23/01/2012 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi. Hitting oil-rich


Iran where it hurts most: in its state budget: The European Union


imposes some of their toughest sanctions yet, banning all imports


of Iran's crude oil and freezing the central bank's assets. It is


absolute right to give this in revealing, and refusal to come to


meaningful negotiations. Four leading Kenyans are to stand


trial at the International Criminal Court over the 2007 election


violence: will it heal the wounds or inflame passions?


The UK government announces plans to curb the pay of top executives,


how justified is this boardroom backlash?


Also coming up in the programme: We talk to the author of a new book on


Michelle Obama: The First Lady hits out against it, saying it's trying


to tap into an image of her as an angry black lady.


And the people's account of the people's revolution in Tunisia. A


new film gives their account from Hello and welcome. The European


Union has imposed its most wide- ranging sanctions yet on Iran as a


way of trying to get it back to the negotiating table. The last talks


about Iran's nuclear ambitions broke down a year ago. Over the


weekend Britain, France and the US sailed warships through the Strait


of Hormuz, which Tehran has repeatedly threatened to close, if


its oil exports are disrupted. The Strait is the world's most


important oil chokepoint, with a daily oil flow of almost 17 million


barrels in 2011. That's more than 20% of the total amount of oil


traded worldwide. Our Tehran correspondent, James Reynolds, is


monitoring developments from Dubai. The Gulf is the closest Iran has to


a cash point. The European Union has now decided to stop paying into


the account. It will no longer buy it will from the Persian states.


Soak Iran loses 20 per cent of the oil market. This is why. The West


fit Iran is trying to build weapons. Iran continues to defy the un and


bringing Iranian up to 20 per cent, for which there is no explanation.


It is very important to bring in the legitimate measures against the


Iranians. Exporting oil helps to keep the country's government alive


and in power. The un have decided to go after Iran where it hurts. To


make its point it carried out firings in the Gulf. In response


the world's most powerful military have sent an aircraft carrier. The


US and Iran have clashed here before. America wants to keep the


price of world the same. If any limitation is put on the


availability of it, the price of will will go up. It is that simple.


In Amman, so smugglers are active. Losing a source like this may be


much harder to bear. Joining me from London is Mehrdad


Emadi, who is a senior economic consultant and an external advisor


to the European Union. This is a bit of a blow to the Iranian


authorities, how far do you think this will be felt? Within a short


period we shall see about its ability to fulfil the trade


contracts. In that context it will be a significant decline with


industrialisation and the conduct of day to day economic life in the


country. However, these are only sanctions, they are not global.


Surely they would have a greater effect if countries like Japan


would follow suit or China? They may not and made just buy up the


European share of oil. That is always a possibility, but we should


know in the last couple of days, all of the largest will refineries


in Japan have announced it will stop purchasing new will


consignments from Iran. They are worries about the possible follow


up from the sanctions, both from the US and European Union. I add to


that that Turkey also announced it is seeking a replacement for the


oil suppliers, just in case the sanctions will be biting. Most of


Iran's oil goes to Asia, and if Asia buys the Orwell that the


others do not once, perhaps at a discounted price, it is not so bad


for Iran. Except for Japan, neither of the main three, pay for their


oil purchases in hard currency. In that sense, week are forced, Iran


is forced to accept India and Chinese commodities in return. They


significantly reduce the ability of the Iranian government to finance


other purchases. In that sense it will be very effective. With high


up well prices, how far could that cushion the blow for the Iranian


economy? Even if the price goes up, the United Arab Emirates will


profit the most, and Saudi Arabia. Iran is not really going to benefit


from higher up oil prices, not, at least, immediately. Thank you for


talking us through the economic aspects. Now a look at some of the


days other new: Syria has rejected the latest Arab League plan for


ending violence in the country. It's dismissed the League's call


for a national unity government as flagrant interference adding that


it's a clear violation of Syrian sovereignty. The head of the


League's monitoring mission defended its record, saying there


has been less violence since his teams arrived in Syria.


