16/12/2011 World News Today


16/12/2011

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This is BBC World News Today. Appearing in public for the first

:00:14.:00:20.

time in one-and-a-half years, the American soldier, Bradley Manning

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and alleged WikiLeaks source, attends a military hearing.

:00:24.:00:31.

Child sex abuse was rife in the Dutch Catholic Church, that's from

:00:31.:00:34.

an inquiry. From the man who launched the Arab

:00:34.:00:39.

Spring, to the protests which defined it. We look back on the

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year. From basket case to vibrant economy.

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On the 40th anniversary of its independence, we look at the making

:00:47.:00:53.

and the future of modern Bangladesh. It's a highly integrated economy.

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It's an integrated economy of 160 million people. That is a strength.

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And the British journalist and author Christopher Hitchins dies,

:01:06.:01:16.
:01:16.:01:21.

Hello and welcome. The US army private accused of supplying

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hundreds of thousands of secret documents to the whistle blowing

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website WikiLeaks is appearing for the first time before a military

:01:29.:01:33.

court. Bradley Manning was an intelligence analyst in Iraq when

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he allegedly accessed military files F convicted, he could be

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sentenced to life in prison. A traitor deserving life

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imprisonment for a reckless act of disloyalty or a vulnerable young

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man performing a public service. Bradley Manning is charged with

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knowingly giving intelligence to the enemy, through what the charge

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sheet describes as "indirect means" in other words to Julian Assange

:02:03.:02:10.

and WikiLeaks. As an intelligence analyst, he

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stumbled across this video showing an American helicopter attack which

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killed civilians and journalists. It became the first of his many

:02:18.:02:24.

leaks and caused a sensation. This was the largest leak of classified

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information in American history. A quarter of a million diplomatic

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cables from American embassies over the world, and half a million

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military records from Iraq and Afghanistan. The scope was breath

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taking. Military tactics were revealed. Afghan informants were

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named. Senior American diplomats were compromised. This, for many of

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us, was the first glimpse of Bradley Manning since his arrest a

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year-and-a-half ago. He sat in the courtroom, in uniform, his hands

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collapsed in front of him. He said only that he understood his rights

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and he identified the lawyers representing him. But who is the

:03:00.:03:03.

man at the heart of this extraordinary story? Bradley

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Manning was born in the Christian conservative heart land. He

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rejected religion as a child. He joined the army but fell out with

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colleagues and received counselling. Outside the military base here,

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some of his supporters are holding a vigil throughout the hearing.

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should be given the Medal ofpsHonour. He should be released.

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We should continue to bring about a transformation of our government

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where secrecy is not overused. to the organisation he served and

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many other Americans, Bradley Manning seems distinctly less

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heroic. He faces a probable life sentence if convicted. His defence

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has questioned the impartiality of the court and asked what damage was

:03:57.:04:00.

really done by the leaks. The hearing is likely to last several

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days. The former US Assistant Secretary

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of State for public affairs PJCrowley has been talking to the

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BBC about the case. He resigned in March this year after publicly

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criticised the Pentagon for allegedly mistreating Manning while

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in detention. He says he does deserve to be on trial. The case is

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now proceeding. I like the prosecuter's chances. I think when

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you put it all together, from various reports, Bradley Manning

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was involved in chat rooms. He's provided a lot of information to

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the community of computer geeks that he was linked to. Obviously,

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the government has a chance to go back through computer networks.

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There are forensics to help with this case. I expect after this

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article two -- article 32 hearing, there will be enough evidence to

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proceed to trial. I think it's a necessary prosecution in order to

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remind people within government that there, this information needs

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to be protected. When it's compromised, there are consequences.

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And understand WikiLeaks is different than leaks that we've had

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in the past. We've had leaks before. One individual, a handful of

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documents, one country. It causes a problem, but you work through it

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over time. WikiLeaks was about 750,000 documents, many of them

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classified. It touched on every relationship that the United States

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had with every government around the world. And so its impact has

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been much more profound than at any time in the past. I think this is a

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vital prosecution. I'm a believer in this prosecution. The necessity

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to protect information, even while, as a government, being accountable

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and as transparent as possible. I thought that the treatment of

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Bradley Manning was undercutting the legitimacy of this prosecution,

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the credibility of this case. Thankfully, for a variety of

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reasons, today's hearing, I believe will be about what Bradley Manning

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is alleged to have done and not about how the government has

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treated him while in detention. This afternoon it's emerged that

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Julian Assange will have an appeal against his extradition to Sweden.

