30/11/2015 World News Today


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This is BBC World News Today with me Karin Giannone.


World leaders gather in Paris to try and hammer out a deal.


President Obama called the summit a "turning point".


For all of the challenges that we face, the growing threat of climate


change to define the contours of this century more


A BBC investigation uncovers evidence of corruption by employees


of British American Tobacco - one of the UK's biggest companies.


Two Israelis are found guilty of the murder of a Palestinian teenager.


The revenge killing helped trigger the Gaza War.


Pope Francis described Christians and Muslims as "brothers


and sisters" as he visits a mosque at the end


The largest gathering of world leaders


in history taken place in Paris at talks aimed at trying to reach an


Among them, US president Barack Obama, who said the negotiations


could be a turning point - a moment that leaders finally determined that


But the last talks, six years ago, were a failure.


Covering the story from Paris for us is our Science correspondent


there has been a feeling of optimism here today, although these talks are


still a bit haunted by the ghost of Copenhagen six years ago. No deal


was reached at the end there. Here, the approach has been a bit


different. They have tried to get the world leaders here at the


beginning. 150 of them are under one roof. We have had countries like the


US and China sent early on high on board they are with this. The mood


music here has been we have to do something about climate change.


Reporting on the events today is our science editor.


The delicate line of the atmosphere changed by our pollution


That has been a concern for decades, but nothing has really been done


Today came the largest ever gathering


They gave some vivid warnings about the dangers climate change


Submerged countries, abandoned cities, fields that no longer grow.


And he warned that mass migration could follow.


Even more floods of desperate peoples seeking the


Your deliberations over the next two weeks will decide the


fate, not only of those alive today, but also of generations yet unborn.


With 40,000 people here, and more world leaders than ever


before, it is easy to forget what this is all about.


It's the best chance the world has ever had to get


a global agreement on doing something about climate change.


At the heart of it are plans to cut the carbon dioxide and other gases


pumped into the atmosphere, where they trap heat and warm the planet.


As temperatures rise, more heatwaves are likely.


More than 1,000 people died in Pakistan during 50 degree heat


More warming means more melting of the polar ice


and that raises the level of the sea, threatening millions who


It is a one-metre wave coming on the island, which just goes right


And it is concern about the potential impact to


animals and people that has brought one of the world's most famous


David Attenborough is appealing for action.


The longer we take to find a solution, the more difficult it will


be, and eventually, it will become impossible to find a solution.


Today came one answer - radical new technologies like wind turbines


which float high enough to catch the jet stream, part of an initiative


The plan was backed by Bill Gates, who told me why more research


Burning coal in most places is still cheaper than renewables,


and we need breakthroughs so that that cost goes down.


Tonight, dense pollution fills the air in


Scenes like this have helped to change Chinese attitudes


But it is here at the conference centre that we


will see if a bold new international agreement is possible.


So, lots of positive words here today at the conference, but that


does not mean that the next two weeks will be a easy by any means.


195 countries plus the EU have to reach a consensus on any deal that


is made. There will be tensions between the developed world and the


developing world. In previous climate summits the onus was on the


developed world to do something about the greenhouse gas emissions.


The idea is that they are the ones that had been committing them for


years so they should do more about that. Today, 65% of greenhouse gas


emissions come from developing countries. China is the biggest


emitter, India is the third biggest. There is an onus on everybody to do


something. The developing countries are at telling us that you can tell


us not to use fossil fuels because look at how they helped you


developing your countries. There will be real debates over what will


be decided as an acceptable agreement between the different


countries here. 195 countries have begun to an agreement so many


different interests, they think there will be a deal but exactly


what it contains and whether it is enough to stop us moving into what


scientists call dangerous climate change, that remains to be seen.


Of the countries attending the Paris conference, the biggest emitters


have submitted plans in advance on how they will cut


But will their promises be enough to keep warming below two degrees - the


China and India are among 155 countries committed to


cutting fossil fuel use by 30% to 40% over the next 20 years,


but fossil fuel demand is projected to increase by similar figures.


Analysts the Carbon Tracker Initiative say BP, Exxon and Shell


are all projecting a major increase in oil use by 2035, with Opec


planning for a rise of 55% The fossil fuel industry will also spend


$21 trillion on extracting oil to meet that


Anthony Hobley runs the Carbon Tracker Initiative, an independent


financial think tank which provides in-depth analysis on the impact of


He says that it is likely the Paris conference will fail to cap global


warming from going above two degrees.


Even the UN's figures said that these national commitments add up to


2.7 degrees. There are some analysis that say it is even higher, three


and above. The critical thing is that it is a significant difference


to the part that we have been on, the business as usual. If Paris is a


success, we have got to figure out how to get out of the frying pan.


Your group says that the oil giants are all saying that their forecast


said that oil demand is going up and up over the next 20 years,


businesses usual to use your phrase. How is that squaring with the


country say that they are going to reduce demand for traditional fossil


fuels. We are hearing wonderful rhetoric from the oil companies and


we will hear that in Paris. They think they should be a price on


carbon, I'm a change is important. That does not square with their


business plans for the future, a rise in demand for fossil fuels.


