04/08/2011 World News Today


04/08/2011

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This is BBC World News Today, with me, David Eades.

:00:11.:00:16.

30 years and at least $1 billion, there UN lays out the cost of

:00:16.:00:21.

cleaning up oil pollution in the Niger delta as Shell admits

:00:21.:00:26.

liability to two major spills. Europe's instability is spilling,

:00:26.:00:31.

global markets plummet. More gloom at the International

:00:31.:00:35.

Monetary Fund, its new head faces investigation in France for abuse

:00:35.:00:40.

of authority. Turkey's Armed Forces Day up a

:00:40.:00:45.

silent civilian shake-up. Can the government keeping up haunt -- keep

:00:45.:00:52.

the upper hand over the military? And you can hear it, you can play

:00:52.:00:56.

it, but you cannot touch it. A celebration of the electronic

:00:56.:01:06.
:01:06.:01:08.

instrument invented nearly 100 and it -- a 100 years ago.

:01:08.:01:12.

Welcome. The United Nations has called for a $1 billion fund to

:01:12.:01:16.

clean up 50 years of oil pollution in the delta region of Nigeria. It

:01:16.:01:22.

comes as the oil giant Shell has accepted liability for two oil

:01:22.:01:25.

spills in the region and now faces compensation claims running into

:01:25.:01:29.

hundreds of millions of dollars. The report by the Environment

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Programme in the UN said contamination levels were far worse

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than previously thought and would take 30 years to clean up. Local

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people were also blamed for breaking into pipelines to steal

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oil. In this report is a forensic

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examination of how oil has brought pollution and run into a small part

:01:50.:01:55.

of Nigeria. For decades, oil was pumped from Ogoniland, but it came

:01:55.:02:00.

at a terrible cost. At least 10 of the communities surveyed now

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Drinkwater so contaminated it poses a public health risk. Land was

:02:05.:02:08.

sampled as well and the results show for the first time that years

:02:09.:02:13.

of pollution have sunk deep down into the soil, five metres down in

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some places. This is primarily -- primarily a report about the impact

:02:17.:02:21.

of the pollution which it is thought will now take between 25

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and 30 years to clear up. Oil giant Shell was criticised for failing to

:02:26.:02:31.

maintain the infrastructure in the area, which directly led to leaks.

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The local community' s attempts to steal the oil lead to problems as

:02:40.:02:45.

well. We were surprised to be here that the oil industry is not

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implementing its own standards. That is pretty serious. We have

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also discovered that the government, the regulators, are not

:02:54.:02:58.

implementing their own rules and guidelines. This is putting

:02:58.:03:03.

communities at risk. Earlier this week, a shell accepted

:03:03.:03:07.

responsibility for two macros spills in Ogoniland in which oil

:03:07.:03:12.

flowed unchecked possible once. The UN has recommended that a $1

:03:12.:03:17.

billion fund be set up for what it is calling the most wide-ranging

:03:17.:03:21.

and long-term team operation the world has ever seen. It has asked

:03:21.:03:24.

oil companies and the Nigerian government to come up with the

:03:24.:03:29.

money. This is the United Nations report, it is a fairly hefty

:03:29.:03:32.

scientific reports and it is being looked that by the Nigerian

:03:32.:03:36.

President and the big oil companies. The question is, having made

:03:36.:03:40.

billions of dollars by exploiting the oil of the Ogoniland, whether

:03:40.:03:45.

the cash can now be found to begin the process of clearing up the

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pollution. I am joined by Ben Amunwa from its

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oil industry watchdog Platform. Thank you for joining us. Quite a

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weighty tome, I do not expect to to have read all of it, essentially

:03:59.:04:05.

does the UN assessment meet your own? The report essentially tells

:04:05.:04:11.

us what we already knew, at which is that Ogoniland in particular has

:04:12.:04:16.

suffered extensive in Rome until damage. Their report looks into the

:04:16.:04:21.

scientific extends of the damage -- extensive environmental damage.

:04:21.:04:24.

What is needed, rather than more studies commissioned by oil

:04:24.:04:30.

companies, is immediate and effective action on cleaning up the

:04:30.:04:33.

