08/09/2011 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today. With me, Zeinab Badawi. A public inquiry


condemns the appalling violence carried out by British soldiers


that led to the death of an Iraqi civilian in 2003. My judgment is


that they constituted appalling effort and -- episode of serious,


gratuitous violence on civilians. President Medvedev condemns


Russia's air safety record after Wednesday's plane crash which


killed most members of a top ice hockey team. Guilty, the British


designer John Galliano was fined 6,000 euros for making anti-Semitic


remarks during a drunken outburst in Paris. Could the famine in


Somalia help end the conflict between the interim government and


the militant Al-Shabab group? The country's Prime Minister offers an


olive branch. Everybody who wants to talk to has come as big with us,


joiners, save Somalia from itself, we will talk to them. And the two


million-year-old fossils that could overturn conventional thinking on


Hello, welcome. The death of Baha Mousa was one of the most appalling


incidents of abuse by Western soldiers during the Iraq War. The


young Iraqi hotel worker died after sustaining 93 external wounds


whilst he was in the custody of British troops in the southern city


of Basra. The language used by an independent public inquiry here was


blunt. It said, his death had left a great stain on Britain's armed


forces. Our world affairs correspondent Caroline Hawley has


this report. In a makeshift detention facility


eight years ago a killing that cast a shadow over the army's reputation.


Baha Mousa had just lost his wife to cancer when he was detained by


British troops. Over the next 36 hours he and nine other detainees


were hooded, forced into painful positions and badly beaten. When


Baha Mousa died he had 93 separate injuries. My judgment is that it


constituted an appalling episode of serious, gratuitous violence on


civilians which resulted in the death of one man and injuries to


others. They represented a very serious breach of discipline.


Footage from the detention facility shows Corporal Donald Payne


shouting obscenities at the Iraqis. He is the only man to have been


punished in any way for what happened here. The use of pudding


and stress positions are against international law and had been


banned by the British government in 1972 -- hoods. It was an Army major


that instructed the soldiers to use them. The inquiry heard it was


standard operating procedure. The report blamed they use on a


corporate failure that the Ministry of Defence. It said that stress


positions and hoods were wholly unacceptable in any circumstances.


It also found that many soldiers had a sort of the Iraqis, even more


had failed to intervene. There had been, it said, a lack of moral


courage. It is clearly a truly shocking and appalling incident.


Pictured not have happened. It should never be allowed to happen


again. -- it should not have happened. The British Army should


uphold the highest standards. inquiry found that Major Michael


Peebles had news that detainees had been assaulted. He is accused of an


acceptable failure. It said that if Lieutenant Craig Rodgers had acted


when he first knew what was happening, Baha Mousa would almost


certainly have survived. It found that the commander of the Regiment,


Colonel Jorge Mendonca, ought to have known what was going on. And


that Corporal Payne was a violent Paul Leigh who tried to cover up


what he had done. No doubt the Director of Public Prosecutions and


the Director of Public Service prosecutions are reading the report


and they will be considering the war crimes of torture, inhumane


treatment and submitting people to grossly humiliating behaviour.


There is a number of people who have every reason to be very, very


worried. Back in the Middle East family still grieving. Baha Mousa's


father had to identify his son's body. In my heart I love Baha Mousa.


He was a good son. Baha Mousa's two children are now growing up without


a father. Today, the soldier who tried to resuscitate him expressed


deep remorse. I could not say in enough words how sorry but only for


myself but for those that were involved in his death, whether you


hit him or you did not hit him, you have your responsibility for his


desk that day. Baha Mousa is buried in Iraq's holiest city. Today's


reporting to his death is a big step towards accountability but the


scandal over what happened to him has not yet been laid to rest.


The death of Mark -- of Baha Mousa was one of several examples of


prisoner reduce by foreign troops during the past decade since the


September 11th attacks. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and detention


centre with the US in Guantanamo Bay have led to many criticisms of


human rights abuses. Kurt Volker is a former US ambassador to NATO and


also served in the Bush Administration and joins us from


Washington. Kurt Volker, how far do you think George Bush's war on


terror created a kind of climate whereby this kind of incident might


have happened more recently, more readily? You know, I think it is


wrong to blame it on a climate. I think when you look at the


inquiry's report, he made a very clear. About the rules and


procedures that are allowable and what are not allowable and making


sure that is well known in advance and part of the training that will


just get. We put soldiers and were very difficult climate, in a war-


zone, they are there to conduct combat, people were trying to kill


them. It is extremely stressful and they are asked to make decisions on


a split second sometimes. A very difficult environment to be in.


