23/01/2012 World News Today


23/01/2012

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This is BBC World News Today with me, Zeinab Badawi. Hitting oil-rich

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Iran where it hurts most: in its state budget: The European Union

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imposes some of their toughest sanctions yet, banning all imports

:00:17.:00:27.
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of Iran's crude oil and freezing the central bank's assets. It is

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absolute right to give this in revealing, and refusal to come to

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meaningful negotiations. Four leading Kenyans are to stand

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trial at the International Criminal Court over the 2007 election

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violence: will it heal the wounds or inflame passions?

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The UK government announces plans to curb the pay of top executives,

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how justified is this boardroom backlash?

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Also coming up in the programme: We talk to the author of a new book on

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Michelle Obama: The First Lady hits out against it, saying it's trying

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to tap into an image of her as an angry black lady.

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And the people's account of the people's revolution in Tunisia. A

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new film gives their account from Hello and welcome. The European

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Union has imposed its most wide- ranging sanctions yet on Iran as a

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way of trying to get it back to the negotiating table. The last talks

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about Iran's nuclear ambitions broke down a year ago. Over the

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weekend Britain, France and the US sailed warships through the Strait

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of Hormuz, which Tehran has repeatedly threatened to close, if

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its oil exports are disrupted. The Strait is the world's most

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important oil chokepoint, with a daily oil flow of almost 17 million

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barrels in 2011. That's more than 20% of the total amount of oil

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traded worldwide. Our Tehran correspondent, James Reynolds, is

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monitoring developments from Dubai. The Gulf is the closest Iran has to

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a cash point. The European Union has now decided to stop paying into

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the account. It will no longer buy it will from the Persian states.

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Soak Iran loses 20 per cent of the oil market. This is why. The West

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fit Iran is trying to build weapons. Iran continues to defy the un and

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bringing Iranian up to 20 per cent, for which there is no explanation.

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It is very important to bring in the legitimate measures against the

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Iranians. Exporting oil helps to keep the country's government alive

:03:12.:03:22.
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and in power. The un have decided to go after Iran where it hurts. To

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make its point it carried out firings in the Gulf. In response

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the world's most powerful military have sent an aircraft carrier. The

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US and Iran have clashed here before. America wants to keep the

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price of world the same. If any limitation is put on the

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availability of it, the price of will will go up. It is that simple.

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In Amman, so smugglers are active. Losing a source like this may be

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much harder to bear. Joining me from London is Mehrdad

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Emadi, who is a senior economic consultant and an external advisor

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to the European Union. This is a bit of a blow to the Iranian

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authorities, how far do you think this will be felt? Within a short

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period we shall see about its ability to fulfil the trade

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contracts. In that context it will be a significant decline with

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industrialisation and the conduct of day to day economic life in the

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country. However, these are only sanctions, they are not global.

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Surely they would have a greater effect if countries like Japan

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would follow suit or China? They may not and made just buy up the

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European share of oil. That is always a possibility, but we should

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know in the last couple of days, all of the largest will refineries

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in Japan have announced it will stop purchasing new will

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consignments from Iran. They are worries about the possible follow

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up from the sanctions, both from the US and European Union. I add to

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that that Turkey also announced it is seeking a replacement for the

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oil suppliers, just in case the sanctions will be biting. Most of

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Iran's oil goes to Asia, and if Asia buys the Orwell that the

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others do not once, perhaps at a discounted price, it is not so bad

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for Iran. Except for Japan, neither of the main three, pay for their

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oil purchases in hard currency. In that sense, week are forced, Iran

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is forced to accept India and Chinese commodities in return. They

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significantly reduce the ability of the Iranian government to finance

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other purchases. In that sense it will be very effective. With high

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up well prices, how far could that cushion the blow for the Iranian

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economy? Even if the price goes up, the United Arab Emirates will

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profit the most, and Saudi Arabia. Iran is not really going to benefit

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from higher up oil prices, not, at least, immediately. Thank you for

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talking us through the economic aspects. Now a look at some of the

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days other new: Syria has rejected the latest Arab League plan for

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ending violence in the country. It's dismissed the League's call

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for a national unity government as flagrant interference adding that

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it's a clear violation of Syrian sovereignty. The head of the

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League's monitoring mission defended its record, saying there

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has been less violence since his teams arrived in Syria.

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In Nigeria, eight bombs have been found in cars by the side of the

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road in Kano. Police say there could be hundreds of bombs. It

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comes three days after attacks by the militant Islamist group, Boko

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Haram, in the same area. Muslim and Christian leaders in Kano have

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called for a day of prayers following the attacks which left

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more than 150 dead. Rescuers have recovered two more

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bodies from the wreck of the Costa Concordia cruise ship off the

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Italian island of Giglio. It brings the official death toll to 15.