That could be a significant cut in emissions, maybe 30%, but there is a


disconnect here. You are not too worried that the end of this, there


is not a binding agreement. Why not? I am a lawyer, so you think it


would be important, but I think it is important we get a clear and very


strong political agreement. It is politically impossible to have


illegally but binding agreement because it would not pass the US


Congress. What is important is that Paris is seen as a success and it


sends a clear policy signal, which will translate to clear financial


signals that will drive investment. The key difference between night and


six years ago is the clean technology has moved on


considerably, it has matured and it is cheaper. I hate to disagree with


Bill Gates on live television, but what are financial analysis tells us


is that in most of the countries clean energy is a cheaper option


than coal-fired electricity. Here in the UK, the Labour leader,


Jeremy Corbyn, says he'll allow his MPs a free vote in parliament on


the question of air strikes against The Prime Minister, David Cameron,


has said he'll ask for a vote when he's sure the measure has


enough support to pass. The BBC understands that


a debate will be held Have you changed your position


on air strikes? Maybe it was never going to be


a good day. Mr Corbyn,


will you allow a free vote? He started


the morning trying to persuade his top team that Labour should


argue against air strikes in Syria. Jeremy Corbyn was chosen


overwhelmingly by the parties members, in part because he has


opposed military action over the Corbyn's hope of compromise was to


let his MPs and shadow cabinet vote for air strikes if they wanted to,


but at the same time convince them that Labour as a party should


formally oppose the war. I'm a little confused, which I am


afraid to say is not a new thing Meanwhile, the government was


continuing with its efforts to We went to see the Secretary


of State for Defence, just for a private briefing,


to hear about some of I think it was important


and I would encourage all members of Parliament to do that


if they have the opportunity. This was always going to be hard


for the Labour Party. Its leader, Jeremy Corbyn,


and many members are fundamentally against the idea


of any air strikes in Syria. But a significant chunk of the


party's MPs think it is a good idea. For nearly two hours, the party's


senior team have been meeting, The only thing that is clear,


suggests whispers from inside the room, is how confused


the party's position really is. After two hours of wrangling,


it was decided Labour will not officially oppose RAF jets bombing


Syria as well as Iraq. Jeremy Corbyn backed down


and his party will be allowed to I actually have more


in common with the Tory chair of the defence select committee


today than I may do with some of my Labour colleagues, but I do think


these things cross party boundaries Dozens of Labour MPs are now likely


to back the government in its bid to expand the fight


against so-called Islamic State. Like in Glasgow tonight,


opposition in Westminster is deeply The carbon containing the Russian


pilot shot down over Turkey last week has arrived at. The Turkish


prime minister says that he will not apologise for the shooting down of


the jet, saying his military was doing its job of defending its


airspace. A BBC investigation has uncovered


evidence of corruption and bribery Panorama found


British American Tobacco paid bribes to politicians and civil servants


in countries across East Africa. The illegal payments even


undermined a UN initiative The company could face prosecution


around the world BAT says it does not


tolerate corruption. Thousands of farmers work these


hills, but there is another way We're on our way to meet


a very important man. This is a guy who helps to decide


who gets to buy and sell tobacco. And what we know


about the man we are We have seen documents that show he


was paid $20,000 by BAT to charge He doesn't know,


I know he is corrupt. If a sitting MP took a bribe,


how would you feel about that? The evidence suggests he is,


and we know because of this man. Paul Hopkins was in the Irish


Special Forces before he joined BAT. He says he was told that bribery was


the cost of doing business My job was to ensure that


the competition never got So BAT, they knew what they


wanted you to do and they BAT sold 667 billion cigarettes last


year, and made ?4.5 billion profit. But the documents Paul has supplied


shows employees paid bribes to change anti-tobacco legislation,


damage rivals, even undermine a UN effort to save


lives. Bribes were paid to three officials


connected to a World Health Organisation supported


campaign which aimed to reduce I showed our evidence to


the woman who runs the campaign. That is BAT paying


a representative $3000. It is a company which is


irresponsible, to say the least. It is using bribery to profit


at the cost of people's lives. BAT failed to answer any


of our questions directly. So I caught up with chief executive


Nicandro Durante as he arrived Why did you not respond to


our e-mails about bribery? Is that the nature of BAT, sir,


that you put up with bribery? and will not tolerate corruption,


no matter where it takes place. Our accusers in this programme left


us in acrimonious circumstances The whistle-blower is due to meet


investigators from the UK's Serious Fraud Office this week,


to discuss the bribery secrets of A court has found two Israelis


guilty of the murder The killing was part of a spiral


of violence that helped trigger Kevin Connolly reports


from Jerusalem. Grainy pictures


from a security camera capture the moment when Mohammed Abu Khdeir


was abducted in the summer He had been beaten and burned


while he was still alive. A few hours earlier,


Israel had buried three Jewish teenagers who had been murdered


by Palestinian extremists The killing of Mohammed Abu Khdeir


was widely seen as a reprisal. His funeral was an outpouring


of anger, as well as grief. of the kidnapping and murder


