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This is BBC World News Today with me Philippa Thomas.
Germany unveils its plan to try to integrate
The newcomers will be taught German values and told where they can live
as part of a major programme to avoid ghetto-isation.
A captured Ukrainian pilot who became a symbol of resistance
to Moscow is released after two years in a Russian jail.
Do you ever get that sinking feeling?
An entire street collapses in the heart of tourist Florence.
We'll be talking to a man who saw it happen.
Also coming up, the ship was their saviour.
We reveal the role the Queen Mary played
in rescuing thousands of Jews from the Nazis.
The bottom line is, the Queen Mary saved me and my mum and dad. It
saved our lives. And seeing a city for the first
time: what a new exhibition by migrant photographers reveals
about New York, London and Paris. intended to integrate more
than one million migrants. cabinet agreement on the law,
Merkel described after months of political
disagreement, as a milestone. The deal will require migrants
to integrate into society in return for being allowed
to live and work in Germany. If approved by parliament,
it will also give authorities the power to dictate
where they can and can't live. Last year, over one million migrants
came to Germany and the country
could take one million more in 2016. Under the new law, federal funds
would be used to create It will also require adult migrants
to attend 600 hours with an additional 100 hours
of cultural "orientation" classes that end with an integration
test. Our Berlin correspondent Damien
McGuinness has more. Asylum seekers in Germany learning
how to speak German. And also how to navigate German
society and culture. The courses are free of charge,
but they are now set That is because a new law
aims to make sure In return for benefit payments
and free accommodation, and attend integration classes,
have to learn German TRANSLATION:
may be reduced. I think
it's a milestone that the federal government passes an integration
law. And integration law in accordance
with the principles of obligation as well as support.
And support as well as obligations. The government's plan comes
after more than 1 million refugees And although numbers
have dropped this year, there is widespread concern
in Germany about integrating Particularly given the country's
poor record at integrating The German government wants to avoid
the mistakes made in the past when workers from Turkey were left
excluded from It is Germany's first law
on integration and an important This law makes the way for those
that will stay in Germany We don't want people to live
in parallel societies We don't want parallel
societies and ghettos. But the government's
plan is controversial. Particularly the proposal that
for the first few years, asylum seekers will not be able
to choose where they Critics say this could
break up families. TRANSLATION: The rights are greater
than the help they get. We think there are too many obligations. The
migrants in this class, meanwhile, are keen to learn. They are nice
people. To work, or study, or something. Germany has a shortage of
young workers and an ageing population, so the opportunities are
there, but only for those with the correct skills.
With me is Nina Schick, the Head of Communications
Talking about skills of immigrants the idea is to get them into the
labour market as quickly as possible. Absolutely. Germany is on
a demographic decline and they desperately need young workers. This
is part of a long-running debate at this boom in migrants can be an
economic boom to the country and increased the GDP of the country.
The Keita that is to get them into the labour market quickly. So far,
that has been the big four asylum seekers to do. When their status is
decided they can already going to these low-paid jobs which should
contribute to their commune rather than taking the leap in public
services. So where they go, the errors of Germany that they are
assigned to is important. The assignment of where they live is
more to do with the fact that the German government does not want
ghettos to spring up. It is about cultural assimilation. If you look
at Cologne, it has traditionally been a big area for immigrant
populations. They don't want that type of ghetto again. At New Year, a
lot of women were assaulted and the blame was put on some immigrants.
Exactly. That will also be controversial, because as we have
heard, some pro-refugee lobby groups say that this will break up
families. Nonetheless, the political support across the spectrum is
widespread. It is quite a lot of engineering, in terms of taking
people in, giving them papers and saying you are assigned to this town
or village. Absolutely, the biggest controversy or challenge in this
integration law is not so much passing the laws, but the
implementation, because as you can imagine, it is going to cause a
massive load of bureaucracy and it'll be difficult to enforce. It is
about giving a job and a new life to refugees. What about the other side,
their responsibility, if they don't learn the language and seem to
integrate and seem to cause trouble, what is the comeback? This is the
carrot and stick approach from Angela Merkel. She is saying, we
will make it easier for you to live and work here, but on the other
hand, if you don't do that then there will be sanctions to your
benefit which can be cut and you will not be able to live where you
like. That is the balance that they are trying to strike.
The Ukrainian military helicopter pilot, Nadiya Savchenko,
is home after spending two years in a Russian jail.
She was released as part of a prisoner swap.
The BBC's Tom Burridge has been at the airport in Kiev
where people gathered to welcome her back.
Nadiya Savchenko was in typically defiant mood.
She was very, very emotional when she came out, just then.
You get the sense from the chaos and the number of cameras here of
She has come to symbolise much more than one individual.
Because, in the context of Ukraine's relationship
with Russia over the course of the last two years,
the war in the East, she, who was captured
in the east of Ukraine, has remained defiant.
And for many Ukrainians, she has come to symbolise
defiance against perceived Russian aggression.
She symbolises something that I want to be when I grow up.
And I think that all of our country should be more like Nadiya,
And she's been fighting for her freedom.
Doe sshe symbolise something in that respect as well?
