22/11/2011 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me, Tim Wilcox. Too little, too


late? As violent protests continue in Cairo Egypt's military leader


insists there is no going back on democracy. We are only here to


serve the nation and God. The armed forces fully reject these attempts


that are trying to harm the armed forces. Where to put Saif Al-Islam


Gaddafi on trial? Libya says it will not hand him over to the


International Criminal Court, but it says it has to be involved.


Party politics divide Washington as Republicans and Democrats again


fail to agree on how to cut America's debt. Coming up: The boom


in illegal gold mining in Colombia. We have a special report on how the


lucrativeOf business is good for the Mafia.


And famous for his music, but should the Sex Pistols' Johnny


Rotten be remembered for his Hello and welcome. In the face of


growing unrest in Egypt and in a dramatic attempt to placate


protesters, the leader of the country's Military Council, Field


Marshal Hussein Tantawi, has agreed to hand over power to a civilian


president by January last year. He agreed to accept the resignation of


the Prime Minister's cabinet and replace it within days. Let's go


live to Lyse Doucet to joins us from Tahrir Square.


Today the organisers called it A Million man protest. Today's


demonstrations were the biggest since their historic protests in


January and February that toppled President Hosni Mubarak. Now the


same chance are going up from the square, calling for the President


to go and also Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi to step down. Even


when he spoke to the people of Egypt he spoke to these protesters


saying he has no intention to remain in power, but the square


said leave, lead. There has been a constant wail of ambulance sirens,


a measure of how many people are being injured in these running


battles. This report is from our Middle East correspondent.


They are carrying the dead. In the square they celebrated a revolution


not so long ago. Today was the biggest demonstration so far in


what they are calling the second revolution. As a protest build up


on the edge of the square there was relentless confrontation. Egyptians


are furious with the way the military are running the country.


The police fired round after round of tear gas and gunshots. The


motorcycles are bringing in more casualties by the hour. The crowds


are growing in the square and the military rulers of Egypt have no


new ideas, no answers to this crisis. At the field hospital I met


a 37 year-old doctor originally from Luxor. He is bitterly


disappointed to find himself back on medical duty in the square just


as he was nine months ago. thought everything was beautiful


and our country was heading for democracy and everything would be


fine. I never expected we would stay all this time without change.


Everything is the same. We have the same regime. I have lost hope. I am


very, very disappointed. Finally after days of silence the Prime


Minister emerged to make a desperate appeal. I beg you, I beg


you, put your country first, please go back home and let things come


down. And then the commander himself, Field Marshal Hussein


Tantawi, head of the military cancelled that now rules Egypt made


a rare television broadcast. He insisted the military do not want


to hold on to power. Parliamentary elections will go ahead next week


as planned and presidential elections by the middle of next


year. The military, he said, only had the interests of the Egyptian


people at heart. So, driven by the huge demonstrations, late in the


day the Army have finally started making concessions, but will it be


enough? These protesters want an end to military rule right now and


there is no sign they are about to go away.


In a country of 80 million people many would have watched and


listened to this rare speech by the field marshal. It could be a speed


that divides Egyptians outside the Square, but Egyptians are now


saying the military has given us a road map for moving ahead and the


countries should move on. But here in Tahrir Square where people are


huddled around car radios to listen to what he said, many are saying


they cannot move on unless they are certain Egypt at last is moving in


the right direction. We will keep an eye on all the developments.


The wrangling over where Colonel Gaddafi's son aside up his man will


stand trial continues. Libya's justice minister says he will not


be handed over to the International War crimes Tribunal. The ICC's says


they must be involved. Saif Al- Islam is currently being held in


Zintan. Caroline Hawley sent this report.


These pictures were filmed in southern Libya shortly after Saif


Al-Islam was captured on Saturday, a major prize for the militia men


who found him. They promise you'll get a fair trial. Saif Al-Islam


replies he does not know where he will be held prisoner, in Libya or


outside the country. In Libya he is told. His captors show the cameras


this applies he had with him during the weeks he spent on the run after


his father's regime was toppled in August. He also carried with him a


warning, that the country would see new divisions and the former rebels


now in charge would bring no good to Libya. TRANSLATION: Regarding


the people of Benghazi or Misrata, you consider them your brothers,


go-ahead, but just give them a couple of months or one year and


you will find out the reality. Please do not deny it on the day


Saif Al-Islam was taken prisoner he did not warn you of that. He is


being held in Zintan where he was brought shortly after his capture.


