22/08/2011 World News Today


22/08/2011

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This is BBC World News Today. The Gaddafi era draws to a close:

:00:11.:00:21.
:00:21.:00:22.

Libyan rebels say they now control 95% of the capital Tripoli. He has

:00:22.:00:30.

played his last card, his last game. And even his army have lost control.

:00:30.:00:33.

The whereabouts of Gaddafi is unknown, but three of his sons,

:00:33.:00:37.

including his heir, Saif Al-Islam, are detained by rebels in Libya.

:00:37.:00:42.

Who will fill the power vacuum in post-Gaddafi Libya? We talk to a

:00:42.:00:44.

key member of the National Transitional Council who is

:00:44.:00:49.

spearheading reconstruction efforts. And world leaders welcome the

:00:49.:00:52.

rebels' progress in their battle to topple Gaddafi and urge a peaceful

:00:52.:01:02.
:01:02.:01:18.

Hello and welcome to the programme, devoted today to the historic and

:01:18.:01:23.

fast-moving events in Libya. Rebels now control nearly all of the

:01:23.:01:25.

capital Tripoli, except for a few pockets of fierce resistance by

:01:25.:01:33.

diehard supporters of Colonel Gaddafi. It has not been much of a

:01:33.:01:36.

battle either. Opposition to the rebels seems to have mostly just

:01:36.:01:40.

melted away in Tripoli. Gaddafi's most powerful sons are under arrest

:01:40.:01:45.

and the state TV station is off-air. But the rebels won't declare

:01:45.:01:49.

victory until Gaddafi himself is captured. With the latest from

:01:49.:01:59.
:01:59.:02:00.

Tripoli, here's Matthew Price. On the streets of Tripoli, a

:02:01.:02:06.

revolution. They chanted their new Libyan national anthem, and flew

:02:06.:02:10.

the fact -- flew the flag of what they believe is the new, free Libya.

:02:10.:02:17.

Gaddafi, your time is up, they cried. The burbles sped into the

:02:17.:02:23.

capital with astonishing speed. -- the rebels. Moving into Green

:02:23.:02:30.

Square, they tore down his posters and flags. Three miles to the south,

:02:30.:02:35.

in a hotel, it we watched as Colonel Gaddafi's spokesman held

:02:35.:02:40.

what may be his last press conference. Tripoli is well

:02:40.:02:46.

protected, and we have thousands of professional soldiers who are ready

:02:46.:02:52.

to defend the city. But even as he was speaking, the

:02:52.:03:01.

rebels were celebrating, trampling the leader they have come to

:03:01.:03:05.

despise. Today, rebel forces continued to stream into Tripoli,

:03:05.:03:10.

believing they were on the verge of a victory. This is a city of

:03:10.:03:15.

checkpoints, of men protecting their neighbourhoods, wary of what

:03:15.:03:23.

Gaddafi's forces may do next. In areas, there has been fierce

:03:23.:03:28.

fighting. Battles have raged around Gaddafi's compound. Gunfire and

:03:28.:03:32.

explosions can be heard. The Gaddafi family is under pressure

:03:32.:03:40.

like never before. Last night, news came off another son, Saif Al-Islam,

:03:40.:03:48.

being arrested. Then, on Al-Jazeera, another Gaddafi son was live on air

:03:48.:03:58.
:03:58.:04:01.

when rebels seized him. I am being attacked right now. This is gunfire,

:04:01.:04:11.
:04:11.:04:14.

inside my house. They are inside my house!

:04:14.:04:18.

But what of Colonel Gaddafi himself? He made a radio address

:04:18.:04:26.

last night, calling on supporters to rise up. Is he in Tripoli? His

:04:26.:04:32.

home town? And what is he planning? 's this city is not under

:04:32.:04:36.

opposition control. Here in the hotel, where journalists have

:04:36.:04:42.

stayed, Gaddafi supporters are in charge both inside and on the

:04:42.:04:46.

streets. It is hard to determine how much of the city this still

:04:47.:04:51.

hold, but the battle for Tripoli is not yet over.