I would say that she was fighting for her dignity, and freedom.
Because she, freedom is something no one can be denied.
You don't fight for your freedom, being in prison.
She only wanted a fair trial, not being treated as some, you know,
Everybody understands that freedom and the struggle are very important
And Nadiya symbolises two of these things.
Now a look at some of the day's other news.
The Afghan Taliban have announced the name of their new leader.
Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada will replace
Mullah Akhtar Mansour, who was killed
in a US drone strike last week on his car in Pakistan.
Correspondents say the new leader's appointment has not caused as much
controversy as Mansour's, which led to splits in Taliban ranks.
The French government says it has begun using its strategic
oil reserves to bolster the country's energy supply.
A strike against labour reforms is now affecting six
of the country's eight refineries, leading to fuel shortages.
Some trade unions are calling on the government to reverse
controversial new labour reforms forced through
The controversial right-wing Israeli politician Avigdor Lieberman
has been named as the country's new defence minister.
The appointment is part of a deal to bring his party
into Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government.
government is a "threat to regional stability".
It's being reported from the US that the frontrunner
for the Democrat nomination, Hillary Clinton, is
heavily criticised in an official report into her email accounts.
She's under investigation after admitting
using her personal email account for official business,
when she was Secretary of State under President Obama.
We can talk now to our correspondent in Washington, Barbara Plett Usher.
My introduction does not quite capture the intensity of feeling
that this issue has aroused. No, this e-mail saga has been going on
for some time. It has dealt quite a political blow to Mrs Clinton as she
has been campaigning to become president. This is the latest twist
in a saga that continues to go on. This was an internal audit by the
State Department. It found that she broke garment rules on handling
e-mails. She shoots -- she should've asked for permission to set up a
private e-mail server, which she did not. She should have handed over
e-mails for government record immediately when she left office,
which she did not, only much later. This report said there were
long-term systemic albums with the State Department handling of
e-mails, going back to previous secretaries, which is something that
the Clinton campaign has pointed out. At the same time they say that
the guidelines for dealing with e-mails were more advanced and
up-to-date when she was in office so she was more probable. And there is
political fallout from this. Whether it is there not, voters seem to be
telling opinion pollsters, we're not sure if we trust Hillary Clinton.
The polls have shown that the e-mail saga has had an impact on views of
how trustworthy she is. When the Republican presumptive nominee
Donald Trump has been using the e-mails in his attacks on her, and
can also look at Hillary, so he will be using this as ammunition as part
of that campaign. This report was pending. It was hanging over her. It
is now out. It is done towards the end of the primaries and before the
timing of the general election campaign so maybe the timing will be
beneficial to her. The other report is an FBI one into whether she was
involved in mishandling classified information, which is a more serious
thing in its consequences. It does not look like they will press
charges, but we don't know for sure, yet, so she will be waiting now on
the results of that investigation. Now, this next story could be quite
disturbing for those who cherish their cars,
or medieval Italy. A 200-metre section of the
embankment of the River Arno in central
Florence has collapsed, sending part of the road
and at least 20 parked cars The embankment is at a central point
in this historic city. The collapse is just metres
from the famous Ponte Vecchio covered bridge, which was built
in the 14th century. Fox Emerson lives
right near the site. This happen overnight, didn't it?
Your neighbours heard some loud noises coming from the river. Yes.
There was lots of flooding last night. It started around mid night.
The noises were around 6am. It sounded like an earthquake to many
of the locals coming from the road next to the Ponte Vecchio. So, did
you all rush out to see what was going on? I happen to be awake at
6am and because they had no gas or water I went for a walk along the
river. When I first went, it had not been cordoned off. When I went back
a couple of others later it had been cordoned off. What do you think had
caused it, or is it obvious what had caused it? I thought the river had
somehow gone through the wall into the road. It turns out it is just a
burst pipe under the main pathway. It is pretty close to some fairly
well-known spots in historic Florence. It is scarily close to the
Ponte Vecchio and the two main bridges. People will Bory that
whatever has caused this collapse could ripple further. -- will worry.
There is that fear, yes. What more have you been told about what the
authorities have been doing 's this must have caused disruption for you.
I still don't have running water or gas. Lots of people are in that
situation. That is just inconvenience for one day. We don't
know the extent of the damage. All we know is what we have seen on the
Internet and on the news. Thank you for helping is out, and good luck
getting your utilities restored. Once the standard for luxurious
travel across the Atlantic, this week marks the 80th anniversary
of the Queen Mary's maiden voyage. Currently, a museum
and hotel in California, the ship's role in saving Jews
from the Nazis It's emerged that hundreds of Jews
fleeing Germany and Austria used
the Queen Mary to get out of Europe. Duncan Kennedy has this remarkable
story. ARCHIVE: Southampton.
