08/09/2011 World News Today


08/09/2011

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This is BBC World News Today. With me, Zeinab Badawi. A public inquiry

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condemns the appalling violence carried out by British soldiers

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that led to the death of an Iraqi civilian in 2003. My judgment is

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that they constituted appalling effort and -- episode of serious,

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gratuitous violence on civilians. President Medvedev condemns

:00:34.:00:37.

Russia's air safety record after Wednesday's plane crash which

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killed most members of a top ice hockey team. Guilty, the British

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designer John Galliano was fined 6,000 euros for making anti-Semitic

:00:48.:00:53.

remarks during a drunken outburst in Paris. Could the famine in

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Somalia help end the conflict between the interim government and

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the militant Al-Shabab group? The country's Prime Minister offers an

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olive branch. Everybody who wants to talk to has come as big with us,

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joiners, save Somalia from itself, we will talk to them. And the two

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million-year-old fossils that could overturn conventional thinking on

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:01:25.:01:32.

Hello, welcome. The death of Baha Mousa was one of the most appalling

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incidents of abuse by Western soldiers during the Iraq War. The

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young Iraqi hotel worker died after sustaining 93 external wounds

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whilst he was in the custody of British troops in the southern city

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of Basra. The language used by an independent public inquiry here was

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blunt. It said, his death had left a great stain on Britain's armed

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forces. Our world affairs correspondent Caroline Hawley has

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this report. In a makeshift detention facility

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eight years ago a killing that cast a shadow over the army's reputation.

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Baha Mousa had just lost his wife to cancer when he was detained by

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British troops. Over the next 36 hours he and nine other detainees

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were hooded, forced into painful positions and badly beaten. When

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Baha Mousa died he had 93 separate injuries. My judgment is that it

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constituted an appalling episode of serious, gratuitous violence on

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civilians which resulted in the death of one man and injuries to

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others. They represented a very serious breach of discipline.

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Footage from the detention facility shows Corporal Donald Payne

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shouting obscenities at the Iraqis. He is the only man to have been

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punished in any way for what happened here. The use of pudding

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and stress positions are against international law and had been

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banned by the British government in 1972 -- hoods. It was an Army major

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that instructed the soldiers to use them. The inquiry heard it was

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standard operating procedure. The report blamed they use on a

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corporate failure that the Ministry of Defence. It said that stress

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positions and hoods were wholly unacceptable in any circumstances.

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It also found that many soldiers had a sort of the Iraqis, even more

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had failed to intervene. There had been, it said, a lack of moral

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courage. It is clearly a truly shocking and appalling incident.

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Pictured not have happened. It should never be allowed to happen

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again. -- it should not have happened. The British Army should

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uphold the highest standards. inquiry found that Major Michael

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Peebles had news that detainees had been assaulted. He is accused of an

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acceptable failure. It said that if Lieutenant Craig Rodgers had acted

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when he first knew what was happening, Baha Mousa would almost

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certainly have survived. It found that the commander of the Regiment,

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Colonel Jorge Mendonca, ought to have known what was going on. And

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that Corporal Payne was a violent Paul Leigh who tried to cover up

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what he had done. No doubt the Director of Public Prosecutions and

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the Director of Public Service prosecutions are reading the report

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and they will be considering the war crimes of torture, inhumane

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treatment and submitting people to grossly humiliating behaviour.

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There is a number of people who have every reason to be very, very

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worried. Back in the Middle East family still grieving. Baha Mousa's

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father had to identify his son's body. In my heart I love Baha Mousa.

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He was a good son. Baha Mousa's two children are now growing up without

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a father. Today, the soldier who tried to resuscitate him expressed

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deep remorse. I could not say in enough words how sorry but only for

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myself but for those that were involved in his death, whether you

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hit him or you did not hit him, you have your responsibility for his

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desk that day. Baha Mousa is buried in Iraq's holiest city. Today's

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reporting to his death is a big step towards accountability but the

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scandal over what happened to him has not yet been laid to rest.