In Nigeria, eight bombs have been found in cars by the side of the


road in Kano. Police say there could be hundreds of bombs. It


comes three days after attacks by the militant Islamist group, Boko


Haram, in the same area. Muslim and Christian leaders in Kano have


called for a day of prayers following the attacks which left


more than 150 dead. Rescuers have recovered two more


bodies from the wreck of the Costa Concordia cruise ship off the


Italian island of Giglio. It brings the official death toll to 15.


Authorities have said experts can now begin pumping fuel from the


capsized vessel, as they've determined that the ship will not


fall to a lower seabed, as previously feared.


French senators are about to vote on a bill that will make it illegal


to deny that the mass killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks nearly a


century ago was genocide. Last month, France's Lower House voted


to make such denials a crime, prompting Turkey to suspended


military, economic and political ties.


Chinese communities around the world are welcoming in the Year of


the Dragon. It's the most important day of the lunar year, the first


day of the Chinese zodiac calendar. The Year of the Dragon is


especially important and babies born in this year are considered to


be especially lucky. The Kenyan President, Mwai Kibaki,


is appealing for calm, after the ICC, the International Criminal


court, decided to charge four senior Kenyan figures over the


election violence in 2007. They include two presidential candidates,


who are charged with crimes against humanity, for allegedly


orchestrating the violence in which around a thousand died and many


more were injured. Will Ross sent this report from the Kenyan capital,


Nairobi. At the International Criminal Court a decision which has


major political repercussions for Kenya. The judges ruled that four


of the six suspects are to stand trial. For this. Four years ago


Kenya was shaken as communities set on each other following a dispute


at the elections. Well over a 1000 people were killed and many others


displaced. Are monks those now due to stand trial for crimes against


humanity are two prominence politicians with presidential


ambitions. This former minister and this man, the country's Deputy


Prime Minister. They both see nothing wrong with buying for the


presidency and standing trial at the same time. There is nothing


within the ICC rules which bars me from the political agenda in Kenya.


There has never been any justice at home from the atrocity which forced


those to flee for their lives, but the politicians tend to entrench


themselves in ambitions of power. There are calls for an end to this


impunity, and for those who picked up this -- these weapons to be


brought to book. It does not suit makes sense for them to be brought


to trial, then you see your neighbour, who are addicted you


from your land going about their business as if they owned the


country. Many Kenyans are hoping the icy sea trials will help in


some way to ensure that future elections are more peaceful. The


upcoming election is already controversial. We know two of the


men who want to be President are about to stand trial for crimes


against humanity. For countries like Kenya that have


undergone such internal conflict, there are lessons elsewhere on the


continent. South Africa for instance set up a truth and


reconciliation commission after the end of apartheid. Here with me in


the studio is the South African academic and writer Moletsi Mbeki,


brother of the former president Thabo Mbeki. When it comes to the


situation we have in Kenya, you generally have to strike a balance


between justice and reconciliation. Yes, I think the decision of the


ICC is important. The future atrocities which happen in Africa,


not just in Kenya, we saw this in Libya. In the Democratic Republic


of Congo, in Zimbabwe during the last elections. It is very


important for the world to send a message to African leaders that the


lives of their citizens are valuable. That the electric


decisions must be respected. This is a key message. Why must say they


denied the charges, but some Kenyans do want to see justice done.


To see these men standing trial, if they are found guilty. But there


are those saying, "this could create a constitutional crisis."


where we could this go? This could inflame passions. His it is a


possibility, but for those who are expected of bring in the violence


are allowed to get away with it because we fear more violence would


happen, then there will never be justice or peace in countries like


Kenya. When we have a great deal of ethnic identification, like this.