:04:51.:04:57.

NATO has continued its air strikes. Without its air support, the rebels

:04:57.:05:02.

would not be in the strong position they find themselves now. And

:05:02.:05:09.

Libyan state television, has now fallen off their. Still, opposition

:05:09.:05:14.

supporters are confident to be freely talking about the new Libya.

:05:14.:05:21.

-- fallen off air. He has played his last card, his

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last game. And even his bigger army, they have lost control. All the

:05:30.:05:36.

army of Gaddafi now, they fight without any order or anything.

:05:36.:05:41.

If he is, it will his supporters laid down their guns, or fight to

:05:41.:05:47.

the last? -- laid down. In six months, the conflict in

:05:47.:05:49.

Libya has been characterised by swings in the fortunes of the

:05:49.:05:53.

rebels. But in the past few days, the rebels have advanced at a rapid

:05:53.:05:57.

pace. From the west, they have been approaching from the strategic town

:05:57.:06:00.

of Zawiya, which fell at the weekend, just a 30 minute drive

:06:00.:06:04.

from the capital. On the eastern front, they have been moving in

:06:04.:06:07.

from Zlitan, nearly 100 miles from Tripoli. And in the south, another

:06:07.:06:12.

rebel convoy has been making swift progress. Our correspondent is with

:06:12.:06:15.

a convoy of rebels which earlier today managed to enter the centre

:06:15.:06:23.

of Tripoli. This morning, as we have come into

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Tripoli, very quiet. The few sides -- few sounds of shooting in the

:06:32.:06:40.

background. This is all we are seeing, groups of young men at

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celebrating. So far, no signs of fighting in the city. Everything

:06:45.:06:55.
:06:55.:06:55.

looks very quiet. We have just come into the centre

:06:55.:07:01.

of Tripoli. We have come up against this roadblock. They say there is

:07:01.:07:08.

still fighting going on up ahead. They are bringing up rebel fighters.

:07:08.:07:13.

They have just past us in the car here. Where is Gaddafi? Nobody

:07:13.:07:23.
:07:23.:07:30.

knows! He maybe in the earth! Maybe here. He is hiding somewhere?

:07:30.:07:38.

scared. Although it appears very quiet in

:07:38.:07:43.

Tripoli this morning, it is also very tense, and they are still

:07:43.:07:47.

parts of the city not under rebel control, and still resistance going

:07:47.:07:54.

on. Then we came across a convoy heading into the city. Little do

:07:54.:08:00.

these fighters know what lay in store ahead. We decided to follow

:08:00.:08:07.

them as they headed along the seafront towards the city centre.

:08:07.:08:12.

Up ahead, there are still signs of fighting. But then we ran straight

:08:12.:08:18.

into an ambush. We saw a 20mm anti- aircraft cannon firing into the

:08:18.:08:28.
:08:28.:08:48.

It is clear that despite the celebrations, this is still a city

:08:48.:08:58.
:08:58.:09:00.

that is far from safe also cure. We can cross live to our

:09:00.:09:01.

correspondent. Misrata, to the east of Tripoli,

:09:01.:09:04.

has been the scene of very fierce fighting. Last night, there were

:09:04.:09:07.

celebrations in the streets. We can talk to our correspondent in

:09:07.:09:15.

Misrata. There is jubilation here. They have been through an

:09:15.:09:21.

extraordinary ordeal here. I don't think anybody expected to see their

:09:21.:09:26.

forces breaking into the capital this soon. It has been planned a

:09:26.:09:33.

long time, the military committee here who led the battle to force

:09:33.:09:38.

Gaddafi's forces are out of the city, they helped to plan this

:09:38.:09:46.

uprising. It was a joint uprising in Tripoli. Forces going from here,

:09:46.:09:52.

they cannot get here by road. The road is blocked. But several

:09:52.:09:57.

hundreds of them went by boat instead, and joined the uprising in

:09:57.:10:05.