7000 oil spills. There are propositions hear about the fund,

:04:33.:04:40.

$1 billion to go towards the clean up, we have had also shell

:04:40.:04:45.

acknowledging liability for two Major spells. Does this represent a

:04:46.:04:52.

a turning point, is this a turning point? It could be. The cases that

:04:52.:04:57.

Shell has admitted liability for two Oil spills, that is a welcome

:04:57.:05:02.

step forward for the campaign to hold corporations like Shell

:05:02.:05:06.

accountable for their human rights abort -- aboard. It has been

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welcome in Nigeria, this is the people who rely on the health of

:05:11.:05:13.

the environment for their livelihood, their basic human

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rights to food and water have been violated. It is worth pointing out

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that a lot of this has been seen by the UN as well, there is sabotage

:05:22.:05:27.

involved, there have been efforts to tap into the oil wines. It

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cannot all be blamed for the oil companies. Shell is to blame for

:05:32.:05:37.

some of the spills, and some of the Community's tried to get

:05:37.:05:41.

compensation. We have to realise that bringing a case in London is

:05:41.:05:44.

the last resort for these communities. They tried to get

:05:44.:05:48.

compensation from Shell within Nigeria, but were denied access to

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justice. What they offered were �3,500, plus bags of rice and sugar,

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which is vastly inadequate which is considering there are 369 people --

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369,000 people in the area. This is the last resort, it -- is it the

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best resort? It could be. Shell and it investors could be concerned

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that the company is sitting on a mountain of claims in the Niger

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delta, where they have been over 9 million barrels of oil spilled in

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the last 50 years. Twice the amount that was spilled in the Deepwater

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Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, that BP caused. In the Gulf

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of Mexico, 20 billion was mobilised within weeks to clean it up. In the

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Niger Delta, we have not seen that. 50 years of this going on, the UN

:06:40.:06:43.

report talks about another 30 you to clean it up properly.

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Nonetheless, do you draw some confidence that even the notion all

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the recommendations for or $1 billion fund, and the sense,

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perhaps, let us not forget that this was funded by Shelf. I think

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for communities in the delta, this will be cold comfort. So many

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people have been impacted, had their human rights violated by a

:07:07.:07:12.

oil spills over the last 50 years. This compensation is just 4 two oil

:07:12.:07:17.

spills. Shell continues to refuse liability in other cases. There is

:07:17.:07:22.

an ongoing litigation in the Hague where they are denying

:07:22.:07:25.

responsibility for the oil spills. What is important is that the

:07:25.:07:30.

clean-up is effective. One of the findings of the report today is

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that Shell has covered up the full extent of the pollution in

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Ogoniland by labelling or will cite as clean when they are in fact

:07:38.:07:43.

highly contaminated. -- labelling will excite as clean. The whole

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process has to be rigorously monitored by international

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organisations to insure that Shall cleaned up its act.

:07:54.:07:58.

The eurozone is back in deep trouble, and even did present of

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the European Commission is admitting it. Jose Manuel Barroso

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it admitted that measures agreed by the EU last month have failed to

:08:08.:08:12.

spread the debt crisis. He said it is no longer restricted to the

:08:12.:08:16.

periphery of the council -- countries that use the euro.

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Reflecting that anxiety, the European Central Bank has started

:08:20.:08:23.

to buy bonds in countries such as Spain to protect against the yields

:08:23.:08:27.

reaching a manageable levels. Two weeks ago today, at their

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opting emergency summit, eurozone leaders said they had finally taken

:08:33.:08:37.

tough decisions and the future of the euro was safe. Someone stopped

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-- someone forgot to tell financial markets. A couple of weeks ago,

:08:43.:08:46.

markets anticipated that the ECB and the players had got together

:08:46.:08:51.

and found a solution. When you dig into the detail that lies behind

:08:51.:08:54.

the grand statements, it is very clear that there is not a lot of

:08:54.:08:58.

money on the table. There is no real political will to sort out the

:08:59.:09:03.

problems. Once again it is Italy and Spain paying a price for

:09:03.:09:10.

investor's doubt. A year ago, the Spanish government was borrowing at

:09:10.:09:18.

