30/11/2015 World News Today


30/11/2015

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This is BBC World News Today with me Karin Giannone.

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World leaders gather in Paris to try and hammer out a deal.

:00:08.:00:16.

President Obama called the summit a "turning point".

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For all of the challenges that we face, the growing threat of climate

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change to define the contours of this century more

:00:30.:00:34.

A BBC investigation uncovers evidence of corruption by employees

:00:35.:00:36.

of British American Tobacco - one of the UK's biggest companies.

:00:37.:00:41.

Two Israelis are found guilty of the murder of a Palestinian teenager.

:00:42.:00:44.

The revenge killing helped trigger the Gaza War.

:00:45.:00:46.

Pope Francis described Christians and Muslims as "brothers

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and sisters" as he visits a mosque at the end

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The largest gathering of world leaders

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in history taken place in Paris at talks aimed at trying to reach an

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Among them, US president Barack Obama, who said the negotiations

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could be a turning point - a moment that leaders finally determined that

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But the last talks, six years ago, were a failure.

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Covering the story from Paris for us is our Science correspondent

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there has been a feeling of optimism here today, although these talks are

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still a bit haunted by the ghost of Copenhagen six years ago. No deal

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was reached at the end there. Here, the approach has been a bit

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different. They have tried to get the world leaders here at the

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beginning. 150 of them are under one roof. We have had countries like the

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US and China sent early on high on board they are with this. The mood

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music here has been we have to do something about climate change.

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Reporting on the events today is our science editor.

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The delicate line of the atmosphere changed by our pollution

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That has been a concern for decades, but nothing has really been done

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Today came the largest ever gathering

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They gave some vivid warnings about the dangers climate change

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Submerged countries, abandoned cities, fields that no longer grow.

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And he warned that mass migration could follow.

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Even more floods of desperate peoples seeking the

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Your deliberations over the next two weeks will decide the

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fate, not only of those alive today, but also of generations yet unborn.

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With 40,000 people here, and more world leaders than ever

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before, it is easy to forget what this is all about.

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It's the best chance the world has ever had to get

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a global agreement on doing something about climate change.

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At the heart of it are plans to cut the carbon dioxide and other gases

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pumped into the atmosphere, where they trap heat and warm the planet.

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As temperatures rise, more heatwaves are likely.

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More than 1,000 people died in Pakistan during 50 degree heat

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More warming means more melting of the polar ice

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and that raises the level of the sea, threatening millions who

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It is a one-metre wave coming on the island, which just goes right

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And it is concern about the potential impact to

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animals and people that has brought one of the world's most famous

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David Attenborough is appealing for action.

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The longer we take to find a solution, the more difficult it will

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be, and eventually, it will become impossible to find a solution.

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Today came one answer - radical new technologies like wind turbines

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which float high enough to catch the jet stream, part of an initiative

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The plan was backed by Bill Gates, who told me why more research

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Burning coal in most places is still cheaper than renewables,

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and we need breakthroughs so that that cost goes down.

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Tonight, dense pollution fills the air in

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Scenes like this have helped to change Chinese attitudes

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But it is here at the conference centre that we

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will see if a bold new international agreement is possible.

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So, lots of positive words here today at the conference, but that

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does not mean that the next two weeks will be a easy by any means.

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195 countries plus the EU have to reach a consensus on any deal that

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is made. There will be tensions between the developed world and the

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developing world. In previous climate summits the onus was on the

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developed world to do something about the greenhouse gas emissions.

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The idea is that they are the ones that had been committing them for

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years so they should do more about that. Today, 65% of greenhouse gas

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emissions come from developing countries. China is the biggest

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emitter, India is the third biggest. There is an onus on everybody to do

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something. The developing countries are at telling us that you can tell

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us not to use fossil fuels because look at how they helped you

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developing your countries. There will be real debates over what will

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be decided as an acceptable agreement between the different

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countries here. 195 countries have begun to an agreement so many

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different interests, they think there will be a deal but exactly

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what it contains and whether it is enough to stop us moving into what

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scientists call dangerous climate change, that remains to be seen.

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Of the countries attending the Paris conference, the biggest emitters

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have submitted plans in advance on how they will cut

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But will their promises be enough to keep warming below two degrees - the

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China and India are among 155 countries committed to

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cutting fossil fuel use by 30% to 40% over the next 20 years,

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but fossil fuel demand is projected to increase by similar figures.