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The death of Mark -- of Baha Mousa was one of several examples of

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prisoner reduce by foreign troops during the past decade since the

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September 11th attacks. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and detention

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centre with the US in Guantanamo Bay have led to many criticisms of

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human rights abuses. Kurt Volker is a former US ambassador to NATO and

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also served in the Bush Administration and joins us from

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Washington. Kurt Volker, how far do you think George Bush's war on

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terror created a kind of climate whereby this kind of incident might

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have happened more recently, more readily? You know, I think it is

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wrong to blame it on a climate. I think when you look at the

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inquiry's report, he made a very clear. About the rules and

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procedures that are allowable and what are not allowable and making

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sure that is well known in advance and part of the training that will

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just get. We put soldiers and were very difficult climate, in a war-

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zone, they are there to conduct combat, people were trying to kill

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them. It is extremely stressful and they are asked to make decisions on

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a split second sometimes. A very difficult environment to be in.

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That is why it is so important they have clear routes -- rules and when

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abuses do happen, as we have had from American and British forces,

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it is important they be investigated and dealt with

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appropriately, but the key thing is to make sure the rules are clear.

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Just looking at the wider picture, ten years since the September 11th

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attacks, we did see in the war on terror things like detention

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without trial, you have the accusations of rendition,

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extraordinary rendition, the invasion of Iraq was illegal by

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make people's standards and so this kind of climate is not conducive

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necessarily to do the observance of civil liberties, if that is what

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the politicians are saying at the time? A think it is very important

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to get the legal frameworks right and did we have not yet done this.

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You have a gap between what is domestic criminal justice systems

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and protection of civil -- civil liberties and so forth, and you

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have an area where you are talking about the laws of armed conflict

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and war, and you're talking about terrorist groups, suicide bombers,

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Al-Qaeda, who do not follow the laws of war, do not belong to a

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state, do not wear uniforms, so we are forced into a grey area of how

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you deal with these situations. We have picked up people, held them as

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combatants in a conflict, in a normal war you would hold them to

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the end of the conflict, this is not a normal ward and we are not

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comfortable saying we will hold people forever but we don't know

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issues, there is ambiguity about treatment, certainly in the British

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cases we have heard, also true in American cases, where we have a

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clear prohibition against torture, where that line was drawn in terms

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of what is a tough interrogation officers what is more physical

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abuse, was not a clear line. That has since been clarified and the US

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system but I do think... You are talking there about the enhancing -

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- the enhanced Territt -- interrogation techniques, such as

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waterboarding, which some people call torture. Do you think the

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policies that we did see in the war on terror have actually resulted

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now in making the world a safer place? I think in a number of ways

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they have forced up in a number of ways we have seen terrible results

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at the same time. Life happens in the world. We have significantly

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weakened Al-Qaeda. Iraq now has a better government than it had under

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Saddam per se. It has suffered tremendously through a civil war

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however. You see people in the Arab world, the Muslim world, rise up to

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demand rights from the Rhone leaders in ways that was not the

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case before. They are being squeezed between this trap of on

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the one hand being accused of being Islamist terrorists come on the

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other hand seeing these harsh dictatorial regimes in their rent

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societies finally caused people to come out to say we demand better

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rights and freedoms in our own countries. I do think we are seeing

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in the Arab world right now one of the most hopeful things that we are

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seeing in this decade. Ambassador Kurt Volker, thank you for joining

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us from Washington. Now the other main use. NATO forces

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in Afghanistan have admitted that a BBC reporter killed in a July in

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the south of the country was shot dead by a US soldier who was took

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him for a suicide bomber. -- Mr Kim. Ahmed Omed Khpulwak was caught up

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in a suicide attack. Initial reports suggested he was killed by

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the Taleban. A group of 20 medical staff in

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Bahrain, charged with incitement to overthrow the government earlier

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this year, have been released on bail. They were the last of 47

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staff at the main hospital in the capital Manama who had been accused

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of harbouring extremists and concealing weapons. Their families

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say they were tortured into making confessions.

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The Russian President Dmitri Medvedev says they must be so swift

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action to improve aviation safety after a plane crash that killed

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most members of one of Russia's top hockey teams -- ice hockey teams.

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The players from Lokomotiv Yaroslavl were killed when their

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plane failed to take off on Wednesday. President Medvedev said

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the number of Russian bear characters -- carriers must be

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reduced radically. Steve Rosenberg reports.