4.4%, but a few weeks ago, it had gone up to 6.3%. It is now back

:09:18.:09:23.

very close to that level. Italy is paying nearly as much. The higher

:09:23.:09:26.

the interest rate they pay, the more difficult it will be for these

:09:26.:09:29.

countries to get on top of their debts. That is the fear

:09:29.:09:34.

concentrating minds in Brussels, but they are running out of ways to

:09:34.:09:38.

respond. The European Commission President said today -- today cent

:09:38.:09:44.

has turned left -- a stern letter to European governments. He said

:09:44.:09:48.

the crisis have now extended well be on the periphery of the eurozone.

:09:49.:09:53.

He said they should push ahead with what they had already agreed, and

:09:53.:09:57.

urged a rapid reassessment of what more could be done. The European

:09:57.:10:01.

Central Bank did take action today, announcing it to step in to support

:10:01.:10:07.

government under pressure by buying their bombs. Something it has not

:10:07.:10:12.

done since March. The bank's President also had stern words for

:10:12.:10:16.

national politicians. The key for everything is government, ahead of

:10:17.:10:22.

the curve. In both their fiscal policy and there reforms,

:10:22.:10:26.

structural reforms. They are absolutely of the essence, a

:10:26.:10:31.

structural reforms. I know they are difficult here and there. They

:10:31.:10:36.

might be politically difficult in democracies. They are paying off.

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Of course, the UK did get ahead of the curve on cutting its deficit,

:10:41.:10:45.

the opposition would say too far ahead. But bank stocks fell sharply

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today on fears that Britain's banks and our fragile recovery could be

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blown off course by the crisis across the Channel. Everyone can

:10:54.:11:00.

agree it is about time for Europe's leaders to be heading for the Beach.

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-- it is a bad time for you's need is to be heading for the Beach.

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Also trouble at the top for the International Monetary Fund foot --

:11:12.:11:15.

whose successor to Dominique Strauss-Kahn is facing

:11:15.:11:23.

investigation. Christine Lagarde denies any Liskeard -- has come up.

:11:23.:11:33.
:11:33.:11:38.

Among Christine Lagarde's first day training, was training. The IMF

:11:38.:11:43.

wrote tough new guidelines into her contract. Today's decision by

:11:43.:11:50.

French judges will come harshly. The prosecution allege she abused

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her position as finance minister. She approved of 400 billion dollar

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payment in conversation to this man, to settle his claim that the former

:12:00.:12:05.

state owned bank had defrauded him in 1993 when he stalled -- sold his

:12:05.:12:10.

stake in the sports company Adidas. The former left-wing minister had

:12:10.:12:15.

switched sides in 2007 to support Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential

:12:15.:12:19.

campaign. Some months earlier, he had lost his case in the highest

:12:19.:12:23.

court in France and was appealing his decision when his friend,

:12:23.:12:30.

Nicolas Sarkozy, took power. Today, Ms Lagarde's lawyers said she

:12:30.:12:34.

welcomed the opportunity to take her -- clear her name. She is

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perfectly, but all of this. Just because an investigation has been

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launched does not mean she feels weak or worried. She is not worried

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in the least, and neither am I. IMF new Christine Lagarde was

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facing his investigation when they appointed her, but still appointed

:12:55.:13:00.

have. Nevertheless, it is damaging, particularly given the

:13:00.:13:04.

circumstances in which she got these jobs.

:13:04.:13:08.

Virginia Tech University, the sight of the worst compass shooting in

:13:08.:13:12.

American history, it remains under lockdown after reported sightings

:13:12.:13:17.

of a gunman. The university issued an alert telling all students and

:13:17.:13:21.

staff to stay indoors after three youths reported seeing a man

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holding what may have been a handgun.

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Human rights groups and lawyers in Britain have withdrawn from a

:13:27.:13:30.

planned inquiry into allegations that British security services knew

:13:30.:13:34.

about or colluded in the torture and mistreatment of suspected

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terrorists held a board. They claim proceedings will not be a good

:13:38.:13:42.

enough to establish the truth of a dog and unemployed Swedish man who

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was arrested after it spread -- experimenting with nuclear

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materials in his kitchen said he was trying to build a nuclear

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reactor as a hobby. Ogoniland was detained for

:13:58.:14:03.

unauthorised material. He said he bought some of the material from

:14:03.:14:13.
:14:13.:14:15.

the date -- back -- Richard Handl bought the material from eBay.