That is why it is so important they have clear routes -- rules and when


abuses do happen, as we have had from American and British forces,


it is important they be investigated and dealt with


appropriately, but the key thing is to make sure the rules are clear.


Just looking at the wider picture, ten years since the September 11th


attacks, we did see in the war on terror things like detention


without trial, you have the accusations of rendition,


extraordinary rendition, the invasion of Iraq was illegal by


make people's standards and so this kind of climate is not conducive


necessarily to do the observance of civil liberties, if that is what


the politicians are saying at the time? A think it is very important


to get the legal frameworks right and did we have not yet done this.


You have a gap between what is domestic criminal justice systems


and protection of civil -- civil liberties and so forth, and you


have an area where you are talking about the laws of armed conflict


and war, and you're talking about terrorist groups, suicide bombers,


Al-Qaeda, who do not follow the laws of war, do not belong to a


state, do not wear uniforms, so we are forced into a grey area of how


you deal with these situations. We have picked up people, held them as


combatants in a conflict, in a normal war you would hold them to


the end of the conflict, this is not a normal ward and we are not


comfortable saying we will hold people forever but we don't know


issues, there is ambiguity about treatment, certainly in the British


cases we have heard, also true in American cases, where we have a


clear prohibition against torture, where that line was drawn in terms


of what is a tough interrogation officers what is more physical


abuse, was not a clear line. That has since been clarified and the US


system but I do think... You are talking there about the enhancing -


- the enhanced Territt -- interrogation techniques, such as


waterboarding, which some people call torture. Do you think the


policies that we did see in the war on terror have actually resulted


now in making the world a safer place? I think in a number of ways


they have forced up in a number of ways we have seen terrible results


at the same time. Life happens in the world. We have significantly


weakened Al-Qaeda. Iraq now has a better government than it had under


Saddam per se. It has suffered tremendously through a civil war


however. You see people in the Arab world, the Muslim world, rise up to


demand rights from the Rhone leaders in ways that was not the


case before. They are being squeezed between this trap of on


the one hand being accused of being Islamist terrorists come on the


other hand seeing these harsh dictatorial regimes in their rent


societies finally caused people to come out to say we demand better


rights and freedoms in our own countries. I do think we are seeing


in the Arab world right now one of the most hopeful things that we are


seeing in this decade. Ambassador Kurt Volker, thank you for joining


us from Washington. Now the other main use. NATO forces


in Afghanistan have admitted that a BBC reporter killed in a July in


the south of the country was shot dead by a US soldier who was took


him for a suicide bomber. -- Mr Kim. Ahmed Omed Khpulwak was caught up


in a suicide attack. Initial reports suggested he was killed by


the Taleban. A group of 20 medical staff in


Bahrain, charged with incitement to overthrow the government earlier


this year, have been released on bail. They were the last of 47


staff at the main hospital in the capital Manama who had been accused


of harbouring extremists and concealing weapons. Their families


say they were tortured into making confessions.


The Russian President Dmitri Medvedev says they must be so swift


action to improve aviation safety after a plane crash that killed


most members of one of Russia's top hockey teams -- ice hockey teams.


The players from Lokomotiv Yaroslavl were killed when their


plane failed to take off on Wednesday. President Medvedev said


the number of Russian bear characters -- carriers must be


reduced radically. Steve Rosenberg reports.


In the river to Russia are to search continued into the morning,


for survivors but wreckage of the plane and bodies. Dmitri Medvedev


had been due here for a political conference but he began his day


here. At the sight of the air crash he laid roses and bowed his head in


honour of the dead. Later President Medvedev criticised the safety


record of Russian airlines. He warned that if his country could


not produce reliable aircraft it would have to buy foreign aid


planes. The Yak-42 jet had crashed here in a ball of flames soon after


board were killed. Among the dead were players, coaches and officials


from one of Russia's Top ice hockey teams, Lokomotiv Yaroslavl. The


team had a Canadian trainer and star players from Sweden, Slovakia


and the Czech Republic. Today, the fans gathered outside the club's


stadium. They laid fan -- flowers and lit candles and they stood


staring in disbelief that their hockey team had been wiped out.


Russians have grown used to hearing of these kinds of disasters in


their country. Of planes crashing, pleasure boats sinking, but this


latest tragedy has caused particular shock and anger here.


With a plane crash wiping out almost an entire ice hockey team.


