So many


people have been impacted, had their human rights violated by a


oil spills over the last 50 years. This compensation is just 4 two oil


spills. Shell continues to refuse liability in other cases. There is


an ongoing litigation in the Hague where they are denying


responsibility for the oil spills. What is important is that the


clean-up is effective. One of the findings of the report today is


that Shell has covered up the full extent of the pollution in


Ogoniland by labelling or will cite as clean when they are in fact


highly contaminated. -- labelling will excite as clean. The whole


process has to be rigorously monitored by international


organisations to insure that Shall cleaned up its act.


The eurozone is back in deep trouble, and even did present of


the European Commission is admitting it. Jose Manuel Barroso


it admitted that measures agreed by the EU last month have failed to


spread the debt crisis. He said it is no longer restricted to the


periphery of the council -- countries that use the euro.


Reflecting that anxiety, the European Central Bank has started


to buy bonds in countries such as Spain to protect against the yields


reaching a manageable levels. Two weeks ago today, at their


opting emergency summit, eurozone leaders said they had finally taken


tough decisions and the future of the euro was safe. Someone stopped


-- someone forgot to tell financial markets. A couple of weeks ago,


markets anticipated that the ECB and the players had got together


and found a solution. When you dig into the detail that lies behind


the grand statements, it is very clear that there is not a lot of


money on the table. There is no real political will to sort out the


problems. Once again it is Italy and Spain paying a price for


investor's doubt. A year ago, the Spanish government was borrowing at


4.4%, but a few weeks ago, it had gone up to 6.3%. It is now back


very close to that level. Italy is paying nearly as much. The higher


the interest rate they pay, the more difficult it will be for these


countries to get on top of their debts. That is the fear


concentrating minds in Brussels, but they are running out of ways to


respond. The European Commission President said today -- today cent


has turned left -- a stern letter to European governments. He said


the crisis have now extended well be on the periphery of the eurozone.


He said they should push ahead with what they had already agreed, and


urged a rapid reassessment of what more could be done. The European


Central Bank did take action today, announcing it to step in to support


government under pressure by buying their bombs. Something it has not


done since March. The bank's President also had stern words for


national politicians. The key for everything is government, ahead of


the curve. In both their fiscal policy and there reforms,


structural reforms. They are absolutely of the essence, a


structural reforms. I know they are difficult here and there. They


might be politically difficult in democracies. They are paying off.


Of course, the UK did get ahead of the curve on cutting its deficit,


the opposition would say too far ahead. But bank stocks fell sharply


today on fears that Britain's banks and our fragile recovery could be


blown off course by the crisis across the Channel. Everyone can


agree it is about time for Europe's leaders to be heading for the Beach.


-- it is a bad time for you's need is to be heading for the Beach.


Also trouble at the top for the International Monetary Fund foot --


whose successor to Dominique Strauss-Kahn is facing


investigation. Christine Lagarde denies any Liskeard -- has come up.


Among Christine Lagarde's first day training, was training. The IMF


wrote tough new guidelines into her contract. Today's decision by


French judges will come harshly. The prosecution allege she abused


her position as finance minister. She approved of 400 billion dollar


payment in conversation to this man, to settle his claim that the former


state owned bank had defrauded him in 1993 when he stalled -- sold his


stake in the sports company Adidas. The former left-wing minister had


switched sides in 2007 to support Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential


campaign. Some months earlier, he had lost his case in the highest


court in France and was appealing his decision when his friend,


Nicolas Sarkozy, took power. Today, Ms Lagarde's lawyers said she


welcomed the opportunity to take her -- clear her name. She is


perfectly, but all of this. Just because an investigation has been


launched does not mean she feels weak or worried. She is not worried


in the least, and neither am I. IMF new Christine Lagarde was


facing his investigation when they appointed her, but still appointed


have. Nevertheless, it is damaging, particularly given the


circumstances in which she got these jobs.


Virginia Tech University, the sight of the worst compass shooting in


American history, it remains under lockdown after reported sightings


of a gunman. The university issued an alert telling all students and


staff to stay indoors after three youths reported seeing a man


holding what may have been a handgun.