It is the process by which you do it, in your country, South Africa,


you put an emphasis on truth and reconciliation. Rwanda went down


its own home-grown justice system after the genocide there. I know


the ICC option was not available for all of these countries, but


what is better? Home-grown just as all the international arena, like


the ICC? For many independent countries, independent for 50 years


some of them, the rule of law must be established within the countries


so that we don't keep getting this recurrence of these atrocities


after elections. I think the ICC process is the correct process for


most African countries. Okay, thank The issue of excessive boardroom


pay has been a very live political debate here. Well, now the


government has set out plans to curb executive pay. It wants more


transparency and greater power for shareholders to veto large salaries


and bonuses. In a new series here on BBC World News we're looking at


how the global rich have become even wealthier over the last few


decades. And we're asking whether the super-rich are a force for good


Apology for the loss of subtitles for 89 seconds


About have done over view there. Joining me now is Amit Midha, an


Indian-born businessman who owns a heath care business in the UK.


Looking at executive pay, I imagine most people would think it is fine


to award people who are outstanding but not to reward mediocre


performances. Part of me has to agree with you. The there is an


issue here which is that people take a simplistic view of executive


pay. There has to be a distinction between people who can genuinely


demonstrate that they have achieved that there creating wealth for a


company and those that have not. In the UK, executives are paid far


more, whose pay has increased far more quickly than others and there


is an issue. There is also a distinction between what we saw on


that graphic, of people like Bill Gates and so on. I difference


between those who create wealth and make useful things like Steve Jobs,


and then those boardroom executives who maybe do not make something and


it is a bit mysterious how they make their money. There is a small


problem here that the chief executives get of the publicity.


They're the ones who are the public face of the company. Usually, as


Chief Executive is somebody whose job is to manage the talents with


than the company. People who are perhaps one level down, there are


often less recognised but play an important role. That is recognised


in the pay structure. There is an issue with pay. Is it an issue that


you think about yourself personally? You are a successful


businessman here and are you aware of the gap, the inequality gap, and


people saying that capitalism has thrown it up. Are you conscious of


that in your daily work life? something that does come up but


there is an issue here when it comes to globalisation. My view is


that with global pressures, what you have to recognise is that


people who are based locally in the market, they are competing for jobs


with people all over the world. The flipside of globalisation is that


you get a levelling out of wealth across the whole world. It started


off at the bottom end unfortunately we're jobs in manual work are hard


to get. It is leaking through the system now. What we're seeing it is


that the first couple of stages but it will level itself out. Thank you.


Events of the Arab Spring have inspired filmmakers around the


Middle East to chronicle the extraordinary twists and turns of


the region in the past year. The Tunisian filmmaker Elyes Baccar


started shooting his film Rouge Parole, or Red Parole, days after


the Tunisian President Ben Ali stepped down. He toured the country


to get an account from the Tunisian people about the revolution.


Shaimaa Khalil spoke to the It has been over a year since


President Ben Ali spoke to his people promising reforms. He said,


I understand you. A few days later she fled the country. It was an


event that would change Tunisia up and the Middle-East forever.


President Ben Ali and normal President? What is going to happen?


What is happening now? I had to film in order to realise what is


Short two days after President Ben Ali step down, it captures the


nation and a mixture of euphoria and disbelief. Crowd marvelling at


banned books which have appeared in bookshops for the first time.