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Mr Assange is wanted for questioning over allegations of

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sexual assault. Charges he denies. The High Court had approved his

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extradition in a previous reading. The Catholic Church has been any

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intense scrutiny over child abuse allegations for several years. This

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time it's focused on Holland. An independent inquiry estimates

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between 10,000 and 20,000 children have been abused in the country

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since the Second World War. It says church officials were aware of the

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abuse and failed to do anything about it. The Archbishop of Utrecht

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apologised and said he was ashamed of the findings.

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The claims quickly escalated to reveal a network of abuse aacross -

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- across the country. During this independent investigation they

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found one in five children were abused while in the care of

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Catholic institutions. Not only that, but Catholic officials knew

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the abuse was happening, but did nothing to help the victims or stop

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the people who were abused them. The commission estimates between

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10,000 and 20,000 children were abused between 1945 and 2010. They

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ID vied 800 priests, brothers and lay people working for the church,

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named in the complaints. Of those 105 are stale live. Though it's not

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known if they still have church positions. Earlier, the Catholic

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Church took some responsibility for what happened. I feel ashamed and I

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feel deeply touched and affected by what I have read in the report, it

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is terrible. Yeah. The group representing the victims has called

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for justice for all those affected. What really is important today is

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what the next steps will be after the bishop's. They have post poned

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their actions one-and-a-half year and from now there's no excuse to

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postpone any steps towards the victim. Some payments have been

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issued. Last month, the church set up a special compensation system to

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award amounts of up to 130,000 dollars to the victims, depending

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on the amount of abuse they have suffered. Now begins the painful

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process of rebuilding the Catholic Church in the Netherlands and

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beyond. As part of a separate investigation,

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police have arrested more than 100 people across Europe for sharing

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videos of the sexual abuse of children. The the European police

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agency said the operation had shown how the internet was helping

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offenders share images globally while protecting their identities.

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In other news, ten people have been killed, several injured, in western

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Kazakhstan. The clashes were between striking oil workers and

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the police. The workers have been protesting for higher wages. The

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country's prosecuter said the fighter was the result of mass

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disorder. Japan's Fukushima nuclear power

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plant has been stabilised, according to the Japanese

:09:59.:10:03.

government. Three reactors went into meltdown following the tsunami

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nine months ago. Now the Prime Minister says the plant has reached

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what, he called, cold shutdown. The party of President Ouattara has

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won the most seats in the Ivory Coast Parliamentary elections,

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that's the first poll since Laurent Gbagbo's arrest. Mr Gbagbo refused

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to accept defeat in last year's presidential election, sparking

:10:27.:10:32.

five months of violent -- violence. A year ago this weekend, a 26-year-

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old Tunisian set himself on fire. It was an extreme act by a young

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man, who had reached the end of his tether after being banned from

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selling fruit to make a living. It set off the remarkable events that

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became known as the Arab Spring. It's been a year like no other in

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the Middle East. Some rulers have gone, others survived, other

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countries are in turmoil. It started in Tunisia. A year ago,

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police stopped a young vendor from selling his fruit on the street. In

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protest he set himself on fire, frustrated and furious at a corrupt,

:11:17.:11:21.

all-powerful regime. Weeks later, he died. It touched a national

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nerve. People came out and dared to denounce their government, defying

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the riot police sent to confront them. Abruptly the President lost

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control and fled, his regime suddenly over. The touch paper of

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revolution had been lit. When it spret to Cairo people asked - could

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Egypt be next? The ballooning population shared the frustrations,

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power concentrated in the hands of an unelected elite, a brutal

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security apparatus. We are tired. They shot. President Mubarak, in

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power for over 28 years, had a huge security network. Word of the

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protests spread on Facebook and Twitter. The army refused to open

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fire. Mubarak fled with his family. In Libya, revolt began in the east,

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a region rebellious against Colonel Gaddafi's rule. He called the

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rebels rats and cockroaches and vowed to crush them. Vain and

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dictatorial, he and his family lived in a world divorced from

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reality. For months the Civil War looked like a stalemate, until

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Western air power and help from Arab states drove Gaddafi's troops

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back. His end came here, dragged out of a drainage pipe and shot by

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his own people. In Yemen, popular protest against the 33-year ruler,

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President Saleh has been complicated by tribal. The

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President has remained -- decided to step down.