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Authorities have said experts can now begin pumping fuel from the

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capsized vessel, as they've determined that the ship will not

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fall to a lower seabed, as previously feared.

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French senators are about to vote on a bill that will make it illegal

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to deny that the mass killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks nearly a

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century ago was genocide. Last month, France's Lower House voted

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to make such denials a crime, prompting Turkey to suspended

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military, economic and political ties.

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Chinese communities around the world are welcoming in the Year of

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the Dragon. It's the most important day of the lunar year, the first

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day of the Chinese zodiac calendar. The Year of the Dragon is

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especially important and babies born in this year are considered to

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be especially lucky. The Kenyan President, Mwai Kibaki,

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is appealing for calm, after the ICC, the International Criminal

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court, decided to charge four senior Kenyan figures over the

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election violence in 2007. They include two presidential candidates,

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who are charged with crimes against humanity, for allegedly

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orchestrating the violence in which around a thousand died and many

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more were injured. Will Ross sent this report from the Kenyan capital,

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Nairobi. At the International Criminal Court a decision which has

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major political repercussions for Kenya. The judges ruled that four

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of the six suspects are to stand trial. For this. Four years ago

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Kenya was shaken as communities set on each other following a dispute

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at the elections. Well over a 1000 people were killed and many others

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displaced. Are monks those now due to stand trial for crimes against

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humanity are two prominence politicians with presidential

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ambitions. This former minister and this man, the country's Deputy

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Prime Minister. They both see nothing wrong with buying for the

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presidency and standing trial at the same time. There is nothing

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within the ICC rules which bars me from the political agenda in Kenya.

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There has never been any justice at home from the atrocity which forced

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those to flee for their lives, but the politicians tend to entrench

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themselves in ambitions of power. There are calls for an end to this

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impunity, and for those who picked up this -- these weapons to be

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brought to book. It does not suit makes sense for them to be brought

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to trial, then you see your neighbour, who are addicted you

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from your land going about their business as if they owned the

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country. Many Kenyans are hoping the icy sea trials will help in

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some way to ensure that future elections are more peaceful. The

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upcoming election is already controversial. We know two of the

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men who want to be President are about to stand trial for crimes

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against humanity. For countries like Kenya that have

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undergone such internal conflict, there are lessons elsewhere on the

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continent. South Africa for instance set up a truth and

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reconciliation commission after the end of apartheid. Here with me in

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the studio is the South African academic and writer Moletsi Mbeki,

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brother of the former president Thabo Mbeki. When it comes to the

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situation we have in Kenya, you generally have to strike a balance

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between justice and reconciliation. Yes, I think the decision of the

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ICC is important. The future atrocities which happen in Africa,

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not just in Kenya, we saw this in Libya. In the Democratic Republic

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of Congo, in Zimbabwe during the last elections. It is very

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important for the world to send a message to African leaders that the

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lives of their citizens are valuable. That the electric

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decisions must be respected. This is a key message. Why must say they

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denied the charges, but some Kenyans do want to see justice done.

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To see these men standing trial, if they are found guilty. But there

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are those saying, "this could create a constitutional crisis."

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where we could this go? This could inflame passions. His it is a

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possibility, but for those who are expected of bring in the violence

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are allowed to get away with it because we fear more violence would

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happen, then there will never be justice or peace in countries like

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Kenya. When we have a great deal of ethnic identification, like this.

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It is the process by which you do it, in your country, South Africa,

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you put an emphasis on truth and reconciliation. Rwanda went down

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its own home-grown justice system after the genocide there. I know

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the ICC option was not available for all of these countries, but

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what is better? Home-grown just as all the international arena, like

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the ICC? For many independent countries, independent for 50 years

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some of them, the rule of law must be established within the countries

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so that we don't keep getting this recurrence of these atrocities

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after elections. I think the ICC process is the correct process for

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most African countries. Okay, thank The issue of excessive boardroom

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pay has been a very live political debate here. Well, now the

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government has set out plans to curb executive pay. It wants more

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transparency and greater power for shareholders to veto large salaries

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and bonuses. In a new series here on BBC World News we're looking at

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how the global rich have become even wealthier over the last few

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decades. And we're asking whether the super-rich are a force for good

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:14:45.:14:45.

Apology for the loss of subtitles for 89 seconds

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About have done over view there. Joining me now is Amit Midha, an

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Indian-born businessman who owns a heath care business in the UK.