Human rights groups and lawyers in Britain have withdrawn from a


planned inquiry into allegations that British security services knew


about or colluded in the torture and mistreatment of suspected


terrorists held a board. They claim proceedings will not be a good


enough to establish the truth of a dog and unemployed Swedish man who


was arrested after it spread -- experimenting with nuclear


materials in his kitchen said he was trying to build a nuclear


reactor as a hobby. Ogoniland was detained for


unauthorised material. He said he bought some of the material from


the date -- back -- Richard Handl bought the material from eBay.


30 people have been killed, some people say, as troops backed by


tanks we took the main square in Syria. Foreign journalists are


With no independent reporting at all, communications cut and the


impossibility of terrifying footage light is on the internet, the bug


has been left to guess what has been happening in Hama after the


troops and the tanks moved in. -- the world. But residents who were


able to be contacted after they fled the city said water and


electricity was cut off and food and medicines were running low.


They spoke of random firing by a regime militia men at anything that


moved. One said the city looked like a battlefield in Gaza or Iraq.


He scorned the new political party and election laws decreed by


President Assad in a bid to defuse the crisis. After killing so many


people and invading cities and burning buildings and houses and


raping people and putting people in jail, what kind of flaws will he


make for us now a? It is too late. Despite the punishment meted out at


Hama and elsewhere, defiance has continued in many parts of the


country. It has gone beyond the point of reconciliation with the


regime. They chant slogans saying, it has to go. Many of the night


time demonstrations now being held in different places after Ramadan


prayers are in solidarity with the people of Hama. It has emerged as


the key flashpoint for the moment, but there are many others in


different parts of the country. Jim Muir, from Beirut.


A new military high command has been appointed in Turkey less than


a week after the previous one resigned en masse. Tensions have


been growing between the military and the Government over the arrest


of forces personnel accused of plotting a coup. The Turkish


military is the second-biggest in NATO and has brought Stan four


governments in the past. But the Prime Minister appears to have


forced them to accept civilian supremacy. Some things in Turkey


never change, like the Somme visits the prime minister has made to the


mausoleum of the country's founding father Ataturk. That used to be


through by the military as well. Every year the top brass got to


decide who would be promoted, Prime Minister has just rubber-stamped


their tries. But look at the seating arrangements this year. The


Prime Minister is alone in the chair. His choice to command the


military sitting meekly on his right. For years Mr Erdogan has


been pushing the soldiers back from the privileged perch from which


they had unseated four previous governments. Now after a third


successive election victory, he has forced them to accept civilian


supremacy. That will not end the tension. The detention and


prolonged trials of 250 serving officers have been a humiliation


for a once and touch -- untouchable institution. The Government says


they have real charges to answer of anti- Government plotting. Others


say it is a judicial witch hunt. More changes are likely to follow


this week. The police have been asked to take on many of the Army's


roles in combating insurgency and terrorism. But there are questions


about a largely conscript force. It remains an important part of


Turkish life and an essential asset for the NATO alliance. Even its


critics will want to see it recover its pride and prestige.