The 50-year-old British fashion designer John Galliano has been


found guilty of anti-Semitic -- Anti-Semitism by a court in Paris.


He was given a suspended fine of 6,000 euros for a series of drunken


outbursts against fellow customers in a Paris bar. John Galliano was


sacked from the fashion house d'Or in March. The court also ordered


him to pay a symbolic one euros win damages to each of his victims. ILA


Paris correspondent Christian Fraser has the story.


The king of high fashion ruined by anti-Semitic insults that cost him


a million dollar career. Today, John Galliano's shame was complete,


a guilty verdict of the suspended fine tells you that judges had


certain sympathy. There is actually no penalty so to speak which is a


very strong signed by the court because it shows the court took


into account is sincere apology, the fact that Mr Galliano has


entered treatment for his addiction. He was arrested in July over a


series of complaints from people who he had abused. The court was


shown a video filmed in a bar in which Mr Galliano was heard


glorifying the Holocaust. On another occasion he told art


curator Geraldine Bloch she had, a dirty Jewish face. The designer


admitted on that particular night he had been drinking heavily at


this bar. On a cocktail of Valium and sleeping pills. John Galliano


was a regular at La Perle Bar but his behaviour, said staff, had


become increasingly erratic. He told the court he had no


recollection of the knights who was arrested but so common were these


outbursts the chauffeur had instructions to call the designer's


lawyer if the rows became too heated. Mr Galliano's friends


blamed the workload. He oversaw 12 new collections the year for the


Dior. The pressure dramatically decreased in 2007 with the death of


his partner at first assistant, Stephen Robinson, who died of an


overdose. -- increased. I think it is impossible for anybody to be


creative and respond to these demands that are increasing on one


single person. Of course Dior could also have accompanied him in a


different manner, could have tried to replace his first assistant who


was also his very, very close friend. He was fired by Dior after


his arrest. This summer he did pick up a pencil to start Kate Moss's


wedding dress, part of my creative therapy, he told Vogue magazine. As


for Dior, they are yet to appoint his successor but the rumours are


they like the look of Marc Jacobs, an American designer was Jewish


The transitional federal Government in say Somalia is willing to talk


to a rebel group. It was said that an international gathering in


Nairobi that the head of the country would talking anyone


willing to save Somalia. 3 million Somali Zara Prescott dying from


famine within the next few months. Government representatives from


across the region are here at this summit on the famine. The aim is to


come up with an action plan to be signed by the heads of State. They


want to ensure that the next time a drought hits it does not cause a


humanitarian catastrophe. Right now more than 13 million people across


the region are addressed. This is the epicentre of the crisis,


Somalia, where the UN says the famine is still spreading.


Humanitarian agencies are still delivering food but the effort in


the south of the country is hampered by the ongoing war of. The


group which controls the worst area is Neen there are not aid packages


getting to people. Anybody who can talk to us or speak with us to help


as save so Malawians we will talk to them. There is a glimmer of hope


that the dire situation could provoke the warring factions to put


aside their differences. Kenya's foreign minister says if expensive


military campaigns could be funded by the West then surely money could


be found to save lives. We are continuously reminding the rest of


the world that if they can spend billions of dollars to drive out


Gaddafi they can spell a little of that to save the dying people in


the Horn of Africa. This crisis will not be solved by a few heads


of State flying in to sign a bit of paper but it will remind the world


that the famine is still causing misery for millions across this


region and the humanitarian response will be needed for months


to come. The United Nations envoy to Somalia took a break from those


discussions at the gathering in Nairobi to talk to us. He told us


that more donor funding is needed. There has been a very generous


response so far but out of the estimated $1 billion that is


required for the next six months to address the famine, or only 300


million have been received so far. The effort is continuing. This


meeting is very important to help reach the target. What is the key


thing you want to see happen in this area to ensure people are not


starving? Firstly we must have policies that are addressing the


root causes of drought and implementing the measures that are


needed in a full security, water management and land use. The whole


question of pastoralists in this part of the world has -- who have


lost their livestock in the past few months. We hear the Government


are trying to speak to members of the rebel groups so that they can


go to the areas where they are in control, is that the case and would


that not be legitimising a militant group? Humanitarian access and


security for humanitarian workers is one issue. Political


negotiations is another. The group should renounce violence, laid down


their arms and joined the peace process. There may be promising


signals now that this is the moment and the opportunity where elements


of the rebel group are again invited to come into the political


discussions, this would be the time. The door remains open and an olive


branch has been extended by the ruling Government and by the


international community through the United Nations Security Council.