Tripoli. They are pleased that operation has gone well, they are

:10:05.:10:11.

planned it was better organised than previous opposition attempts.

:10:11.:10:17.

There is also a realisation that it is not yet over. They are not yet

:10:17.:10:24.

Pope -- not yet to be able to open the road. When that road has open,

:10:24.:10:29.

they can say western Libya is in opposition hands.

:10:29.:10:32.

As the Gaddafi regime crumbles, it is by no means certain that peace

:10:32.:10:35.

and stability will follow. After four decades of repression and one-

:10:35.:10:37.

man rule, the challenges of transforming Libya into a free and

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democratic country are tremendous. Many of the tribal, ethnic and

:10:43.:10:48.

ideological divisions in Libya are reflected within rebel ranks. And

:10:48.:10:51.

though the goal of removing Gaddafi has unified them, that unity could

:10:51.:10:57.

unravel once he is gone. Some of the prominent rebel leaders, like

:10:57.:10:59.

the chairman of the National Transition Council, Mustafa Abdel

:10:59.:11:02.

Jalil, were senior members of Gaddafi's government before they

:11:02.:11:08.

defected and are viewed with suspicion by some Libyans. The

:11:09.:11:11.

mysterious death last month of the rebels' military commander, Abdel

:11:11.:11:16.

Fattah Younes, suggests there are fractures amongst their ranks.

:11:16.:11:19.

General Younes, who was an interior minister under Gaddafi, is believed

:11:19.:11:24.

to have been killed by rebel fighters. One of the key members of

:11:24.:11:26.

Libya's National Transitional Council is Ahmed Jehani, who serves

:11:26.:11:28.

as the National Transitional Council's minister for

:11:28.:11:34.

Reconstruction and Infrastructure. He joins me now from Dubai, where

:11:34.:11:36.

the National Transitional Council has established its headquarters

:11:36.:11:46.
:11:46.:11:49.

outside Libya. Tell me, do you speak with one voice? We know the

:11:49.:11:55.

existence of divisions and factions within your movement. We are

:11:55.:12:02.

learning to be democratic, so we are allowing 100 flowers to bloom.

:12:02.:12:08.

But we do speak with one voice on the basic and main challenges

:12:08.:12:14.

facing us. A do you believe you have the confidence and authority

:12:14.:12:22.

of the Libyan people to do what you believe needs to be done? Yes, the

:12:22.:12:27.

Libyan people have spoken so loudly, that they want to express their

:12:27.:12:36.

views, and reach their objective of having a democratic state. We are

:12:36.:12:41.

helping at this process. As Libyans, most of us are volunteering to

:12:41.:12:48.

bring about a stable, secure all and just framework and environment

:12:48.:12:54.

within which democracy will express itself. The mandate is the Libyan

:12:54.:13:00.

people wanting what we want. We are all part of that. Our institutions

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are evolving to deal with different phases. This phase is transitional.

:13:07.:13:14.

Many of the ideas for transitions are geared towards nation-building,

:13:14.:13:21.

such as reconciliation, and hopefully this will lead to the

:13:21.:13:27.

constitutional live we are aiming for. If you look at post conflict

:13:27.:13:33.

Egypt, we can see there is a political uncertainty, crime has

:13:33.:13:39.

risen substantially. How can you restore order and minimise unrest?

:13:39.:13:47.

There are huge fears about reprisals, obviously. We have been

:13:47.:13:56.

thinking hard for the last few months on the day when our lives

:13:56.:14:04.

were taken away from us. Now we are reclaiming it with a very serious

:14:04.:14:11.

and hard headed attitude. There are issues of security, of course. We

:14:11.:14:18.

are seeking help from the international community, and we are

:14:18.:14:25.

addressing the operational side of bed, making sure there is no

:14:25.:14:30.

destabilisation of the security aberrations -- security apparatus

:14:30.:14:36.

that exists. We are dealing with different countries here. Libya is

:14:36.:14:46.
:14:46.:14:47.

smaller than Egypt. Libya is also fast. On this building security

:14:47.:14:53.

apparatus, we understand they are specially trained forces trained

:14:53.:14:58.

outside Libya. When will they go in to restore order, and do you want

:14:58.:15:04.

for some -- do you want help from the international community?