I am joined now by Fadi Hakura, manager of the Turkey Project at


Chatham House. All this talk of potential military coup, this one


feels like a civilian Co on the military. Can they come back from


that? I do not foresee the military anytime soon were recovered his


power and privileges which it enjoyed in other decades. The


Government has shown that the civilian authority is in full


command of the military and it will stay that for a while. Is it


reasonable for the Turkish military to feel they are being politically


targeted by the AK Party? I think those feelings of injustice as


expressed by the previous chief of staff, in his resignation statement,


clearly showed the anxieties within the Turkish military that the


Government is targeting them deliberately, that the Government


is particularly targeting senior commanders of the military to try


to promote its own officers in the upper command. There are four new


people in positions of huge authority and responsibility and


they are new in the post. Does that have a destabilising effect on the


Army and the military? There is a serious risk that the


professionalism and meritocracy that governed the Turkish military


may begin to dissipate in favour of promoting officers who are seen as


closer to the Government. If that is the case, it has serious


implications for NATO, Europe and the US. How much is that concern


reflected within Turkey today? That this is as much as anything about


an essentially Muslim party pushing Muslim practices into a secular


world? It is still a minority opinion. It is only among the


certain intelligentsia of Turkish society, but the broad, popular


support in Turkey is with the Government, rather than the


military. In the midst of all this we are talking about the coup


allegations. I credible are they? It seems there is a germ of truth


to them, but there is a question over the conduct of the cases, had


the cases are proceeding, and the lack of due process in many


occasions, and some of the quality of the evidence that masks some


other cases. In the reports they were talking about the need for


Turkey to have a credible army and military and possibly a


counterbalance in Turkey is live. That will be difficult to achieve


again. It is healthy for Turkey to have a politics governed by


democratic pluralism rather than by having an autonomous military


acting as a supervisor of the system. Presumably people would


have to believe in the credibility of any justice meted out to


arrested generals, to believe this is a sensible and positive way


forward. Turkey has to go through these motions. Democracy is an ever


-- never a clean process and has its injustices, but it is more


healthy for the future of Turkish democracy to rely on civilian


politics rather than military interference. We have had four


governments overthrown in the past by the military. Can you foresee a


point anywhere in the future where we get back to those sorts of


times? I think the future likelihood of a military coup in


Turkey is becoming increasingly unlikely. The bigger danger to the


Government is less a military coup, than the state of the economy. The


economy is the number-one factors that governs how Turkish people


vote in the elections. Did you know there is a musical instrument you


can play hands-free, in fact hands of is the name of the festival and


symposiums celebrating the theremin, an electronic instrument invented


in the 1920s by the Russian musician and Engineer Leon Theremin.


The BBC's Russian Service has been to the festival for a rare


experience. It sounds spacial and futuristic,


music for a sci-fi films. But the theremin is nearly 100 years old,


but it still remains the domain of a chosen few. Its inventor, Leon


Theremin, had a longer and adventurous live with everything in


it, from fame and success in the US two years in the Gulag. He lived


and some 97 and handed over the legacy to his grand knees. I think


the theremin was probably invented a little bit too early for his age.


It was developed in the 1920s as electricity was just fresh born.


Since it became more popular, there are many thousands of instruments


in the world, but this is a question of who can play


professionally. You can still count them on your fingers. You play it


by moving your hands around the two and 10 A. The right one is the pits.


Modern players introduce new techniques. -- the pitch. It is a


monophonic instrument, but I can construct an orchestra with my loop


station. I am able to keep a note which I am playing live and I keep


it with the loop station and it makes a never ending loop. There


can be many layers and I can construct chord structures, so I


can play in harmonic structures. is so iconic and I think most


people will have heard the theremin even if they have not realised it.


It has influenced film music, effects. It is still a flexible


instrument and works in a classical context as well as a range of other


musical genres. And so at the theremin came to Scarborough, a


futuristic instrument in an old Yorkshire town. The music is taken


to places as distant as diverse as I still do not really understand it,


but there we are. Our main news: The United Nations says it could


take 30 years to clear up pollution from oil operations in the


Ogoniland region of Nigeria. A report by the UN Environment


Programme says oil spills have contaminated land, sea and air,


seriously threatening public health in some parts of the region. It


also said the oil giant Shell had not followed its own guidelines on


maintaining infrastructure, but it also said local people had


endangered lives by breaking into pipelines to steal oil. The head of


the European Commission has warned that saving grace was not enough


for the euro-zone to avert a financial crisis. Now Italy and


Spain are struggling with a loss of market confidence and that is


triggering a downfall in European and US stock markets. Jose Manuel


Barroso also added there was a fear or the problems were spreading


beyond the periphery of those countries using the euro. That is


about it for now. Next, the weather. Today's reign is clearing away. It


is going to bring a fresher feel and a more Cover to Barack Obama


for sleeping and a brighter day tomorrow with some spells of


sunshine. The warmest weather is across East Anglia and the south-


east of England. This area of low pressure brought the rain, some of


it quite heavy, especially in southern counties of England. On


Friday the cloud will come and go and there will be some spells of


sunshine with the odd, light shower. Some Sunny spells for the North of


England. Temperatures not that exciting, 19 or 20 degrees. It will


be warmer in the south-east, possibly getting as high as 25. It


will feel quite pleasant, actually. In the south-west it will not be


quite as warm. There will be cloud and a bit of sunshine in between.


In Wales temperatures could get as high as 21 degrees. Across Northern


Ireland there will be the odd shower around, but they will not be


as heavy as we have seen to date. One or two showers in western


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