Others making their way to what remained of one of President Ben


Ali's homes. It is about a people finding their own voice for the


first time. Even if that meant arguing with each other. For 25


years, we get that image to the world that Tunisia, 90 per cent of


them, agree on the same points. It was completely wrong. That is what


I want to show to the world, that everyone has their own opinion


about religion, politics, culture, about everything. At the beginning


of the Tunisian revolution, keeping up with everyday events was


challenging to everyone, not least to this film maker who was not only


tried to chronicle these events but also to make sense of what was


happening around him. Rouge Parole is a journey through Tunisian


cities and it areas that he felt had played an important part in the


revolution. Most of the news television focused on the capital


and less on other regions. I want to tell the real story about what


was going on. Who were the main actors of that movement. Tunisia is


the first country to have free and democratic elections after the Arab


Spring. The majority in parliament went to the Islamist party. Despite


disagreements over what the party stands for, many say it is


important to except results and embrace the democracy that the


revolution brought to Tunisia. A new book about the US First Lady


Michelle Obama is causing a stir in Washington. The New York Times


reporter Jodi Kantor paints a picture of Michelle Obama as a


strong force behind the scenes in the White House. It claims Michelle


Obama meddled in political affairs causing a strain in relations with


Barack Obama's closest political advisors. The Obamas shows the


struggles faced by the President and his wife adjusting to life in


Washington. But the White House has hit back strongly denying the


allegations against Michelle Obama. The author herself, Jodi Kantor,


denies that her book portrays Michelle Obama as an angry black


woman. I'm joined now here in the studio by the book's author, Jodi


Kantor. When Michelle Obama said this is tapping into an image


painted by some of me as an angry black woman, and it just is not so,


did you perhaps going for that stereotype a bit? Even the way you


describe the bit, I think the word, Medellin, his various -- judgmental.


-- meddling. This is not the cliche of the First Lady it diving in and


meddling in health care plans, she is someone that what it has been to


live up to that ideals that were promoted as part of pop Obama's


campaign. I have been covering this for five years and wanted explore


the question of what she take -- get when you take two ambitious and


intelligent people and put them in the White House. It would be quite


disorienting with two little girls and it would take a little time for


her to adjust and find her feet. She even thought of delaying moving


to the White House initially saw the girls could finish off their


school year. On the one hand, perhaps she did not know much about


how the presidency work but you could also say she had a bitter


about say there was them. That was in the early days and now she may


be has more up conferred with her role and is campaigning about


better diets for young people and is seen as an asset. Most reviewers


have seen this as not an unflattering portrait of the First


Lady because it is the story of her time turning around and the White


House. She had a rocky debut but has been a success. Is it a


sympathetic portrayal despite what the book reviews are saying? Will


you like Michelle Obama more or less after you read this bit?


don't want to do a flattering or unflattering portrait but many


reviewers say they have a new-found respect for Michelle Obama after


seeing the behind the scenes betrayal. Why she's so annoyed?


has not read a bit. She may have read bits. The White House say they


were returning more or -- the offending water some of the tabloid


coverage. What was the most surprising feature you discovered?


I think the most surprising thing the White House advisers told me


was really how difficult life in the White House's. I think the


world has glamorised images of their Force One and steak dinners


but if you look at the details of their home life, it is quite


different. How far she it a conduit by which her husband expresses his


ambitions and dreams. She will be ubiquitous on the campaign to Elf -


- campaign trail in 2012 in part because she is more popular than


him just now. Thank you. A reminder of our main news: The EU


has approved tough sanctions against Iran in an attempt to stop


Tehran's alleged nuclear weapons programme. The measures include a


ban on imports of Iranian crude oil. Iran insists it's not trying to


build nuclear weapons and has threatened to block the Strait of


Hormuz, a key oil route. Two presidential candidates are


among four Kenyans to stand trial at the International Criminal Court


for crimes against humanity during the post-election violence of 2007.


Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto deny the charges. Over a thousand


people died in clashes between supporters of the rival candidates.


Well, that's all from the programme. Next the weather. But for now from


me, Zeinab Badawi, and the rest of Particularly in the east. We have a


band of rain to contend with which will come in up with this weather


front moving off the Atlantic. Rain across the Atlantic over parts of


Northern Ireland but there will be called they are coming into


Scotland and parts of England. Some sleet and snow mixed in with that


particularly of a higher ground but things fizzle out by the afternoon


with Sting staying cloudy. Patchy rain and particularly cold with


temperatures struggling at around four Celsius. Some patchy rain


across East Anglia and the south- east. A lot of cloud but it should


remain dry in the afternoon. Temperatures in the West that


around 10 Celsius so here it is much milder. Abbey's dry spell for


Wales and then the way up -- of rain will return for the afternoon.


Northern Ireland, a little bit more rain in the afternoon which will


come and go with temperatures in Belfast of 11 Celsius. After a


rather windy start today, temperatures in Scotland or recover


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