:15:04.:15:14.
:15:14.:15:15.

Briefly, please. We are training at work people in Libya. We are

:15:15.:15:20.

seeking the help of countries friendly to us. They it will be

:15:20.:15:30.
:15:30.:15:33.

training our people, and we are getting equipment and cars and

:15:33.:15:39.

uniforms. That is the story. Very quickly, how do you fill with

:15:39.:15:49.
:15:49.:15:51.

today's events? -- How do you feel. It is the first day of our lives.

:15:51.:16:01.
:16:01.:16:07.

We are taking things very seriously, In a statement today, the Prime

:16:07.:16:09.

Minister here David Cameron said Colonel Gaddafi's regime is "in

:16:09.:16:12.

full retreat", but he added that the challenges ahead should not be

:16:12.:16:14.

underestimated. Our Diplomatic Correspondent James Robbins reports

:16:14.:16:17.

on the international reaction to today's events and looks towards

:16:17.:16:23.

Libya's future. As rebels swept into Tripoli, they have much to

:16:23.:16:27.

celebrate. Dislodging Colonel Gaddafi was extraordinarily

:16:27.:16:31.

difficult and dangerous. It required outside help and then the

:16:31.:16:35.

talk air campaign. The future for Libya remains uncertain and full of

:16:35.:16:39.

risk, so well David Cameron peeled the achievement he did not hide

:16:39.:16:45.

from the future challenges. There will be difficult you might, K.

:16:45.:16:50.

Transition is never smooth or easy. But today, the Arab spring is one

:16:50.:16:53.

step further away from repression and dictatorship and one step

:16:53.:16:57.

closer to freedom and democracy, and the Libyan people are closer to

:16:57.:17:02.

their dream of a better future, Lady from the terror of Gaddafi.

:17:02.:17:10.

Can that dream up better future be made real? Rebels have been

:17:10.:17:20.
:17:20.:17:20.

persuaded not to take revenge on Gaddafi loyalists. By Colin all

:17:20.:17:24.

Libyans to exercise self-restraint, and to respect of property and

:17:24.:17:29.

lives of others, said they head of the rebel cows have. It is the

:17:29.:17:32.

memory of Iraq after the toppling of Saddam Hussein which is the

:17:32.:17:38.

nightmare, looting, Naeem and the descent into sectarian killing. But

:17:38.:17:44.

Libya is not Iraq, but your position can 0.2 cities they hold

:17:44.:17:50.

where law and order have not broken down. Rebels failed to prevent the

:17:50.:17:55.

murder of General Abdul Younis, and accusations that he was the victim

:17:55.:17:59.

of a power struggle. Looking further into the future, the number

:17:59.:18:04.

one priority is transforming dictatorship into democracy. The

:18:04.:18:08.

rebel opposition has drafted a new constitution. It promises a

:18:08.:18:14.

democratic state based on law rather than tribal or personal

:18:14.:18:20.

loyalty. It promises freedom of opinion, demonstration and mass

:18:20.:18:26.

media. These are now just once, but the opposition NTC says that it is

:18:26.:18:33.

committed to deliver. The NPC has, within its power, to show the West,

:18:33.:18:39.

including showing members of ambivalent tribes that it is going

:18:39.:18:44.

to move in line with professed liberal values. If it does that

:18:44.:18:47.

early on and persuades people it has an excellent chance of avoiding

:18:47.:18:56.

what happened MIraq. As the opposition celebrate in Benghazi,

:18:56.:19:00.

its opposition will now come under intense scrutiny. Prospects are far

:19:00.:19:06.

better than in Iraq because the Arab world was largely united

:19:06.:19:14.

against Gaddafi, but still, it risks remain. With the battle for

:19:14.:19:17.