His whereabouts remain a closely guarded secret as the process of


bringing him to justice is discussed in Tripoli between the


new Libyan authorities and prosecutors from the International


Criminal Court. Luis Moreno-Ocampo had wanted to see Saif Al-Islam in


court in the Hague, but he now seems to have accepted a blunt


message from the Libyans, that Saif Al-Islam will be tried in the


country where he committed his crimes. If they prosecute him here,


we will discuss with them how to inform the judges. Saif Al-Islam is


billed as he was blown into Zintan and he is likely to face a long


wait before Libya is ready to give him a proper trial. -- filmed.


In the Gulf state of Bahrain around 3000 protesters have clashed with


police in the city of Sitra a day before the findings are released of


a human rights report into violence between Government and political


activists earlier this year. That includes the convictions of 20


Medix accused of helping the protesters. They say they were


forced into confessions and are currently on trial -- on bail.


Zeinab Badawi has been speaking to one of them, Dr Nada Dhaif, and she


asked if there was a fresh opportunity. Personally I am not


very optimistic about it. Why not? I do not see how the Government,


how the king is going to hire somebody for a fact-finding. I


believe it should be an independent committee and not appointed by any


party, not the opposition or the Government. The authorities say


there were doctors who occupied the hospital in the capital. Were you


amongst them? That is the accusation against you. Of course


not, I have nothing to do with these charges. I was very shocked


the first time I learnt about these charges was when I was at the


military court. When I heard the judge telling defendant number sat,


I was No. 12, is charged with occupying the hospital, with


weapons, I just could not help it, I laughed. When you get so shocked


and then you do not know how to react, where did it come from? I do


not even work there. You were not there? I was not there. And you


have been sentenced to 15 years in prison. Exactly. But you have been


granted an appeal. We appealed in front of a civilian court and we


were sentenced in a military court. But we were happily in a civilian


court. Do you have any idea how your appeal will go? Will your


sentence be reduced or thrown out? That depends on the report of the


fact-finding commission. It depends on what comes in it and what it


says. If it is critical of the authorities, what is the


implication for you? We are clear and free to go. Dr Nada Dhaif


speaking to Zeinab Badawi. In Tunisia where a popular uprising


read to the fall of President Ben Ali in January and sparked a wave


of unrest across the Arab world the new constitutional Assembly has


held its first session. It was elected last month with a


previously banned Islamist party getting the most seats. They will


be writing a new constitution to pave the way for elections.


A special, so-called Super congressional committee in the US


has failed to agree on how to reduce the Bast Government debt.


Made up of six Republicans and six Democrats it had been asked to


reach a deal on how to cut more than a trillion dollars from the


Budget. There are too many Republicans who have refused to


listen to the voices of reason and compromise that are coming up


outside Washington. They continue to insist on protecting $100


billion of tax cuts for the World visits to -- wealthiest Americans


at any cost. At this point they simply will not budge from their


position. What is the scale of the US debt crisis and what are the


implications of Republicans and Democrats failing to reach a deal.


The national debt is now running at more than 15 trillion dollars. The


committee's failure to agree means automatic cuts should now take


effect in 2013. The automatic cuts amount to one trillion dollars,


equal to the annual national output of South Korea. Half of that burden,


$500 billion, is expected to fall on defence and national security


spending despite their already facing a $450 billion reduction. As


this is not set to take effect until January 2013, lawmakers can


appeal them. President Obama said he would veto any attempt to do so.


Let's go to Washington. The national debt is roughly equal to


the US economy. They have had three months to sort this out. They


cannot do anything. They really cannot. The whole idea was if you


put people in a room with no distraction, with a fast track,


they would come to some decision and that is completely wrong.


Republicans would not get off keeping the tax rates are low for


the wealthy, Democrats would not get off entitlement programmes and


keeping programmes like health care for the elderly and the poor. They


wanted to keep those programmes as his, which is very difficult. They


never really got any closer to that and that was the stalemate. We are


looking at political gridlock and presumably this is a live issue


right up to the presidential elections. In terms of the


automatic cuts, where do they kick in and can they be challenge?


you notice President Obama chose his words carefully. He said he


would have vetoed turning off those automatic cuts. That is different


to changing them. Republicans in Congress and some Democrats are


expected to want to change them for less than the impact on defence.