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In the river to Russia are to search continued into the morning,

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for survivors but wreckage of the plane and bodies. Dmitri Medvedev

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had been due here for a political conference but he began his day

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here. At the sight of the air crash he laid roses and bowed his head in

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honour of the dead. Later President Medvedev criticised the safety

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record of Russian airlines. He warned that if his country could

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not produce reliable aircraft it would have to buy foreign aid

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planes. The Yak-42 jet had crashed here in a ball of flames soon after

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board were killed. Among the dead were players, coaches and officials

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from one of Russia's Top ice hockey teams, Lokomotiv Yaroslavl. The

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team had a Canadian trainer and star players from Sweden, Slovakia

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and the Czech Republic. Today, the fans gathered outside the club's

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stadium. They laid fan -- flowers and lit candles and they stood

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staring in disbelief that their hockey team had been wiped out.

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Russians have grown used to hearing of these kinds of disasters in

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their country. Of planes crashing, pleasure boats sinking, but this

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latest tragedy has caused particular shock and anger here.

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With a plane crash wiping out almost an entire ice hockey team.

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The 50-year-old British fashion designer John Galliano has been

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found guilty of anti-Semitic -- Anti-Semitism by a court in Paris.

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He was given a suspended fine of 6,000 euros for a series of drunken

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outbursts against fellow customers in a Paris bar. John Galliano was

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sacked from the fashion house d'Or in March. The court also ordered

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him to pay a symbolic one euros win damages to each of his victims. ILA

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Paris correspondent Christian Fraser has the story.

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The king of high fashion ruined by anti-Semitic insults that cost him

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a million dollar career. Today, John Galliano's shame was complete,

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a guilty verdict of the suspended fine tells you that judges had

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certain sympathy. There is actually no penalty so to speak which is a

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very strong signed by the court because it shows the court took

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into account is sincere apology, the fact that Mr Galliano has

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entered treatment for his addiction. He was arrested in July over a

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series of complaints from people who he had abused. The court was

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shown a video filmed in a bar in which Mr Galliano was heard

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glorifying the Holocaust. On another occasion he told art

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curator Geraldine Bloch she had, a dirty Jewish face. The designer

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admitted on that particular night he had been drinking heavily at

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this bar. On a cocktail of Valium and sleeping pills. John Galliano

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was a regular at La Perle Bar but his behaviour, said staff, had

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become increasingly erratic. He told the court he had no

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recollection of the knights who was arrested but so common were these

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outbursts the chauffeur had instructions to call the designer's

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lawyer if the rows became too heated. Mr Galliano's friends

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blamed the workload. He oversaw 12 new collections the year for the

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Dior. The pressure dramatically decreased in 2007 with the death of

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his partner at first assistant, Stephen Robinson, who died of an

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overdose. -- increased. I think it is impossible for anybody to be

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creative and respond to these demands that are increasing on one

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single person. Of course Dior could also have accompanied him in a

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different manner, could have tried to replace his first assistant who

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was also his very, very close friend. He was fired by Dior after

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his arrest. This summer he did pick up a pencil to start Kate Moss's

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wedding dress, part of my creative therapy, he told Vogue magazine. As

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for Dior, they are yet to appoint his successor but the rumours are

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they like the look of Marc Jacobs, an American designer was Jewish

:15:12.:15:22.
:15:22.:15:28.

The transitional federal Government in say Somalia is willing to talk

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to a rebel group. It was said that an international gathering in

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Nairobi that the head of the country would talking anyone

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willing to save Somalia. 3 million Somali Zara Prescott dying from

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famine within the next few months. Government representatives from

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across the region are here at this summit on the famine. The aim is to

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come up with an action plan to be signed by the heads of State. They

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want to ensure that the next time a drought hits it does not cause a

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humanitarian catastrophe. Right now more than 13 million people across

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the region are addressed. This is the epicentre of the crisis,

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Somalia, where the UN says the famine is still spreading.

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Humanitarian agencies are still delivering food but the effort in

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the south of the country is hampered by the ongoing war of. The

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:16:42.:16:46.

group which controls the worst area is Neen there are not aid packages

:16:46.:16:56.
:16:56.:16:56.

getting to people. Anybody who can talk to us or speak with us to help

:16:57.:17:03.

as save so Malawians we will talk to them. There is a glimmer of hope

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that the dire situation could provoke the warring factions to put

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aside their differences. Kenya's foreign minister says if expensive

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military campaigns could be funded by the West then surely money could

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be found to save lives. We are continuously reminding the rest of

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the world that if they can spend billions of dollars to drive out

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Gaddafi they can spell a little of that to save the dying people in

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the Horn of Africa. This crisis will not be solved by a few heads