of the Palestinian teenager. They can't be identified


because they are too young. A third key figure


in the trial was this older man, Yosef Haim Ben David, portrayed


in some accounts as the ringleader. The judges agreed he had taken part


in the crimes, but are now considering a


last-minute psychological assessment from his lawyers, arguing he was


not responsible for his actions. The family of Mohammed Abu Khdeir


have condemned the Israeli We don't trust


the Israeli court system. They judge the Palestinians


differently from the Israelis. The court's verdict on his mental


state is expected next month. The outcome of those deliberations


and the sentencing which follows Palestinians harbour deep suspicions


that Israelis are less likely to be prosecuted for hate crimes like this


and more likely to be leniently Pope Francis has ended the first


trip by a Pontiff to an active war zone by condemning violence


carried out in the name of God. He was in the


Central African Republic, where he visited a mosque in Bangui,


a building used by Muslims seeking In recent years, the long-lasting


fighting in the country has taken on Thousands of people also turned out


to celebrate Mass with the Pope Our Religious Affairs Correspondent


Caroline Wyatt was there. It has been a remarkable day for


Pope Francis and the people of Bangui who have flocked to see him.


The day began at a mosque in an area of the city that has become a symbol


of the fault line between Christians and Muslims. It is an area were


15,000 Muslims have sought shelter around the mosque because of years


of Christian militia that would attack them if they left. Pope


Francis was determined to go to the Moscow send this of solidarity. He


spoke to the Imam and they showed solidarity, showing the Christians


and Muslims can stand side by side. We all want peace here. The Pope


made clear that he believed that no one with real religious motives


would commit the violence that has been seen here. We said that God is


peace. There is an incredible atmosphere here at the stadium were


the Pope is saying Mass. It has been a remarkable day


for Pope Francis and the people of a lot to those who have come out -


whether in the displaced people's camps, or elsewhere,


because it is seen as a sign that The Pope has expressed his hopes for


the referendum that should take place this December. He says he


hopes that Bangui's leaders would prove up to the task of trying to


bring peace to this country. His visit has been a symbol for many, it


may not bring peace in Major league, but he has sent a strong symbol, a


message about Christians and Muslims can and should live in peace after


so much despair and suffering here. Wales is about to become


the first UK nation to make every The system, known as presumed


consent, will mean that people who don't want to donate their organs


will have to formally opt out. It comes into force tomorrow


and supporters say it will save lives with organs available to


patients across the UK. Our Wales correspondent


Hywel Griffith has more details. Early in the morning, three times a


week this is Sam's routine. Being hooked up to a machine that does the


work his kidneys cannot. Two macro heart attacks, 16 seizures and four


in just cool mouse, organ failure has taken its toll. He is about to


go back on the waiting list for a transplant in the hope that a new


kidney will come. It would make a huge difference because the tool


that it's in your body with drainage and everything like that, I can


finally work, get a proper job and live my life like a normal


21-year-old. Until now the number of organs available has depended on


people signing up to donate. Gemma Bennett's job is to have the


impossible conversations with families about to lose their loved


ones and ask about donation. We are going in to speak to these families


on the work -- on the worst days of their lives. More families are


likely to say yes because it is a positive thing that they have chosen


not to on -- not to opt out. It is thought the new system will bring


just 15 extra donations a year, or around 50 organs. They won't all


stay in Wales. Wheels will still be part of a UK wide transplant network


so organs will still carry on the move across borders to whatever page


needs it the most. The same law was introduced in Belgium back in 1986


with little controversy. It was followed by an increase in


transplants but the organ donation rate here has varied. In 2010 it was


lower than in Wales. One of the leading doctors in Belgium says that


changing the law does not guarantee results. You have to work on it


every day. The organ donation law is only one part of the puzzle of many


things that have to come together in order to be successful. Sam's hopes


of getting a new organ depends on donations across the UK. Scotland


and Northern Ireland are considering following wheels, but then neither


is going alone in his days of dialysis are unlikely to end soon.


Before we go, there's just time to show you this -


Canadian brothers Michael and Neil Fletcher managed to snap this


selfie with a bald eagle they rescued from a trap.


The pair were hunting for grouse nearby in Ontario when


they spotted the struggling bird and worked painstakingly to free it.


Before leaving the eagle to fly away, the Fletchers decided to take


Neil Fletcher has been telling us the story of this unique rescue.


I would not say we panic. We were a little bit nervous at the very


beginning. Once the Eagle calmed down, so did we. We proceeded to


free the trapped from his leg and tried to get him to let go of that


as well. The way it works is at this kind of a clamp mechanism --


mechanism. It clamps onto his leg so if you release the two macro


springs, if you release them the trap opens. The hardest thing is to


get the Eagle to release, the open its talons and actually let go of


the trap. You would not let go of it -- he would not let go of it, so


that was the hardest part of it. You can get in touch with me


and some of the team via Twitter -


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