This really was it. First for speed and the
last word in luxury. The Queen Mary transformed
transatlantic sailing. But her maiden voyage coincided
with the rise of the Nazis. And a scramble among Jews to get
out. We were hit all the time by these
gangsters, I call them. For many like Ludwig Katzenstein,
the Queen Mary would become He fled Germany in 1938
with his two older brothers. In a perilous journey
with their parents, they were arrested by the Gestapo
and had to telegraph the Queen Mary That was in Cherbourg. Incredibly,
he did. I don't have the words
in the dictionary to praise him. That this man was so good and waited
for us those six hours, the crucial point. That is why I'm
able to sit here and make this film. That captain was Robert Irving
from Dumfriesshire. He broke every rule
to save Ludwig's family. Today Captain Irving's relatives say
he was a man of compassion. It was clearly a personal
decision, you know? He would not have
been instructed to do that. And it shows a lot of, in my view,
considerable humanity. New research now shows thousands
of Jews were saved They included Robert Tannenbaum,
seen here during his actual escape, One life abandoned,
but safety ahead. This is me with my sunglasses.
Clearly the weather And to this day, Robert
remains grateful. The bottom line is the Queen Mary
saved me and my mum The Queen Mary left Southampton
for the last time in 1967 and was brought here to Long Beach,
California, to become
a floating hotel and museum. Her role in helping Jews escape
the Nazis lost in history. But now on this, the 80th
anniversary of her maiden voyage, this remarkable story
can finally be told. These are some of the generations
of Jews given life after their families made it
out on the Queen Mary. They survived, whilst millions
more did not escape, And another refugee
from Nazi Germany is at the heart
of this feature. We think we know what the great
global cities look like, so it's always fascinating to get
a different insight. That's what's on offer
with a new exhibition of images called Unseen London,
Paris and New York - pictures taken by three
major photographers They've just gone on show
at the Ben Uri Gallery With me is the exhibition's curator,
Katy Barron. Welcome to the programme. We have
three photographers and three cities. Let's start in London with
Wolfgang Suschitzky who was an Austrian who fled to London. He came
to London in 1934, in order to escape. Not really because he was
Jewish, but more because he was a socialist and wanted to get away
from the rise of Nazism. He was looking through the eyes of an
outsider and London and showing something a bit different.
Absolutely. He said that when he arrived, he could see things that
Londoners couldn't see. He saw through the eyes of strangers,
something that we take for granted, something like buses, he photographs
with wonder. And the gloom and doom, the depression, the smog, these were
coming across because they were so different from Vienna. This was a
shop front, a museum front, on Oxford Street at the heart of
London. This is extraordinary. What are we looking at? We are looking at
effectively a place of entertainment, someone has set up an
exhibition of wax dioramas, there was a children's section with Disney
characters and Bing Crosby, and also a section where you could see Nazi
atrocities. This was during the war itself. It was put up in 1944,
interestingly. It raises questions as to what was actually known in
Britain during the war. It could not have been in a more mainstream
place. Let's move on to Paris and the 50s, Dorothy Bohm who was born
in East Prussia, she toured in England and went to Paris. She,
again, was a refugee from the Nazis. His father bash back her father put
his camera around her neck before she got on the train to England. She
did not then see her parents for 20 years. Another extraordinary story.
She first went to Paris in 1947 and fell in love with the city and was
fortunate enough to go back and live there in the 50s for one year. Her
husband was quite successful so she did not have to work. She was able
to roam the streets of Paris, seeing the city without Agger this, without
any sort of agenda -- without prejudice. And that comes across in
these photos. And Neil Libbert was an English newspaper photojournalist
who goes to New York in the 60s. He was there at a time of the race
riots and of great tension. He photographed in Harlem in the 60s,
1964, during the race riots. The image that we see now was taken in
1968. It was a very interesting image. The gaze of a woman is quite
confrontational and perhaps aggressive, and it is interesting to
know that Neil was definitely a ladies man. He was happy to try to
photograph a beautiful woman on the subway despite her unfriendly glare.
That could be a modern image, couldn't it? Absolutely. Thank you
for coming in. We have been bringing you reports about the scientific
revolution in China and our correspondent has been under a
mountain in China joining Saint is looking for some of the most elusive
particles in the universe. Scientists are on the trail of one
of the most elusive particles ever known. They are called neutrinos and
they are absolutely everywhere. Even as I am speaking to you, trillions
of them are streaming through me. The only problem is that you cannot
see or feel them and they are incredibly difficult to study. But
in there, they think they have cracked it. The walls have been
carved out of granite and we are travelling hundreds of metres under
the rock. That is important if you want to find those particles. You
have to be sheltered from cosmic rays, the space weather, that
bombards the surface of the Earth. The other thing I shall tell you
while we are underground is that neutrinos do not behave like we
expect them to. They do something no other particle can do. They are
constantly changing. They have three very different forms, swapping from
one to the other and back again. It is this that scientists are trying
to understand. It is a golden age of study for neutrinos. Many
experiments are going on and are under construction and we expect
them to be discovered in the near future. This is the heart of the
experiment. Beneath these covers is a giant tank full of water and
inside are the detectors. These are able to spot the very rare occasions
that neutrinos bump into regular particles. So far they have found
millions of them. It means that they are finally getting close to
cracking how they work. This is vital because neutrinos are thought
to have played an essential role in the early universe, and
understanding them could up -- could transform our understanding of the
Cosmos. That's all. Thank you for watching.
With that crowd today it has felt chilly. It will be with