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Bahrain has seen the most serious violence in the Gulf, around 40

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killed, thousands injured, as Shi'ites demand for rights from the

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Sunni monarchy. There's so much tension in these Shi'ite villages

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when processions like this meet the security forces, often it ends in

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tear gas, more wounds and more animosity. Syria has suffered

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terribly this year, over 5,000 killed, countless others tortured

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as the country lurches towards Civil War, its President appears to

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be in denial. Nofrpblgts government in the world kill its people unless,

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it's led by crazy person. For me as President, I became President

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because of the public support. The movement many called the Arab

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awakening, has yet to run its course. What started a year ago

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with a Tunisian fruit seller is now unstoppable. The Arab world has had

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enough of dictatorship. In Egypt today, there have been

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more clashs in Cairo between troops and protesters. Demonstrators had

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been staging a sits-in outside the Parliament building, when security

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forces moved in to remove them. The latest protests began three weeks

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ago. 40 years ago today, after a two-week war with India, Pakistan

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suffered a humiliating defeat, out of what had been east Pakistan, the

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new country of Bangladesh was born. Many believed it had little chance

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of surviving, despite natural disasters, military dictatorship

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and an economy dependent on aid for many years, Bangladesh has not only

:14:34.:14:44.
:14:44.:14:45.

survived, it's experienced strong Meet this young mother of two. She

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is one of millions of women working in Bangladesh's thriving garment

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industry. Today, Bangladesh is the world's third-biggest export of

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Ready to wear clothes, earning billions of dollars in revenue.

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life has changed completely after a got a job here. We lived in our

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village and we have no money and we struggled to make ends meet. With

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my savings, I bought a rickshaw for my husband and now he earns some

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money. We are still poor, but we are no longer starving.

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Bangladesh's first President makes a fiery speech at the start of the

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independence struggle. The war left the country in ruins, but the

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American National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger called it a basket

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case. He thought the new country would constantly need millions of

:15:39.:15:49.
:15:49.:15:49.

dollars in aid just to survive. said thank God it is not our basket

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case. Our wish today is for a economy, but it is a highly

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integrated economy. It is an integrated economy of 160 million

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people. That is a strength. These children are dressed in the

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national colours to celebrate Bangladesh Bols break from Pakistan

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40 years ago. Since then, the country has refused independence on

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foreign aid, and democracy has taken root after years of military

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rule. The country has also witnessed a strong economic rise in

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recent years, helping millions out of poverty. But, for a lot of

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Bangladesh is, that is not enough. The biggest challenge is sharing in

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the economy and we have brought down the number of poor people, but

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it is still one third of the population. For these women, the

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lively have also depends on what happens outside Bangladesh. The

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current crisis in the Eurozone, the country's biggest export market,

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could have a major impact. For 40 years, Bangladesh has defied the

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dire predictions made in 1971. It has a bright -- survive. There are

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uncertainties, but people are confident that their in-built

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:17:16.:17:18.

resilience will keep them going. We have been hearing that the scars

:17:18.:17:21.

of independence will remain and disagreements continue to the day.

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The Bangladeshi government saw too many people killed, they called it

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a genocide. The Pakistani side investigated through a commission

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which was formed and eventually they said 26,000 people were killed.

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You can see the difference between 26,003 million. My view is that it

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is virtually impossible to verify the figure but the fact remains

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that a lot of people were killed and there was mass rape and murder

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and torture. For the were atrocities on both sides. Yes, both

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sides. But the Bengali separatists and the Urdu-speaking community

:18:00.:18:05.

were considered loyal to the idea of Pakistan but there was internal

:18:05.:18:08.

strife as villages were burned and people were killed and that was a

:18:08.:18:12.

justification for the Pakistan army to intervene. But this could not

:18:12.:18:17.

have been done without the help of India. They were crucial to the

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success of this war. I was brought up in Pakistan believing it was an

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Indian conspiracy. When I went to Bangladesh last month and spoke to

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senior ministers, they accepted that without the help from India we

:18:30.:18:36.

could not have done it in 1971. you look at the map, it was bonkers

:18:36.:18:41.

as far as West Pakistan was concerned. The territory divided by

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1,600 kilometres, with a hostile enemy territory next. It was an

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absurd idea to begin with in the minds of people, but people say it

:18:51.:18:55.

was inevitable. And when the surrender came, a moment of

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national humiliation for Pakistan. I believe it is possibly the

:19:00.:19:04.

darkest period in the history of Pakistan. When 90,000 soldiers

:19:04.:19:08.

surrender in front of India, being taken as prisoners of war, the

:19:08.:19:14.

country then broke up. But that fed into the Pakistan paranoia with

:19:14.:19:18.

India and it has continued to inform the policy since then.

:19:18.:19:23.

Looking at Bangladesh now and its future, it is making big strides.

:19:23.:19:27.

There are a lot of challenges in Bangladesh. Overall, Bangladesh has

:19:27.:19:32.

done well since independence. They are making efforts and improving.

:19:32.:19:36.