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of State flying in to sign a bit of paper but it will remind the world

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that the famine is still causing misery for millions across this

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region and the humanitarian response will be needed for months

:17:53.:17:59.

to come. The United Nations envoy to Somalia took a break from those

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discussions at the gathering in Nairobi to talk to us. He told us

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that more donor funding is needed. There has been a very generous

:18:10.:18:16.

response so far but out of the estimated $1 billion that is

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required for the next six months to address the famine, or only 300

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million have been received so far. The effort is continuing. This

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meeting is very important to help reach the target. What is the key

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thing you want to see happen in this area to ensure people are not

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starving? Firstly we must have policies that are addressing the

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root causes of drought and implementing the measures that are

:18:54.:19:04.
:19:04.:19:05.

needed in a full security, water management and land use. The whole

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question of pastoralists in this part of the world has -- who have

:19:10.:19:14.

lost their livestock in the past few months. We hear the Government

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are trying to speak to members of the rebel groups so that they can

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go to the areas where they are in control, is that the case and would

:19:23.:19:30.

that not be legitimising a militant group? Humanitarian access and

:19:30.:19:34.

security for humanitarian workers is one issue. Political

:19:34.:19:44.
:19:44.:19:45.

negotiations is another. The group should renounce violence, laid down

:19:45.:19:52.

their arms and joined the peace process. There may be promising

:19:52.:19:58.

signals now that this is the moment and the opportunity where elements

:19:58.:20:05.

of the rebel group are again invited to come into the political

:20:05.:20:10.

discussions, this would be the time. The door remains open and an olive

:20:10.:20:18.

branch has been extended by the ruling Government and by the

:20:18.:20:24.

international community through the United Nations Security Council.

:20:24.:20:29.

That was the UN envoy for Somalia are talking to me from Nairobi.

:20:29.:20:36.

Nearly one in 10 Americans are looking for her work. Their economy

:20:36.:20:42.

needs to create thousands of jobs each year just to stand still. In a

:20:42.:20:46.

few hours' time Barack Obama will unveil a plan to get Americans back

:20:46.:20:56.

to work. You may not guess it from this crowd, but Barack Obama's

:20:56.:21:00.

popularity is at a new low placing him under more pressure to get

:21:01.:21:05.

Americans back to work. Given the lack of appetite for more

:21:05.:21:09.

Government spending, his suggestions for cranking up the

:21:09.:21:14.

economy might not get far. depends what kind of stimulus will

:21:15.:21:21.

be called for, if it is a waste ranging spending package the chance

:21:21.:21:28.

of getting it through the house is rather slim. -- wide-ranging.

:21:28.:21:33.

President is expected to roll out a 300 billion dollar plan which will

:21:33.:21:38.

include tax credits for companies that hire new workers as well as

:21:39.:21:43.

funding for infrastructure projects and assistance for the long-term

:21:43.:21:50.

unemployed. With 14 million Americans out of were one training

:21:50.:21:56.

programme in Georgia is getting a lot of attention. It lets companies

:21:56.:22:01.

try out employees for eight weeks, it cuts the cost of training for

:22:01.:22:05.

business while allowing the worker to continue to receive an

:22:05.:22:10.

unemployment cheque. This woman has a job at a college today because of

:22:10.:22:15.

the programme. I decided if I could go somewhere and volunteer for a

:22:16.:22:20.

while to see if it is a fit for me and if I am a fit for them, there

:22:20.:22:26.

is nothing to lose. For millions of Americans the great recession of a

:22:26.:22:32.

couple of years ago and never ended. Without an increase in-demand,

:22:32.:22:41.

there may not be jobs for them. It joining as now from New York is an

:22:41.:22:48.

expert from a school of business. Does this 300 billion dollar job

:22:48.:22:54.

plan sound good to you? Some parts are better than others. You get the

:22:54.:22:58.

most in terms of short-term stimulus if you are actually

:22:59.:23:05.

creating jobs. If you are spending money on things to benefit the

:23:05.:23:09.

economy in the long term like infrastructure. In terms of tax

:23:09.:23:19.
:23:19.:23:20.

cuts, you have to aim at people on lower levels of pay, they will

:23:20.:23:25.

probably be trying to pay off their debt rather than spending. For

:23:25.:23:29.

companies that are worried about the uncertainty in their economy,

:23:29.:23:33.