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Analysts the Carbon Tracker Initiative say BP, Exxon and Shell

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are all projecting a major increase in oil use by 2035, with Opec

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planning for a rise of 55% The fossil fuel industry will also spend

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$21 trillion on extracting oil to meet that

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Anthony Hobley runs the Carbon Tracker Initiative, an independent

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financial think tank which provides in-depth analysis on the impact of

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He says that it is likely the Paris conference will fail to cap global

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warming from going above two degrees.

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Even the UN's figures said that these national commitments add up to

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2.7 degrees. There are some analysis that say it is even higher, three

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and above. The critical thing is that it is a significant difference

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to the part that we have been on, the business as usual. If Paris is a

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success, we have got to figure out how to get out of the frying pan.

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Your group says that the oil giants are all saying that their forecast

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said that oil demand is going up and up over the next 20 years,

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businesses usual to use your phrase. How is that squaring with the

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country say that they are going to reduce demand for traditional fossil

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fuels. We are hearing wonderful rhetoric from the oil companies and

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we will hear that in Paris. They think they should be a price on

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carbon, I'm a change is important. That does not square with their

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business plans for the future, a rise in demand for fossil fuels.

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That could be a significant cut in emissions, maybe 30%, but there is a

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disconnect here. You are not too worried that the end of this, there

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is not a binding agreement. Why not? I am a lawyer, so you think it

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would be important, but I think it is important we get a clear and very

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strong political agreement. It is politically impossible to have

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illegally but binding agreement because it would not pass the US

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Congress. What is important is that Paris is seen as a success and it

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sends a clear policy signal, which will translate to clear financial

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signals that will drive investment. The key difference between night and

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six years ago is the clean technology has moved on

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considerably, it has matured and it is cheaper. I hate to disagree with

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Bill Gates on live television, but what are financial analysis tells us

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is that in most of the countries clean energy is a cheaper option

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than coal-fired electricity. Here in the UK, the Labour leader,

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Jeremy Corbyn, says he'll allow his MPs a free vote in parliament on

:10:03.:10:05.

the question of air strikes against The Prime Minister, David Cameron,

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has said he'll ask for a vote when he's sure the measure has

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enough support to pass. The BBC understands that

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a debate will be held Have you changed your position

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on air strikes? Maybe it was never going to be

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a good day. Mr Corbyn,

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will you allow a free vote? He started

:10:29.:10:32.

the morning trying to persuade his top team that Labour should

:10:33.:10:33.

argue against air strikes in Syria. Jeremy Corbyn was chosen

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overwhelmingly by the parties members, in part because he has

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opposed military action over the Corbyn's hope of compromise was to

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let his MPs and shadow cabinet vote for air strikes if they wanted to,

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but at the same time convince them that Labour as a party should

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formally oppose the war. I'm a little confused, which I am

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afraid to say is not a new thing Meanwhile, the government was

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continuing with its efforts to We went to see the Secretary

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of State for Defence, just for a private briefing,

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to hear about some of I think it was important

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and I would encourage all members of Parliament to do that

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if they have the opportunity. This was always going to be hard

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for the Labour Party. Its leader, Jeremy Corbyn,

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and many members are fundamentally against the idea

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of any air strikes in Syria. But a significant chunk of the

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party's MPs think it is a good idea. For nearly two hours, the party's

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senior team have been meeting, The only thing that is clear,

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suggests whispers from inside the room, is how confused

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the party's position really is. After two hours of wrangling,

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it was decided Labour will not officially oppose RAF jets bombing

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Syria as well as Iraq. Jeremy Corbyn backed down

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and his party will be allowed to I actually have more

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in common with the Tory chair of the defence select committee

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today than I may do with some of my Labour colleagues, but I do think

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these things cross party boundaries Dozens of Labour MPs are now likely

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to back the government in its bid to expand the fight

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against so-called Islamic State. Like in Glasgow tonight,

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opposition in Westminster is deeply The carbon containing the Russian

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pilot shot down over Turkey last week has arrived at. The Turkish

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prime minister says that he will not apologise for the shooting down of

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the jet, saying his military was doing its job of defending its

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airspace. A BBC investigation has uncovered

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evidence of corruption and bribery Panorama found

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British American Tobacco paid bribes to politicians and civil servants