The Pentagon has said they cannot afford any more cuts, so that will


be a huge political issue and that will be the main battle in 2012,


trying to lessen the impact of the issued defence cuts in 2013. Could


it potentially affect America's credit rating yet further?


credit rating agencies are very careful in what they say, but they


are expected to keep the credit rating at the level that it is that


as long as these cuts do not go away, the 1.2 trillion dollars in


cuts mandated. As long as that deficit reduction happens, we do


not expect to see a credit downgrade, although we did not


expect to see one last time. It is kind of an enigma to everybody, but


that would be another huge stumble for an American political system


that seems to have lost its way You have got people trying to work


for the public good, but always falling back on to party political


prejudices. I was talking to some political folks this morning, no


one is willing to fall on their sword. That is the overarching


message we hear from both parties, no one is able to fall on their


assault and do what is right. All the political figures are staring


at a problem they know it exists. They saw trillion -- trillion


dollars worth of debt recently. Everyone knows what he's to be done


and no one wants to do what. That is what we are living with him


watching 10. It is frustrating to be bolder political figures saying,


what is going on here. It is a spectacle of sorts and has been


over the last couple of months. Thank you.


Let's return to our main story on this edition. While the Arab Spring


appears to be progressing in the country which was the catalyst for


the revolution, what has gone wrong in Egypt to have sparked a second


spontaneous uprising in recent days? Let's go to Cairo and speak


to our correspondent there who has been following the Arab Uprising.


Some of the protesters demands have been met seemingly, but is it too


little too late? I was in Tahrir Square and it is packed. People are


still there, they are not leaving and there seems to be


disappointment. They won more, they expected more, but they did not get


it. They were looking for an immediate end to military rule, but


they got a transferred to a civilian power by July at the


earliest. There was a big gap between what the protesters are


asking for and what the military was willing to give. That said, I


expect the concessions will go well with the majority of Egyptians. We


might see a disconnect between the hard core of protesters who want to


stay until they get exactly what they want and other Egyptians who


want to see a Writtle -- return to normalcy. They want to see


elections on Monday as originally to a job and to continue the


transition. That cap -- that gap will be interesting to see.


there are also a disbelief about the military's role of are the last


few months and their perceived to have been wanting to play on to


power at all costs? The military has woefully mismanaged Egypt's


transition. They have used many of the same authoritarian tactics as


the old regime so that is where a lot of disillusion and frustration


has come in. Sometimes even worse. Amnesty International says they


even exceeded some of the torture and brutality of President Mubarak.


That is a remarkable thing, in some ways they have been worse. When


they came to power on 11th February, they promised a tradition -- a


transition in six months and we are nine months into a. They are


comfortable holding power in Egypt. That is the reason all of this


happened in the first place, the unwillingness for the military to


give power to a 7th -- civilian elected leadership. How will they


persuade people to get involved in this National Salvation government?


Will there be the appetite to join that, or will they be seen as


stooges of the military, whoever puts their name for? That is the


big risk for any political party thinking about Cabinet ministers


now. If they go away and that government is not popular and there


are more protests here and elsewhere, that is exactly what


people are going to be saying, that these are sell-outs and stooges.


Any political party that is considering that and balancing the


costs and benefits will have to think long and hard about whether


this is worth it. Do we want to wait until things stabilise?


Briefly, how have the last few months changed that inherent


respect Egyptians traditionally have had for the Army in the past


50 years? A couple of months ago, there was an opinion poll which


suggested that the military had anywhere between 80 % and 90 %


approval ratings. Recently, that confidence has dipped and people


are starting to wonder, is the military good at managing the


country? I still think there is a general respect, and we have to


distinguish between the military as an institution and the ruling


military council which is made up of around 25 senior members of the


military. But I think you are right to point out that there will still


be that respect to the institution, not necessarily to the people


around those in power right now. Thank you for joining us.


Some other news. Pakistan's ambassador, Husain Haqqani, has


resigned. It follows disputed evidence that he asked the United


States to help in training and the power of the military.


Noun Chea, the No. 2 Leader Of the Khmer Rouge, has been giving


evidence on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity. He gave a


long statement defending his actions when millions of Cambodians


died. He called the victims traitors.