Libya in its final stages, the whereabouts of Colonel Gaddafi is

:19:17.:19:19.

still not known. There's speculation that he's under siege

:19:19.:19:24.

in a part of Tripoli under his control. The White House has said

:19:24.:19:27.

it believes Gaddafi is in Libya. Colonel Gaddafi himself has always

:19:27.:19:32.

maintained he'll remain in Tripoli. With his four decades in power

:19:32.:19:35.

drawing to a close, Allan Little looks at the man who's inspired

:19:35.:19:42.

fear at home and funded terrorism abroad. Is there something in the

:19:42.:19:45.

mind set of dictators that makes them blind to their own impending

:19:45.:19:51.

downfall? This bizarre moment came in February, as rebel forces had

:19:51.:19:58.

reportedly seized half his country. He seemed to imagine himself in --

:19:58.:20:03.

invincible. They love me and would die to protect me, the Libyan

:20:03.:20:11.

people. Gadaffi seized power in a coup d'etat in 1969, aged 27. Soon

:20:11.:20:15.

his regime was marked by brutal repression at home and violence

:20:15.:20:20.

abroad and Libya became isolated and fear. He back armed groups

:20:20.:20:25.

around the world, and he helped arm the IRA. In 1984, someone opened

:20:25.:20:29.

fire from inside the Libyan embassy in that London and policewoman

:20:29.:20:32.

Yvonne Fletcher was killed. Nobody was ever brought to justice. Two

:20:32.:20:39.

years later the United States blamed Libya for a bomb attack on a

:20:39.:20:43.

Berlin nightclub that was full of US servicemen. The Americans born

:20:43.:20:48.

his compound. He survived, defiant, strengthened in his own sense of

:20:48.:20:56.

himself as heroic defender of the week against a strong. -- there are

:20:56.:21:01.

strong. 270 died when a Pan Am jet en route to New York was bowled

:21:01.:21:07.

over Lockerbie. The investigation is let to two Libyan agents and

:21:07.:21:12.

Gadaffi refused to hand them over, but in 1999 he began a process that

:21:12.:21:16.

would change his relationship with the outside world, first sending

:21:16.:21:20.

the Lockerbie suspects for trial, then he announced he was renouncing

:21:20.:21:24.

weapons of mass destruction to become an ally in mind the war on

:21:24.:21:30.

terror. Western leaders embraced him. A for a country is prepared to

:21:30.:21:34.

say that we're going to give up chemical and nuclear weapons

:21:34.:21:38.

capability and we want a ceasefire, deceased ties with terrorist groups,

:21:38.:21:44.

then we should open up to that. This required the diplomatic blind

:21:44.:21:50.

eye to his continuing brutality at home, where he and his family were

:21:50.:21:56.

feared and reviled. A popular uprising began in February and NATO

:21:56.:22:00.

intervened in March, but he seemed to still believe in his impregnable

:22:00.:22:08.

hold on power. Tonight, his personal fate remains undecided.

:22:08.:22:15.

But his 42 year regime, his ability to rein through terror, is surely

:22:15.:22:25.
:22:25.:22:26.

now over. Andrew Mitchell is the International Development Secretary

:22:26.:22:34.

in the UK. The Secretary of State said that everyone is mindful of

:22:34.:22:40.

Iraq, our new also taking the lead in but post conflict planning here?

:22:40.:22:47.

We are not taking the lead, but we will seek to learn lessons from a

:22:47.:22:53.

rack. When I say we're not taking the lead, because the ownership of

:22:53.:22:57.

the post gauntlet stabilisation must rest with the people in Libya.

:22:57.:23:04.