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in countries across East Africa. The illegal payments even

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undermined a UN initiative The company could face prosecution

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around the world BAT says it does not

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tolerate corruption. Thousands of farmers work these

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hills, but there is another way We're on our way to meet

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a very important man. This is a guy who helps to decide

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who gets to buy and sell tobacco. And what we know

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about the man we are We have seen documents that show he

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was paid $20,000 by BAT to charge He doesn't know,

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I know he is corrupt. If a sitting MP took a bribe,

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how would you feel about that? The evidence suggests he is,

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and we know because of this man. Paul Hopkins was in the Irish

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Special Forces before he joined BAT. He says he was told that bribery was

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the cost of doing business My job was to ensure that

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the competition never got So BAT, they knew what they

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wanted you to do and they BAT sold 667 billion cigarettes last

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year, and made ?4.5 billion profit. But the documents Paul has supplied

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shows employees paid bribes to change anti-tobacco legislation,

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damage rivals, even undermine a UN effort to save

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lives. Bribes were paid to three officials

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connected to a World Health Organisation supported

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campaign which aimed to reduce I showed our evidence to

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the woman who runs the campaign. That is BAT paying

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a representative $3000. It is a company which is

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irresponsible, to say the least. It is using bribery to profit

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at the cost of people's lives. BAT failed to answer any

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of our questions directly. So I caught up with chief executive

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Nicandro Durante as he arrived Why did you not respond to

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our e-mails about bribery? Is that the nature of BAT, sir,

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that you put up with bribery? and will not tolerate corruption,

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no matter where it takes place. Our accusers in this programme left

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us in acrimonious circumstances The whistle-blower is due to meet

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investigators from the UK's Serious Fraud Office this week,

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to discuss the bribery secrets of A court has found two Israelis

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guilty of the murder The killing was part of a spiral

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of violence that helped trigger Kevin Connolly reports

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from Jerusalem. Grainy pictures

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from a security camera capture the moment when Mohammed Abu Khdeir

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was abducted in the summer He had been beaten and burned

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while he was still alive. A few hours earlier,

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Israel had buried three Jewish teenagers who had been murdered

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by Palestinian extremists The killing of Mohammed Abu Khdeir

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was widely seen as a reprisal. His funeral was an outpouring

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of anger, as well as grief. of the kidnapping and murder

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of the Palestinian teenager. They can't be identified

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because they are too young. A third key figure

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in the trial was this older man, Yosef Haim Ben David, portrayed

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in some accounts as the ringleader. The judges agreed he had taken part

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in the crimes, but are now considering a

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last-minute psychological assessment from his lawyers, arguing he was

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not responsible for his actions. The family of Mohammed Abu Khdeir

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have condemned the Israeli We don't trust

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the Israeli court system. They judge the Palestinians

:18:33.:18:40.

differently from the Israelis. The court's verdict on his mental

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state is expected next month. The outcome of those deliberations

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and the sentencing which follows Palestinians harbour deep suspicions

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that Israelis are less likely to be prosecuted for hate crimes like this

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and more likely to be leniently Pope Francis has ended the first

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trip by a Pontiff to an active war zone by condemning violence

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carried out in the name of God. He was in the

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Central African Republic, where he visited a mosque in Bangui,

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a building used by Muslims seeking In recent years, the long-lasting

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fighting in the country has taken on Thousands of people also turned out

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to celebrate Mass with the Pope Our Religious Affairs Correspondent

:19:33.:19:37.

Caroline Wyatt was there. It has been a remarkable day for

:19:38.:19:53.

Pope Francis and the people of Bangui who have flocked to see him.

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The day began at a mosque in an area of the city that has become a symbol

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of the fault line between Christians and Muslims. It is an area were

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15,000 Muslims have sought shelter around the mosque because of years

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of Christian militia that would attack them if they left. Pope

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Francis was determined to go to the Moscow send this of solidarity. He

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spoke to the Imam and they showed solidarity, showing the Christians

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and Muslims can stand side by side. We all want peace here. The Pope

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made clear that he believed that no one with real religious motives

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would commit the violence that has been seen here. We said that God is

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peace. There is an incredible atmosphere here at the stadium were

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the Pope is saying Mass. It has been a remarkable day

:20:58.:21:02.

for Pope Francis and the people of a lot to those who have come out -

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whether in the displaced people's camps, or elsewhere,