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30 people have been killed, some people say, as troops backed by

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tanks we took the main square in Syria. Foreign journalists are

:14:23.:14:33.
:14:33.:14:34.

With no independent reporting at all, communications cut and the

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impossibility of terrifying footage light is on the internet, the bug

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has been left to guess what has been happening in Hama after the

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troops and the tanks moved in. -- the world. But residents who were

:14:49.:14:53.

able to be contacted after they fled the city said water and

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electricity was cut off and food and medicines were running low.

:14:58.:15:02.

They spoke of random firing by a regime militia men at anything that

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moved. One said the city looked like a battlefield in Gaza or Iraq.

:15:08.:15:13.

He scorned the new political party and election laws decreed by

:15:13.:15:20.

President Assad in a bid to defuse the crisis. After killing so many

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people and invading cities and burning buildings and houses and

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raping people and putting people in jail, what kind of flaws will he

:15:30.:15:35.

make for us now a? It is too late. Despite the punishment meted out at

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Hama and elsewhere, defiance has continued in many parts of the

:15:39.:15:43.

country. It has gone beyond the point of reconciliation with the

:15:43.:15:50.

regime. They chant slogans saying, it has to go. Many of the night

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time demonstrations now being held in different places after Ramadan

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prayers are in solidarity with the people of Hama. It has emerged as

:15:59.:16:03.

the key flashpoint for the moment, but there are many others in

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different parts of the country. Jim Muir, from Beirut.

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A new military high command has been appointed in Turkey less than

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a week after the previous one resigned en masse. Tensions have

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been growing between the military and the Government over the arrest

:16:19.:16:23.

of forces personnel accused of plotting a coup. The Turkish

:16:23.:16:28.

military is the second-biggest in NATO and has brought Stan four

:16:28.:16:31.

governments in the past. But the Prime Minister appears to have

:16:31.:16:37.

forced them to accept civilian supremacy. Some things in Turkey

:16:37.:16:42.

never change, like the Somme visits the prime minister has made to the

:16:42.:16:47.

mausoleum of the country's founding father Ataturk. That used to be

:16:47.:16:52.

through by the military as well. Every year the top brass got to

:16:52.:16:57.

decide who would be promoted, Prime Minister has just rubber-stamped

:16:57.:17:02.

their tries. But look at the seating arrangements this year. The

:17:02.:17:07.

Prime Minister is alone in the chair. His choice to command the

:17:07.:17:11.

military sitting meekly on his right. For years Mr Erdogan has

:17:11.:17:15.

been pushing the soldiers back from the privileged perch from which

:17:15.:17:21.

they had unseated four previous governments. Now after a third

:17:21.:17:25.

successive election victory, he has forced them to accept civilian

:17:25.:17:31.

supremacy. That will not end the tension. The detention and

:17:31.:17:34.

prolonged trials of 250 serving officers have been a humiliation

:17:35.:17:40.

for a once and touch -- untouchable institution. The Government says

:17:40.:17:46.

they have real charges to answer of anti- Government plotting. Others

:17:46.:17:51.

say it is a judicial witch hunt. More changes are likely to follow

:17:51.:17:57.

this week. The police have been asked to take on many of the Army's

:17:57.:18:05.

roles in combating insurgency and terrorism. But there are questions

:18:05.:18:08.

about a largely conscript force. It remains an important part of

:18:08.:18:13.

Turkish life and an essential asset for the NATO alliance. Even its

:18:13.:18:20.

critics will want to see it recover its pride and prestige.

:18:20.:18:25.

I am joined now by Fadi Hakura, manager of the Turkey Project at

:18:25.:18:31.

Chatham House. All this talk of potential military coup, this one

:18:31.:18:34.

feels like a civilian Co on the military. Can they come back from

:18:34.:18:40.

that? I do not foresee the military anytime soon were recovered his

:18:40.:18:43.

power and privileges which it enjoyed in other decades. The

:18:43.:18:46.