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Looking at executive pay, I imagine most people would think it is fine

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to award people who are outstanding but not to reward mediocre

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performances. Part of me has to agree with you. The there is an

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issue here which is that people take a simplistic view of executive

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pay. There has to be a distinction between people who can genuinely

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demonstrate that they have achieved that there creating wealth for a

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company and those that have not. In the UK, executives are paid far

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more, whose pay has increased far more quickly than others and there

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is an issue. There is also a distinction between what we saw on

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that graphic, of people like Bill Gates and so on. I difference

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between those who create wealth and make useful things like Steve Jobs,

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and then those boardroom executives who maybe do not make something and

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it is a bit mysterious how they make their money. There is a small

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problem here that the chief executives get of the publicity.

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They're the ones who are the public face of the company. Usually, as

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Chief Executive is somebody whose job is to manage the talents with

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than the company. People who are perhaps one level down, there are

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often less recognised but play an important role. That is recognised

:17:58.:18:03.

in the pay structure. There is an issue with pay. Is it an issue that

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you think about yourself personally? You are a successful

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businessman here and are you aware of the gap, the inequality gap, and

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people saying that capitalism has thrown it up. Are you conscious of

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that in your daily work life? something that does come up but

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there is an issue here when it comes to globalisation. My view is

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that with global pressures, what you have to recognise is that

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people who are based locally in the market, they are competing for jobs

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with people all over the world. The flipside of globalisation is that

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you get a levelling out of wealth across the whole world. It started

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off at the bottom end unfortunately we're jobs in manual work are hard

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to get. It is leaking through the system now. What we're seeing it is

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that the first couple of stages but it will level itself out. Thank you.

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Events of the Arab Spring have inspired filmmakers around the

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Middle East to chronicle the extraordinary twists and turns of

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the region in the past year. The Tunisian filmmaker Elyes Baccar

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started shooting his film Rouge Parole, or Red Parole, days after

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the Tunisian President Ben Ali stepped down. He toured the country

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to get an account from the Tunisian people about the revolution.

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:19:42.:19:50.

Shaimaa Khalil spoke to the It has been over a year since

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President Ben Ali spoke to his people promising reforms. He said,

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I understand you. A few days later she fled the country. It was an

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event that would change Tunisia up and the Middle-East forever.

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President Ben Ali and normal President? What is going to happen?

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What is happening now? I had to film in order to realise what is

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:20:32.:20:35.

Short two days after President Ben Ali step down, it captures the

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nation and a mixture of euphoria and disbelief. Crowd marvelling at

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banned books which have appeared in bookshops for the first time.

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Others making their way to what remained of one of President Ben

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Ali's homes. It is about a people finding their own voice for the

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first time. Even if that meant arguing with each other. For 25

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years, we get that image to the world that Tunisia, 90 per cent of

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them, agree on the same points. It was completely wrong. That is what

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I want to show to the world, that everyone has their own opinion

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about religion, politics, culture, about everything. At the beginning

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of the Tunisian revolution, keeping up with everyday events was

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challenging to everyone, not least to this film maker who was not only

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tried to chronicle these events but also to make sense of what was

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happening around him. Rouge Parole is a journey through Tunisian

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cities and it areas that he felt had played an important part in the

:21:50.:21:56.

revolution. Most of the news television focused on the capital

:21:56.:22:01.

and less on other regions. I want to tell the real story about what

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was going on. Who were the main actors of that movement. Tunisia is

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the first country to have free and democratic elections after the Arab

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Spring. The majority in parliament went to the Islamist party. Despite

:22:20.:22:24.

disagreements over what the party stands for, many say it is

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important to except results and embrace the democracy that the

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revolution brought to Tunisia. A new book about the US First Lady

:22:33.:22:37.

Michelle Obama is causing a stir in Washington. The New York Times

:22:37.:22:40.

reporter Jodi Kantor paints a picture of Michelle Obama as a

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strong force behind the scenes in the White House. It claims Michelle

:22:44.:22:47.

Obama meddled in political affairs causing a strain in relations with

:22:47.:22:53.

Barack Obama's closest political advisors. The Obamas shows the

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struggles faced by the President and his wife adjusting to life in

:22:56.:23:01.

Washington. But the White House has hit back strongly denying the

:23:01.:23:04.

allegations against Michelle Obama. The author herself, Jodi Kantor,

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denies that her book portrays Michelle Obama as an angry black

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woman. I'm joined now here in the studio by the book's author, Jodi

:23:14.:23:20.

Kantor. When Michelle Obama said this is tapping into an image

:23:20.:23:28.

painted by some of me as an angry black woman, and it just is not so,

:23:28.:23:33.

did you perhaps going for that stereotype a bit? Even the way you

:23:34.:23:43.
:23:44.:23:45.

describe the bit, I think the word, Medellin, his various -- judgmental.