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because it is seen as a sign that The Pope has expressed his hopes for

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the referendum that should take place this December. He says he

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hopes that Bangui's leaders would prove up to the task of trying to

:21:24.:21:29.

bring peace to this country. His visit has been a symbol for many, it

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may not bring peace in Major league, but he has sent a strong symbol, a

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message about Christians and Muslims can and should live in peace after

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so much despair and suffering here. Wales is about to become

:21:43.:21:49.

the first UK nation to make every The system, known as presumed

:21:50.:21:52.

consent, will mean that people who don't want to donate their organs

:21:53.:21:56.

will have to formally opt out. It comes into force tomorrow

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and supporters say it will save lives with organs available to

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patients across the UK. Our Wales correspondent

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Hywel Griffith has more details. Early in the morning, three times a

:22:05.:22:17.

week this is Sam's routine. Being hooked up to a machine that does the

:22:18.:22:26.

work his kidneys cannot. Two macro heart attacks, 16 seizures and four

:22:27.:22:30.

in just cool mouse, organ failure has taken its toll. He is about to

:22:31.:22:33.

go back on the waiting list for a transplant in the hope that a new

:22:34.:22:37.

kidney will come. It would make a huge difference because the tool

:22:38.:22:43.

that it's in your body with drainage and everything like that, I can

:22:44.:22:49.

finally work, get a proper job and live my life like a normal

:22:50.:22:55.

21-year-old. Until now the number of organs available has depended on

:22:56.:23:00.

people signing up to donate. Gemma Bennett's job is to have the

:23:01.:23:02.

impossible conversations with families about to lose their loved

:23:03.:23:07.

ones and ask about donation. We are going in to speak to these families

:23:08.:23:13.

on the work -- on the worst days of their lives. More families are

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likely to say yes because it is a positive thing that they have chosen

:23:17.:23:22.

not to on -- not to opt out. It is thought the new system will bring

:23:23.:23:27.

just 15 extra donations a year, or around 50 organs. They won't all

:23:28.:23:33.

stay in Wales. Wheels will still be part of a UK wide transplant network

:23:34.:23:38.

so organs will still carry on the move across borders to whatever page

:23:39.:23:43.

needs it the most. The same law was introduced in Belgium back in 1986

:23:44.:23:47.

with little controversy. It was followed by an increase in

:23:48.:23:50.

transplants but the organ donation rate here has varied. In 2010 it was

:23:51.:23:57.

lower than in Wales. One of the leading doctors in Belgium says that

:23:58.:24:01.

changing the law does not guarantee results. You have to work on it

:24:02.:24:08.

every day. The organ donation law is only one part of the puzzle of many

:24:09.:24:13.

things that have to come together in order to be successful. Sam's hopes

:24:14.:24:17.

of getting a new organ depends on donations across the UK. Scotland

:24:18.:24:21.

and Northern Ireland are considering following wheels, but then neither

:24:22.:24:26.

is going alone in his days of dialysis are unlikely to end soon.

:24:27.:24:29.

Before we go, there's just time to show you this -

:24:30.:24:33.

Canadian brothers Michael and Neil Fletcher managed to snap this

:24:34.:24:38.

selfie with a bald eagle they rescued from a trap.

:24:39.:24:42.

The pair were hunting for grouse nearby in Ontario when

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they spotted the struggling bird and worked painstakingly to free it.

:24:45.:24:48.

Before leaving the eagle to fly away, the Fletchers decided to take

:24:49.:24:51.

Neil Fletcher has been telling us the story of this unique rescue.

:24:52.:25:00.

I would not say we panic. We were a little bit nervous at the very

:25:01.:25:10.

beginning. Once the Eagle calmed down, so did we. We proceeded to

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free the trapped from his leg and tried to get him to let go of that

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as well. The way it works is at this kind of a clamp mechanism --

:25:24.:25:29.

mechanism. It clamps onto his leg so if you release the two macro

:25:30.:25:34.

springs, if you release them the trap opens. The hardest thing is to

:25:35.:25:43.

get the Eagle to release, the open its talons and actually let go of

:25:44.:25:49.

the trap. You would not let go of it -- he would not let go of it, so

:25:50.:25:50.

that was the hardest part of it. You can get in touch with me

:25:51.:25:52.

and some of the team via Twitter -

:25:53.:25:57.

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