Government has shown that the civilian authority is in full

:18:46.:18:51.

command of the military and it will stay that for a while. Is it

:18:51.:18:56.

reasonable for the Turkish military to feel they are being politically

:18:56.:19:01.

targeted by the AK Party? I think those feelings of injustice as

:19:01.:19:06.

expressed by the previous chief of staff, in his resignation statement,

:19:06.:19:11.

clearly showed the anxieties within the Turkish military that the

:19:11.:19:14.

Government is targeting them deliberately, that the Government

:19:15.:19:19.

is particularly targeting senior commanders of the military to try

:19:19.:19:24.

to promote its own officers in the upper command. There are four new

:19:24.:19:28.

people in positions of huge authority and responsibility and

:19:28.:19:33.

they are new in the post. Does that have a destabilising effect on the

:19:33.:19:39.

Army and the military? There is a serious risk that the

:19:39.:19:43.

professionalism and meritocracy that governed the Turkish military

:19:43.:19:47.

may begin to dissipate in favour of promoting officers who are seen as

:19:47.:19:52.

closer to the Government. If that is the case, it has serious

:19:52.:19:58.

implications for NATO, Europe and the US. How much is that concern

:19:58.:20:03.

reflected within Turkey today? That this is as much as anything about

:20:03.:20:08.

an essentially Muslim party pushing Muslim practices into a secular

:20:08.:20:14.

world? It is still a minority opinion. It is only among the

:20:14.:20:18.

certain intelligentsia of Turkish society, but the broad, popular

:20:18.:20:21.

support in Turkey is with the Government, rather than the

:20:21.:20:26.

military. In the midst of all this we are talking about the coup

:20:26.:20:30.

allegations. I credible are they? It seems there is a germ of truth

:20:30.:20:35.

to them, but there is a question over the conduct of the cases, had

:20:35.:20:39.

the cases are proceeding, and the lack of due process in many

:20:39.:20:43.

occasions, and some of the quality of the evidence that masks some

:20:43.:20:48.

other cases. In the reports they were talking about the need for

:20:48.:20:54.

Turkey to have a credible army and military and possibly a

:20:54.:20:56.

counterbalance in Turkey is live. That will be difficult to achieve

:20:56.:21:05.

again. It is healthy for Turkey to have a politics governed by

:21:05.:21:09.

democratic pluralism rather than by having an autonomous military

:21:09.:21:14.

acting as a supervisor of the system. Presumably people would

:21:14.:21:18.

have to believe in the credibility of any justice meted out to

:21:18.:21:22.

arrested generals, to believe this is a sensible and positive way

:21:22.:21:29.

forward. Turkey has to go through these motions. Democracy is an ever

:21:29.:21:33.

-- never a clean process and has its injustices, but it is more

:21:33.:21:38.

healthy for the future of Turkish democracy to rely on civilian

:21:38.:21:43.

politics rather than military interference. We have had four

:21:43.:21:48.

governments overthrown in the past by the military. Can you foresee a

:21:48.:21:50.

point anywhere in the future where we get back to those sorts of

:21:50.:21:55.

times? I think the future likelihood of a military coup in

:21:55.:21:59.

Turkey is becoming increasingly unlikely. The bigger danger to the

:21:59.:22:04.

Government is less a military coup, than the state of the economy. The

:22:04.:22:08.

economy is the number-one factors that governs how Turkish people

:22:08.:22:14.

vote in the elections. Did you know there is a musical instrument you

:22:14.:22:19.

can play hands-free, in fact hands of is the name of the festival and

:22:20.:22:23.

symposiums celebrating the theremin, an electronic instrument invented

:22:23.:22:30.

in the 1920s by the Russian musician and Engineer Leon Theremin.

:22:30.:22:34.

The BBC's Russian Service has been to the festival for a rare

:22:34.:22:44.
:22:44.:22:45.

experience. It sounds spacial and futuristic,

:22:45.:22:54.

music for a sci-fi films. But the theremin is nearly 100 years old,

:22:54.:23:03.

but it still remains the domain of a chosen few. Its inventor, Leon

:23:03.:23:07.