They are released in charge of their own destiny now. Before

:19:36.:19:41.

independence there was constant blame on West Pakistan and that was

:19:41.:19:45.

exploited in terms of economics and cultural subject -- subjugation,

:19:45.:19:48.

but one would argue even know that the democracy there has problems,

:19:48.:19:53.

one could argue that these people are in charge of their destiny.

:19:53.:19:58.

that hatred slowly dissipating? Bangladesh, I did meet some people

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and I felt the heat of this because I am Pakistani and Pakistanis

:20:04.:20:07.

killed their relatives, but a lot of people have moved on. People

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need closure. Officially, Bangladesh has repeatedly asked for

:20:11.:20:15.

an apology from Pakistan and the leaders have expressed regret, but

:20:15.:20:17.

there has not been an official apology yet. Many people in

:20:18.:20:21.

Pakistan believe it is about time that they recognised the wrongs

:20:21.:20:27.

that wouldn't. The controversial British born author and journalist

:20:27.:20:30.

Christopher Hitchens has died at the age of 62. He passed away at a

:20:30.:20:34.

hospital in Houston, Texas after a long battle against cancer.

:20:34.:20:37.

Christopher Hitchens began his career in Britain as a left-wing

:20:37.:20:40.

journalist, but he later moved to New York and to the political right.

:20:40.:20:44.

The BBC's James Robbins looks back on his life.

:20:44.:20:49.

Christopher Hitchens lived hard and fast and wrote even harder --

:20:49.:20:53.

faster. Being the right is what I am, he said, rather than what I do.

:20:53.:20:58.

He started on the left at the New Statesman magazine in 19 some T3.

:20:58.:21:02.

Methodical with facts, always a fierce critic, often hilarious. He

:21:02.:21:08.

wrote to provoke, most of all as an ardent atheist. I refuse to be told

:21:08.:21:16.

what to think or howl, let alone what to say, but most certainly not

:21:16.:21:21.

by people who claimed the authority of fabricated works of primeval

:21:21.:21:26.

myth and fiction. They want me to believe that they are divine, and

:21:26.:21:29.

that I won't have. At and in debate with Tony Blair, Christopher

:21:29.:21:34.

Hitchens told him that the leaders were slave to the celestial

:21:34.:21:39.

dictatorship, a sort of divine North Korea. Christopher was a

:21:39.:21:46.

total one-off. A unique character, an extraordinary polemicist, a

:21:46.:21:54.

contrary in, often. But an incredible, inspirational writer

:21:54.:21:58.

and figure. Christopher Hitchens revelled in fights and shows many

:21:58.:22:05.

targets. He called Bill Clinton based cynical, C -- self-serving,

:22:05.:22:10.

ambitious third. He scandalise many by accusing Mother Teresa of

:22:10.:22:14.

withholding proper medical care in favour of a cult based on death,

:22:14.:22:18.

suffering and subjection. But he was also fearless calling 9/11, the

:22:18.:22:24.

work of Islamic fascism. I knew Christopher in the 60s and 70s. I

:22:24.:22:27.

knew him better in the 90s, actually, when we worked together

:22:28.:22:33.

on a number of documentaries. So why will have fond memories of that

:22:33.:22:38.

Christopher -- I will have. But the new Christopher that emerged after

:22:38.:22:42.

9/11, as an apologist for the United States and its imperial wars

:22:42.:22:48.

and policies have brought, I had little sympathy for. Christopher

:22:48.:22:51.

Hitchens's embrace of America and his support for George Bush ended

:22:51.:22:56.

some friendships that won him new admirers as well. Then, as cancer

:22:56.:23:01.

took hold, he started thinking and writing about dying, death, and a

:23:01.:23:06.

certainty that it would be final. Do you fear death? No, I am not

:23:06.:23:10.

afraid of being dead, necessarily. There is nothing to be afraid of, I

:23:10.:23:15.

won't know. And if I find I am alive in any way a tall, that will

:23:15.:23:24.

Christopher Hitchens who died at the age of 62. I'm joined now by

:23:24.:23:28.

Jacob Weisberg, editor of Slate.com. The thing that struck me about

:23:28.:23:32.