:23:45.:23:52.

-- meddling. This is not the cliche of the First Lady it diving in and

:23:52.:23:57.

meddling in health care plans, she is someone that what it has been to

:23:57.:24:04.

live up to that ideals that were promoted as part of pop Obama's

:24:04.:24:08.

campaign. I have been covering this for five years and wanted explore

:24:09.:24:13.

the question of what she take -- get when you take two ambitious and

:24:13.:24:18.

intelligent people and put them in the White House. It would be quite

:24:18.:24:22.

disorienting with two little girls and it would take a little time for

:24:22.:24:28.

her to adjust and find her feet. She even thought of delaying moving

:24:28.:24:31.

to the White House initially saw the girls could finish off their

:24:31.:24:35.

school year. On the one hand, perhaps she did not know much about

:24:35.:24:38.

how the presidency work but you could also say she had a bitter

:24:38.:24:43.

about say there was them. That was in the early days and now she may

:24:43.:24:48.

be has more up conferred with her role and is campaigning about

:24:48.:24:52.

better diets for young people and is seen as an asset. Most reviewers

:24:53.:24:57.

have seen this as not an unflattering portrait of the First

:24:57.:25:01.

Lady because it is the story of her time turning around and the White

:25:01.:25:06.

House. She had a rocky debut but has been a success. Is it a

:25:06.:25:11.

sympathetic portrayal despite what the book reviews are saying? Will

:25:11.:25:15.

you like Michelle Obama more or less after you read this bit?

:25:15.:25:18.

don't want to do a flattering or unflattering portrait but many

:25:18.:25:23.

reviewers say they have a new-found respect for Michelle Obama after

:25:23.:25:27.

seeing the behind the scenes betrayal. Why she's so annoyed?

:25:27.:25:33.

has not read a bit. She may have read bits. The White House say they

:25:33.:25:37.

were returning more or -- the offending water some of the tabloid

:25:37.:25:45.

coverage. What was the most surprising feature you discovered?

:25:45.:25:51.

I think the most surprising thing the White House advisers told me

:25:51.:25:55.

was really how difficult life in the White House's. I think the

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world has glamorised images of their Force One and steak dinners

:25:59.:26:02.

but if you look at the details of their home life, it is quite

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different. How far she it a conduit by which her husband expresses his

:26:09.:26:15.

ambitions and dreams. She will be ubiquitous on the campaign to Elf -

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- campaign trail in 2012 in part because she is more popular than

:26:18.:26:22.

him just now. Thank you. A reminder of our main news: The EU

:26:23.:26:25.

has approved tough sanctions against Iran in an attempt to stop

:26:25.:26:27.

Tehran's alleged nuclear weapons programme. The measures include a

:26:28.:26:31.

ban on imports of Iranian crude oil. Iran insists it's not trying to

:26:31.:26:33.

build nuclear weapons and has threatened to block the Strait of

:26:34.:26:36.

Hormuz, a key oil route. Two presidential candidates are

:26:36.:26:39.

among four Kenyans to stand trial at the International Criminal Court

:26:39.:26:41.

for crimes against humanity during the post-election violence of 2007.

:26:41.:26:44.

Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto deny the charges. Over a thousand

:26:44.:26:46.

people died in clashes between supporters of the rival candidates.

:26:46.:26:50.

Well, that's all from the programme. Next the weather. But for now from

:26:50.:27:00.
:27:00.:27:08.

me, Zeinab Badawi, and the rest of Particularly in the east. We have a

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band of rain to contend with which will come in up with this weather

:27:12.:27:16.

front moving off the Atlantic. Rain across the Atlantic over parts of

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Northern Ireland but there will be called they are coming into

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Scotland and parts of England. Some sleet and snow mixed in with that

:27:23.:27:27.

particularly of a higher ground but things fizzle out by the afternoon

:27:28.:27:32.

with Sting staying cloudy. Patchy rain and particularly cold with

:27:32.:27:36.

temperatures struggling at around four Celsius. Some patchy rain

:27:36.:27:41.

across East Anglia and the south- east. A lot of cloud but it should

:27:41.:27:44.

remain dry in the afternoon. Temperatures in the West that

:27:45.:27:49.

around 10 Celsius so here it is much milder. Abbey's dry spell for

:27:49.:27:54.

Wales and then the way up -- of rain will return for the afternoon.

:27:54.:27:57.

Northern Ireland, a little bit more rain in the afternoon which will

:27:57.:28:02.

come and go with temperatures in Belfast of 11 Celsius. After a

:28:02.:28:06.

rather windy start today, temperatures in Scotland or recover

:28:06.:28:11.

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