Theremin, had a longer and adventurous live with everything in

:23:07.:23:12.

it, from fame and success in the US two years in the Gulag. He lived

:23:12.:23:18.

and some 97 and handed over the legacy to his grand knees. I think

:23:18.:23:23.

the theremin was probably invented a little bit too early for his age.

:23:23.:23:31.

It was developed in the 1920s as electricity was just fresh born.

:23:31.:23:36.

Since it became more popular, there are many thousands of instruments

:23:36.:23:42.

in the world, but this is a question of who can play

:23:42.:23:47.

professionally. You can still count them on your fingers. You play it

:23:47.:23:57.

by moving your hands around the two and 10 A. The right one is the pits.

:23:57.:24:07.
:24:07.:24:08.

Modern players introduce new techniques. -- the pitch. It is a

:24:08.:24:14.

monophonic instrument, but I can construct an orchestra with my loop

:24:14.:24:20.

station. I am able to keep a note which I am playing live and I keep

:24:20.:24:24.

it with the loop station and it makes a never ending loop. There

:24:24.:24:30.

can be many layers and I can construct chord structures, so I

:24:30.:24:40.
:24:40.:24:44.

can play in harmonic structures. is so iconic and I think most

:24:44.:24:50.

people will have heard the theremin even if they have not realised it.

:24:50.:24:57.

It has influenced film music, effects. It is still a flexible

:24:57.:25:02.

instrument and works in a classical context as well as a range of other

:25:02.:25:12.
:25:12.:25:13.

musical genres. And so at the theremin came to Scarborough, a

:25:13.:25:21.

futuristic instrument in an old Yorkshire town. The music is taken

:25:21.:25:31.
:25:31.:25:38.

to places as distant as diverse as I still do not really understand it,

:25:38.:25:43.

but there we are. Our main news: The United Nations says it could

:25:43.:25:48.

take 30 years to clear up pollution from oil operations in the

:25:49.:25:52.

Ogoniland region of Nigeria. A report by the UN Environment

:25:52.:25:57.

Programme says oil spills have contaminated land, sea and air,

:25:57.:26:01.

seriously threatening public health in some parts of the region. It

:26:01.:26:05.

also said the oil giant Shell had not followed its own guidelines on

:26:05.:26:09.

maintaining infrastructure, but it also said local people had

:26:09.:26:16.

endangered lives by breaking into pipelines to steal oil. The head of

:26:16.:26:19.

the European Commission has warned that saving grace was not enough

:26:20.:26:24.

for the euro-zone to avert a financial crisis. Now Italy and

:26:24.:26:28.

Spain are struggling with a loss of market confidence and that is

:26:28.:26:34.

triggering a downfall in European and US stock markets. Jose Manuel

:26:34.:26:39.

Barroso also added there was a fear or the problems were spreading

:26:39.:26:43.

beyond the periphery of those countries using the euro. That is

:26:43.:26:53.
:26:53.:27:01.

about it for now. Next, the weather. Today's reign is clearing away. It

:27:01.:27:04.

is going to bring a fresher feel and a more Cover to Barack Obama

:27:04.:27:07.

for sleeping and a brighter day tomorrow with some spells of

:27:07.:27:12.

sunshine. The warmest weather is across East Anglia and the south-

:27:12.:27:16.

east of England. This area of low pressure brought the rain, some of

:27:16.:27:22.

it quite heavy, especially in southern counties of England. On

:27:22.:27:25.

Friday the cloud will come and go and there will be some spells of

:27:25.:27:31.

sunshine with the odd, light shower. Some Sunny spells for the North of

:27:31.:27:36.

England. Temperatures not that exciting, 19 or 20 degrees. It will

:27:36.:27:42.

be warmer in the south-east, possibly getting as high as 25. It

:27:42.:27:46.

will feel quite pleasant, actually. In the south-west it will not be

:27:46.:27:52.

quite as warm. There will be cloud and a bit of sunshine in between.

:27:52.:27:57.

In Wales temperatures could get as high as 21 degrees. Across Northern

:27:57.:28:03.

Ireland there will be the odd shower around, but they will not be

:28:03.:28:09.

as heavy as we have seen to date. One or two showers in western

:28:09.:28:14.

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