Christopher Hitchens was passion in everything he did and said. Is that

:23:32.:23:40.

your experience as well? Very much so. He had the great passion for

:23:40.:23:43.

whatever his view was at the time, even though it changed over the

:23:43.:23:47.

years. But it wasn't just passion for the sake of it, it was for

:23:47.:23:50.

things he cared about, a human rights, freedom of expression,

:23:50.:23:53.

literature, leaving the kind of life he wanted to lead and for

:23:53.:23:57.

having the freedom to do it. What did you first think when you first

:23:57.:24:04.

met him? I met him 26 years ago when I was 21 years old and he made

:24:04.:24:08.

quite an impression on me. I was taking a year of college and

:24:08.:24:10.

working in Washington as a journalist and he had been there

:24:10.:24:15.

are few more years having come over from London. And he sort of called

:24:15.:24:19.

me out of the blue and asked if I wanted a cheap drink, and I had

:24:19.:24:22.

heard of him and knew his reputation, and he really

:24:22.:24:26.

befriended me, and what I subsequently learnt his day he had

:24:26.:24:29.

done that with so many young journalists in a really selfless

:24:29.:24:33.

and admirable way. He just cultivated this kind of

:24:33.:24:39.

conversation around him and he didn't have disciples, and he

:24:39.:24:42.

didn't like them, but he surrounded himself with a range of people who

:24:42.:24:46.

didn't necessarily share his views or taste but who he got some

:24:46.:24:50.

stimulation from. And he could drink, couldn't he? It was

:24:50.:24:53.

unbelievable. The thing was not how much he drank, but how little

:24:53.:24:57.

effect it had on him. The worst hangover remember having in my life

:24:57.:25:00.

was after one night I went out with him early on and I learned my

:25:00.:25:04.

lesson, but he would drink and drink and at the end of the evening

:25:04.:25:08.

he might feel a little muzzy but basically entirely coherent, and he

:25:08.:25:11.

could sit down and banged out a column that would be better than

:25:11.:25:15.

anything I could do stone-cold sober. He had so many feuds, many

:25:15.:25:21.

of them very entertaining. One less so was with his brother, Peter.

:25:21.:25:26.

Today he wrote about the one quality that stood out in his

:25:26.:25:31.

brother, which was courage. What do you think of that? I think that is

:25:31.:25:35.

the right thing to pick up on, intellectual courage. The more time

:25:35.:25:40.

I have spent in journalism, the more I have felt that the press

:25:40.:25:44.

have a herd mentality existing, especially amongst journalists in

:25:44.:25:49.

some ways. It was simply never true of Christopher. He followed his

:25:49.:25:54.

principles to the logical conclusion and he did not care what

:25:54.:26:04.

anyone thought. From Trotskyite took me a conservative, that is

:26:04.:26:09.

quite a ride. -- to a neo- conservative. I don't think he was

:26:09.:26:14.

a conventional liberal in the American sense, but he did have a

:26:14.:26:16.

larger Liberal values through his life and he was liberationists. He

:26:16.:26:19.

believed people should be free and should be free to express

:26:20.:26:23.

themselves. He didn't think they should live under dictatorships. He

:26:23.:26:27.

thought they should be free to express themselves sexually, to

:26:27.:26:33.

drink, to smoke, to dress the way they want, and there is a

:26:33.:26:36.

consistent thread in his thoughts that go from his period on the left

:26:36.:26:40.

to his period on the right, but looked at in a certain perspective,

:26:40.:26:44.

even his period on the right was not really on the right. He

:26:44.:26:47.

supported the Iraq war. His reasons were different from other

:26:47.:26:52.

supporters. Jacob, thank you for speaking to us. That is all for me

:26:52.:27:02.
:27:02.:27:03.

Hello, we have a cold weekend ahead. Frosty, I see, and wintry showers.

:27:03.:27:07.

We saw an area of low pressure moving through the Channel which

:27:07.:27:11.

skipped away into Germany and now with strong winds we are left

:27:11.:27:16.

behind with a cold north-west airflow across the UK, which is why

:27:16.:27:18.

temperatures are struggling this weekend. There will be problems

:27:18.:27:23.

with ice and there will be cold accentuated by the north-westerly

:27:23.:27:29.

wind. An RAC start to Saturday and further wintry showers. -- a cold

:27:29.:27:32.

start to Saturday. Shell was running along the southern counties,

:27:32.:27:37.

showers of rain, sleet, snow, hail and also some sunshine across many

:27:37.:27:41.

inland areas with a mixture of patchy cloud and sunny spells and

:27:41.:27:43.

if you get sunshine it doesn't make much difference to the temperature.

:27:43.:27:48.

It is well below the seasonal average and into single figures.

:27:48.:27:51.

The showers coming into the south- west are predominantly rain but you

:27:52.:27:56.

could catch Hale. Those across Wales are snow on high ground but

:27:56.:28:00.

it will not be a constant spell of wet weather because they will be

:28:00.:28:04.

dry and occasionally bright interludes. Further scattered

:28:04.:28:06.

showers keeps coming in through Northern Ireland in temperatures

:28:06.:28:11.

around four or five or six degrees, held close to freezing across

:28:11.:28:15.

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