they will not hire people because it is a little cheaper. It will

:23:33.:23:37.

take more of a push to make them feel good about the prospects for

:23:37.:23:43.

the economy in the long term. people think there is another

:23:43.:23:50.

recession on the cards in the US? People have been talking about two

:23:50.:23:54.

recessions and a double Decker. I think we are looking at a period of

:23:54.:23:59.

slow growth which will take us a lot of time to generate that demand

:23:59.:24:03.

and see a return to the higher growth levels of earlier. This is

:24:03.:24:09.

not a recession, it is a severe contraction. What about printing

:24:09.:24:15.

more money? I think there is a lot of pressure for inflation all

:24:15.:24:19.

around the world because there are a lot of countries that have huge

:24:19.:24:24.

debts. Inflation is one way to make them go away. Countries such as

:24:24.:24:29.

China are seeing do not use inflation because it will alter the

:24:29.:24:39.
:24:39.:24:41.

terms of trade. Thank you. -- China are saying. It is a question that

:24:41.:24:45.

has baffled scientists for generations, how did we become

:24:45.:24:50.

human and who are our closest ancestors? Scientists in South

:24:50.:24:54.

Africa believe they may have found a hidden link between chimps and

:24:54.:25:00.

humans. They have been studying two skeletons which are more than 2

:25:00.:25:06.

million years old. South African scoreless park the cradle of

:25:06.:25:12.

humankind. It turns out that it may well be. These remains were found

:25:12.:25:18.

in a cave at the park. They are of an ape-like creature who lived 2

:25:18.:25:25.

million years ago. Research shows they are the most human-like tapes

:25:25.:25:34.

of their time. These hands may have been able to use tools. News Gans

:25:34.:25:37.

of its skull shows that the brain was shifting to being more human-

:25:37.:25:46.

like. We are looking for something that is potentially tool using,

:25:46.:25:51.

there are the potential origins of language, something that is looking

:25:51.:25:59.

like us. This is the story of human evolution so far. The first apes

:25:59.:26:04.

emerged 20 million years ago, then came three humans, apes with some

:26:04.:26:09.

human characteristics. Then came the first true Schumann's, this

:26:10.:26:15.

happened around 2 million years ago. The new species is thought to be

:26:15.:26:19.

right at the transition point between the human and Schumann.

:26:19.:26:29.
:26:29.:26:30.

Some say it actually was the very first human. -- human. This new

:26:30.:26:37.

discovery challenges the theory that the first human arrived in

:26:37.:26:44.

East Africa. Scientists once thought there was a linear

:26:44.:26:50.

progression from monkey to ape to Schumann. We now know the picture

:26:50.:26:55.

was far more complicated. There were many similar species which

:26:55.:27:01.

became fewer over the years until there was just one, us. Never

:27:01.:27:08.

before have our origins been studied in so much detail. There

:27:08.:27:17.

are a deeper questions about what it truly means to be human. Now let

:27:17.:27:23.

us remind you of our main story. An independent inquiry here has

:27:23.:27:28.

concluded that British soldiers serving in Iraq took part in

:27:28.:27:32.

unjustified and brutal violence that led to the deaths of an Iraqi

:27:32.:27:39.

civilian. A sustained assault on the Baha Mousa and other detainees

:27:39.:27:48.

in 2003 had left a very great stain on Britain's armed forces. That is

:27:48.:27:58.
:27:58.:28:06.

often now. Goodbye. -- that is all After the cool and breezy weather

:28:06.:28:13.

we have some warmth to end the week. It will be as sticky day tomorrow.

:28:13.:28:19.

The warmth is spreading up from the south. There will be some moist

:28:19.:28:25.

area and so coastal or hill fog. During the day tomorrow it will

:28:25.:28:32.

warm up. That comes after a morning of a good deal of cloud. These will

:28:32.:28:38.

see the sunshine breaking through the cloud. By 4 o'clock there is

:28:38.:28:43.

quite a difference in temperatures. Not necessarily clear blue skies

:28:43.:28:48.

but it will be brighter, warmer and more humid than it has been. There

:28:48.:28:53.

will be coastal fog on the south coast and into South Wales. We will

:28:53.:29:00.

see some patchy outbreaks of rain or showers developing here. If you

:29:00.:29:05.

catch a shower it could be on the heavy side, especially late in the

:29:05.:29:10.

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