That was the UN envoy for Somalia are talking to me from Nairobi.


Nearly one in 10 Americans are looking for her work. Their economy


needs to create thousands of jobs each year just to stand still. In a


few hours' time Barack Obama will unveil a plan to get Americans back


to work. You may not guess it from this crowd, but Barack Obama's


popularity is at a new low placing him under more pressure to get


Americans back to work. Given the lack of appetite for more


Government spending, his suggestions for cranking up the


economy might not get far. depends what kind of stimulus will


be called for, if it is a waste ranging spending package the chance


of getting it through the house is rather slim. -- wide-ranging.


President is expected to roll out a 300 billion dollar plan which will


include tax credits for companies that hire new workers as well as


funding for infrastructure projects and assistance for the long-term


unemployed. With 14 million Americans out of were one training


programme in Georgia is getting a lot of attention. It lets companies


try out employees for eight weeks, it cuts the cost of training for


business while allowing the worker to continue to receive an


unemployment cheque. This woman has a job at a college today because of


the programme. I decided if I could go somewhere and volunteer for a


while to see if it is a fit for me and if I am a fit for them, there


is nothing to lose. For millions of Americans the great recession of a


couple of years ago and never ended. Without an increase in-demand,


there may not be jobs for them. It joining as now from New York is an


expert from a school of business. Does this 300 billion dollar job


plan sound good to you? Some parts are better than others. You get the


most in terms of short-term stimulus if you are actually


creating jobs. If you are spending money on things to benefit the


economy in the long term like infrastructure. In terms of tax


cuts, you have to aim at people on lower levels of pay, they will


probably be trying to pay off their debt rather than spending. For


companies that are worried about the uncertainty in their economy,


they will not hire people because it is a little cheaper. It will


take more of a push to make them feel good about the prospects for


the economy in the long term. people think there is another


recession on the cards in the US? People have been talking about two


recessions and a double Decker. I think we are looking at a period of


slow growth which will take us a lot of time to generate that demand


and see a return to the higher growth levels of earlier. This is


not a recession, it is a severe contraction. What about printing


more money? I think there is a lot of pressure for inflation all


around the world because there are a lot of countries that have huge


debts. Inflation is one way to make them go away. Countries such as


China are seeing do not use inflation because it will alter the


terms of trade. Thank you. -- China are saying. It is a question that


has baffled scientists for generations, how did we become


human and who are our closest ancestors? Scientists in South


Africa believe they may have found a hidden link between chimps and


humans. They have been studying two skeletons which are more than 2


million years old. South African scoreless park the cradle of


humankind. It turns out that it may well be. These remains were found


in a cave at the park. They are of an ape-like creature who lived 2


million years ago. Research shows they are the most human-like tapes


of their time. These hands may have been able to use tools. News Gans


of its skull shows that the brain was shifting to being more human-


like. We are looking for something that is potentially tool using,


there are the potential origins of language, something that is looking


like us. This is the story of human evolution so far. The first apes


emerged 20 million years ago, then came three humans, apes with some


human characteristics. Then came the first true Schumann's, this


happened around 2 million years ago. The new species is thought to be


right at the transition point between the human and Schumann.


Some say it actually was the very first human. -- human. This new


discovery challenges the theory that the first human arrived in


East Africa. Scientists once thought there was a linear


progression from monkey to ape to Schumann. We now know the picture


was far more complicated. There were many similar species which


became fewer over the years until there was just one, us. Never


before have our origins been studied in so much detail. There


are a deeper questions about what it truly means to be human. Now let


us remind you of our main story. An independent inquiry here has


concluded that British soldiers serving in Iraq took part in


unjustified and brutal violence that led to the deaths of an Iraqi


civilian. A sustained assault on the Baha Mousa and other detainees


in 2003 had left a very great stain on Britain's armed forces. That is


often now. Goodbye. -- that is all After the cool and breezy weather


we have some warmth to end the week. It will be as sticky day tomorrow.


The warmth is spreading up from the south. There will be some moist


area and so coastal or hill fog. During the day tomorrow it will


warm up. That comes after a morning of a good deal of cloud. These will


see the sunshine breaking through the cloud. By 4 o'clock there is


quite a difference in temperatures. Not necessarily clear blue skies


but it will be brighter, warmer and more humid than it has been. There


will be coastal fog on the south coast and into South Wales. We will


see some patchy outbreaks of rain or showers developing here. If you


catch a shower it could be on the heavy side, especially late in the


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