They have been protests in South Africa against the parliament's


approval of a new information law. Critics say the -- it is a major


breach of freedom of speech. Columbia has been battling


revolutionaries for decades funded through drug trafficking. While


cocaine production has been hit by eradication and arrests, illegal


gold mining is booming, so much so it has become a new line of


business for the local Mafia and armed groups.


For centuries, gold has been the sole of Colombia, the heart of its


myths and legends, the essence of its history and culture. It has


never been as important as today when the country's future wealth


and stability depends -- depends on mining this and other precious


minerals. High in the mountains were decades of war with violent


revolutionaries have been fuelled by drug-trafficking, gold is


becoming the new cocaine. It is almost industrial, but it is


illegal. This process can collect $1,000 worth of gold in a day. A


week ago, there were five for offering machines here. The


government is confiscating them as drug smugglers and local Mafia


muscle in on the business. The more successful we are against drug


trafficking, and we have been very successful, we have diverted to


other sources of funds, and one is illegal mining, especially gold. We


are fighting that because as the drug trafficking has tremendous


environmental consequences, so there's illegal mining.


There has been traditional mining here for centuries. The high price


of gold has drawn over 100,000 people into illegal gold mining,


tearing down forests and pouring Machrie into the forest.


TRANSLATION: We used to live off cocaine, but not any more. If the


government closes this down, tell me what we were live off? They


suspect the government also wants big mining companies to replace


them to make bigger royalties. Local Mafia had a powerful hand in


the gold-rush towns where there is This is worth nearly 50,000 US


dollars. For nearly 30 years, Colombia has


been torn apart by revolutionary groups and armed militia, all


funded by the illegal drugs trade. The government is winning out war,


but unless it acts quickly and effectively against the illegal


gold mining trade, the violence could spark again. Columbia's


ancient treasure could yet be a curse.


They were scrawled in marker pen on the walls of a central London flat.


You might think it is just graffiti, but one critic thinks the pictures


drawn by the Sex Pistols thing that Johnny Rotten can be compared to


cave paintings by early man. -- Sex Pistols singer. They were


the ultimate bad boy band. Controversial yet compelling. The


media loved to know them but they could not care less. -- loved to


load them. About most things. But Johnny Rotten was a bit upset


one day when he came back to the flat he then shared in central


London. He walked up these stairs and found that the others had given


the place a makeover. It wasn't quite to his taste so we got out a


marker pen and added his own finishing touches.


He drew a comic character -- comic caricature of up Sid vicious and of


his girlfriend, and off Malcolm McLaren, the ban's charismatic


manager. They are not unlike the Do loo -- doodles of a bored teenager,


but according to some archaeologists, they are of great


cultural importance. We know how significant punk was to that


generation in the 1970s. These paintings are relevant and


significant for their generation, and for that particular period of


history. That is the academic's point of view, but what about the


quality of the drawings? There are a lot of rock musicians that have


produced a lot of terrible art. The funny thing is that unwittingly,


Johnny Rotten has produced good caricature us. The story emerged


without his influence. Whatever the future holds for this collection of


drawings, there is little doubt that the time the Sex Pistols spent


in this flat will be studied by academics and enthusiasts for many


years to come. That is all from the programme.


Next, the weather. But for now, It did stay cloudy and BME across


the south-east corner, but for many we have sunshine around. The cloud


will break up across England and Wales tonight and gave a frosty


start tomorrow. That is something we have not seemed very much of


this autumn. There is a weather front moving in across parts of


Scotland so a different story here. Staying frost-free and it will be


cloudy and wet in the morning. You can see sunshine in parts of


England. There will be more cloud for the afternoon across northern


areas. Temperatures recovering to double figures after a load start.


Across the south-east corner, we have got some fine sunshine. A real


change compared to the cloud of today. Sunny spells across the


south-west and temperatures reaching 12 degrees. It will cloud


over across Wales for the afternoon, but some brightness holding on


towards the border and across parts of North Wales, we might see the


odd shower at the end of the afternoon. For Northern Ireland, it


will be cloudy and wet with a bit of a breeze. The rain is sinking


further south so the afternoon across the north-west Highlands


should be drier and brighter, but here we will see some showers.


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