What are you doing to support the n t see? We are heavily engaged and

:23:04.:23:09.

have been for some months. We deployed a large team of

:23:09.:23:14.

stabilisation experts into Benghazi. They were there for two weeks,

:23:14.:23:18.

working with other coalition allies on stabilisation issues,

:23:18.:23:25.

interacting with the rebels, and heavily engaged in workshops with

:23:25.:23:31.

them to help develop the plan. But stabilisation, which will always be

:23:31.:23:34.

complex and difficult is something in which Britain has some

:23:34.:23:39.

experience, and I am proud and pleased about the leadership we

:23:39.:23:45.

have shown on that, but at the end of the day, it has to be owned and

:23:45.:23:49.

run and organised by the end T C. We have provided a service to them

:23:49.:23:55.

to try and achieve that. Would that service extent to British forces

:23:55.:24:01.

supporting, training, inside Libya, Libyan forces, to maintain

:24:01.:24:07.

stability? That is extremely unlikely, not least because the NTC

:24:07.:24:12.

has not asked for that sort of support. We are engaged in other

:24:12.:24:19.

areas of security and justice, with providing technical assistance, and

:24:19.:24:24.

a significant workshop with the NTC is going on today in Dubai. There

:24:24.:24:29.

are several civil -- stabilisation expires across Whitehall who are

:24:29.:24:35.

working with the n t c in a post conflict situation to develop

:24:35.:24:42.

justice and security. In terms of support like that, Britain will be

:24:42.:24:47.

significantly engaged. Are you confident that the National

:24:47.:24:50.

Transitional Council does not have divisions within it, because there

:24:50.:24:56.

are concerns that it is mostly made up of Libyans from the east and

:24:56.:25:00.

that the Western rebels are not so well represented? The National

:25:01.:25:05.

Transitional Council has been discussing with leaders of the free

:25:05.:25:11.

were being forces in Tripoli. Its leader said in his press conference

:25:11.:25:16.

today that this is a group that is both national and transitional.

:25:16.:25:19.

What we will see in the next few days is a commitment to a process

:25:19.:25:24.

that will last about eight months, that will produce a new

:25:24.:25:33.

constitution and free elections at the end of that. The rebels swept

:25:33.:25:36.

into many areas of Tripoli with speed that took many by surprise.

:25:36.:25:39.

There were big celebrations in the opposition stronghold of Benghazi

:25:39.:25:42.

in the east but the capital still faces an uncertain few days. Here

:25:42.:25:45.

are some of Tripoli's residents with their own story of the past 24

:25:45.:25:54.

hours. The Freedom fighters arrived and by evening the were in Green

:25:54.:25:58.

Square in Shipperley, it is a great moment for us, a beautiful day for

:25:58.:26:08.
:26:08.:26:10.

us. -- in Tripoli. The rebels are prepared. They are not looking to

:26:10.:26:20.
:26:20.:26:23.

hire people. -- hurt people. Will local people in naturally and in

:26:23.:26:31.

control of their neighbourhoods and control their memories. But it is -

:26:31.:26:38.

- they are under fire from moment to moment. We cannot feel peace, we

:26:38.:26:48.
:26:48.:26:49.

cannot feel victory, until we see Gadaffi toppled. The future is

:26:49.:26:55.

freedom, and not everyone gets this chance, to start on a new blank

:26:55.:27:05.
:27:05.:27:08.

Things are changing overnight. We are looking to the south. We're

:27:08.:27:12.

getting some thundery downpours spilling into someone areas. We

:27:12.:27:17.

have been watching developments in northern France, where there have

:27:17.:27:22.

been some intense downpours. Some of these will appear from the north

:27:22.:27:26.

on Tuesday morning. Whilst at risk for torrential thundery downpours

:27:26.:27:31.

for the washer is an area from East Anglia down through the South East,

:27:31.:27:36.

and central southern England. Rainfall amounts will be variable.

:27:36.:27:41.

Some places will get 50 mm or more. That could cause some local

:27:41.:27:46.

flooding. South West England will be dry, but we have won the of rain

:27:46.:27:52.

running into eastern parts of South West England, in two wheels

:27:52.:27:56.

although Western Wales should avoid the worst. It will be dry and

:27:56.:28:02.

bright in Northern Ireland, some showers in Scotland, and showers

:28:02.:28:06.

will be heavy and were frequent compared to today. We're seeing the

:28:06.:28:10.

worst of the thundery, potential downpours cleaning into the North

:28:10.:28:16.

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